Grapes - heat-loving plant, attributed to the type of perennial shrub vines of the family of grapes, and known to mankind since ancient times. Many events in the history of mankind are connected with it, therefore it is impossible to overestimate the importance of grapes for mankind. There is a whole science called ampelography, which studies this plant and the method of its cultivation.
The grape has many varietiesfrom both natural selection and selection. In the world today there are more than 20 thousand grape varieties, most of which are hybrid.
According to the international classification, there are more than 70 species of grapes, distributed in the Euro-Asian, East Asian and North American groups, which, in turn, are divided into subspecies. One of the most ancient and loved ones can be called Muscat, which will be discussed below.
General characteristics of nutmeg grapes
Muscat grapes Popular since ancient Greece and ancient Rome. During the period of the Middle Ages, it became widespread in Italy and France, where it was given the name for the incomparable aroma of musk. On the territory of our country, namely in the Crimea, it began to grow in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries for the preparation of high-quality wines with exquisite taste.
It has a pleasant aroma of musk and berries with a high sugar content. Their color range is determined by the characteristics of the climatic zone in which the grapes grow. The elongated, oval-shaped berries weigh an average of 6-7 grams. The bright sun colors them in a beautiful amber color, and ripening in the shade, they acquire a slight whiteness.
The geography of Muscat is quite extensive.. Vines of this grape variety can be found in most countries of the world and in many regions of Russia.
However, the majority of representatives of the muscat grape varieties have extremely low resistance to frost and fungal diseases, which serves as a certain obstacle for their cultivation in garden plots and requires careful care of them.
Through the efforts of breeders it was possible to develop such new species that are immune to infections, such as: Don, Red and Crystal.
For regions of Central Asia, Muscat amber grapes with high yields and high sugar content in fruits were specially bred.
It is almost impossible to describe the variety of Muscat, however, below we will try to consider its most prominent representatives.
Popular types, description and use
The most common types of nutmeg grapes include the following:
- white (incense),
- pink (red, Rouge de Forntinyan, Moscato Rosso di Madera),
- black (kalyaba),
- Hungarian (Vanilla, Crocan, Smashed),
- Amber and others
Often muscat grapes conditionally classified depending on ripening period on:
- early maturing: crimson, Nina, Moscow, Kuban, etc.,
- mid-season: Magaracha, Tsimlyansky, Starobelsky and others,
- late maturing: alexandrian, katunsky, etc.
Particularly popular among Russian summer residents are Muscat grapes with an early ripening period: ripe crimson super and paradise for 95 days, as well as Tairovsky, Natuhaevsky and Nina’s nutmeg, which can be harvested 110 days after budding. Of the types of late ripening, the most sought-after is the Cryulian muscat.
Of the frost-resistant species, the following can be noted:
- Kishmish Zaporozhye and Potapenko,
- White Shatilova,
- Russian early ("sweetie"),
- de Codru,
- golden rossoshansky,
Consider the most popular types of Muscat grapes.
(Small-sized Muscat, Most Muscovite, Muscat Lunel, Muscat Frontianyan, Tamayoz, Busuioc, Ladanny) - one of the most ancient grapes of this variety, which became widespread in Bulgaria, Hungary, Spain, Italy, Romania, USA, Serbia and France.
The plant has a light brown shoot with two thick gray-green leaves covered with dense downs, the tops of which have a wine-red shade. Medium-sized leaves have a rounded funnel-shaped shape with narrow-triangular teeth at the edges and a bristled fuzz of the veins of the lower surface.
Fruits vine dense clusters of medium cylindrical or cylindrical-conical shape with a short leg and an average weight of about 110-150 grams. Rounded, wax-tinged berries with a diameter of 10-17 mm of a yellowish-golden hue have an average peel thickness, juicy flesh with a strong nutmeg aroma and a high sugar content (approximately 20-30%).
This type of muscadine grapes loves the warm climate and clay soil with the addition of pebbles, and the stony slopes of the hills and the foot of the mountains, well lit by the sun, are considered an ideal place for planting.
Preferably for feeding potash fertilizersthat should be used with the beginning of the process of fruiting vines.
The average duration of ripening of the fruits of the white Muscat vine is about 140 days, and the yield is up to about 6 tons per hectare.
Harvesting takes place in late autumn, before the onset of the first frosts and after the berries had accumulated the necessary amount of sugar.
It is necessary to take into account the weak frost resistance peculiar to white Muscat and susceptibility to infection with gray rot, mildew and oidium. In addition, he often suffers from spider mites and phylloxera, and with a lack of moisture significantly reduces the force of shoot growth.
However, breeders was bred hybrid Muscat white Shatilova, which differs from its relative by its good disease resistance and strong frost resistance, due to which it is suitable for cultivation in the territories of Siberia and the Urals.
White Muscat is traditionally used in the manufacture of juices, various sparkling and vintage dessert wines, and its hybrid - Pink Muscat - is used in the southern regions and in the Crimea to produce high-quality liqueur wines with the pleasant aroma of tea rose and citron brands such as: "White Muscat dessert, "Muscat white Red Stone", "Muscat white Livadia", "Muscat white South Coast", etc.
From this grape, common in Italy under the name Moscato Bianco, make the world-famous sparkling wine "Asti".
Other popular types of nutmeg grapes
Muscat Donskoy attributed to winter-hardy grape varieties of technical varieties with very early ripening and high yield of berries, reaching full maturity in 115-120 days at an ambient temperature not lower than 21 ° C. The plant is a strong-growing shrub with large green leaves, fruiting covered with medium large almost black color berries Muscat Donskoy is used to make wines of a rich dark color with a strong muscat flavor and a noble aroma.
Muscat Ottonel is a universal table-wine grape variety, common in the territories of France, Italy, Bulgaria, Chile, the United States and other countries. This type of nutmeg is characterized by the presence of a smooth surface and a petiole groove with a very sharp bottom.
Dense golden-yellow Muscat Ottonel berries have a high sugar content, strong characteristic taste of musk with a slightly sour taste.
It is possible to start harvesting 125 days after bud break, on condition that the air temperature did not fall below 25 ° C during the ripening of the berries. The yield is quite high and is about 8-9 tons.
Black Muscat (Kayaba or Kalyaba) is a lover of warm climate and is widely distributed on the southern slopes of France and on the Crimean peninsula.
The vine of this type of grape has medium-sized rounded leaves with a smooth upper surface, which become reddish during the ripening period of the berries, and by the fall it has a rich yellow color.
Small sized bunches weighing up to 800 grams. have round berries with dense skin of dark blue color, colorless sweet pulp and strong muscat aroma, which are used to make raisins and dessert wines with a rich flavor with hints of chocolate and a bright aroma.
The yield of the vine varies from 4 to 10 tons per 1 hectare of area. Black Muscat is resistant to various fungal infections of the leaves, but is susceptible to leafworm damage, does not have high frost resistance, and is quite picky about the soil.
Muscat of Alexandria also known as:Moscatellon, Pane Muske, Salaman, Tsibibo and is one of the most prominent representatives of the variety. It belongs to table grapes and is widely distributed in the south of France, in Italy, Spain and Greece.
Distinctive features are medium-dissected leaves with a smooth surface and small sharp teeth, long petioles of wine-red color, large berries with dense pulp and a strong muscat flavor.
The vine has an unsustainable yield, which can reach high rates only in hot climates, on fertile and sufficiently moist soils. The average yield is 5-7 tons per 1 hectare of land.
Alexandrian species is characterized extremely low winter hardiness and demonstrates susceptibility to fungal infections. During the flowering period, there is a high risk of shedding flowers, which are very sensitive to cold and damp weather.
Used in greenhouse culture. They make raisins, various jams and compotes, marinades.
Muscat grapes: useful properties
This grape variety has a wide range of organic substances, trace elements and vitamins that have a beneficial effect on the human body.
It is extremely rich in potassium, which strengthens the cardiovascular system, and the calcium contained in it promotes the growth of hair and nails.
The presence of essential oils and phytoncides helps to fight the bacteria that cause putrefactive processes and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the high content of sugar in the berries, they have a relatively low calorie content, which contributes to rapid saturation, preventing overeating and the emergence of excess weight.
Some species, such as the "Alexandrian", are used in traditional medicine for inflammation of the throat, and "Hamburg" has shown its effectiveness in treating the initial stage of tuberculosis.
It is believed that regular consumption of Muscat grapes can activate the work of human genes and prolong its youth.
Pros and cons of nutmeg grapes
Many people have a sincere love for the unusual taste of muscat grapes. Ripe fruits are very sugary, because of what they have a pronounced sweetness. Muscats have a multifaceted taste and aroma with notes of flowers, caramel, herbs, berries and, of course, musk.
They are suitable for making various wines. This is due to both the diversity of species and the fecundity of most of them. With proper care, grapes can "occupy" the entire area and the surrounding area. Accordingly, one of the main advantages is high fertility (on average, it is 50-60 centners of crop per 1 hectare of land).
Muscats are composed of phytoncides. These are biologically active substances that significantly inhibit the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora in the intestine. It is curious that phytoncides are contained not only in grapes, but also in onions, garlic, pine cones.
The main disadvantage of nutmeg is in their capriciousness. This applies to the classic non-hybrid varieties.
Muscat grapes are warm and light-loving. They are recommended to be planted in a suitable climate and on elevated terrain. Therefore, these varieties are common in the Crimean, Moldovan and Georgian vineyards. But this does not mean that all varieties require special conditions. Scientists have bred varieties of hybrids that can tolerate significant frost, resistant to common fungal diseases and gray mold.
The best varieties of nutmeg grapes - description and characteristics
Some varieties stand out among the rest. These include:
- The black.
- Incense (White).
They are the most famous and used to make the best varieties of wine. There are also many varieties of Ladanny, Black and Pink grapes. They differ in their characteristics.
White superearly grape nutmeg has the property of high sugar accumulation. In ripe berries, the sugar content reaches 25-30%, which allows using this type for making sweet dessert varieties of wine.
General characteristics of the form:
- unstable to frost, dies at -20 ° C and below,
- ripens about 120 days, preferably land in early spring,
- unstable to common fungal diseases,
- average fertility, from one hectare harvested from 50 centners of the crop,
- berries are small (2-3 grams), as are grapes (up to 500 grams),
- origin: Egypt or Arabia.
Muscat Shatilova is a hybrid white grape variety. This species is remarkable in that it was created specifically for cultivation in the Russian climate. That is, the grapes are resistant to frost and temperature extremes, precipitation. It does not have to be planted on high ground. The variety is unpretentious, rarely gets sick and does not require frequent watering. The average fertility.
- ripening by the end of August-beginning of September,
- frost resistance is above average (up to -30 ˚С),
- medium-sized berries (4-6 grams) and a bunch (up to 1000 grams),
- sugar content - from 16 to 20%,
- place of origin: Russia.
The berries have a yellow-golden hue, light green veins. As a rule, have a moderately musky smell and sweet taste.
Black Muscat grapes, according to some, originated in the Crimea, in the late 19th century. It still actively grows on this peninsula, as well as in the south of France. It is grown in a warm climate, on elevated surfaces of the earth (mainly on the slopes). The main name of black nutmeg: Kalyaba or Kayyaba. This species is characterized by a higher than average yield, the fruitiness of the shoots is more than 60%.
- middle-big milk mushrooms (up to 1000 grams), as well as berries (up to 10 grams),
- sugar content - up to 20%,
- frost resistance is low, light-loving is high,
- average yield is 60 centners per hectare,
- maturation takes from 130 to 150 days,
- the species is resistant to fungal diseases, but is susceptible to attacks by a leaf maker,
- ripe berries have a dark blue color.
Kalyaba is a sweet nutmeg suitable for making dessert wines.
Hamburg nutmeg is a dark grape variety. For the first time he appeared in England, but now distributed almost worldwide. This type of nutmeg can be found in Ukraine, Moldova, France, Tunisia, Italy.
Characteristic grapes Muscat Hamburg:
- thermophilic (dies at -19 ° C),
- moderate light-loving (can be planted on a flat surface),
- high susceptibility to diseases, fragile comb,
- yield unstable, can reach 70 centners per hectare, but usually ranges from 30-40 centners,
- small fruits (2-4 grams), small clusters (200-350 grams),
- hue of berries blue-violet, dark,
- sugar content - up to 22%.
The value of this grape is that it produces a quality wine with the right taste and aroma.
The classic Golodrigi is the universal grape nutmeg, named after the Ukrainian scientist and breeder with the corresponding surname. It was he who brought this variety, crossing Magarach and the Queen. Holodrig is highly resistant to drought and frost, fungal diseases and viruses. This grape belongs to high-yielding (from 1 hectare it is possible to gather up to 150 centners). It is trouble-free, medium-ripening (120-135 days) and suitable for growing in a changeable climate.
- sugar content - up to 23%,
- frost resistance - up to -24 ° C,
- Average weight is 300 grams, one berry - 2-3 grams.
There are several varieties of this grape, among which the most sugary is the variety of the Memory of the Golodrig. It contains 29% sugar.
The Blau grape is a noble nutmeg that was bred in Switzerland. Classic red wines are made from this type with a pronounced musky aroma. In general, Blau is unpretentious, resistant to frost (up to -27 ° C) and fungal diseases. However, it is often attacked by flying insects, in particular wasps. You can plant this variety anywhere, not necessarily on a slope or other elevation. Blau requires careful maintenance, watering and processing.
The berries have a rich dark blue tint, weigh, on average, 5-6 grams. The whole bunch usually does not exceed 500 grams in weight. Maturation of this nutmeg lasts from 120 to 130 days.
The fastest growing varieties include the following:
- Muscat Amber - grapes ripen in 110-120 days. Low resistance to frost (dies at -20 ° C) and fungal diseases. The clusters are small (200-250 grams), the berries are medium (2-3 grams). Высокоурожайный – 80-90 центнеров урожая на гектар земли. Вид предназначен для выращивания в среднеазиатских регионах.
- Донской – созревает за 115-125 дней. It is highly resistant to frost (up to -28 ° C). Don Muscat - grapes with a pronounced nutmeg taste and smell. Clusters are small (up to 300 grams), as are the berries. The average yield per plant accounts for about 50% of fruit-bearing shoots. Grapes are resistant to fungal diseases.
- Muscat Red superearly - grapes ripening for 95-100 days. Usually it can be collected in July. This variety is resistant to frost down to -26 ° C and gray rot. Productivity is high (80-90 centners per hectare). Clusters weigh up to 350 grams, individual berries - 2-4 grams.
- Summer - ripens in 100-120 days. Differs in large berries (8-9 grams) and clusters (up to 1000 grams). It has an interesting grassy taste and a faint smell of musk. Grape variety Summer nutmeg unpretentious, resistant to frost down to -25 ° C, as well as diseases and pests.
- Moscow Muscat - ripens in 100-115 days. It is not resistant to frost, mildew and oidium. Productivity is high, reaches 100 centners per hectare. The content of sugar in grapes Moscow Muscat is slightly above average (about 17%). One berry weighs 4 grams, a bunch - about 500 grams.
Highly resistant to cold and disease
Muscats resistant to cold, pests and fungal diseases are ideal for growing in the conditions of Russian cities. They are usually unpretentious and do not require special care.
These varieties include:
- Odessa Muscat grapes are resistant to frost down to -27 ° C, mildew and oidium. Sugar content is, on average, 20%. Maturation takes from 130 to 150 days. Yield is average. A bunch of Moscow nutmeg weighs about 300-400 grams, one berry - 2-3 grams.
- Pridonsky nutmeg - resistant to frost down to -30 ° C, mildew, oidium and gray mold. Sugar content is high (about 25%). Maturation is more late, takes from 130 to 140 days. The yield of grapes Pridonsky nutmeg is below average, usually it is possible to collect no more than 30-40 centners per hectare of land. Clusters are small, weigh 200-300 grams, berries - 2.5 grams.
- Muscat De Codru - resistant to frost down to -29 ° C and the most common fungal diseases. Sugar content - up to 18%. High yield (up to 90% of fruitful shoots per bush). Medium-sized clusters weighing up to 800 grams. Berries weigh 7-8 grams.
- Muscat of Alexandria - resistant to frost down to -28 ° C, mildew and oidium. Sugar content ranges from 15 to 30%. The yield also varies greatly from case to case, but it can reach 110 centners per hectare (on average, 70-80 centners). Clusters and berries are small.
The most prolific varieties
The most prolific nutmeg is Pink Early grape. The number of fruitful shoots in this species ranges from 85 to 95%. In this case, the period of full maturation takes from 95 to 100 days. This grape is unstable to frost and often "sick", so you need to carefully care for it.
Also, new hybrid varieties, such as Muscat Favorite and Noble, are distinguished by high fecundity.
They both consistently bring in 80-90 centners of crop per hectare of land. At the same time, hybrid varieties practically do not get sick, they tolerate cold well. Muscat Noble "experiences" temperatures of up to -26 ° C, and Favorite - up to -24 ° C.
It is desirable to plant almost all nutmegs on elevated areas, slopes, so that they are constantly under the rays of the sun. So grapes accumulate more sugar, ripen faster and gives a good harvest.
Under each seedling you need to dig a separate hole with a depth and width of about 80-100 centimeters. When planting cuttings in one row, you need to calculate the distance between them, it should be at least 1 meter, preferably 1.5. Also, be sure to install a support under each hole in the form of a peg.
In the pit itself, you need to make a small mound of soil, then place a seedling on it, after straightening the roots of the plant.
Then you should sprinkle all the earth, and tie the grapes to the peg. Before planting, it is possible to drain the soil by placing rubble into it to a depth of no more than 10–15 centimeters. This is done if the ground is over-humidified. When planting grapes in the cold season, you should immediately add to the surface of the soil mulch. Also, the land is desirable to fertilize with humus or peat.
Growing tips and care
In order to properly grow Muscat grapes, you need to take into account these recommendations:
- For the winter, almost all nutmegs need to be covered, even if they are sufficiently resistant to frost. Especially if the plants are grown in cold regions with harsh winters. At temperatures below -25 ° C, many nutmegs start to die.
- For a full-fledged plantation that occupies a large area, a drip system of irrigation and spraying the soil is required. It must be "activated" during active grape growth. As soon as the berries begin to ripen, the number and volume of watering must be reduced, otherwise the crop will be watery and unsweetened.
- Muscat must be processed every year, preferably in early spring or autumn. For processing, you can use Quadrice, Paracelsus, Cirocco or other means belonging to the group of insecticides / fungicides. These drugs are used to combat diseases and pests. Insecticides are designed to kill insects, fungicides - for the prevention of fungal diseases.
In order to provide ideal conditions for the grapes, it is necessary to use trellis - a special design that provides good support to the plant.
It should also periodically (once in 2-4 weeks) loosen the soil between the rows and near the roots of seedlings, while not touching the plant itself.
History and description
Muscat grapes were popular among the ancient Greeks and Romans. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, culture was introduced to the Crimean peninsula, where it is still being successfully cultivated. It is used to prepare high-end muscatel wines. Such wines are characterized by specific unique flavor notes and delicate aroma.
It should immediately be clarified that Muscat and Muscatel are two different things. Muscatel is different and the quality of the drink, and content. To obtain it, nutmeg varieties are mixed with others. The name "Muscat" was given to this variety of grapes with the aroma of musk by the French.
The peel and the pulp of nutmeg contain specific ternoid compounds. Thanks to them, the grape has an original taste, and its berries are extremely sweet. They contain large quantities of phytoncides, which help to improve the intestinal microflora. But there are also disadvantages: almost all muscat grapes are frost-resistant and not immune to fungal infections, which makes their cultivation in the open field much more difficult.
Characteristics of species
Trying to improve the varietal characteristics, breeders are constantly working on breeding new varieties that would have sufficient frost resistance and would not be prone to diseases, and new muscat varieties of table grapes have the best taste. It was thanks to the hard work that varieties such as Donskoy, Krasny, Yantarny, and Crystal appeared. To help you make the right choice, we will introduce the most popular varieties of Muscat.
The Muscat Belyi grape variety was brought to Europe from Arab countries. Today it is successfully grown in the open spaces of France, Spain, Italy, Bulgaria. The plant needs a warm sunny climate and clay type of soil with the addition of pebbles. The best place to grow will be well-lit rocky slopes. To ensure a high degree of yield, potash supplements should be made from the beginning of the growing season.
Cluster cylindrical shape, the size depends on the climatic conditions of the region and care - from 120 to 400 g The berries are small, round, with a very delicate flesh and delicate, subtle aroma. High percentage of sugars. Color wax. The shrub grows very rapidly, but it will take more than 4 months to ripen the berries. The average yield is collected, usually at the end of September.
Practically unstable to such fungal diseases as mildew, gray rot and oidium. It is subject to attacks of spider mites and phylloxera. Since the level of frost resistance is very low, spring frosts are extremely dangerous for grapes. A detrimental effect on the growth of the vine and the lack of moisture.
Another great grape variety is Muscat. Bred by Russian breeder scientist Yevgeny Pavlovsky. Early ripening, self-fertile. The grapes ripen almost simultaneously, large, weighing more than 600 g. The color of the berries is rich red, with a purple tint, the weight is about 10 g. The berries have a pleasant crunchy flesh, covered with a thin skin, which is practically not felt when eating.
The variety is rather cold-resistant, it can tolerate frosts over 20 ° C. Fruits generously, clusters can be stored on the vines for a long period of time without crumbling. Suitable for transportation. The level of disease resistance is average.
The variety belongs to the early Muscat, matures in about 110-115 days. Grown from the middle of the twentieth century. The bush is vigorous, with strong flexible vines. The cluster is small (200 g), but the berries themselves are small (2 g). High sugar content. The level of maturation of the shoots is 50%.
Fruits steadily and generously, therefore, sometimes needs to rationing the harvest, ie, the removal of a certain number of clusters. The first crop appears in the third year after planting. Perfectly tolerates frosts up to 28 ° C, perfectly adapts to any type of soil. Medium resistant to fungal infections. Of the pests most often suffer from phylloxera.
Bulgarian early variety, with large clusters, in weight exceeding 600 g, and large berries. Berries are oval, delicate amber shade, with juicy sweet pulp. Begins to bear fruit in the third year after disembarkation, withstands frosts over 23 ° C, a rather high degree of resistance to diseases. Proper care and frequent balanced dressings help to improve the marketable qualities of the berries and increase the yield level. Non-capricious and unassuming in care.
Grapes come from Switzerland. Early ripening. Clusters of medium size, berries with a diameter of more than 2 cm and 5 g in weight. Fruiting is average, good immunity, but often undergoes attacks of wasps. One of the most cold-resistant grape varieties that can withstand frost up to 30 ° C. It is made from it red muscat wine.
Among the excellent table muskatnyh varieties can be called muscats of Alexandria, Hamburg, Yerevan.
Features of growing
Most of the nutmeg varieties are quite whimsical and whimsical. In addition, they prefer stony soil and warm climate. It is recommended to grow it in warm sunny regions, as the frost resistance of the main mass of varieties is low. Another feature of Muscat is the low degree of resistance to fungal infections, so care must necessarily include regular preventive measures and properly balanced dressings. The amount of watering should also be carefully monitored. But despite all the difficulties, the best grapes for making special wines you will not find.
Specifications Muscat white
The yield of white Muscat is in the range from 60 to 100 quintals per hectare of plantations. This indicator is directly dependent on the specific growing conditions, including temperature, irrigation, the amount and type of fertilizer, etc.
The distinctive technical advantages of Muscat White are as follows:
- high concentration of sugar in the berries, because of what they are pretty sweet,
- delicate aroma, different muscat flavor,
- the possibility of preparing from the harvest of various drinks, including wines,
- the ability to use raw without additional processing.
Bunches of grapes in shape somewhat resemble cylinders. They are medium in size, due to which their weight is in the range of 100 to 450 grams. The length of each cluster is about 15 centimeters. Their maturation takes 140 days. Experts refer this type of grapes to the middle late variety.
The process of planting Muscat white
White Muscat requires the right place to grow. He reacts poorly to cold winds. The soil in which the vine grows should be sufficiently moist. In winter, it is best when it is covered with snow, thereby protecting the rhizome from frost.
Seedlings require planting in the fall. The best period for this is considered to be the end of September or the beginning of October. In spring, it is possible to make a landing quite late, when the earth warms up above a temperature of + 12 degrees Celsius.
Aligote variety features
Such a grape variety as Aligote does not differ in its special taste characteristics, but at the same time it is highly valued as a technical type. The main external feature of the vine are rather dark leaves, whose edges are slightly curved downwards. All the stalks and processes on the grapes are painted in wine-red shade. Ripened berries have a yellow-green color, they may be small brown blotches that do not exceed a few millimeters.
Specifications of Aligote
Fruiting of this grape variety is somewhat larger than white Muscat - from 90 to 140 centners from one hectare of plantations. The length of each brush is the same - about 15 centimeters. Its width reaches 10 centimeters. At the same time, the weight of the bunch is not very large - on average about 105 grams.
The main disadvantages of the Aligote variety are as follows:
- susceptibility to diseases such as gray mold and mildew,
- not very high resistance to cold and frost,
- poor crop preservation properties during long shipments.
Ripening berries is about 130 days. The technical features of Aligote make it possible to attribute it to an early-medium grape variety, which is why ready fruits appear at the end of August. In the first half of September, all the berries ripen completely. Each of them contains about 78 percent of the water.
Aligote landing process
It is best to grow this variety of grapes near various forest belts. This is due to the fact that in these places the snow cover lasts longer, and the moisture in the soil lasts longer. At the same time, the buds near the forest belts are also not very early to bloom, which is why they are less susceptible to cooling. It is best to choose for Aligote light soils that pass water well through themselves.
It is possible to plant a vine both in the fall, and in the spring. The main factor to be taken into account is that the soil for seedlings should be properly heated. The debris is held before the buds bloom - in the first month of spring.
Features of grapes Isabella
One of the most famous grape varieties is Isabella. It is often grown at home, as it is less whimsical and more stable. Many people make wine from this grape, although in some countries it is forbidden. This is due to the discovery in the berries of a large amount of ethanol, which adversely affects human health. Currently, this opinion is disputed, as many believe that it appeared only because of the high competition between producers of different types of grapes.
Isabella berries have a rich dark blue color with a rather noticeable wax coating on them. The skin on them is rather rough and dense.
Specifications of Isabella
The technical characteristics of the Isabella grape variety contributed to its popularity and prevalence. It has several advantages in comparison with other types of vines:
- possibility of growth in different types of soil,
- high resistance to cold and frost,
- resistance to various plant diseases,
- the presence of a large number of nutrients and components.
Isabella's productivity is about 70 centners from one hectare of plantations. The weight of one bunch is in the range from 130 to 150 grams. Berry ripening takes a long period, which ranges from 150 to 180 days. Due to the fact that the vine is growing very strongly, it requires additional support.
Despite the fact that Isabella is fairly resistant to various types of soils, she reacts poorly to the presence of limestone. That is why experts recommend planting in the soil in which this substance is the minimum amount. The amount of moisture should be large in the ground. This grape variety grows better in conditions of its surplus than in arid soil.
It is important to plant in an open area, and not near various fences, buildings, etc. The landing time directly depends on the climatic characteristics of the region. This is best done at a time when the soil is still warm in the fall, or when it only begins to warm up in spring.
Features varieties Chardonnay
Chardonnay grapes can be distinguished from other types of vines by their leaves - they are medium in size, with rather raised veins on them. The grapes have a light yellow color. Their skin is quite thin and pleasant to the taste. Ягоды отличаются сочной мякотью, из-за чего данный вид винограда относят к одним из наиболее привлекательных технических сортов этого растения.
Технические характеристики Шардоне
Спелые ягоды этого сорта винограда отличаются небольшими размерами, которые достигают 16 миллиметров.
Урожайность лозы также не очень большая – всего 50-70 центнеров из одного гектара насаждений. Грозди винограда редко превышают длину в 13 сантиметров. Их вес при этом достигает 90 грамм. Созревание ягод происходит за 140 суток от момента распускания почек.
Distinctive disadvantages of Chardonnay are the following factors:
- poor resistance to diseases such as mildew and oidium,
- the possibility of rotting in a period of high humidity,
- poor resistance to cold and frost,
- early development of the kidneys, due to which they are susceptible to freezing.
Despite the falsity of caring for Chardonnay, it is very popular because of its taste.
Planting Chardonnay seedlings
In contrast to Isabella, Chardonnay prefers soils with the presence of limestone and clay. This type of grape grows best on the western slopes or on hills. It is necessary to plant vines in early spring when frosts have passed. If this is done in the fall, you need to choose the period of October.
The seedlings and the vine itself must be sufficiently free and not overloaded. That is why after pruning should be only from 10 to 12 eyes. The bush should contain only four fruit grains. If the grapes are not sheltered, the stumps should be about 1.2 meters high.
Features of Cabarne Sauvignon
The grapes of Kabarne Sauvignon allowed to prepare a lot of different wines with the same name. Today, many winemakers make this sort of vine in the list of the best technical species. The leaves of Kabarne Sauvignon have five blades and a dark green color. They are distinguished by a pronounced cross-section and triangular sharp edges.
The grapes are rounded. Their color is dark blue, on top they are covered with a wax shine. The peel of the fruit is quite dense, and their taste is a bit like currant.
Specifications of Cabarne Sauvignon
The yield of this grape variety is from 60 to 90 centners per hectare of plantations. The length of the bunch is from 12 to 15 centimeters, its width is about 8 centimeters. The weight of one brush is only 70 grams. Reach the fruits for a period of 165 days.
Distinctive features of the Cabarne Sauvignon are:
- resistance to cold and frost,
- a little tart taste,
- resistance to diseases such as mildew and gray mold,
- ovary fall and smallness of berries under adverse conditions.
If you fully comply with all requirements of cultivation, the taste of the berries can be improved.
Cabernet Sauvignon Landing
There are no special soil requirements for Cabarne Sauvignon - grapes can grow on different soils. It is best to plant seedlings in the middle of autumn or in the period of early spring. To improve the yield, you need to prune one-year vine shoots. The load on the bush should be small - in this case, it is possible to increase the size of the fruit. Shtamby should be quite high, young growth should hang down.
Muscat Hamburg - table, medium late variety. The vegetation period is 148 days. Berries ripen in mid-September. Productivity is high, but unstable. Fruiting shoots is 67%. The variety is grown in Russia, Hungary, Romania, Argentina, Tunisia, Greece, France, and the USA.
Bushes of medium size. On rich soils, plant growth increases.
Shoots densely leafy. Annual shoot brown, nodes reddish color. The leaves are large, medium length. The shape is heart-shaped, deep and medium-dissected, consists of 5 wavy blades. Corrugated edges.
Leaves are downy. Coloring of green color with bronze impregnations. Wine red cloves. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow.
The clusters are large or medium, conical, branched, friable, large. Leg average, grass-green. The bunch weight is 170-260 grams. The length reaches 20 centimeters. Width - 12-17 centimeters.
The berries are oval or rounded, large, often when the flowers freeze over. Their length is 1.3-2.6 centimeters, diameter - 1.2-1.7 centimeters. The skin is purple-blue, dense, covered with a waxy bloom. The flesh is fleshy, juicy. The taste is harmonious, pleasant. Muscat aroma, thin. In one berry there are 2-3 large bones.
- Tasting score on a ten-point scale of 9.1 points.
- Sugar content is 22 milliliters. Acidity 8 g / l.
- The grapes are transportable, stored 2.5-3 months.
The grapes make delicious juices, pickles, compotes and jams. Disease resistance is low. Thermophilous variety, demanding of moisture and soil.
- The variety has poor resistance to gray rot, oidium, bacterial cancer, mildew, phylloxera.
- Resistance to damage by a small leafworm is average.
- Cold resistance is weak. The bush can withstand frosts up to - 19 degrees. After a cold spring, pea berries appear.
Due to the low frost resistance, the grapes need to be shaped like the two shoulders Guyot. Cutting length is 4-6 eyes. The load of the bush should be 18-20 shoots (12 of them fruitful).
In warm regions, you can use a high-standard two-shoulder cordon shaping. The height of the trunk is 1.2 meters. Pruning shoots shortened and depends on the integrity of the eyes after winter.
Noble Muscat is a hybrid form of very early grapes. Ripening of berries occurs in 105-115 days. Productivity is high.
Bush high. Vines ripen almost the entire length of the shoots.
Flowers bisexual. Clusters are conical, large, medium density and friability. The average weight is 600 grams.
Berries weighing 13-16 grams, 40 by 30 millimeters in size, egg-shaped. The skin is dense, thin, practically not felt, greenish-yellow or white, yellow on the side of the sun, translucent.
The flesh is juicy, fleshy. The taste is muscat.
- Frost resistance at the level of - 15-23 degrees.
- Resistance to diseases at the level of 3 points.
- Commercial quality and transportability are high.
- Wasps do not damage berries.
Muscat Moskovsky is an early table grape variety. One bush gives about 4.7 kilograms of grapes. The shape of the bush when pruning a fan, multi-sleeve, bezshtambovaya. Cut length shortened or medium. Bush high. The leaves are large. The pubescence is completely absent.
The clusters are medium, large, weighing 480 grams. Cylinder-conical shape. Berries are oval, light green, medium. There are 2-3 bones in each berry. The taste is harmonious, with nutmeg tint.
The sugar content of berries is 17.5%. Acidity is 6 g / l.
Tasting score on a ten-point scale of 8.2 points.
The plant needs to be rationed yield. Susceptibility to diseases, without prophylactic spraying is 60%, with a spider mite up to 60%.
Frost at the bush to -25 degrees.
Advantages and disadvantages
Muscat grapes have the following advantages:
- The rapid ripening of berries,
- excellent taste, aroma,
- good preservation of the crop,
- excellent transportability,
- simplicity in the care.
The disadvantages of these varieties include the following qualities:
- The probability of freezing in the spring,
- some varieties have pea berries,
- poor resistance to diseases and pests.
Planting and care
Seedlings are best purchased in the autumn in special nurseries. Seedlings planted in the fall, in the spring begin to grow actively and are ahead in the growth of plants planted in the spring.
Vegetative seedlings are suitable for planting in the spring. The growth of the plant should be equal to 25 centimeters with a thickness of 5 millimeters. The sapling has several formed bright green leaves and roots.
The plant is planted in the middle of April to the first of May or in the fall, from late September to early October.
Close passage of groundwater in the planting area is unacceptable. The place should be closed to the wind and well lit. The best place for this purpose is elevation. The bush can be planted next to buildings, gazebos, retreating from them 0.5 meters, and close to trees, bushes with an indent of 3 meters.
The yield of nutmeg varieties increases on loamy, sandy, limestone, sandy soils. With good care, grapes can be grown on clay, stony, cartilaginous soils.
White Muscovite predatorial prefers the soil mixed with small pebbles. The best place for it is the rocky slope. Before preparing the ground pit should be dug. Remains of weeds are removed.
The pit 2 months before planting is dug in depth, width and length equal to 80 centimeters. It is filled with fertile soil, pre-mixed with wood ash, superphosphate and humus. If clay soil is added sand.
Young shoots in the first year
The finished pit is half filled with soil mixture and remains for shrinkage. The sapling is soaked for a day in the water, after which the sprout and roots are shortened a little. The roots and the bottom of the trunk descend into the clay mash.
The seedling is inserted on an earthen mound, made in the center of the pit. It is filled up with earth to the place of the beginning of gains. The resulting hole should be 25-30 centimeters deep.
After the seedling is watered with settled water and covered with a wooden box (spring), a jar or a cut off plastic bottle (autumn). The soil around the seedling is covered with a layer of peat or humus mulch.
A support is formed nearby, with a height of 2 meters. Wire is drawn between the posts. In the future, the plant will put the vine and entangle support and wire. When shoots reach 50-80 centimeters, in the first year they become attached to pegs, and then wind up on a trellis.
- Weed removal, soil loosening,
- preventive spraying against diseases, pests and combating them.
The first 4 years for the bush to get enough oxygen, the soil around it needs to be cleared of weeds and loosened.
Every spring katarovka held. In this case, the stem is excavated to a depth of 20 centimeters. Thin roots are removed. He again fall asleep.
At the beginning of fruiting, the bush must be fed with potash fertilizers. Then the plants are fed with mineral fertilizers and organic matter.
Feeding should be carried out three times per season:
- The first is made before flowering bush.
- The second half a month after. Fertilizers dissolve in water. The prepared solution is poured over the soil and bush.
- The third dressing is made before ripening berries. Wood ash is used for this feeding.
The lack of moisture affects the development of shoots, they are stunted in growth. The best irrigation option for Muscat white is drip irrigation. When hand watering the soil around the plant should be covered with a layer of peat and humus.
During the growing season, the grapes must be watered regularly. During the season the bush is watered at least 4 times. The plant requires 12-15 buckets of water or 2-3 buckets 1 time. Before wintering in October, the bush is shed with water to saturate the roots with moisture. Trimming is done in early spring, summer and autumn.
As the bush grows, he needs a shaping. To prevent thickening of the plant, young shoots break off to 3 centimeters.
To adjust the ratio of fruitless and fruitful shoots they need to pinch off, before reaching their length of 10-15 centimeters.
Summer pruning is reduced to pinching, pinching shoots, removing unnecessary branches.
When the vine begins to bear fruit, fruitful shoots must be pinched.
The procedure is carried out a week before the start of blooming flowers.
Removal of processes formed in the sinuses is a mandatory procedure. It is produced in the middle of summer, after flowering bushes. In August, chasing of young shoots is performed. This removes 40 centimeters of escape. It should be about 15 leaves.
Pruning in the summer is to remove the extra leaves. It takes place during the ripening of the grapes. In the fall, shoots are shortened, and weak, undigested shoots are removed.
Protection against diseases and pests
The best protection against diseases and pests is spraying the bushes with various fungicides, insecticides and biological preparations (potassium iodide solution, Bordeaux liquid, Ridomil, Antracol, copper vitriol, Fitosporin and others).
We must not forget about the prevention of diseases such as rubella, chlorosis, bacteriosis, bacterial cancer.
Before the beginning of active growth, the bushes are sprayed with a 3% Bordeaux mixture.
For the treatment of affected grapes, special chemical and biological preparations are used.
Shelter for the winter
Before the onset of cold weather, a pit around the young grapes is covered with sand, and a mound of 30 centimeters high is formed on top.
Pristvolnaya area grown bushes in the winter powdered with dry leaves in several covering layers.
Top fit roofing waterproofing material.
Good care allows you to grow on your site any type of Muscat. The grapes thank their owners delicious and fragrant harvest.
Muscat grapes: video
I have several types of Muscat growing on the site. I, in spite of the demands of this variety, Muscat really like grapes. The berries are very juicy, tasty, delicate and fragrant. The fruit makes an excellent aromatic wine.
This grape variety is familiar to me for a long time. Muscat, especially pink, has been grown in our garden for many years. I recently bought several more species of this variety. Grapes are fragrant, juicy and tasty. Juice and compote of them turns out just excellent.
A few years ago I moved from an apartment to a private house and immediately planted some Grape bushes Muscat. I chose the type of berries and not lost. I was told in the nursery how to care for him, so my crops are always good.
Types and types of grapes
In order to choose the best grapes, it is necessary to determine what type of crop you prefer. There are several classifications:
1. Purpose grade. There are three large subgroups: table, technical and raisin grape.
2. In terms of ripening berries, grapes are divided into eight groups: superearly (105-115 days) - the first group ... very late (165 days or more) - the eighth.
3. There is a division according to external features. Grapes are divided into three types: black, white and red grapes. The size of the berries and the weight of the brush are taken into account.
It should be remembered that there are varieties that are suitable for both fresh consumption and for processing. Such grapes are called table-technical or universal. There are more than 5,000 varieties of this crop in the world, about 2,200 of which were bred in Russia and the CIS countries.
The best grapes of table type
Grade "Tiny", despite the name, a very large grape. Berries weighing up to 16 g when fully ripe become dark purple. A brush can weigh up to 1.5 kg. The berry is crispy, with a pleasant balanced taste, it ripens within 115-120 days, therefore the variety belongs to the group of very early ones. The shape of the fruit is round, the density is medium.
Each vine should be left with 5-8 fruit eyes, so that the vine does not break under the weight of the brushes. The optimal number of clusters on a single plant is 30-35, then the whole grape matures well. “Baby” is a plant with bisexual flowers, therefore, in order to get a good harvest, it is enough to plant one bush on the site. Covering variety. Sleeping fruit bud withstands temperatures up to -20 ° C.
The best grape varieties: photos of the variety "Tiny"
The best varieties of grapes include Aksai Legend. The fruits of this variety are slightly pink in color, their shape is elongated, the length of the berry is over 30 mm. The weight of the bunch can reach 2 kg. The taste of the fruit is sweet, but not cloying, with a special taste that does not resemble any other grape.
It is believed that the Aksai Legend is an improved form of the Julian variety. Vine grapes stronger, larger berries, and disease resistance is much higher. The growth rate of the bush is very high. In the first year after planting, it reaches a height of 40-60 cm. In the third year, fruiting begins in full force, and the weight of the bunch reaches 2 kg and above.
Berry grapes "Libya"
It is worth noting the Rumba grape variety. It is considered to be very early, it can withstand temperatures as low as -18 ° C, therefore Rumba is a covering variety. A distinctive feature of the variety: the grapes begin to bear fruit in the second year after planting. With proper care, the weight of the brush reaches 1.5 kg.
An interesting feature of the variety is that it has two forms. They differ only in color. "Rumba" can be completely ruby in color or yellow, with a ruby shade. Fruits are oval, large in size with a five-ruble coin. Transportability grapes are very high. The taste is slightly tart, very sweet, crisp and juicy.
Photos of the best grapes: Rumba, yellow subspecies
Photos of the best grapes: Rumba variety, pink subspecies
Grapes that deserve your attention - "Tason". The variety is quite old, but does not lose its relevance. The grapes are large, their weight is from 1 to 1.5 kg. The grapes are white, the color of the skin with a light amber sunny "tan". The weight of one berry is 7-9 g. The taste is very sweet with a pronounced muscat hue. The bones are small, almost invisible.
The bush can withstand temperatures up to -22 ° C. Berries ripen in 100-110 days. "Tason" is considered one of the most delicious super grape varieties. On one plant usually leave 30 bunches.
The grade possesses high transportability. Due to the high precocity, he is one of the first to appear on the shelves. Because of its excellent taste, Tasone is a leader among commercial grape varieties.
Grapes varieties "Tason" photo
Review of the best grape varieties of raisin type
Recently, the most popular in Russia are gaining American-style honeycomb. Один из самых лучших сортов винограда кишмишно-изюмного типа — «Спартанец». Вес кисти достигает 600 г. Плоды подходят как для переработки на изюм или вино, так и для употребления в свежем виде. Виноград белый, вкус его кисло-сладкий с легким оттенком муската.
The variety overwinters beautifully in the gazebo, as it withstands temperatures down to 35 ° C. The plant is highly resistant to fungal diseases. Loves sunny places, but can grow in partial shade.
Kishmishna raisin grape varieties "Spartan"
Another excellent seedless grape variety is Relins Pink Sidlis. The berries are bright pink, rounded, slightly flattened underneath. The weight of one berry is 3 g, the weight of the brush is 400-500 g, up to 40 brushes can be left on one adult bush.
The taste of berries is sweet, and the aroma with a touch of labrusque. Due to the high sugar content of the berries, excellent raisins are obtained. Also, this variety is used in the preparation of red semi-sweet or dessert wine to give a ruby color to the finished drink.
The best grapes: photos of the variety "Relynes pink Sidlis"
Review of the best grapes for winemaking
For the preparation of red muscat wine the Black Pearl variety is ideal. Maintains frosts to 26 ° C. The fruits are small, bright blue. The taste has a strongly pronounced muscat hue, the taste is sour, so the grapes are often used in the preparation of dry wine.
Grape variety "Black Pearl" photo
Excellent dessert wine can be made from Livadia Black grapes. There are light notes of nutmeg in taste. When fully ripe, the berry becomes dark blue. Wine from this grade turns out amazing ruby color. In the taste of the finished drink there are fruit notes.
Initially, the variety was cultivated only in the Crimea, but the growers managed to significantly expand the geography of cultivation. Shrubs withstand temperatures up to 26 ° C without loss of yield. An important feature of the variety is the loss of taste when overriding. Therefore, the harvest must be cleaned in a timely manner.
Wine grapes "Livadia black"
Variety "Dublyansky" - one of the best grapes for the preparation of white nutmeg wine. The color of the ripe berries is amber, sometimes with a pale pink tint. The skin is thin, and the flesh is fleshy and aromatic.
Sleeping buds do not freeze at -31 ° C. Therefore, this variety is suitable for growing in climates with cold winters. The bush grows well in partial shade. Ripe berries can be on the bush for up to two weeks, so the harvest is stretched in time.
Dublyansky grapes, photo of the best grapes