Spreading branches of flowering cherry are a charming decoration of any garden. A variety of varieties will please even the most demanding grower. Interestingly this tree is also a form. It can be represented as a stately tree or a spreading bush. In order for the cherry to please not only with its shape, but also with its abundance of harvest, it should be carefully and carefully looked after. Care mainly includes annual pruning.
Crop of a cherry tree: why, how and when
The correct pruning of cherries in the spring is extremely important for the health and vitality of the plant. Photos of the process, posted later in the article, will demonstrate everything visually. This procedure allows you to create the correct form of the crown, inside which the air will circulate well and into which enough light will penetrate to ripen the fruit. The crown can begin to form in the fifth year after planting.
Being a heat-loving culture, cherries do not tolerate frosts and pruning procedures well, so it is better to start later, for example, in the second half of March, when the possibility of frosts returning is minimal. But the terms are variable depending on the climatic zone. A prerequisite is the start of pruning before the start of the sap flow process.
First of all, dried, diseased branches, which can infect the whole tree, and damaged, “drinking” nourishing juices, are pruned. All cuts should be smeared with garden pitch or ointment for pruning, but not on a bitumen basis. The processing process depends largely on whether you grow a bush tree or tree cherry in your garden.
Pruning in spring cherry tree
The processing of cherries is complex, painstaking and requires careful.
- The first level of branches begins at a distance of 70 cm - 1 m above the ground. The branches below are deleted.
- Trimming is carried out at an angle. All interlacing branches are deleted.
- Special attention is paid to giving the crown a vase-like shape.
- Annual shoots shorten slightly. This allows you to get a sufficient number of side branches and new bouquet twigs.
- The trunk height of 3.5 meters or more requires limiting growth vertically.
Requires ruthless thinning bush cherry. The spring pruning of trees of this variety has a number of features, since they are prone to thickening, which, in turn, leads to shallowing of the fruits and a decrease in yield.
- The lower branches must move away from the trunk at an angle of 40 degrees maximum, otherwise the tree may break over time.
- Creating a good, powerful skeleton requires trimming branches that compete with the main trunk.
- Two-year seedlings are pruned branches that have reached a length of half a meter. They can be shortened by a third.
- Removed all shoots growing to the ground.
- Semi-skeletal and skeletal shoots are shortened to dormant buds.
- You can leave shoots only in plants that have reached 80 cm in height.
- We work well sharpened tool.
The specifics of pruning young cherry
Pruning cherries in the spring when planting will ensure the formation of a strong, abundantly fruiting adult plant with a good crown and strong root system. First of all it follows:
- define a branch leader. This will be the strongest vertical branch,
- for the crown, leave 5 branches, located at a distance of 10 cm from each other and directed in different directions.
- branches, growing at an angle or diagonally, cut,
- shoots located on the base of the trunk, remove to enhance the power of the entire tree,
- be sure to cut intersecting branches.
It should be remembered that bush-shaped cherries, unlike tree-like ones, bear fruit only on annual shoots, which means that pruning cherries in the spring should be more thorough. In general, pruning should be approached carefully and cautiously, as it is now that the growth and fruiting of the plant is being laid. Errors in the process can be a major cause of low yields.
Rejuvenation of old wood
Phased process of rejuvenation and requires mature cherries. Pruning in the spring will provide increased yields. One common rule is for all cherries and tree and bush trees: do not remove many branches at once.
The bare ends of the branches of bushy cherries indicate the need for pruning. The number of branches is reduced by shortening the length of the shoot by half or one third. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches should be removed to the level of dormant buds. They should be removed in different years, that is, skeletal branches are cut off in one year, in the other - semi-skeletal. Otherwise, the plant does not have enough strength for fruiting.
Tree varieties rejuvenate a little differently. Annual shoots are shortened quite a bit, because it is on them that the fruits will later appear. The crown should be rejuvenated if the bases of the skeletal branches are bare, and their annual growth does not exceed 15 cm. In the case of the branches drying out in the middle of the crown, the side branches should be cut off on five-year-old wood.
The specifics of trimming felt varieties of cherries
Felt cherry has fragrant, juicy and tender fruits. Fruiting begins the next year after planting. Productivity is high. All this is obtained with proper care and timely pruning. Pruning felt cherries in the spring should be made annually and be strong, as the crown of the plant is thickened. The harvest is mainly formed on the annual shoots, and their greater number will provide greater yield. However, they should still be shortened by a third if the length of the shoot exceeds 60 cm. Pruning cherries in the spring means removing all old, diseased, damaged, cracked or dried branches, as well as those that are directed inside. On old felt cherries, side shoots are removed on the ring, while the central part of the crown and peripheral skeletal branches should not be affected. After thinning should remain 12 strong shoots.
If you want a beautiful fruiting cherry to grow in your garden, pruning should be done in the spring taking into account the condition of the tree, its age and variety. A well-formed young trees will consistently receive a high yield of ripe and juicy berries.
Pruning cherries when and how to do it
The timing of pruning is the most difficult question. Cherry starts sap flow early. Arriving in February in the garden, many think that it is still deep winter and it’s too early to touch the trees, but a couple of weeks pass and circles around the trunks have thawed, and a week later the trunks warmed up and the trees started to wake up - sap flow started.
Pruning is dangerous for cherries, if done after the start of sap flow, because cherries heal wounds for a long time, giving off gum. Chimeterapia weakens the plant, diseases become attached and the tree dries out.
But when the frost is over 20 degrees ahead, pruning is also dangerous. Especially if thaws and freezes occur. As a result of the alternation of long frost and thaws, the withered bark will lose the capillaries, the cambium will dry out and the crushing roller of the bark will not form, the cherry will not be able to close the cut. Fungal infections will get in through the wound, a hollow will appear on an adult tree, it will lose its strength and die.
The time for trimming cherries begins approximately after February 20 and ends at the end of March. The nature can be unpredictable, therefore it is better to determine the time of pruning by natural prompts.
Pruning begins when circles around the cherry trunks have melted and the snow cover has dropped. It is necessary to complete pruning before the snow cover has come down more than half of the garden surface. It is at this time that the soil begins to warm up and the cherry roots, located close to the surface, first wake up after frost and sap flow starts. One of the proven signs of the beginning of spring is Orthodox Easter.
Choose the right time to trim the cherry and cook the tool.
To trim the cherries you will need:
- cutting tools (pruner, garden knife and file,
- linseed oil
- bright braid or thick thread.
The basic rule is a pruner, a garden file and a garden knife should be sharp. If the tool is not sharpened, an even cut will not work and the wound will not heal. Depending on the size of the tree, choose a regular pruner and a file or a pruner and a file with elongated handles. It is more convenient to use a regular pruner, a saw and a ladder, there will be fewer wounds and broken branches.
Natural drying oil allows you to immediately process the sections, so that diseases and fungal infections do not get inside the tree and the cut does not dry. Competent gardeners will wonder why they forgot about garden var. But garden var is applied later, when a positive temperature is established outside. Drying oil will serve as temporary protection and ensure the adhesion of the cut to the garden pitch.
Gloves should be chosen for protection against pricks and linseed oil. Cherry often produces dry spikes that hurt the gardener painfully.
The ladder should be used in the form of a ladder. Cherries in the middle lane do not reach large sizes, and often grow into several trunks, so the usual ladder can hurt the fragile trunk, or hurt the gardener, losing stability.
The main organizational points are defined and you can begin the creative process of planning a trimming, for which we will need a bright braid or thread.
Before drawing up the plan we will reveal the main secrets.
Rule of one-third and the secrets of winter pruning cherry
The most secret rule of one-third allows you to determine how many branches can be cut without significant harm to the cherry. For one winter pruning can not be cut more than one-third of the crown of the tree.
It is necessary to open one more secret of spring pruning: only in early spring can you get rid of large, more than one centimeter in diameter, branches. If such branches are cut off after waking up the cherry, the tree may die. The best thing is to prevent the growth of extra branches and form a cherry in his youth.
To fulfill the rule of one-third and get rid of the extra branches on the cherry as much as possible, you need to make a plan for pruning.
Pruning cherry spring scheme
To get started, go to the cherry, inspect it from all sides and determine what needs to be cut. We act in the next order.
- We determine all the dry and diseased branches with a diameter of more than one centimeter and mark them by tying a bright string.
- Select the branches that interfere with each other to grow, that is, intersect, rub against each other and mark them.
- Select overly extended branches and mark the place of the cut.
At each stage, it is necessary to check how many marked branches of the total crown size will be. If it is clear that one third is already marked, then everything that was not noted from the proposed order is left for the next year.
The plan of the main works is defined. You can start pruning.
The rules and order pruning cherry
For trimming, you must select the day when the air temperature is above minus five degrees to avoid splitting cuts.
First, we clean the trunk and skeletal branches from small dry twigs and thorns, which were formed from spent fruit. Secateurs cut these branches at the base, leaving no hemp.
Secondly, we implement our plan and cut large branches. In practice, for one winter pruning, cut out no more than three large branches, in order to comply with the rule of one third.
We cut branches "on the ring." The ring is a compacted bark roller at the base of a branch, along which it is cut at an angle of about thirty degrees to the main trunk. This roller will provide the fastest healing of a cut.
After cutting, each cut is treated with linseed oil. After 2-3 weeks, when the positive air temperature is established, it is necessary to cover up the cuts with garden pitch.
The main stage of spring pruning is completed.
Fruit buds are laid on the small branches of the cherry, so losing them in early spring, the cherry will yield much less fruit. Pruning small branches is best done after fruiting.
We hope the article "Pruning cherries when and how to do it correctly" you liked. Successful to you country crops!
Should I do pruning
The plant may be weakened, unprepared for such effects. If pruning is planned before the onset of heat, then before cutting the cherry in the spring, you need to make sure that the sap flow process has not yet started in the plant. Hurrying with pruning during this period, it is possible to provoke a gum treatment, which may result in the death of the plant.
- maintaining a strong increase in young shoots
- improvement of the light mode in the crown of the cherry,
- extension of the productive age of the plant,
- crown protection from thickening
- stimulation of generation of generative buds and bouquet branches.
Improper pruning can cause harm no less than untimely pruning. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to properly cut the cherry - at least the elementary basis of this technique, before taking up the garden knife.
Varieties and features
All stages of pruning and crown formation should be carried out taking into account the specific features of the type of specific type of cherry. They are:
- treelike - they have 5–6 branches left when pruning, as skeletal,
- bushy - up to 10 branches are left for this type,
- spruce - they usually leave 2−3 well-developed offspring, the rest is done pruning cherries at the base or digging, for further use as seedlings.
The main task of pruning a cherry tree is to stimulate the formation of bouquet twigs. It should be uniform and ensure their long existence. With proper pruning, it is necessary to thin out the perennial branches, shorten growth, striving to ensure access of light to the inside of the crown of the tree. If this is not done, the gradual thickening of the crown will lead to the fact that the bouquet twigs will begin to die off, since they will not be able to bear fruit normally in low light conditions.
With the onset of the period of full fruiting with a weakening of growth processes, the branches of the cherry tree may become bare, branching deteriorates. In this case, you need to trim the branches to the nearest side branch. This simple technique enhances growth and stimulates the appearance of young shoots.
Conducting a rejuvenating pruning cherry tree type is necessary when observing the processes of growth attenuation. If the tree crown is heavily thickened with a lot of bare branches, it is better to rejuvenate pruning in several stages, with a frequency of 2−3 years. This is done to avoid the risk of strong acupuncture. Because strong pruning will cause the plant many wounds.
When pruning a bush-type cherry, the degree of growth of the branches is taken into account.. If growth of 30-40 cm is maintained, in this case only thinning is carried out, which should be annual. Since plants of this type form a crop in increments, cutting will shorten the shoots, which will lead to a decrease in the yield of the bush, as many generative buds will be cut.
With age, when the cherry shrub weakens and reduces yield, it is possible to conduct thinning pruning over the first side branch. If the crowns are heavily thickened, pruning is carried out for 2−3 years.
Agrotechnical rules and nuances
To stimulate yields of old plants, is carried out, also rejuvenating pruning, at which the end parts of the old branches are cut, transferring them to the side shoots. Cherry is very responsive to this procedure, and thanks for the increase in fruiting.
Coppice type cherries can bear fruit for many years, subject to the rules of agricultural engineering. In the process of aging, it becomes necessary to replace old trunks, which is done by their removal, leaving instead a strong offspring growing from the base of the uterine trunk. Most often, 2–3 offsprings are left; all the rest are cut at the base or dug out, with the aim of using them as seedlings. In general, pruned cherry pruning is carried out according to the rules applicable to the bush type of this plant.
It is better to think over the formation of the crown of a cherry before planting, since different types of crowns require different landing areas. The question of how to properly form the cherry cares of many novice gardeners.
It is necessary to begin the formation of the crown of a cherry in the third year after planting and to finish it in the fourth or fifth year.
In the process of forming the care of plants consists in thinning. This includes pruning stems growing vertically, the so-called tops.
They grow inside the crown, interfere with the access of light and interfere with normal fruiting. When they are removed, it should be taken into account that they cannot be cut off at the base, since this contributes to the exposure of the main branch, which may cause it to freeze during hibernation. Shorten the "wolf" need at a height of 30- 60 cm, keeping a distance between them, about 20 cm.
You can deal with them differently. Наклонить ветвь горизонтально, соблюдая градус отхождения угла ветви, зафиксировать ее, путем подвязывания, что ускорит превращение «волчка» в нормальную, плодоносящую ветвь.
At the onset of cold weather, in order to provide the plants with protection against exposure to low temperatures and sunburn, in the second year after vaccination, they form low stumps, which are covered with snow in winter.
Crown formation methods
When choosing a crown formation method, one should take into account environmental factors, features of varieties and rootstocks, plantings design. The height of the trees to be formed should not exceed 3 m, ideally 2–2.5 m. Compliance with these conditions can be ensured by choosing low-growing varieties and rootstocks, pruning, bending the branches down or pulling them up.
The following types of crowns are used to form crown cherries:
- sparse and longline,
Sparse-tiered - the height of the trunk in this case is 70 cm, 3 branches are left in the lower tier, the divergence angles of which are 120 degrees. The distance from the upper branch, most often, is 60- 90 cm, but it depends on the strength of growth and branching of a particular cherry variety. The main attention in the formation of this type of crown is given to the lower tier, since it will be the main part of the crop of the tree.
Vane crown represents a trunk, up to 1.8 m high, and branches in two tiers (4 branches in each tier), located one above the other, in the form of "blades". The angle of divergence in this case is about 90 degrees. In the trunk longlines are located at a distance of 60-100 cm from each other. Again, this will depend on the variety used, the stock, on how strongly the plant branches. Vertical openings in this type of crown are maintained between the blades, using trimming. This provides a high degree of illumination of the crown, facilitates access to the plant during treatments from pests and diseases during harvesting.
What is pruning for trees
Many gardeners do not prune trees at all and believe that this is correct. They argue their point of view that a dense crown is a guarantee of good yields. However, this is just a common misconception that has nothing to do with reality. On the contrary, the overgrown branches pull out all the sap from the tree, and the cherry has no strength left for normal flowering and fruiting. Therefore, those who good harvest oriented, it is necessary to cut the cherries. The main thing is to do it right. In spring, approximately in the middle of March (in the Middle zone) or in the beginning of April (in more northern regions), the cherries should be cut, because:
- It helps to rejuvenate the old tree,
- If the tree is not pruned, dense crown will prevent sunlight from penetrating the leaves, flowers and fruits of the tree,
- Cherry, which is properly cut, will wake up faster after winter,
- When the tree is not pruned, pests and parasites multiply rapidly on dense branches.
Proper pruning helps to quickly bring the tree in order after a long winter. When there are no leaves on the trees, the gardener sees perfectly which branches were affected by frost, and which were safely wintered. Also on bare branches are clearly visible traces of pests and parasites. And, finally, at this time the gardener can easily determine which branches interfere with the correct formation of the crown, and which - on the contrary, play an important role in the development of the tree.
How to cut the cherry correctly
This procedure should be carried out according to the rules. It is advisable to have on hand a crown formation scheme and act according to this scheme. It is necessary to begin the formation of the crown about the fourth year of the tree’s life. When pruning, keep in mind the following:
- First of all, the branches that did not survive the winter are removed, that is, the branches with freezers,
- Shoots damaged by pests and parasites must be burned immediately after removal, but not on the site, but beyond,
- You should definitely remove all the branches that go deep into the crown, because they are the “ballast” that prevents the correct formation of the tree,
- You should also delete branches that look up, and branches that grow at an uncomfortable angle,
- If two escapes of a competitor grow from one point, only one of them is left - stronger and more powerful. The second one can be removed without regret; it will only benefit from a cherry.
During trimming in no case do not "break" hands unyielding branches. You only need to act with the tool. It is necessary to work only in gloves, for the prevention of injuries and corns from pruners or saws. If there are several cherry trees in the garden, after pruning each tree, it is necessary to wipe the shears or saw blade with a rag moistened with an antiseptic alcohol solution (for example, in the Aseptolin medical alcohol solution). If we neglect this rule, dangerous fungal and viral infections can be transferred from one tree to another.
During pruning should pay attention to the condition of the trees. Pruning is much more necessary for sick and weakened trees than for healthy ones, so you need to start with them first. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in the daytime, so that the gardener can clearly see all the features of the crown of the cherry tree.
During spring pruning, many gardeners make blunders. These mistakes can lead to the death of the garden. These errors are:
- Pruning young bushes with pruners. Secateurs are better suited for working with a more mature tree, which has dryish branches. If you use a pruner when working with young cherries, which have very elastic and flexible branches, you can cause serious injury to the tree. For trimming a young bush is best to use a sharply sharpened saw,
- Gardeners often leave too many branches with felt cherries. Felt cherries must certainly have a sparse crown, otherwise the tree will not fully bear fruit,
- Another common mistake - performing the procedure in cold weather. In the middle zone and in more northern regions in the middle of March there is still a temperature below minus five degrees. At this temperature, the cherries should not be touched at all, because fragile branches in the cold quickly break. One careless movement, and the cherry died,
- Also, many gardeners are trying to cut heavy branches with lots of knots at one time. But if you act with brute force, nothing will come out. In order to cope with a difficult branch, it is first necessary to carefully cut off all the knots from it. Then the branch is carefully notched from below, then it is cut down from above, and it itself falls into the gardener's bunches, without any effort.
If you avoid these mistakes, pruning will go smoothly, “without a hitch.” In general, during the procedure it must be borne in mind that the cherry most of all does not like two things - cold and pruning. With this fragile tree you need to act very delicately, and the use of brute force is inappropriate here.
It is possible to carry out cutting not only in the spring, but also in the winter, and also in the summer. However, in the summer gardeners rarely do this, because the summer calendar of garden and garden affairs is already overloaded. But autumn pruning is practiced quite often. The ideal time for winter pruning of cherries is the first decade of November, when there are no leaves on the tree, and the cherry is preparing to enter a period of physiological rest. If the purpose of spring pruning is to awaken a hibernation cherry, prepare it for flowering and fruiting, then autumn pruning, on the contrary, is aimed at preparing for winter.
Regardless of what time of year pruning takes place, it is imperative to gloss over all fresh scars with garden pitch. You can also buy balm for putty scars on trees in a specialized store. However, it is more profitable to use garden var because the shop balm is packaged in small cans and ends rather quickly. If you leave scars and scars without smearing anything, the cherry can get severe burns from the scorching sun (in summer) or from severe frosts (in winter).
Pruning is not only the formation of the crown, but also an important sanitary measure. Timely removal of diseased, weakened branches is a great way to combat diseases, pests and parasites. The only minus of the spring procedure is that the berries on the sparse crown become more visible and attract the attention of thrushes. However, this problem can be solved by installing a garden scarecrow on a plot or hanging rattling cans on a cherry (the sounds made by banks during the wind perfectly frighten feathered thieves).
Pruning preferably held every seasononce a year is enough: in spring, summer or autumn. However, spring is traditionally considered the most favorable period for holding this event. Experts say that cherry trees, which were timely cut in the spring, are characterized by good yield and increased resistance to adverse external influences. And, of course, it is important that the sparse crown of the cherry looks very beautiful. When the blue sky shines through the tender branches, each berry is poured with the sun and glitters and shimmers like a precious ruby. And if the branches grow very densely, then the berries are not visible, and the tree looks untidy.
Cherry pruning is a very important event. It helps to properly form the crown. When the cherry is cut in time, it begins to spend its energy not on feeding the branches that have grown, but on flowering and fruiting. Pruning fruit trees is quite troublesome, requiring skill, experience and certain skills. However, following simple tips, a novice gardener will easily cope with this task. If we approach the matter with all seriousness and responsibility, the cherry will surely please the summer resident with wonderful bright red or almost black (depending on the variety) berries.
What you need to cut the cherry in the spring
For novice gardeners who wish to grow abundantly flowering and fruiting cherries, it is necessary to understand the goals and principles of spring pruning of cherries in detail. Cherry, unlike other fruit crops, is very early ripening, which is why it is so common in garden plots.
But such precociousness is also a disadvantage for cherries: the tree is quickly depleted, rapidly aging and losing its fecundity. Therefore, in order not to lose a cherry at all, it needs to be cut in a timely manner.
Trimming is needed in order to:
- to form the crown of the tree of the correct form, to prevent its one-sidedness and uneven development,
- increase yield
- improve the taste and size of berries,
- destroy old diseased branches, which reduces the risk of morbidity and attack of pests,
- rejuvenate the tree and prevent it from aging for a longer time.
How and when to prune cherries in spring: general rules
Now consider when it is better to cut the cherry: in spring or autumn, to ensure the best result for fruiting. In gardening, there is a common spring, autumn, winter and even summer pruning, which is more auxiliary.
In the springprune cherries before bud break. If, after wintering, the tree was damaged by frost, pruning is done a little later, when the buds start growing to remove frostbitten shoots. Usually, spring pruning of cherries falls in the middle of March - beginning of April, as this heat-loving tree does not tolerate severe frosts.
If you find sore branches, they need to be removed, otherwise they can infect the whole tree. Also remove the neighboring branches, entangling and thickening the crown. Annual shoots about 20-40 cm long do not need to be cut. Pruning cherries in spring is basic, forming the crown of a tree, and is carried out according to certain schemes, which differ depending on the variety, age and tree.
If pruning in the spring helps the cherry to recover after the winter, then autumn pruning prepare the plant for a long winter hibernation. Such pruning is usually in September - early November and is preventive in nature.
In southern latitudes, trees are pruned immediately after the leaves fall. During this period, large growths are cut, which prevent the tree from developing, and also thicken the crown. You also need to remove dry, damaged, diseased branches and burn them, it will save other trees from infection.
Slices need to be treated with paint or garden pitch. Autumn pruning is carried out 1 time in 3 years. You can not prune trees before frosts, as this will reduce the hardiness of the tree and weaken it.
After pruning, the cuts must be processed with a twist or paint. In severe frosts, the bark of the tree becomes very fragile, and can be damaged during pruning, so it is impossible to cut it in such conditions.
And finally summer processing cherry trees, which is auxiliary, as to cut the cherry thoroughly need only in the spring.
In the summer, when the tree is in a state of active growth, the cuts are tightened long and painfully.
Therefore, during this period, only a slight correction of the crown is carried out, removing the diseased branches in case of detection.
How to cut a young cherry
Pruning a young tree is done immediately after planting, it allows you to form the correct shape of the crown and help the roots to transplant better in a new place. Pruning is carried out before the buds swell so that up to 5 strong, well-developed branches remain on the seedling. Selected branches should be at a distance of not less than 10 cm from each other and grow to the sides.
Everything else is removed, the wounds are covered with paint or boiling. Throughout the spring, it is observed that the bush does not thicken, and the crown is developing properly. All branches that begin to grow inward, must be removed along with new shoots formed on the trunk of a tree.
As the tree grows, new skeletal branches are left until there are more than 15 of them. These works need to be done very carefully, since cutting young cherry seedlings in the spring correctly is a rather difficult task. Mistakes made during pruning of saplings lead to a drop in tree yield in the future.
How to prune fruiting cherries
Pruning cherry fruit can be done once a year in the spring, this will be enough if the work is done correctly. In order for the tree to be accessible to the sun's rays, it is necessary 5 years after planting, when the tree is considered formed, the crown should be cut correctly.
So, spring pruning fruit-bearing cherries are carried out according to the standard scheme:
- removal of all branches that thicken the tree crown, except for branches located parallel to the soil,
- removal of branches that interfere with the proper growth and development of the main frame,
- if the main trunk is more than 20 cm taller than the frame branches, it should also be trimmed.
Annual branches of fruit-bearing trees are not shortened, as this leads to their drying. In graft trees, root shoots must be removed so that it does not reduce the yield of the cherry. Skeletal tree branches need to be shortened to the point where the formation of side branches has ceased. Further anti-aging pruning is carried out for 2-3 years.
Features trimming old wood
For beginners in gardening, it will not be out of place to find out whether it is possible to prune old cherry trees in the spring and what features of these works. Pruning of old trees is carried out in order to rejuvenate the cherry and return its yield.
For this it is necessary to reduce the number of branches and shorten them to half or one third of the length of the shoot. In addition to shoots, you need to remove the skeletal branches to the kidneys or developed lateral branches. Annual growths on the old tree cannot be deleted.
Rejuvenation of the crown is carried out only when the skeletal branches of the tree are bare at the base, and annual increments do not reach 15 cm in length. In the case of drying of the branches in the middle of the crown, pruned branches on the side branches.
Bush and tree: what is different pruning cherries
The correct pruning of a cherry necessarily provides for different schemes for tree and bush types of wood. In tree cherry berries are located on annual growths and bouquet branches, bearing fruit for several years, and in bush-type cherries fruitful branches are only annual.
Pruning spray cherry is carried out when the ends of its branches begin to bare. It is necessary to shorten these branches to half or one third of the length, and semi-skeletal and skeletal branches - to sleeping buds or developed lateral branches. Forming a crown in the bush trees, 7-8 skeletal branches are left.
It is best in one year to prune skeletal branches, and the next - semi-skeletal. It is necessary that the tree has time to recover and bear fruit annually. You can not remove the annual increments that occur as a result of such pruning, otherwise the branch may dry out.
Rules for pruning a cherry tree
Consider how to properly prune cherries. These works consist in a slight shortening of the annual shoots, which will result in fruit-bearing bouquet twigs.
When annual shoots do not reach 15 cm in length, and the skeletal branches have bare bases, they rejuvenate the cutting of tree cherry.
When a tree trunk reaches a height of 3.5 m, its growth should be limited to the transfer of skeletal branches and the main conductor to strong side branches. In tree cherry, 5-6 skeletal branches are left to form the crown.
Итак, на ежегодную и профилактическую стрижку вишни придется потратить время и силы. Однако результаты таких манипуляций и улучшение урожайности можно заметить уже в первый год обрезки. Thus, even a beginner in gardening, who performed the procedure correctly, will be able to conclude whether it is necessary to prune cherries in spring.
Basic culture information
Cherry belongs to the genus Plum. The height of a young tree rarely exceeds 3 m. The crone is thick, resembles an oval. On the garden plots found in the form of a bush with diverting branches.
In the world there are a considerable number of species of these fruits (over 100).
On the branches forming the cherry tree (skeletal) there are twigs. The leaf resembles an oval, rounded at the end. In size it reaches at least 3-5 cm. In autumn, the leaves get a different color: they turn red or orange. White color flowers consist of five petals. Size is 2 cm. Grow inflorescences. The hue of a cherry varies between black, red and light pink.
Some varieties of cherries are not able to pollinate themselves. Even if there are a lot of flowers on a tree in spring, the yield will not be high. It is mandatory to plant a tree pollinator next to a cherry plant.
Note! No matter how desirable, cherries are short-lived. Life expectancy is 12-16 years, however, a person is able to increase this figure due to proper care and selection of favorable conditions.
In the world there are several variations of varieties of cherries (early, medium and late). Among them are the most popular:
The cherry fruit contains beneficial trace elements: tannins, sugars, vitamins (chromium, iodine, iron, molybdenum, cobalt, phosphorus), and in the pulp - coumarin, which is responsible for clotting, ellagic acid, anthocyanins, folic acid.
The fruit of the plant is used in the following cases:
- for the treatment of dysentery,
- to increase sugar,
- to relieve the condition during gout,
- reduce blood pressure,
- eliminate the risk of thrombosis, stroke,
- lower body temperature
- prevent certain diseases (heart attack, atherosclerosis, angina),
- stop bleeding (for this purpose, brew cherry tea from the leaves).
In diabetes or diseases associated with the digestive system, the use of cherries is contraindicated.
From the red fruits prepare a variety of dishes (compotes, liqueurs, jams). Cherry is used to treat edema (diuretic effect), restore salt metabolism, remove toxins and toxins (laxative).
Cherry pruning: when and how to do it
If a person is not so long ago keen on gardening (including the cultivation of cherries), you should carefully study the features of the bush plant and the procedures that are needed for a good harvest and strengthening the tree. To a greater extent, it is recommended to understand how the cherry should be pruned in the spring.
Many people know that cherry is an early fruit plant. Because of this, it is so often found in the gardens. However, this feature is not considered an advantage. The fact is that due to the precocity of a plant, the thinning, aging and loss of yield occur earlier in the plant. And to prevent this, a person should be pruned. Next, it will be explained how to properly cut the cherry and how to form the shape of the crown.
Advantages of the procedure:
- crown shaping,
- increased fertility,
- an increase in the size and taste of the fruit,
- reducing the risk of disease by cutting off old branches,
- suspension of the aging process.
Important! Pruning a two-year cherry in spring or summer helps rejuvenate the plant.
After understanding the need for this procedure, a person should learn how to cut the cherry in spring, autumn or summer. Before proceeding to direct pruning, you need to carefully study all its features.
Spring pruning is carried out in the period when the buds have not yet started to bloom. If the winter cold had a negative effect on the tree (the branches were damaged), then the knots should not be cut immediately after frost. Frozen shoots are cut when the first buds appear. The procedure is carried out in March (at the end of the month) or in April. If at this time is too cold, nothing terrible, you can wait until it gets warmer.
If you find sick shoots need to cut the tree carefully. This is done in order not to harm the plant and not to infect diseases. Together with the patients, it is also necessary to remove growing branches that entangle and thicken the cherries. If the shoots are young (1-2 years about 35 cm), you should not touch them. The main pruning is spring. It is necessary in order to form the correct shape of the cherry crown. When performing the procedure, gardeners often work step by step, following the pattern.
Use sharp tools
Pruning branches in spring improves the condition of the cherry after the winter cold. Conducting the same preventive procedure in the fall (around the end of September), a person helps the tree to prepare for winter.
People living in the southern regions (for example, in the Urals), pruning only when the leaves fall. At this time, they remove shoots that interfere with normal development and thicken the cherries. To protect the tree from diseases, it is necessary to cut off the branches infected with a disease.
In the place of the cut it is recommended to apply a garden brew or paint. To get a big and tasty harvest from a tree, it is necessary to cut the branches once every 2-4 years. Do not carry out the procedure of trimming landings before the onset of extreme cold. This adversely affects the plant, reducing its ability to withstand frost and weakening the protective function.
Important! If one or several diseased branches were found on the tree, they should be immediately destroyed (burned). Due to this, the person will prevent the spread of the disease throughout the site.
Many newcomers are wondering how to shape the crown of a cherry. Experienced gardeners believe that this should be done in the winter and in older trees. In winter, there is less chance of damaging the bark than at other times of the year. As well as after spring pruning, it is advised to apply paint or var. If it is too cold, it is better to postpone the procedure until better times. By cutting the branches of a tree into frost, a person risks damaging the plant.
Careless pruning of cherries in the summer may cause cuts to take too long. In addition, late processing has a negative effect on the condition of the tree as a whole: fruiting is suspended, yield is reduced. Therefore, to perform summer pruning, as in the spring, is not necessary. You can slightly adjust the shape of the crown, but no more.
Beginner gardeners should remember that the first time to cut the cherry can be a few days after it was planted. Due to this, the crown of a beautiful and desired shape is formed. In addition, this procedure helps to quickly get used to the new land.
Pruning is recommended before the buds swell. At the same time, it is necessary to leave a few strong for further development and fruiting. They should not be directed in one direction and be located close to each other (less than 9 cm).
Unnecessary branches must be trimmed. Sections are processed by special means. Several months advised to monitor the condition of the crown (thickness and proper development). With the appearance of branches directed inward, they are cut off.
It is necessary to carry out cutting of a young tree with the maximum care, after all careless actions quite often lead to sharp decrease in fructification further.
Important! During the growing season, it is not recommended to touch the cherry tree (or seedlings). This significantly reduces the ability to withstand frost.
If the beginning gardener got a plot with an old cherry from the previous owners, then it is better to immediately study the full information on how to cut such a tree. Thanks to this procedure, the adult tree rejuvenates, fruiting increases.
Some branches are removed completely, while others simply shorten or cut off completely. Kidneys can not be touched. Gains that appeared 1-1.5 years ago are not recommended to be cut.
Old cherry tree
Before the rejuvenation of the tree bare skeletal branches and wait for the moment when the growth length will be slightly less than 13 cm.
The cherry tree often suffers from pest attacks and is affected by various diseases. This is mainly due to the constant rains in the summer. And here are some of them:
- spotted perforated,
Note. These diseases provoke a shortage of useful substances that help the tree to develop normally, contributing to death. If you do not take any measures, you can lose the entire crop. Various means are used to solve the problem: topsin-m, skor, chorus.
Cherry pests are also very much. The most dangerous - aphid and weevil. To get rid of the first insect, which appears predominantly on a wet plant, use bi-58, decis, and periodically pluck out the growth and weeds around the affected tree. To get rid of the weevil, damaging the ovary and kidney, use metaphos or artel. It is also recommended to dig the ground around the trunk.
Caring for a tree is a regular watering, timely pruning, loosening the earth, fertilizing.
Having planted a cherry tree, it is necessary to water it periodically. First, daily, later (with the advent of buds, shoots) less often (once in 7-14 days). During the hot period, it is especially important to monitor the watering so that the cherry does not dry out from dehydration. For an adult tree requires a lot of water (up to 8 buckets).
Loosen the soil when the snow melts and the earth dries. Due to this, the plant warms up, more oxygen is supplied to the roots, moisture evaporates more slowly. Loosening should be carried out until July). Do not dig too deep during this procedure. In the autumn, it is recommended to dig up the soil to eliminate the harmful beetles.
It is necessary to loosen the soil
After the snow disappears and grass appears, you should carefully monitor the emergence of weeds and tear them at the first detection. Sprouts sucks from the ground useful components, thereby leaving the cherry itself without power. In order to protect the sapling, it is recommended to plant legumes and salads during the first 5 years nearby.
It is not necessary to feed the young landing during the first year. Fertilize will have in the second year. For this, gardeners use ash (wood), manure, superphosphate (in autumn), mullein. In the store, a novice gardener is often recommended to purchase fertilizers in a dry form, and this is really convenient. The instructions are all detailed. For fertilizing, most often use ready-made mineral-based fertilizers.
Important! Spring is the period when the plant requires a large amount of nitrogen. In the autumn, feed with potassium and phosphorus will do. If the increments in length are not less than 45 cm, then you should not fertilize the soil.
This is all that can be briefly talked about cherry and pruning in spring. But even this is enough to get an idea about tree care and prepare for cultivation. The main thing is to follow the tips and recommendations above, and you will succeed!
Why you need to prune the tree
Cherries belong to early-ripening crops, they are happy with the first berries rather quickly, but at the age of 12–15, ceases to produce a good harvest, and even completely ceases to bear fruit.
Circumcision of old wood contributes to its rejuvenation. If it is correct and timely to perform the procedure:
- It turns out beautiful symmetric crown.
- Improves the taste and size of berries.
- The plant is less sick, rarely affected by insects.
If you just remove the dry branches on fruiting cherries, you should not count on high yields. Cut garden crops in 3 ways. Shortening the shoots strengthens the tree, accelerates its growth. When thinning the crown of cherries or cherries is better lit, gets more air.
Before you start pruning, you need to know all types of shoots. Fruits form on the bouquet branches. The cherry skeleton is formed from a vegetative variety. During the entire period of development, the length of the growing branches increases.
When thinning, some shoots are removed completely, with selective pruning - only partially. In order for the cherry to become more voluminous, new shoots have appeared, get rid of the branches above the bud.
Terms of work
Experts say that the time in which the stone fruit crop is cut has an effect on its growth, development, flowering, formation of the ovary, the number and size of fruits. The procedure is resorted to both in the autumn and in the summer, and always the slices are smeared with garden pitch, treated with glue to prevent infection, and new shoots do not grow.
In the southern regions, cherries begin to be cut in March or even in February. In those areas where autumn comes early, work ends in the last days of September, in the Krasnodar Territory, Transcaucasia, procedures continue until December, if the temperature keeps above zero at night.
In order to properly form the crown, the cherry for a long time pleased the harvest of berries, there was no need to remove the shoots in the winter or summer, pruning work carried out in the spring. It is better to do this when the kidneys are no longer asleep, but they did not fully open up. Typically, this phenomenon is observed in the second month of spring, in the northern regions - in May.
During the operation, the top is cut, consisting of branches, due to which the crown is thickened. Shoots are removed that grow perpendicular to the surface of the earth, shoots shorter than 30 cm are left. Be sure to trimmed and the trunk itself. It should only be slightly higher than the frame - about 20 centimeters.
In the first year after planting the felted cherry, the branches are shortened to 0.5 m, the next spring they get rid of side shoots.
It is better not to touch the tree with the berries, because the slices during the fruiting period heal for a long time. In July and August, only dry or diseased branches are removed. They must be burned so that the infection does not spread to healthy cherries. Sometimes in summer you have to cut the shoots that prevent the growth of others, but they are shortened only a little.
After fruiting, gardeners should prepare the cherries for the cold. Work is done when juice slows down. Trimming for the winter must be completed until the air temperature drops below zero at night. You can not shorten the shoots even with small frosts, because the plant can not survive the cold winter.
In the fall, young cherries planted in spring are not cut. A tree in such a short period does not have time to adapt well to environmental conditions and may die during frosts.
What tools are needed
To perform work in the garden for pruning, you need to purchase special equipment. To eliminate thin twigs, pruner is suitable to get rid of a thick shoot, you will need a saw. All inventory needs to be sharpened well so that the cherries do not have a notch after cutting.
When removing branches affected by fungal disease, the instrument must be thoroughly cleaned and treated with an antiseptic. If the requirements are not observed, a healthy plant is infected, pathogenic microorganisms are transmitted along with the juice.
Features trim according to grade
The crown of tree and shrub cherries is formed identically. Both for one and for another type it is necessary to leave skeletal branches, thanks to which the plant will develop well. Circumcision of different varieties has its own nuances.
The crown of stunted cherries thickens greatly, therefore it is more often formed by the method of a slender spindle, in which only young shoots under the age of 2 years are left. Those that already had berries are removed.
Stunted cherries grow quickly, and that they bear fruit well:
- The branches that are bare at the ends are shortened by 1/3 of the length.
- Krona is regularly thinned.
- With a significant increase in all the shoots at the same time not pruned, the procedure is performed several times.
Insects infest on dried up areas to prevent this from happening, such branches are burned. On stunted annual seedlings shoots are shortened.
Dwarf cherries pruned in early spring, until the buds opened. Due to this, before flowering, she manages to get stronger. The crown is formed immediately after planting. The shoots are shortened at a distance of 40 cm from the ground.
The cherry tree also requires thinning of the crown. If the shoots are properly cut, fruit branches are strengthened, a fork is not formed.
When the length of the growth exceeds 15 cm, and the tree has reached 5 years of age, skeletal branches become bare, they produce anti-aging pruning. In cherries with a height of 3 meters limit further growth.
Crown Forms and Technology
The yield of stone fruit crops decreases with time. In order to prevent the grinding of berries, to improve the fruiting of cherries, the formation of a crown is required, since it thickens very quickly. For beginners, this procedure seems difficult, but learning to pruning is possible. Different technologies are used to form the crown, one of the ways is shortening:
In the 1st variant, 1/4 of the growth of shoots per year is cut off, in the second - 1/3, and in the third - half.
The crown is also formed by thinning, which allows reducing its diameter, preventing thickening, increasing the number of fruits.
Еще один способ, который требует навыков и знаний, веерная пальметта, предполагает фиксацию побегов с помощью шпалеры, старые ветки каждый год отвязываются.
Cherries, which will winter the first time, are not cut in the fall, only processes are removed, which hinder the development of the tree or move away from the trunk at an acute angle. Krona at a sapling form in the spring. To do this, separate the strongest branch that grows vertically. Leave another 5 shoots, which are directed in different directions and are separated from each other by 10 cm.
A crown of such varieties of garden crops is shaped like a bowl. Branches that are located at a height of 70 cm and below are to be removed. In order for annual shoots to allow lateral branching, they are slightly shortened. Not everyone knows how a tree cherry needs to be properly cut. It is necessary to do this at an angle, freeing the plant from processes that intertwine with each other.
This type of cherry quickly thickens, which leads to the grinding of berries, the deterioration of fruiting. The crown is formed around one powerful skeleton, the shoots are cut off that are located near the main trunk.
Biennial bush plants shorten branches that bend down, as well as processes longer than 50 cm.
Nuances of rejuvenation
In order to increase the yield of mature cherries, pruned shoots are cut in the spring, but you don’t need to touch a large amount right away, because the crop lacks the strength to produce fruit. Pruning of old cherry varieties of bush varieties is carried out when the branches become bare. They are shortened by half or a third, and skeletal shoots to the buds.
To rejuvenate the tree variety, dry processes are removed, and the annual branches on which berries are tied are slightly pruned.
Care after the procedure
In the spring, the work on crown formation and shortening of shoots must end before the juice movement begins. In the fall, cherries are pruned at full temperature all September, in the south - October, November. On the second day after the procedure, the cutting sites are treated with a disinfecting agent, smeared with garden pitch or oil paint. In the winter, the plants are watered abundantly, fed during the growing season, sprayed with Bordeaux liquid to prevent diseases, and fight against insects.