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Care for an apple tree in spring: what, why and how

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Apple tree is one of the most common garden trees in Europe. It is adapted to the particularities of the climate of the CIS countries, but this does not mean at all that it should be completely left to itself and does not require care. This tree should be monitored as well as the rest. And it is about how to care for an apple, we will talk in this article.

Many people think that this process is absolutely simple, but here you need to know some nuances. And not every summer resident knows how to care for apple trees correctly. If you perform all the necessary actions, there is really nothing difficult in growing this tree.

Landing: Stages and Rules to Follow

Planting and caring for apple trees is not a very time consuming process. But you need to strictly follow some recommendations so that the plants feel comfortable, so that they develop fully. You can bring an apple tree on your site using ready saplings. If you plan to plant a whole apple orchard, then while the trees are still young and do not have a lush crown, the gaps between them can be used for vegetables, and later - for strawberries, since it does not require a lot of sunlight.

Planting seedlings

To go to the question of how to care for an apple tree, you first need to know how to plant it properly. It is necessary to perform this procedure in early spring - immediately after the snow melts. It must be ensured that the upper layer of the soil is not frozen, otherwise it is still possible to delay the landing. Usually the best time to plant apple seedlings is April or early May.

So, go to the process of landing. First of all, we mark with pegs the places where we will do it. Between plants, it is desirable to leave at least four meters of free distance so that each of them can fully develop. If the apple variety you plant has a wide crown, this distance should be five meters.

After marking you need to dig a hole under each seedling. Its depth should be 0.6 m, width and length - 0.6-0.7 m. The clay or sand part of the soil should be folded in one direction and the humus part separately, in the other. If the soil you have on the site is barren, then you need to enrich it with plant-friendly substances by pouring two buckets of humus, a pound of phosphate and about 60 grams of potash fertilizers into each hole. All these substances must be pre-mixed with the top layer of excavated earth. Next, take out the seedlings from the storage and inspect them for dried or damaged roots. If any are found, delete them. Covering fertilized soil at the bottom of the fossa, we make a layer of ordinary soil, not saturated with fertilizer, on top. This is to ensure that the roots of the plant are not in direct contact with the fertilizer, as this may be harmful to them. Next you need to install a seedling over the ground in the pit so that the root neck is exactly at the level of the ground surface. If it turns out to be much lower, the plants will grow much slower and worse; if it is higher than necessary, the roots will begin to dry out. Next we fall asleep the rest of the earth and compact it for better fixation of the plant.

What to do next?

Care for young apple trees that have just been planted in the ground should be especially careful. It is on how the host monitors the plants in a given period that their further development depends. If in the first years, caring for an apple tree in the spring, summer and autumn is negligent, then it will simply wither without even starting to bear fruit.

Caring for an old apple tree is not so difficult. The first thing that must be done is to irrigate. For it, you need to prepare special rims for the diameter of the pits in which the plants were planted. They should be about 0.15 m wide. This is necessary so that the moisture gets exactly to its intended purpose, that is, to the roots of the plant, and does not spread over the rest of the area. For each young apple tree for one watering should take two or three buckets of water. After it is absorbed into the soil, it is advisable to sprinkle a hole in which the tree was planted, dry soil or humus. This is necessary so that the moisture does not evaporate any longer. Watering the plants is best every two to three weeks, but with frequent rainfall it can be done less often.

One of the main stages of care

This is pruning an apple tree. It is necessary for all plants, but especially young. Apple pruning is carried out immediately after its landing in the ground. If the conditions for the plant to stick, are very favorable, which includes a sufficiently developed root system, a high level of soil moisture, early planting, etc., then pruning is done by only a third of the trunk. If the shoot has already branched, then each branch should be shortened. If the conditions are not very favorable, for example, the weather is too hot and dry, late landing in the ground, then trimming should be done thoroughly - up to half of the entire escape.

An adult apple tree must also be trimmed - this is necessary for better growth and the formation of a beautiful crown. In this case, first of all, it is necessary to get rid of the hanging parts of the lower branches. Then you should shorten the topmost branches, except for those that are directed to the side. Thus, we reduce the height of the tree and form a more lush and free crown, which is necessary so that all the branches get enough light.

When and how best to fertilize?

Continuing the conversation about how to care for apples, we turn to a very important topic - fertilizers. They exist of two types - mineral and organic. The first are also divided into two main subtypes - potash and phosphate. Caring for an apple tree implies the use of both types of fertilizer. If you, following the instructions, have enriched the soil with nutrients when planting, then the next few years you do not need to do this anymore. However, if for some reason you have not fulfilled this condition, then fertilizer can be applied in the first year of plant development. Soil enrichment with minerals and other useful chemical compounds is one of the stages, which includes caring for apple trees in the fall, since it is best to do this at this time of the year. One square meter of soil will need such amount of the following ingredients:

  • 0.02 kg of ammonium nitrate,
  • as much potassium salt
  • 2-3 kg of humus,
  • 0.05-0.06 kg of phosphate fertilizers.

It is necessary to close fertilizer into the soil to a depth of about 0.01 m around the trunk and about 0.02 m in those places where the apple root system does not lie. This procedure is carried out not every year, but every two or three.

Autumn digging between rows

This is one of the most important stages of caring for an apple tree. This procedure should be carried out every year. During digging, organic and phosphate-potassium fertilizers should be applied to the soil to compensate for the lack of nutrients in the autumn.

Watering adults apple

We have already reviewed how to carry out this procedure in the case of saplings, now we will tell about trees that are more than two years old. Watering - the main component. Such care for an apple tree is especially important in the summer, since it is this particular time of the year that is the most arid and hot, which is not particularly favorable for plants (and not only for apple trees).

A tree at the age of two or three years should be watered often, but in small portions. The first time they do this is usually in early June. Water needs to be spent, focusing on the number 4 buckets per 1 square meter of soil. The area to be moistened is calculated by looking at the crown, i.e., all the earth under it must be watered. The procedure should be repeated every fifteen to twenty days. For more effective moistening of the plant’s root system, it is advisable to loosen the ground around the trunk before watering.

Apple trees, which are more than three years old, are not so often watered, as this can lead to a reduction in yield. It is enough to water it once a month, but in large portions. In this case, water needs to spend about 40-42 buckets per tree.

Colonid Apple Care

Due to the nature of such trees, they can be planted at a distance of 0.3-0.4 m from each other. Between the rows should be left from 1 m. All stages of care for such an apple tree are different from those that can be used in the case of an ordinary one. This is due to the anatomical features of this type of trees, which must be taken into account when growing them in order to achieve good results and an intensive harvest.

This is a special type of care, it is characteristic for columnar apple trees. It lies in the fact that around trees they sow cereal or various kinds of spices (lemon balm, dill, which, by the way, can also protect against pests), and then periodically carefully mow them. Such a procedure is necessary for plants because their root system is very close to the surface. It is not pivotal, that is, it has no main root extending deep into the soil. Because of this, the roots can easily suffer from external influences on the soil above them. And because of the tinning, this possibility is much reduced. In addition, for the same purpose can be used and mulching.

Pruning Apple

It has its own characteristics and differences from a similar procedure in the case of ordinary varieties. Trimming is carried out only on the side branches, which are already available in very small quantities. It is impossible to break the main trunk, since it can lead to the growth of a larger number of lateral branches - and the columnar apple will no longer resemble one. To carry out this operation should be as follows. The side branch is cut so that three to four buds remain. In this case, it will give about three shoots. But in the first year it is cut only on two buds. Then, in the second year of the life of the plant, that side shoot, which is farther from the trunk, must also be shortened into two buds. The first one, which you did not touch, will begin to bear fruit this year. The next spring, it should be removed completely. And the rest of the branches, which have not yet given fruit, also cut into two buds.

Protection of apple trees from rodents

For this plant whiten. To carry out this procedure is necessary in the case of young trees (four to five years), the bark of which has not yet become hardened. Recently planted apple trees are whitened with a solution of chalk. Older trees can be whitened with lime mortar if necessary. It should be prepared as follows: add six kilograms of clay and twenty liters of water to six kilograms of freshly slaked lime. In addition, two hundred grams of wood glue, preheated, and a kilogram of copper sulfate can be added to the solution.

Pests and diseases of apple trees

The most important step in the care of any plant is its treatment, as well as the prevention of possible diseases. The most common pests are the eastern fruit moth, the green apple aphid, the hawthorn. The first one looks like a caterpillar of brown-red color about 1.3 cm in size. Its butterfly has a wingspan of 1.5 cm. The front wings are brown with gray, and the back wings are monochromatic gray. Apple aphid is a small insect about three millimeters in size.

Hawthorn caterpillars have a length of approximately five centimeters and are dark in color with orange and black longitudinal stripes. Their butterflies are also quite large. Their wingspan is about seven centimeters. Streaks on light wings are clearly visible. All these insects can be fought with various insecticides. Spraying spend and for prevention.

What if the apple tree stooped?

In the case when, under the action of strong winds, the apple tree is bent in any direction, many people think that it is already impossible to correct it. But this is not true. What to do to make the tree smooth again? It is necessary to drive a stake into the ground from the side opposite to that into which the apple tree has arched, to carefully pull a tree to it and tie it. You can also put on the side in which the apple tree arched, backwater. Of course, in one day the tree will not become smooth, for this you need at least three years, after which it will be possible to remove the support.

How and why care for an apple tree in the spring?

With the arrival of spring, the summer resident has a lot of worries. It is necessary to begin work in the garden as soon as the temperature has risen above 0 degrees. What works to spend during this period?

1. Digging an apple tree.

2. Sanitary and formative pruning of the crown.

3. Preventive spraying against pests.

The future harvest directly depends on spring events. Often, from improper care, in inexperienced gardeners, young apple seedlings die.

What is the need to dig in the care of apple spring?

In early spring you need to clear the snow around the apple tree, trampling it well. It is not worth neglecting this procedure, it helps to prevent damage to the tree by mice. Hungry rodents in the spring spoil the bark of fruit, which affects the health of the tree and yield. Even if there is a lot of snow, the apple tree needs to be excavated. It is possible to lay out baits with poison from rodents under a tree in the fall.

Digging and trampling snow saves not only from rodents. Young trees suffer from thawing, when the snow cover breaks off fragile branches. By removing snow before the onset of heat, the seedling can be saved from many diseases that develop at the site of damage.

How to care for apple crown in spring

Proper pruning provides a good harvest, large fruit and tree health.

Pruning young and adult apple trees

Pruning is needed in March or early April, while the tree is not upright, but the buds are already swollen. In adult trees, a part of last year's otpredivshie branches is cut out, the remaining ones are shortened. This procedure stimulates the growth of new flower buds and increases the yield of apple trees. Old branches should be replaced with young ones, which will reduce the likelihood of overloading the tree with fruits and protect it from diseases.

It is necessary to cut out mercilessly all branches growing inside the crown. It is important to monitor the thickening of the tree and timely remove the three-year branches.

It is important to remember that the upper branches do not give a significant crop, they are intended for foliage and are crown-forming. If the apple tree is more than seven years old, then you need to cut off the top of the tree. Young seedlings do not need to remove the top branches.

The first rule in the spring formation of the crown of an apple tree is that the smaller the growth of young branches, the stronger the pruning.

Of course, from the first time it is not always possible to achieve positive results. But you need to look closely to the tree, monitor its development and health. Formation of the crown should be carried out every spring throughout the life of the apple tree.

Pruning Apple

If miniature apple trees grow in the garden, this is not a reason to neglect spring pruning. Carry out the procedure with all the features of the tree.

Using the advice of experienced gardeners you can form a good tree and get excellent harvest. The principle of spring pruning is to remove as many branches as possible, ensuring a good growth of the remaining ones. Nothing complicated about it.

You need to start the formation process before the start of sap flow. First you need to know what should be cut to protect the tree from disease. The correct cut will be tightened faster without damaging the apple tree.

It is necessary to cut a significant part of the branch, leaving only up to 4 buds, from which strong fruit-bearing branches will develop. If you cut only the third part, then weak shoots will develop, the amount of harvest will decrease. Conducting just pinching the tops, the gardener provokes the growth of a large number of weak branches, on which the fruits will not develop.

Diagram of correct pruning apple tree

The top of the columnar apple is cut only if it is frozen in winter. With regular spring pruning the apical bud is not cut.

Apple Care - Spring Sprinkling

It is not always possible to avoid the use of pesticides in the garden. High-quality pruning and good fertilizers still do not guarantee excellent yield, because the presence of pests adversely affects the apple tree.

Treatments are carried out in several stages, starting preventive spraying from March. When blooming buds all stop processing.

• The first thing you need to clean the trunk of the tree from the old bark and pruning. Then spray the crown, near-stem circle and whiten the apple stem and skeletal branches with lime mortar.

• At the beginning of April, when the buds have swelled, but the flowers have not yet blossomed, it is necessary to treat them with biological preparations from the apple-flowered beetle. The use of chemical preparations reduces the number of insect pollinators on the tree.

• In the second half of May, when the fruits begin to form, spraying is carried out with preparations from fruit pests and leafworms.

For spraying using copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture. From early spring to flowering, you can spray the drug "Trichlorol-5", after flowering, you can use karbofos.

What spring dressings to use in caring for apple tree

Если не использовать никаких удобрений ранней весной, то о хорошем урожае придется только мечтать. Профессионалы советуют вносить подкормки, которые регулируют рост зеленой массы, вырабатывают хороший иммунитет саженца и формируют хороший урожай.

When the snow completely comes off, you need to dig up the earth around the apple tree and sprinkle with ammonium nitrate. The granules will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the soil.

Remember, digging the soil under the columnar apple is impossible. This procedure will violate its surface roots and lead to the death of the tree. The soil under the seedling gently loosened, removed all the weeds.

Springtime is a great time for nitrogen supplements. Good effect on the growth of apple watering a solution of bird droppings, mulching with peat or compost. When working with bird droppings, it is necessary to observe the concentration of the solution and act according to the method “it is better to underfeed than overfeed”.

Nitrogen fertilizers include:

Make a feed on wet soil or after rain. This should be done around the entire circumference of the crown.

During flowering, seedlings need fertilizing with urea. Young trees are especially demanding to fertilize. They are fertilized three times at intervals of half a month.

For the second stage, dressing is good to use:

Complex mineral fertilizers also give good results in spring dressing. They contain all the substances necessary for the growth and development of apple trees.

During the formation of the fruit is to feed the apple for the formation of large fruits.

To stimulate a good harvest can be the following dressings:

Herbal infusion is prepared from freshly cut grass without seeds, which is placed in a container and filled with water. The grass is left to ferment for about two weeks. As soon as the liquid acquires a dark color and a specific smell, it can be used to feed the apple trees. The finished slush is bred at a ratio of 1:10 and watering the trees.

Summing up

In fact, spring care for apples is simple. But its timeliness ensures a stable harvest every year. By following all the rules, you can grow large and juicy fruits on each tree.

All stages of spring work in the garden should go consistently. Apply chemicals to strictly according to the instructions, so as not to harm the trees.

You can see the fruits of your labor very soon. Trees will look healthy, and enjoy the crops. There are no lean trees, there are owners who are inattentive to their garden.

General moments

Starting to care for an apple tree should be immediately, as soon as the snow melts in the garden. Thus, usually in our climate, work begins at the end of March-April, in the southern regions earlier. Gardeners are guided by this criterion: as soon as the average temperature per day reaches zero degrees and is slightly higher, then it is time to start spring care of fruit trees.

The main work on caring for an apple tree in the spring is as follows:

  • removing the winter shelter, digging out the trunk,
  • whitewash,
  • elimination of damage sustained during the winter,
  • trimming
  • the fight against parasites, pests, disease prevention,
  • graft,
  • top dressing
  • watering
  • soil loosening and mulching
  • protection against return frost.

As you can see, the amount of work is rather big, and then we will look at all the main points in detail.

Shelter removal

It is necessary to free the fruit tree from the winter shelter during the period when at night the temperature below the zero does not fall and reaches + 10-15 degrees during the day. It is clear that in different regions of our country this period begins at different times: earlier in the south, and later in the Urals.

They remove the shelter and dig up the stem not immediately, but in stages, to allow the apple tree to adapt to the cool air gradually. Usually the whole work takes 3-4 days.

To protect the delicate bark of the tree from the bright spring sun and the return frost, the lower part of the apple tree is made to be whitened. Cover with a layer of white and skeletal lower branches. In addition to weather conditions, whitewashing helps protect the plant from cracking the bark, which happens because of sudden temperature changes.

Especially important is the protective whitewash for young apple trees, the bark of which is so far delicate and thin. Whitewashing is done anew each spring, since the fall rain and winter snow cannot survive the covering.

Gardeners usually dilute whitewashing on their own, using the following ingredients:

You can also whitewash the tree and acrylic paint, which is more stable and is guaranteed to last on the trunk throughout the growing season. Consider, however, that the acrylic composition is more expensive.

The most popular and easiest to prepare is the following composition:

  • lime - 300 gr,
  • water - 2 liters,
  • office glue - 2 full Art. spoons.

Copper sulfate, poured into the mixture, will help better protection against diseases and pests. Whitewashing should be applied with a uniform thin layer and only in dry weather.

Important: the indicated composition is more suitable for adults and already fruit-bearing trees. It is customary to care for seedlings with the help of the usual chalk whitewash.

Damage elimination

After removing the shelter, it is necessary to carefully and carefully inspect the tree. Often during the winter the apple tree is damaged by rodents or its individual branches freeze out.

If superficial wounds were found, they should immediately be covered with garden pitch. In the case when the wounds are deep and reach the wood, the apple tree is grafted with a bridge, using a large number of shoots. This method helps to save the plant from infection, and the wound heals quickly.

From the effects of frost, the crust can be damaged, cracking and flaking, exposing unprotected wood. In this case, you need to clean the damaged area, and then cover it with a twist.

Treat injuries then to eliminate the possibility of the tree getting infection. Use garden pitch or purchased putty. In extreme cases, you can gloss over the places of damage and oil paint.

Important: When buying a putty in the store, make sure that it does not contain rosin, which can harm the tree.

This procedure is carried out differently for adult fruit-bearing plants and young apple trees. Next, we take a closer look at the advice of experienced gardeners regarding this difficult issue.

The first thing for trees of any age is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning. During the winter, the apple tree is exposed to severe frosts, winds, it can also be bitten by pests. In the spring, you need to inspect the branches and remove damaged, frozen, broken.

Trimming is carried out only when the air temperature reaches a point above zero. In case of freezing weather, the procedure is not carried out, since in this case even greater injuries will be inflicted on the tree. The fact is that wood in frost is very fragile and fragile, it is poorly restored and heals.

Scheme of spring pruning:

  1. Damaged branches are removed - the so-called sanitary stage.
  2. The crown is thinning - the branches growing inward are removed too thickly.
  3. If necessary, shortens the tip of the main trunk.
  4. Shoots that have grown over the past year, shorten.

The last operation is carried out taking into account the age of the apple tree:

  • for the 2nd year and up to 5-7 years - cut short, no more than a quarter the length of the shoot in order to enhance their growth,
  • up to 10-12 years old - pruned to third, so that there is a good harvest:
  • after 12 years, each shoot is shortened by half with a rejuvenating goal.

Spring pruning does not imply the processing of cuts with garden pitch without fail. Process only cuts on weak and diseased trees, young and healthy and without help will quickly recover and actively grow.

Sanitary pruning is carried out, starting from the top of the plant - if the apple is more than 7 years old. Apical branches in this case do not have any practical use, but only interfere and add trouble. However, in young apple trees, the top is not removed, allowing the tree to grow. After work with the tip, remove diseased and damaged branches.

After proper trimming, the crown of the tree begins to be well ventilated, which helps to protect it from fungus and mold. In addition, pruning makes it possible to increase the yield of apple trees and make fruit picking more convenient.

When forming the crown in young apple trees, special attention should be paid to the skeletal branches located in the first and second row from the bottom. In the first row, the skeletal branches should be located 40-70 cm apart. In the second row, the branches should be located at the same distance and look to the sides or upwards.

If the apple tree has reached a height of 4 meters, the top must be shortened, otherwise harvesting on the upper branches will be difficult. And the treatment of pests / diseases of high apple trees is difficult and ineffective.

After reaching a tree of 12-15 years old, it is necessary either to get rid of it, or to carry out anti-aging pruning. The fact is that without this procedure, the yield of apple trees decreases significantly with age. Anti-aging pruning involves removing one-third of the length of all branches and shoots and activates the vitality of the plant.

If, after three years of anti-aging pruning, the apple tree did not come to life and did not start producing a decent crop, it is recommended to get rid of the tree and plant a new one.

Warning: all branches, bark, shoots that have been cut, must be removed from the site and burn: they may be pests, sources of infection.

Fight against diseases and pests

Measures to protect the apple from insect parasites and infections are very important. Already in the beginning of March, experienced gardeners fastened trapping belts to the trunks of apple trees and other fruit trees. Devices help catch and eliminate most of the pests that wintered in the bark of the tree.

Protection from weevil belts is especially effective against weevil. But the fixtures should wrap the trunk of a tree very tightly so as not to leave loopholes for insects.

Pest control also includes preventive spraying. Procedures are carried out in three stages:

  • before the kidneys appear,
  • when forming the buds,
  • after flowering.

We also recommend making a moat around the tree trunk filled with water: it will protect the plant from crawling insects.

Suitable for spring treatment of apples from pests and diseases:

These drugs help almost all diseases.

Attention: when the buds begin to form, it is better to remove the pests manually so that insect pollinators do not suffer from chemicals.

The procedure of grafting fruit trees and apples, including, is almost always carried out in spring. The timing is connected with the fact that at the beginning of the active sap flow, the graft takes root especially quickly and successfully.

Vaccination can be directed both to the development of a new apple variety and to enhance the fruiting of the existing one. The optimal timing is the beginning of May: it is at this time that active sap flow begins in the trees.

Vaccination can be done in different ways:

The easiest and most common method of vaccination. The method is good because it is suitable for a scion with different diameters. The method involves a cross-shaped hole in the basement, into which the lower part of the graft-graft is inserted. The junction is fixed, smeared with pitch and after a while the graft takes root.

Suitable for graft large and medium diameter. For the implementation of the method you need to cut a branch on the rootstock where it will be grafted cutting. The diameters of the sawn branch and the bottom of the cutting should be approximately the same. The stump should remain oblique: the same oblique cut must be made on the bottom of the cutting.

The bark at the end of the stock needs to be slightly moved and the graft inserted as tightly as possible. The junction is fixed and smeared with pitch, as usual. The percentage survival rate of the cutting in this case is higher than with the “split” method.

Dressing in spring

Spring care for the apple must necessarily include fertilization. But before applying fertilizer, be sure to remove weeds from the garden bed and loosen the soil.

Loosen carefully so as not to touch the roots of the tree with a shovel or pitchfork. After the soil has become light and permeable, make small ditches in it, into which nutrients will be laid.

For the first time feed fruit crops as soon as the snow melts.

Use nitrogenous compounds to help the apple tree to gain green mass faster:

  • calcium nitrate,
  • ammonium nitrate,
  • bird droppings
  • endured manure.

When the buds begin to form, emphasis should be placed on potassium and mineral compounds, but still with nitrogen:

  • wood ash
  • urea
  • mullein,
  • potassium sulfate.

When the flowering period is over, you need to stop feeding the apple tree with nitrogen. The fact is that nitrogen leads to the active growth of leaves and shoots, and after flowering it is important the formation of fruit ovaries. It is recommended at the end of spring to feed the apple with herbal infusion, as well as phosphorus and potassium.

In spring, trees can be fed with nitroammofoska, urea and humus. This composition is well suited for depleted soil and already mature trees.

With a weak crown, it is recommended to feed the apple tree with the following composition:

  • superphosphate - 1 kg,
  • potassium sulfate - 300 gr,
  • bucket -
  • water - 300 gr.

All components thoroughly interfere, and then insist a week. One apple tree consumes 40 liters of such fertilizer. This nutritional supplement revitalizes and activates the plant, it adds strength. It is necessary before and after feeding to conduct abundant watering of the plant.

Manure for apple is usually bred in a ratio of 1:10, bird droppings - 1:15, boric acid and blue vitriol - 1:15, wood ash - 1 tbsp. - 1 liter.

Every time after the next fertilization, the ground is once again shallowly loosened.

Watering, soil loosening and mulching

After the snow melts, the soil is usually saturated with moisture, so the apple tree does not need irrigation at first. However, if the spring is given dry, it is necessary to further moisten the soil. If you do not moisten the soil, the ovaries and fruits will form on the tree in insufficient quantities. Of particular importance are regular watering for young plants that have not reached 5-6 years.

Conduct soil moistening once in 5-6 days, but at the same time being guided by weather conditions.

Irrigation rates are selected depending on the age of the tree:

  • young apple trees (up to 5 years) are watered more often, but in a smaller volume - up to 2 years for 1 m2 of soil two buckets of water, from 2 to 5 years for 1 m2 of soil 4 buckets,
  • adult fruiting trees are watered less often, but more abundant - the soil should get wet to a depth of 80 cm.

Attention: provide a basal zone with a drain for water, since its stagnation at the roots threatens the apple tree with rotting of the root collar.

After watering the soil must be loosened to eliminate the dense dry crust on the surface. The procedure will provide air access to the roots and help eliminate weeds.

Mulching

The procedure is also carried out after irrigation in order to ensure a longer moistening of the roots. Mulch the basal circle with peat or dry straw. Sawdust is not used because they decompose the soil when decomposed.

The layer of mulch should not exceed 3-5 cm, and it should not be located near the trunk. Failure to comply with these recommendations can lead to a rotting of the bark in the lower part of the trunk and the development of fungus, rotting.

Spring frost protection

In some regions with unstable cool weather, returnable frosts are possible when leaves have already blossomed on the apple tree and buds have swelled. You should closely monitor the spring weather forecast and prepare if weather forecasters promise frosts on the current night.

In this case, usually the crown of the plant is sprayed with water from a hose so that the leaves are wet. After the frosts hit, drops of water will use up their heat to heat the foliage. The procedure is effective, however, only in calm conditions.

In windy weather more suitable smoke method. It consists in igniting a heap of garbage, dry twigs, brushwood, grass, sawdust in the area next to the apple tree. All this is sprinkled with moist soil. A stake should be driven into the middle of the pile, which should be removed before ignition: the smoke coming from the hole will help protect the tree from cold weather.

If the cold hits, when the foliage has not yet formed, the apple tree is not in danger.

Care should be taken especially carefully for young trees, since their immunity is not strong enough. At least until the tree begins to bear fruit.

It is especially important to water young apple trees regularly, as the lack of water or drought can even cause trees to die. Be sure to mulch the soil after moistening, so that the roots of the plants are longer moistened.

It does more harm to young fruit trees of aphid - the fight against this pest should begin from the moment the first green forms and even earlier.

Clean the root circle of young plants from weeds that rob apple trees and provide shelter for pests.

Mature trees need more rejuvenating pruning - this is the main thing. Other procedures they, of course, also will not be superfluous.

So, we learned what care is needed for an apple tree in spring. There are many procedures — they are all necessary and useful. A complex of well-performed procedures will help protect the plant and provide an excellent harvest this year.

Clearing Winter Damage

The very first thing you have to do with an apple tree at the beginning of care is it is to dig a fruit tree out of a snowdrift. A lot of snow deposits gather around the apple tree during the winter, under which rodents are hiding, actively damaging the bark of the tree. Также, против грызунов хорошо работают заранее приготовленные перед снегами ловушки с приманками, расставляемые под яблоней. Уже имеющиеся повреждения надо бы замазать садовым варом, если они лёгкие, или, если они приличные, сделать прививку.

Pruning apple

Второе по важности действие, которое придётся совершить с яблоневым деревом весной — это его обрезка. To care for the crown in this way is necessary so that it grows, firstly, correctly, and secondly, beautifully. It should be done during the period of bud swelling, just before the beginning of active growth of the tree. If an apple tree is already aged, it is necessary to remove about half of the branches remaining from last year, while the second half should be cut a little.

The part of an adult (but not young) tree that is most suitable for this procedure is its crown. All branches that are already three years old are cut off without fail. The results for the next year will be visible - there will be much more fruits than this year, but at the same time the tree will not be overloaded with them.

Chemical control of apple pests

The third necessary procedure - it is the treatment of apple trees with chemicals from pests, insects and fungi. No matter how harmful the use of chemicals is, to abandon them altogether is to voluntarily allow the natural enemies of the tree to destroy it. It is necessary to care for this side of the apple for a long time before the buds open, and it is advisable to do this more than once and not twice.

The very first time should be around the beginning of March. It would be best to use the Bordeaux mixture. The old bark over the winter has time to crack significantly and become covered with brown spots, so first you have to tear off the bark from the tree, and only then begin to sprinkle with apple. For the first time, you only need to process the crown, do not touch the rest.

The next spraying is done in April before flowering. - at this moment it is important not to miss such a pest as an apple blossom beetle, and Trichlorol-5 will help not to miss it. The third - in May, before the appearance of fruits and karbofos.

Whitewashing apple

Unless it is useful in the beginning of March to cover a bare trunk with lime whitewash. This procedure will help protect it from overheating by sunlight. You can whiten a tree as a finished, commercially available acrylic paint, and manually prepared mixture. It is prepared as follows. It takes 300 grams of lime, 2 tablespoons of stationery glue, 2 liters of water and some copper sulfate. All this is stirred. Stir the liquid until it becomes homogeneous.

The solution should be distributed as evenly as possible over the entire surface of the tree. Too much pressure on the tree in the process of covering it with whitewash is not worth it, otherwise there is a great chance to cause damage to the tree. Also, of course, you should not do it in the rain, otherwise the paint will simply wash off, not having time to dry, and all the work done will go down the drain.

How to fertilize a tree

The fourth stage of care for the apple tree - fertilizing wood with fertilizer. Top dressing contributes to the proper growth and development of the tree, the richness of the crop and the stability of immunity. What you shouldn’t do is spread the fertilizer right on the ground around the apple tree, in which case they will simply disappear, wash off or stick to nearby grass. And, of course, do not throw them on the ground covered with snow. All fertilizers are divided into two types - organic and mineral.

In the spring, the apple tree begins to bloom only, and therefore it is necessary to choose those fertilizers that will contribute to the right flowering. When choosing a top dressing, it is best to focus on the soil in which the tree grows, as well as the degree of its moisture. Sandy soil, for example, will only be glad to once again be enriched with nitrogen, but earthen - no more than yes.

When the very first leaves appear, the tree begins to need nitrogen root dressings. These top dressings are brought under the ground throughout the entire root system of the apple tree. Existing fertilizers include the following substances:

The next stage of the apple tree blooms. During this period, you need to feed it with liquid fertilizers. It pours about four buckets under the same tree. Which fertilizer will work best:

  • potassium sulfate
  • manure
  • chicken litter

After flowering apple comes its fruiting.

Herbal Infusion

In order to further enhance the fecundity of the tree, you can treat it with a special herbal extract. It is made from the most ordinary grass, most importantly, it was at the same time fresh. The grass is thrown into a container prepared for this purpose, filled with water and left for about two weeks. Darkened water and a special smell emanating from the liquid - a sign that the fertilizer is ready. It remains only to dissolve it in water, observing the proportions 1:10, and pour it over the apple tree.

Sometimes, caring for a tree, you have to graft it with cuttings from other apple trees. This is done, in most cases, because of its incapacity - low or no fertility. It is necessary to be inoculated with an apple tree in May, right after the leaves of the tree bloom. There are two ways of grafting tree cuttings:

  • vaccination for bark
  • graft splitting

In order to plant an apple tree in the first way., it is necessary to take a branch in thickness at least medium or more. In the place that is prepared to attach the cutting, it is necessary to remove with the utmost care, leaving only a small stump. The bark is cut off at the stump so that a cutting can be inserted into it. From the bottom of the grafted cutting is made oblique cut. And then the graft, the graft, is inserted into the cut tree prepared for this, the stock.

Second way it can be applied already to both large and medium thick cuttings, and to fairly small ones. First, an incision is made on the trunk of the tree, either transverse or cross. It is inserted into it at once several pointed branches. This should be done, again, as carefully as possible, otherwise the branches may simply not settle down.

How to protect the tree from frost

It happens that in the spring, especially in Siberia, frosts occur, as soon as the leaves are properly blossomed. At this time, the apple tree requires special care for themselves. So that the tree does not suffer in the morning, need in the evening to spray the crown with water from a hose. If possible, such a procedure is carried out until dawn. The main thing that the wind at this time was not.

And you can also protect the tree from frost by so-called smoke. A stake is driven into the ground and a heap of peat, sawdust, grass is poured around it, and in addition is sprinkled on top of damp earth. In the evening, the stake is taken out, and the pile is set on fire.

Watering apple trees in spring

You can water the apple trees not only with a hose, with a bucket of water prepared in advance. Although in most cases this method is used, still there are a few more. It:

  • drip irrigation method
  • sprinkling method
  • use of stem cups

The first is needed for arid soil types.that do not differ fertility. Water is supplied through a special dropper directly to the roots of the plant. Helps reduce the number of weeds growing tree.

Sprinkling is called artificial irrigation. It can be said that the most universal method of irrigation, which can always be used, without harming anything. The surface of the soil is covered with water equally distributed, the water penetrates into all the proper places. The ideal time of day for irrigation by sprinkling is early morning and late evening.

Method with pristvolnymi bowls applies, as a rule, to those trees that grow on oblique surfaces. Without them, water for irrigation often just does not hold and under the influence of gravity, flows down to where it is not needed, from the places to which it was sent.

Reproduction of apple trees

It is desirable that the root system of seedlings for planting was open, so they will be much easier to handle. It is necessary to prepare the ground in advance for their landing. The roots of the seedlings must be wrapped in wetted cloth and left for 4 days, and only then planted.

If the newly acquired seedlings root system is closed, then they need to prepare for planting much longer than four days, or more precisely, then they will need about a few weeks to wait. The most important thing is Do not forget about watering the seedlings while waiting, the reverse is fraught with future diseases and growth inhibition. They should be planted in the open ground before bud break; this contributes to their very easy and fast establishment and healthy.

Apple care in January

In January, the trees are at rest and the first thing that can be done in this cold month is to get apple rootstocks from the basement, pruning cuttings, and spend a winter graft. It is also called the grafting tabletop or comfortable: you sit in a comfortable room and prepare seedlings.

What could be the trouble in the garden in January? Of course, this sticking of wet snow on the shoots, especially young ones, so you have to visit the garden and lightly knock the snow off the branches and lay out the poison from rodents, otherwise your apple trees may die. Fine, if you have taken care of this since the fall and protected the trunks from rodents, then it was easier for you to do it.

If there is little snow in the garden, then try to stamp it so that it does not melt or evaporate quickly in the spring, but rather soak into the soil, enriching the garden with moisture. In addition, trampled snow also impedes the movement of rodents in the area.

Thermophilous sorts of apple trees need to check the stumps - are they covered, did the wind blow off the shelter, if necessary, by adjusting it.

In January, a little more attention should be paid to young apple seedlings planted in the autumn. Their shoots are very thin and fragile, and even a small amount of snow on them can cause breaks. Therefore, walk around the garden and lightly tap the shoots from the snow. Sometimes young saplings under the weight of the snow even bend the top of the head - from the snow on the top of the seedlings also need to save.

February tree care

In February, the forced rest of trees continues, and gardeners continue to vaccinate. But during the vaccination class, of course, you should not forget about the apple trees on the plot: wet, heavy and sticky snow can fall, and it should also be shaken off, and new poisoned baits can be decomposed from rodents.

In February, in addition to the sticky snow, ice often rains, it is beautiful - the trees stand like ice tales, as if from a fairy tale, silvered, but this miracle is very dangerous, because the branches under the weight of heavy ice can very easily break.

It is difficult to cope with such a scandal - you can try to gently knock on the branches with a stick, you look at a piece of ice and fall off, but it is better to wait for the thaw, albeit short-lived, and try to shake the plants, perhaps you can free the apple from the ice shell.

Also in February, you can do a breakdown of the crust (compressed snow layer), in which rodents move freely and from which the sun's rays reflect and burn the trunks, as if from a mirror. This is a useful activity, it can also contribute to the retention of snow, if it can be trampled down. In February, if the forecast of freezing rain is not worth it, it is possible to do whitewashing trunks and skeletal boughs, choose a fine day and do this work.

At the very end of the month you can already start pruned apple trees. As a rule, in this not cold time, it is possible to carry out both sanitary and formative pruning, but with the obligatory removal of the shoots on the ring and covering over the cuts with heated garden pitch.

Also during this period, it is possible to harvest the apple cuttings for spring copulation, placing them in the snow or in the refrigerator.

Apple tree care in March

Usually this month the apple tree is still at rest, but slowly, towards the middle of the first decade of March, sap flow begins, and the buds begin to swell. During this period, it is quite possible to continue the winter vaccination in a comfortable room, as well as go out into the garden and trim it - making it according to all the rules.

The trouble in March can be frequent changes of positive and negative temperatures, and therefore the soil around the tree trunks can even become bare, which is especially dangerous for young seedlings, because at night it can be very cold and the roots may well freeze. In order to avoid this in the daytime, on the exposed areas of the tree trunks, it is necessary to sketch out snow and compact it, nothing will be bad if we do it again.

Walk through the garden, carefully inspect the young apple trees that you planted in the autumn, perhaps there are broken shoots that need to be removed immediately. Any damage to the trunks and shoots should be smeared with garden paint or garden pitch.

In March, sunburns are often observed, so it is advisable to whitewash the apple tree trunks to skeletal boughs. Try for whitewashing to choose a period when according to the forecast there is no rain, otherwise, after the rain has passed, the whitewashing should be done anew.

Towards the middle or end of March, which depends on the arrival of real spring, very heavy snowmelt can begin and, if your garden is even on a small slope, it can wash out the roots. Given this, you need to build drainage channels, and if the site can not boast of an abundance of moisture during the growing season, then dig holes in the depth of the spade bayonet, so that there melt water.

Pay attention to the crowns of trees, if you did not do it in autumn and winter time: all the mummified fruits urgently need to be collected and burned, because they will serve as a hotbed of diseases and pests.

In March, you can spend the first spraying of plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid, as prevention.

Apple tree care in April

This is already spring, the apple trees are actively awake, the buds are increasing in size every day. At this time, you can safely begin to plant all sorts of apple trees on your land, nothing bad happens to them. But if you tighten with planting and the buds are cracked, exposing the green cone, then the seedling may not settle down or hurt for a long time.

At the very end of April, it is time to copulate, that is, grafting the apple tree with a cutting, during this period active sap flow begins and if you make an oblique cut on the graft and rootstock, you can feel the abundant moisture by running your finger along the cut. These days, you can safely do copulation. The main thing here is not to inoculate in the cold when it is below + 5 ° C and when it is raining, and the top of the scion should always be covered with garden pitch.

If snow remains on the branches, then it can be easily thrown off, mosses and lichens can begin to grow under the snow, and an apple tree does not need this at all.

If you spent the pileing shtamba, warming it for the winter, then the soil should be carefully otgresti so that the root neck was at the level of the soil.

In early April, with pruning apples, it is time to tie, but if you find dry, broken shoots and those that grow deep into the crown, which will certainly lead to its thickening, or competitors shoots, then you can remove them. Just be sure to cut "on the ring" and by all means isolate the cuts with garden pitch.

In addition to vaccinations, which we have already described, you can also re-vaccination. Suppose an old apple tree grows on your plot, the fruits of which you don’t like, but this apple tree produces regular shoots. So, with a method of improved copulation, graft a pair of chops from a variety you like, remove the remaining tops (also on the ring), isolating the cut with a garden pitch. From the grafted cutting side will grow young shoots, which will soon appear fruits that suit your taste.

Do not forget to periodically inspect the garden. For example, if you notice a hollow, then use a sharp garden knife to smooth it out to a healthy tissue, and then just cement it and the tree will be alive and healthy (some kind of dental filling will turn out).

In April, you can feed the apple trees, while the soil has enough moisture, you can combine three important procedures: first, loosen the soil to rid the soil of the crust, second, pour a tablespoon of nitroammofoski under each tree over five years old and half from of this amount - under the tree is under five years old, and thirdly, to mulch the trunk strip with a layer of humus a couple of centimeters.

April is also the month of the designer: you notice dozens of tops on the apple trees, that is, vertically growing shoots, from which there is no sense, choose five of them, cut the rest into a ring, and fold the remaining ones at angles close to 900 in different directions, but so as not to break. It is better to use twine for this. Place a piece of gum under the twine, and fasten the twine to the lower growing twig or peg. At the end of the year, the top will grow in the right direction, and next year it will yield the first crop.

At the very end of April, young trees can “fall” into the planting fossa, this problem needs to be urgently addressed: slightly raise the tree and put a layer of nutritive soil under it, then compact it well and level everything up.

Do not forget about the birds, in April there is still not much food and feeders they will not interfere.

In April, before bud breaks, apple trees may be treated with chemicals from wintering parasites.

Apple care in May

Beloved by many, the month when everything truly wakes up, lives, blooms, enjoys life, whispering in sheets. В этом месяце нужно обязательно осуществлять борьбу с целым рядом болезней, вредителей и клещей и все это в вечернее время, надев защитные средства и делая все в строгом соответствии с инструкцией на упаковке, используя лишь те препараты, что разрешены в текущем сезоне.

В мае, когда зацветает черемуха, нередки возвратные заморозки, в эту пору цветет и яблоня, мороз может банально погубить большую часть цветов и оставить вас без урожая. The best option is to make smoke fires along the borders of the site, but this should be done in strict agreement with the neighbors and be present at the same time without throwing fires without supervision.

Do not forget about loosening pristvolnoy strip of apple, watering, removing weeds. Usually, you first need to water the tree, spending a couple of buckets of water every week, then pull the weeds out of the damp soil, loosen the soil and only after that apply fertilizer. At this time, you can use superphosphate (10-15 g) and potassium sulfate (8-10 g) for each plant. Next, it remains to rumble the soil with a layer of humus a couple of centimeters.

It is desirable to carry out a couple more treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid during the bud blooming and immediately after flowering, and a couple of days after the second treatment, the apple plants are treated with a fungicide - but strictly after flowering.

In small gardens, where there are only a dozen trees, you can simply hang up pheromone traps at sites and hook traps around the trunks (dry, glue, poisoned - this is not so important).

At the very end of May, it is also possible to continue planting apple trees, but only apple trees with a closed root system can be planted at this time of year, otherwise they are no longer likely to take root, as they are often not watered.

In mid-May, you can clean the apple trees from the old bark and lichen. To do this, you first need to walk well with a wooden scraper, then treat the areas where you cleaned the bark, 1% Bordeaux liquid, let it dry and isolate with garden pitch.

Apple care in June

In June, there is a massive shedding of the ovary, which every gardener knows, this is quite a normal biological phenomenon and you should not be afraid of it, but if the apple tree has enough moisture, nutrition, light and it is not infected with the crop moth, then the crumbly ovary will be much smaller than usual.

In June, return frosts are also possible, as a rule, their intensity is noticeably lower than those of May, however, if the neighbors are not against it, then smoky fires on the periphery of the site can still be diluted and necessary.

In June, outbreaks of diseases and pests can be observed again; in such cases, it is necessary to act according to the old scheme worked out over the years - in the evening, wearing protective clothing, it is necessary to treat apples against fungal infections, pests and ticks.

Before processing, pay attention to the terms of the drugs, because some of them may no longer be used because of the duration of the period of validity, that is, some of the toxic substances may persist in / on the fruits. You need to choose the safest of them.

In June the death of those cuttings that we planted badly is often observed. This occurs because we could not combine the graft and the stock sufficiently tightly, do not smear the top of the crown with garden pitch, inoculate in cold or rain, use cuttings with flower buds. Now there is no need to hurry and re-vaccinate, wait for the summer and make the most popular type of vaccination - budding.

Green work: here, first of all, we continue to nip green apple shoots, which, most likely, will not have time to ripen and turn-off the vertical branches to angles close to 90 0

Aphid can also appear actively, it can be fought endlessly with insecticides, but it is better to destroy the ants that carry it once and for all, and now there are a lot of means for the destruction of ants.

When there is a minute, once again walk around the garden, perhaps you didn’t notice at one time a crack that needs to be covered, a hole that needs to be repaired, or a broken branch that needs to be sawed off and covered with a cut with garden pitch.

Do not forget about weeding and watering, even though June is not as hot as July, watering at least once a week is necessary anyway, pour a bucket of water under each apple tree at this time. Especially moisture is needed in the period after flowering, when there is an increase in the ovary.

At this time, plants can be supplemented with potassium sulfate, dissolving 15 g of this fertilizer in a bucket of water and pouring out under each tree, but superphosphate, which is poorly soluble in water, can be simply poured into 5-6 g of soil previously plowed up on each tree under five years old. age and twice as old - under the old tree.

Do not forget to check and change to new pheromone traps and belt traps, otherwise they will be so full that they lose all meaning for pests.

Apple care in July

July is the hottest month of summer, at this time watering can be done even every day, if there is no rain, pouring a bucket of water under each apple tree into the soil loosened beforehand.

By the way, in July you need to actively eradicate weeds, because these are the real competitors, and if you can mow the grass in apple trees over five years old, then it’s better to pull out the young plants in the stalk zone.

You should know that in July, apple trees are actively growing, therefore, generative buds are formed, which will yield next year's crop, therefore, neither in moisture nor in nutrition should plants have a deficit, but no pure nitrogenous fertilizers. Maximum - this is nitroammofoska in the amount of 15 g of water dissolved in a bucket for each plant over five years old and half as much for a young plant.

Around July 15, the less active, but still the second wave of sap flow begins, when everyone begins to implant buds of various varieties on the stock. This is where you can take advantage of the moment: if the spring grafting of the apple tree did not take root, then do the budding. The easiest way - in the "T" shaped incision, where the kidney fits, as if in a pocket.

In July, diseases and pests reappear on the apple trees, and again with extreme caution it is necessary to apply means of protection against pests and diseases only if the dates still allow, because in July early varieties of apples can begin to ripen.

Otherwise, as in June: we update the trap belts, look for and eliminate hollows, weed, we water, and under branches of an apple-tree with a large load from the fruits we put rods to maintain heavy branches with the harvest.

Apple care in August

Autumn is coming soon, August is outside the windows and somehow it immediately becomes sad: how can it be, because there is a whole month of heat ahead, but no - and the nights are already cold, and the person who has fallen under the rain will not dry out in a couple of minutes, like in July.

In August, the growth of apple shoots is inhibited, and they begin to woody. All the shoots that still grow need to pinch, otherwise they will not corny ripen until winter and freeze.

On the tree, fruits begin to ripen actively. Check once again whether the supports are worthy of the shoots that are most congested with crops - this seems to be a trifle, but very important.

At this time, the treatment of apples against diseases and pests serious chemistry should be abandoned, because such agents have too long waiting times from processing to consuming the fruit, although treatments with bio-insecticides are still possible. Do not forget to change the pheromone traps and clean the trap belts more often.

Early varieties of apples have already ripened, and it’s time to clean them, they are usually not stored for a long time, but in order to lie down for at least some time, be sure to tear them along with the stem, literally unscrewing it and stack it, rather than drop it into plastic bucket. Wear gloves when removing.

After you harvest the entire crop from an early-growing apple tree, loosen the soil under it, remove all the weeds and feed it with potassium sulfate in the amount of 12-15 g and superphosphate in the amount of 18-20 g.

Apple care in September

Average varieties of apples ripen this month, in fact, all the work in September echoes the work in August with the only difference that the apples harvested in September are usually longer, so they need to be carefully picked.

Fertilizer application rates after the removal of medium varieties are the same, but the amount of irrigation water can be doubled by conducting water-charging irrigation, because winter is getting closer and water reserves in the soil are necessary to survive the apple trees.

In addition to harvesting, September is an excellent time to select and plant apple seedlings. We advise you to purchase them only in the nursery of your region and plant them strictly according to all the rules, and then there will definitely not be any problems with apple cultivation on your site.

Apple care in October

We remove late varieties of apple trees, you need to be as careful as possible, any damage will lead to deterioration of apples, and they will begin to rot, and in fact it has been noticed that later varieties of apples open their taste qualities only after a certain period of storage.

In the same period, active leaf fall begins, to avoid infection in the soil from fallen leaves, they must be collected and burned outside the site.

At the end of October, try to inspect all the crowns of fruit trees that are on your site, there should be no fruits on them - remove each fruit and if it is spoiled, then burn it - this is a clear vector of infection.

Exactly do the same with all plant residues on the plot - in the spring you may not have time to do everything, as it should, because this is a short time, it is better to do it now, when there is more free time, it is not very cold and there is no snow.

At the end of October, under each apple tree, the soil in advance loosened and poured with a bucket of water should be added in a teaspoonful of potassium sulfate and superphosphate, and then covered with a layer of humus a couple of centimeters thick.

Apple care in November

Apple trees begin to sink into peace, here and then leaves fall, which can be collected and burned. If you have not installed protective nets against rodents, now you can do it. In addition to nets, you can build a strong fence or scatter poison.

You can do the removal of all props, which previously rested the harvest. By the way, they will last longer if they are simply coated with waterproof varnish.

At the end of November, plants can be whitened before the first skeletal ramifications with breathable acrylic paints.

Departure for an apple tree in December

Apple trees alone, now they can harm only rodents, so visit the garden and lay out the poison baits. You can scribble more snowballs on young seedlings to make them warmer or wrap them with fir branches to save them from freezing rain. In December, when there is free time, you can trample on the snow, this will prevent it from being blown across the site by the wind and retain moisture in the soil.

Conclusion That's the whole calendar of care for the apple tree. As you can see, in each month you can find some kind of work, get out into the garden and devote a couple of hours to very useful work, and then your apple trees will give you a chic harvest.

What kind of care does an apple tree need in spring?

In general, spring care for an apple tree is no different from caring for other trees. However, each operation in the list of works on the care of this culture at the very beginning of the season is very important. Ultimately, their implementation can enhance the plant immunity, enhance its ability to withstand a whole range of diseases and pests and give a wonderful harvest of apples, which, with careful harvesting, can last for quite a while and please with a fresh taste even in winter.

If we talk about the general stages of spring care for apples, then this, of course, sanitary pruning, whitewashing the trunk and skeletal boughs, watering, if necessary, the elimination of various injuries left over from the winter period, fertilization, preventive treatments against pests and diseases, the fight against the first spring pests and diseases, as well as the protection of the buds and blossoming flowers from the spring return frost. Consider each item from this list in detail.

3. Watering apple trees in spring

This event is more important for the southern regions of Russia, where the snow melts very quickly and most of the moisture evaporates. At the same time, active absorption of nutrients from the soil dissolved in water begins in the soil, an upward current of nutrients occurs, leaves bloom, flowering begins, photosynthesis processes are activated.

Considering all this, if there is not enough moisture in the soil, and you are a resident of the south or there was just a little snowy winter, then every tree needs to be poured over a bucket of water every week if it is younger than five years old, and twice as much - if older. At the same time watch the weather. So, if it is overcast and it rains, then additional watering is not at all necessary.

4. Loosening the soil in the stalk zone

If the moisture is all right, then do not forget that the soil must breathe. In order not to disrupt the air exchange of the soil in spring, the soil in the near-tree strip of the apple tree should be more often (at least once a week) loosened so that a soil crust does not form. You can use for loosening the usual hoe. When loosening, in order not to damage the roots, it is worth not more than three or four centimeters to bury the hoe.

5. Removal of weeds in the stalk zone

Weeds appear fairly quickly and actively grow, and if the age of an apple tree is more than five years old, then, in fact, you can ignore them, but just gently, trying not to damage the trunk, mow (better with a sickle). But young seedlings can suffer from weeds, for them weeds can become competitors for food and moisture.

In addition, pests and even various fungal diseases can sit on weeds for the time being. Weeds in young trees of the apple tree are better removed by hand after rain or watering, trying to pull them out entirely, then the next time they will not appear soon.

7. Elimination of winter damage

After winter, you can see the effects of sunburn, when the bark literally exfoliates. In this case, you need to remove the dead parts with a wooden scraper, treat the area with 2% copper sulphate, and the next day isolate all the places with garden pitch and bandage.

Remember that the first time to repair all damage may not be possible. To heal a large wound, the procedure will have to be repeated several times.

8. Spring dressing apple

In the spring for apple trees, the best feeding is a complex fertilizer, for example, a nitroammofoska. Since there is enough melt water in the soil, top dressing can be applied in a dry form as soon as the snow melts completely. First you need to loosen the soil in the stalk strip, then pour it with a bucket of water at room temperature from a watering can (for uniform wetting), then scatter the fertilizer evenly.

Under an apple tree over five years old, you need a tablespoon of fertilizer with a hill, and under a tree less than five years, half a tablespoon will suffice. After making this fertilizer, it is advisable to level and mulch the soil with humus (a layer of a few centimeters).

You can spend and foliar feeding, for which dilute 10 g of nitroammofoski in a bucket of water, fill the knapsack sprayer and process the plant - this is the norm for a plant older than five years, for the treatment of younger ones, the rate must be reduced by half.

9. Protection of apple from pests and diseases

Usually a whole series of preventive treatments against diseases and pests is carried out in the spring. Begin with treatments with copper-containing drugs, it can be a 2% Bordeaux liquid or a 3% solution of copper sulphate. Trees need to be treated with a spray gun or backpack sprayer, trying to moisten all branches as a whole.

Next, use more serious drugs. For example, the drug “Horus” is used against scab and moniliosis on apple trees, “Skor” and the like approved preparations are used to protect against powdery mildew.

Against pests such as moths, when individuals begin to age, plants can be treated with the “Alatar” preparation, which helps from the leafworm, “Ivanhoe” - reliably protects against aphids, “Fitoverm” - will allow to cope with mites.

When treating apples against diseases and pests, strictly follow the instructions on the package.

In addition to chemicals, you can use various biological products, hang up pheromone traps, put up trap belts - dry, glue, poisonous. The main thing - often replace them with new or clean.

Apple tree in spring under the snow. © Jessica W

10. Protection of apple flowers from spring return frosts

There are often years when returning cold ruins flowers and leads to the fact that we do not get a crop in the form of apples at all, no matter how they take care of the apple tree. Something difficult to help, but you can try. The easiest option and quite reliable is under an agreement with neighbors, if they are not against it, kindling smoke fires around the periphery of the site, this can increase the temperature of the air in the garden a couple of degrees and save flowers from freezing. One drawback - the weather must be windless and the fires must be maintained until the frost goes away.

Sometimes sprinkling helps when all the trees are literally sprayed with tiny water droplets from a hose with a special nozzle. Water, falling on trees and flowers, freezes in the cold, giving its heat to the plant.

We hope our article will help you in practice. And with the help of such simple events in the spring you will be able to provide yourself with a decent harvest of apples in summer and autumn.

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