Tomatoes are grown on beds in vegetable gardens or suburban areas. Like other vegetables, tomatoes are prone to diseases that occur as a result of the spread of fungi and bacteria. Phytophthora is one of the most common and dangerous diseases. It delivers a lot of inconvenience. Consider in this article why there is phytophthora on tomatoes and how to fight it.
How to recognize the disease
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The disease manifests itself with the following symptoms:
- the lower part of the leaves is covered with brown spots,
- leaves fall,
- shoots and fruits of the plant become black,
- the vegetable becomes hard, and then softens and rots. Often due to defeat all the fruits on the bushes are affected.
Phytophthora spreads like on tomatoes in the greenhouse, so and in open ground.
Use of chemicals
There are the most common tools that summer residents use to combat blight on tomatoes.
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This is a fungicidal agent of contact action, which does not penetrate into the leaves and fruits. The active ingredient in the composition is copper oxychloride. It does not accumulate in plants, and therefore does not cause addiction of fungi to the active substance.
Important! The drug has a good preventive property and protects tomatoes from the manifestations of the disease. But it is useless to use for the treatment of already infected bushes.
Treat the bushes with this tool up to 5 times per season, but no later than 3 weeks before harvesting. The substance is valid for 14 days, but is washed away in the rain.
Preparation of the solution should be carried out according to the instructions:
- 40 grams of the drug
- 10 liters of water.
The solution is used in the evening or in the morning, immediately after preparation. Spraying is carried out in protective clothing with safety precautions.
Although furatsilin is used as an antibacterial drug for people, many successfully use it as a medicine for phytophtoras on tomatoes.
- 10 crushed tablets
- 10 liters of water.
Processed 3 times per season:
- before flowering
- when the ovaries begin,
- when the first fruits begin to ripen.
The drug does not harm people and can be stored for a long time, thanks to antibacterial properties.
Phytosporin is a pesticide that penetrates plant tissue to destroy the bacteria that cause the disease.
Although the drug is actually considered safe for humans, its fruits should be eaten only after thorough washing.
The tool is used for both prevention and treatment of already infected plants. Bred for spraying so:
- 2 tsp phytosporin,
- 10 liters of water.
If necessary, the drug can be combined with other drugs.
- The substance is dissolved in warm water, but not higher than 35 degrees.
- Do not use metal containers for cooking.
- Before spraying, leave the solution in the sun for a few hours to activate the beneficial bacteria.
Treated bushes throughout the season, every 10 days and after the rains. Drugs analogues:
They have the same composition and method of application.
Trichopolum or Metronidozol
Trichopolum is an antimicrobial and antifungal agent with the active ingredient metronidazole. Used for such purposes recently.
To use the solution in order to combat phytophthora take:
- 2 tablets of medicine
- 1 liter of water.
Treated bushes with a solution every 10 days or after rain.
Ordan is a fungicidal agent that contains copper oxychloride and cymoxanil.
As a prophylactic substance acts for 2 weeks, for therapeutic purposes up to 4 days. The peculiarity of the drug is that it penetrates inside and remains slightly on the surface of the plant.
Spraying is carried out in accordance with the instructions, making the solution of:
- 25 grams of substance
- 5 liters of water.
If ripe fruits are sprayed, it is necessary to refrain from eating them for the next 5 days.
Whey or Kefir
In dairy products there are lactic acid bacteria that can fight against the bacteria that cause phytophthora.
- serum is used in a ratio of 1: 1,
- or one portion of serum is dissolved in two parts of water, if the lesion is small.
You can use kefir:
- 10 liters of water
- 1 liter of kefir.
Kefir can be replaced with milk and add 20 drops of iodine and diluted in the same amount of water. After preparation, the solution should be left for several hours. If necessary, you can repeat the procedure from day to day until the complete disappearance of the disease.
To prepare the solution is used:
- 5 liters of water
- 1 tbsp soda,
- 1 tbsp. Soap, so that was the effect of coupling with the leaves.
The solution is used every 7 days or after rain.
Also unusual and relatively new type of treatment. The bactericidal properties of toothpaste will help against phytophthora. Use:
- small tube of toothpaste,
- 10 liters of water.
Tip! To make it more practical to dilute it, first dilute the contents of the tube with a small amount of water to stir to a uniform consistency, and then combine with the remaining liquid to the desired volume.
It should be used after the rain and alternate with other means.
Fragrant garlic tincture
Due to the specific smell and bactericidal properties, garlic possesses many useful properties. For the prevention of his planted next to the tomatoes and in the aisle.
To defeat the disease should prepare a solution of:
- 1.5 cups shredded shooter,
- 10 liters of water.
This tool should stand for a day, and then be used to spray the bushes completely. After the rain, the procedure is repeated.
This is a budget tool that is easily accessible, but must be used carefully.
Hot water should be watered tomatoes from the shower head, raising as high as possible so as not to damage the plant. You can do so 1 time in 7 days.
Proven! Spores of the fungus die at temperatures above 30 degrees.
- 10 liters of water
- 5 kilograms of ash,
- Mix everything and leave to infuse for 3 days,
- then add water so that the total volume was 30 liters,
- it is worth adding 3 tbsp. spoons of liquid soap to the solution "stuck" to the plant.
You can use this method 3 times per season:
- after landing in the ground after 7 days,
- before flowering
- when the first ovaries appeared on the plants.
As an option, you can add a glass of tobacco dust. Apply carefully, so as not to fall into the eyes. Wear goggles for this.
At the first signs of phytophthora and in the period of appearance of the ovaries, you can use yeast
- 100 gr. yeast,
- a bucket of warm water.
The tool should infuse a little and then they can spray the entire plant.
Iodine is a famous antiseptic. It can be added to other mixtures (milk, kefir or ash) to enhance the effect.
Sometimes open jars with iodine are suspended in greenhouses to enhance plant immunity.
Watch the video! Super mix against phytophthora. Means of struggle and prevention
Using copper wire
A good prophylactic is the winding of the copper wire bush at the root. Sometimes a piece of wire (4 cm) is pierced into the stem at the base, bending the edge to the ground.
Copper is a phytophthora destroyer, it will help prevent the spread of the disease and strengthen the immunity of tomatoes.
The main active ingredient is copper, which is afraid of late blight. This is a popular and active substance that will help in the fight against the disease.
The solution is made from:
- 1 tbsp. spoons of blue vitriol,
- 10 liters of water.
- a few drops of liquid soap will help the tool to hold tight on the leaves of the plant.
Zelenka is also a good budget antiseptic used for the prevention and treatment of tomatoes. It is necessary:
- 40 drops of funds
- 10 liters of water.
It is a mixture of copper sulphate and quicklime.
- should take 100 grams of copper sulfate,
- stir in a bucket of water
- next add 150 grams of lime.
Tip! The substance is quite toxic, it is necessary to correctly follow the sequence and use protective equipment during processing.
The main principles of processing
- the weather during spraying should be without precipitation and wind gusts,
- it is necessary to spray early in the morning or in the evening,
- Toxic substances should be sprayed using protective equipment and adhere to safety precautions.
- Plastic, glass or wooden containers are used for the preparation of solutions, but not metal.
Varieties resistant to late blight infection
There are no varieties of tomatoes that are not susceptible to the disease at all. But there are some that can resist him more than others. Often these are hybrid varieties. To reduce late blight damage, it is worth planting tomatoes, which bear fruit at different times. Varieties that can withstand late blight:
- Pink dwarf,
- De barao
- Annie F1,
There are several prevention methods that will help reduce the risk of disease in tomatoes:
- correctly observe the principles of crop rotation, plant tomatoes on the same place every 4 years,
- Do not plant after potatoes, peppers and eggplants. It’s good that cucumbers, onions, beets, turnips, carrots or cauliflowers grow up to the tomatoes on the landing site,
- grow early and resistant to infection varieties,
- do not make too thick plantings,
- with an excess of lime in the ground, pour peat into the wells, add onion peel and sprinkle with sand on top,
- follow the watering, do it under the root, without touching the shoots,
- time to mulch the bushes
- A good neighborhood is mustard, marigold, calendula, onion or garlic,
- unnecessary shoots and leaves should be cleaned on time,
- improve the immune system of the plant, feed it with potassium and phosphorus in time, spray it with immunomodulators,
- to air the greenhouse
- Do not use nitrogen fertilizers in the second half of the growing season. A large amount of nitrogen can provoke the development of phytophthora.
These are simple rules, following them you can avoid infecting tomatoes.
As stated in the article, the fight against fitftora is not difficult, the main thing is to choose the right method. It is also worth using the correct methods of prevention. However, even for non-chemical means, it is necessary to choose the right dosage and processing time in order not to cause harm to plants and fruits.
Watch the video! Phytophthora on tomatoes, how to detect and how to fight!
What is phytophthora
Phytophthora (phytosporosis) is a culture disease caused by the fungus Phytophthorainfestans, which means “destroying the plant”. The action of the fungus is based on this: penetrating the plant's body, it completely disrupts its development and, in the absence of control measures, destroys the culture. The solanaceous group, favored by the phytophtoric group, is not averse to settling in other cultures as well. Most often fungus phytophtoras are affected tomatoes.
If you do not fight the fungus during the season, then the next year greenhouse plantings will definitely get fitoftoroz: its spores are well preserved in the soil and overwinter. Phytophthora with lightning speed spreads across all plantations of tomatoes and other crops, so if its appearance in the greenhouse was noticed, you should immediately start the fight against this disease.
Signs of tomato disease in the greenhouse
Infection of tomatoes with phytosporosis usually begins in the second half of summer, when the weather becomes cooler and frequent rains begin. Appearing on the bushes of tomatoes, phytophtora will definitely show its presence. The first, barely visible signs of the disease are small dark spots on the undersides of the leaves. Subsequently, they grow and become brown in color, the leaves of the culture begin to dry out and fall off.
The next stage - the emergence of black spots on the stems of plants. And in the end, progressing phytophthora gets to the fruit. They become infected through the stalk: even healthy-looking tomatoes growing on a black stalk may be covered with phytosporous brown spots during storage.
Can I eat tomatoes with blight?
In principle, fruits with blight can be used in food, but there are very few people who like to eat black tomatoes.
Prevention of phytophthora in the greenhouse can be the correct planting and care for tomatoes, as well as pre-treatment of planting material, soil and the greenhouse itself.
When planting seedlings into the ground, it is necessary to use standard planting schemes and not try to push as many seedlings as possible into the greenhouse. The thickening of tomatoes disturbs the lighting inside the greenhouse and the air permeability of the bushes, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophthora: shading and high humidity.
Care for tomatoes during the season.
In order to reduce the risk of phytosporosis damage to the culture, it is necessary to properly care for them.
- Firstly, watering should be moderate, the waterlogging of the soil is unacceptable. To reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil, tomato beds can be mulched. Watering should be carried out exclusively under the root, the ingress of water on the leaves and other above-ground parts of the plant contribute to the development of phytophthora.
- Secondly, in order to improve the illumination and ventilation of the tomatoes, it is necessary to timely pinch and cut off the lower leaves. Srednerosly and tall varieties of tomatoes should be tied to the trellis.
Since phytophtora remains even in the seeds of tomatoes, before sowing they should be pickled as a prophylaxis in a solution of potassium permanganate. If seeds were collected from diseased bushes, then they can also be used for planting only when they are heat treated (extracts for 2 hours at +50 0 С). Purchased seedlings are also recommended to be treated prophylactically by spraying the fungicide solution.
Preventive treatment of the greenhouse.
This event is held in the fall, but if for any reason this was not done, in early spring it is necessary to clean the greenhouse from plant residues, disinfect the walls of the structure and soil with copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture or other copper-containing preparation, and determine the soil acidity.
Phytophthora loves soils with a high content of lime. If last season tomatoes in the greenhouse were ill with blight, then it is recommended to remove the top layer of soil (5 ... 15 cm) and replace it with a new one.
The preventive measures listed above will reduce the risk of phytosporosis on tomatoes.
When to spray tomatoes from phytophthora in the greenhouse
Phytophthora usually appears closer to August, but from time to time it is necessary to examine tomato bushes in July (especially if the summer is rainy). At the first symptoms of the disease it is necessary to begin spraying the plants. They are carried out systematically twice a week, starting from 2 weeks after planting the tomatoes in a permanent place (as a preventive measure).
If the weather is rainy, then you need to spray the tomatoes once a week. The treatment ends in the general case three weeks before harvesting (dates may vary depending on the composition of the solution).
How to process tomatoes from phytophthora
Summer residents for the fight against late blight on tomatoes choose various options for solutions, but all of them can be divided into two main groups: folk remedies (the solution is made from natural materials at hand) and chemicals (purchased at the store). The choice of a remedy for late blight depends solely on summer cottage preferences.
Phytophthora on tomatoes: how does it appear?
Recall that the phytophtora fungi spread easily with zoospores. Having got on leaves, fruits or stalks, fruits not only hit them, but with the nearest rains penetrate the soil, occupying the plant completely. Therefore, planting a number of solanaceous crops, apples, strawberries and other plants susceptible to this disease, you facilitate fungi work.
Fight against late blight on tomatoes with folk remedies: recipes
How would you not want to avoid the use of chemistry, once, before flowering, we would still recommend you to treat tomatoes (and greenhouse and open ground) with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulphate (1-2 glasses of water per bucket). l.). And in the future with a clear conscience to use folk remedies against phytophthora every 7-10 days, always alternating them. An integrated approach - the key to success.
Here we also recall that the spraying of plants should be carried out either in the early morning, or late evening, or in gloomy weather, but not in the sun. It is necessary that the plant has managed to gain a foothold, to absorb the protective composition.
Recipe №1: whey (milk, kefir) and iodine (brilliant green)
For 9 liters of slightly warm water, give one liter of whey, skim milk or kefir, add 20 drops of iodine and process the plants. When the first green fruits appear on the bushes, sometimes iodine can be replaced with green paint. Tomatoes can be eaten the next day after spraying. The same composition will help get rid of the powdery mildew on the cucumbers.
Iodine can be used in a different way, to combat tomato blight in greenhouses. To do this, open the bottle with iodine, attach it to the thread by the neck and hang it by any support in the greenhouse. One bottle is enough to disinfect about 5 "squares" of the greenhouse. But it is not possible to inhale such air for a person for a long time - be sure to open doors and windows while working in a greenhouse. By the way, iodine also accelerates the ripening of tomatoes.
Recipe №2: mustard, garlic, onion
If your city is replete with marigolds and calendula, you certainly do not doubt the phytoncidal properties of some plants. Mustard, onion or garlic are best suited to combat the blight of tomatoes. Croping a tomato bed with such plants, or planting tomato seedlings directly into mustard as a siderat, you create a protective zone around the plant, and most importantly - in the soil. In the future, mustard, garlic or onion is better not to remove completely, and leave in the ground - and the mulch is good, and the roots continue to work against late blight.
Recipe number 8: copper perforation
The detrimental effect of copper ions on the fungus can be used not only by treating copper-containing preparations, but also by ordinary piercing with copper wire. To do this, cut the wire into pieces of 2-3 cm, sand the sandpaper and pierce the stem a few inches from the ground. Too thin stems of tomatoes should not be pierced - wait until the plant is stronger.
Traditional methods of combating tomato blight: some more tips:
- herbal infusions, mullein or yeast infusion is, first of all, top dressing. But indirectly, they help the tomato in the fight against late blight, so foliar spraying should be carried out along with the root.
- no matter how hard you try, the increased air humidity in the greenhouse, condensation on the leaves will nullify all your efforts. Therefore, before how to deal with blight folk methods, minimize the stagnation of moisture in the greenhouse: air regularly, mulch generously, and do not part with irrigation.
- remove diseased and infected plants from the beds, destroying them outside the site. Do not forget to observe crop rotation.
You can find another dubious folk method of dealing with late blight with salt, but, as practice shows, its use is ending very badly. Not only for phytophtoras, but also for the tomato itself, as well as the ground beneath it. Therefore, before you apply any tool, especially folk, use your head, good literature, and of course - your own, hardly gained experience. And folk remedies to protect tomatoes from phytophtora are good only when they are used in the complex, from the very beginning of the growing season, the plants and do not harm the soil, the plant itself and your health.
Late blight (phytophthora) of tomatoes - description
Phytophthora is tenacious and omnipresent: it lives on seeds, plant debris, in the soil, greenhouse walls, garden equipment. The disease progresses in cold and wet weather.
Phytophthora on Tomatoes
Most of all the phytophtora loves calcified soils, thickened plantings, which are difficult for fresh air, temperature drops, dew, and weakened by poor or insufficient care of the plant.
Funds from phytophthora
How to process tomatoes from late blight? Treatment of tomatoes from phytophtora spend fungicides.
How to spray tomatoes from phytophtora? Dissolve 2 tablespoons of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water and process the tomatoes with this composition before flowering. You can use calcium nitrate as a fungicide - dilute 1 tablespoon of the substance in 10 liters of water.
Used to protect against late blight and antibiotic Trihopol, dissolving 10 tablets in 10 liters of water and treating tomatoes with this compound twice a month. And fungicides from the store (Fitosporin, Fundazol, etc.) are diluted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The first processing of tomatoes is carried out in the stage of formation of the ovaries, and then spraying is repeated every decade.
If tomatoes are severely affected by phytophtora, all affected leaves should be removed and burned, and the fruit, and especially the stem, should be treated with a one percent solution of calcium chloride.
Processing tomatoes from phytophthora with chemical preparations gives a quick and reliable result, but it is undesirable to use them on already ripening fruits, since this may adversely affect the quality of the crop.
Protect tomatoes from the disease can be preventive measures or non-toxic folk remedies. But if you decide to apply fungicides, process the tomatoes with them before flowering, before the appearance of the first ovary, then again after two weeks to fix the result.
In the future, the use of the fungicide should be discontinued and apply only folk remedies to combat blight.
Late blight on tomatoes at the very beginning of the disease can be destroyed and not by such radical methods as the treatment of the garden with fungicides. Folk remedies for processing tomatoes from phytophtoras may not be as effective, but they are harmless to the human body.
Straw infusion. A kilogram of rotten hay or straw pour 10 liters of water, add a handful of urea and let it stand for 3-4 days. Strain the infusion and process them tomatoes.
Yeast.. Dissolve 80 g of yeast in a bucket of water and pour tomatoes with phytophthora at the first symptoms with this solution.
Copper wire. Spraying tomatoes from phytophtoras can be replaced by “copper perforation”. How to protect tomatoes from phytophthora using copper wire? Wire need to be ignited on the fire or sandpaper, cut into pieces 3-4 cm long, insert such a piece into the stem of an adult tomato bush at a height of 10 cm from the soil and bend the ends of the wire down. Do not wrap the wire around the stem!
Some gardeners prefer to wrap pieces of copper wire around the roots of the seedlings before planting them on the bed. The fact is that microdoses of copper, enhancing oxidative processes, stabilizing the production of chlorophyll and stimulating oxygen exchange, strengthen the plant's immunity and make it resistant not only to phytophthora, but also to other infections.
Iodine. Everyone knows about the antimicrobial effect of iodine; therefore, the method of spraying tomatoes with a milk-iodine composition is widely popular among gardeners. One liter of nonfat milk and 20 drops of iodine is enough for 10 liters of water.
Ash solution. This treatment is carried out in three stages: as soon as the seedlings begin and grow, before the flowering of tomatoes and immediately before the appearance of the first ovaries. In a 10 liter of water, add half a bucket of wood ash, insist for three days, stirring from time to time. When the composition is settled, the liquid must be drained, bring its volume to 30 liters and add 30-35 g of liquid soap to the composition.
Serum. Processing tomatoes from phytophthora with serum from yogurt also gives good results. Dilute the whey in the ratio of one to one with water and from the first days of July, spray tomatoes every day.
How to fight folk remedies from phytophtora on tomatoes
Experienced gardeners warn that it is best to give preference to those varieties of tomatoes that have increased resistance to the fungus.
The most favorable period for the activation of phytophthora on tomatoes is rainy days. Humidity, as well as sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures lead to unpleasant consequences. So, begins the vigorous reproduction of fungi and the defeat of all planting tomatoes.
You can always buy in the store drugs that neutralize pathogens of fungal diseases and specialized pesticides.
But not every gardener approves the use of synthetic fungicides in his area, preferring proven measures. This may include the following means:
In order to defeat this disease, you need to engage in prevention every year. For example, gardeners spend spraying tomatoes at the stage of their landing in the ground. And solutions can be prepared independently.
Processing solution of garlic. This is the main enemy of fungal infections that affect plants. The odorous vegetable is a natural and high-quality fungicide that actively suppresses the development of microorganisms.
Unique properties due to the presence of biologically active substances such as sulfur compounds, phytoncides and other components. Both garlic heads and shoots are used for preparing solutions.
A simple and effective infusion made from garlic is made according to the old recipe:
- To begin, grind with a meat grinder or blender 300 g of vegetable with leaves and husk.
- Next, fill the raw material with water in the amount of 1 liter, cover the container with liquid with a lid and leave to stand in the kitchen for at least 1 day.
- The resulting concentrate must be filtered and diluted with a large amount of water, the garden barrel is suitable for this purpose.
- Gardeners are advised to add to the solution 2 g of crystals of potassium permanganate, which have a disinfecting effect.
- Then pour the liquid into the sprayer and treat the bushes during the formation of ovaries, as well as 2 weeks after transplanting the tomatoes.
- As a rule, such treatment is carried out by summer residents every 14 days.
Mullein tincture. This is an affordable and well-known plant fertilizer that can be used against the fungus; they should be treated in June. It helps to strengthen the immunity of plants, increase their productivity.
In order to protect the tomatoes from phytophthora, pour 400 g of humus with cold water in a bucket. Now the tool should be infused in a closed container for at least 4 days, periodically the mixture is stirred. The finished solution should be filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
For a long time, summer residents have used ash to combat late blight. This effective folk remedy for can be applied in two ways.
Dusting ashes. For example, it is allowed to sprinkle the soil generously between rows and beds, a week after planting tomatoes. Re-processing is repeated during development of the ovaries.
Watering with a solution of ash. Dissolve 200 g of raw materials in 5 liters of water, then infuse the mixture for 3 days, stirring the liquid periodically. Next, add to the solution another 10 liters of water and 15 g of soap. It is necessary to start treatment from the moment when the plants harden in the garden, as well as before flowering and after the appearance of the ovary.
Ground grass needs to be filled with cold water and then added as much hot (heated to 60 ° C). Insist the mixture for about 2 days, and then strain it, adding 1 g of potassium permanganate. This tool can be used at any stage of tomato development due to its safety.
In the gardener's bins are drugs that can save the crop from progressive late blight.
The list includes the following medications:
Ordinary iodine is actively used by gardeners to stimulate the formation of ovaries, accelerate the formation of fruits and resist the dangerous disease caused by fungi.
Iodine solution. It is important to know that iodine treatment is carried out in mid-June, it can be combined with spraying of copper sulphate and potassium permanganate.
Mix 20 drops of 5% of the drug with 5 liters of pure water. First, you can make treatment with iodine, after 7 days - vitriol and potassium permanganate.
Apply such a tool for the treatment of seedlings for prevention. Experienced gardeners also leave for 2 days a mixture of water with kefir, which kills fungal spores.
Trichopol. The drug is available in pill form and is suitable for combating fungal diseases.
Gardeners are usually diluted in 5 liters of water to dilute 4-6 tablets of the drug, mixing the liquid thoroughly.
The solution should be watered tomato bushes 2 times a month.
Proven measures to help fight late blight, however, they do not get rid of intensive infection of bushes bushes.
Folk remedies are a high-quality prevention and an effective method of dealing with minor foci of phytophthora. It is important to know that all types of processing should be performed only after sunset and in dry weather.
At the end of the harvest, the remains of the plants are burned and the ground is carefully dug up.
What folk remedies will help save tomatoes from phytophtora?
Late blight is a common disease among solanaceous birds that cannot be started if you do not want to be left without a crop. Folk remedies from phytophthora on tomatoes can help out no worse than chemicals. With their help, you can prevent the development of the disease or eliminate the problem with minimal losses.
A culture can become infected at any time, but the disease usually is asymptomatic and begins to progress in conditions favorable to it. The latter include cold weather and high humidity. The ideal conditions for the development of late blight are:
- excessively dense landings, where air does not penetrate well,
- weakened seedlings
- dew, temperature drops and excessive closeness of leaves to the soil surface.
Infection with late blight can occur due to fungal bacteria remaining in the soil. Probably their accumulation on the garden inventory, on the walls of greenhouses, on the remnants of organic matter. Tomato seeds themselves may be affected.
- the appearance of black spots on the edges of the leaves,
- the leaf begins to darken, after it dries up and disappears,
- other parts of the plant are stained: the stem, and then the fruit.
How to protect tomatoes from late blight? Fully protect the plant from the spread of the dispute is impossible, but there are a number of preventive measures to reduce the risk of developing the disease.
What can help?
If phytophthora is progressing on tomatoes, how to fight with folk remedies? This question is asked by gardeners, who prefer not to use chemicals in their garden. Years of experience in growing tomatoes allowed us to figure out how to get rid of phytophthora on tomatoes with the help of folk remedies.
The first treatment should be carried out after the transplanting, and then during the budding period.
Infected leaves on tomatoes
Each subsequent spraying is repeated after 10-14 days. In general, for the summer season will require 4-5 procedures. Favorable time for spraying is morning.
Common popular methods of struggle
Copper wire from phytophthora on tomatoes is used only as a prophylactic agent. It is believed that a sufficient copper content in the plant prevents the reproduction of malicious spores. To do this, take a piece of wire and cut it into pieces of a length of 3-5 cm.
Yeast is a common treatment. You will need to mix 100 g of yeast (live) with 10 liters of water. Tomatoes are sprayed with the prepared mixture.
You can prepare a solution of garlic and manganese. The leaves, stalks and the garlic itself are crushed and poured, 1 cup of boiled water is required per 100 g of gruel. A day later, the mixture is filtered and diluted in 10 liters of water, adding a little manganese. The resulting composition is treated with each plant, the procedure is carried out 4 times per season.
The following composition includes whey or kefir and water in equal parts. The mixture can be treated bushes daily, but should begin only in the month of July. If, however, it was not possible to prevent the development of the disease, the characteristic brown spots became noticeable on the leaves, such popular recipes can help:
Iodine from phytophthora on tomatoes is a proven product by many. We must take 10 ml of a five-percent solution of iodine and dissolve it in 10 liters of water. The composition is required to spray all the tomatoes. The procedure must be repeated after 3 days.
It is necessary to mix 200 ml of 10% calcium solution with 2 liters of water, then carefully spray the affected areas of the plant.
Prepare a solution of 1 kg of salt and 10 liters of water. Before treatment, you will need to remove all the diseased parts of the plant, and then spray tomato bushes. The solution forms a thin film on the surface of the leaves, stem and fruit, which prevents further development of the disease.
Drugstore Trichopol can also help in the fight against late blight. It is required to dissolve 1 tablet in 1 l of water and spray the bushes. The procedure is repeated every 14 days.
Processing tomatoes is carried out and fungicidal preparations. You can buy Fitosporin, Fundazim, Kvadris, Fundazol, Ridomil, Previkur. Spraying with such means should be carried out in accordance with the attached instructions. Processing is recommended to be carried out regularly if you want to harvest a good crop.
Fight against blight on tomatoes - the most effective methods
The fight against late blight on tomatoes begins at the earliest dates of tomato cultivation. This aggressive fungal disease can lime a large part of the crop if no action is taken. It is necessary to fight immediately, at the appearance of the smallest signs of late blight, otherwise it may be late ...
Phytophthora is a very common and pernicious fungal disease that destroys not only tomatoes, but also other solanaceous crops (eggplants, potatoes). Most often, the disease manifests itself in cool and wet weather, with heavy precipitation.
But where does this sore come from? Фитофтороз – это грибковое заболевание и распространяется оно спорами, поэтому конидии этого гриба способны сохранятся в почве, семенах, на стенах теплицы или парника, а также садовом инвентаре.
Кроме погодных условий, могут быть и другие причины заболевания томатов:
- Во-первых, не усердствуйте с известкованием грунта при кислых почвах. Чрезмерное использование извести может спровоцировать развитие болезни,
- Никогда не загущайте посадки. Посадить много – еще не значит собрать большой урожай. When thickets grow in your place instead of a bed, fungi and parasites can easily be found there. As a rule, in such conditions, the plants are poorly ventilated, condensate accumulates, the supply of nutrients occurs unevenly, hence diseases and pests,
- Exhausted and weakened plants. With a lack of nutrients, as well as when phytophthora prevention on tomatoes is not carried out, the risk of disease of such plants increases significantly,
- If the soil contains a high nitrogen content, the risk of tomato blight increases manyfold, but the excess of potassium and phosphorus in the soil, on the contrary, only strengthens the immune system of tomatoes.
How to spray tomatoes
Before treating your tomatoes, you need to make sure that the plants are really ill with late blight. And, if this is true, you need to know how to spray tomatoes from phytophthora. There is not a small number of drugs and folk remedies in the fight against this sore, consider the most effective and effective of them.
Spraying infusions of garlic is very effective, and not dangerous for future harvest. Such sprinkling is desirable to do every ten days from the moment of fruit set. Take 200-300 grams of minced garlic, add one gram of manganese (at the tip of the knife), put all this in a bucket and cover it with warm water to the top. Let it stand for a day, and only then can you sprinkle tomatoes.
Iodine and milk are very well struggling with late blight tomatoes. In a bucket of water, dilute one liter of milk and add one teaspoon of iodine to it. Mix everything thoroughly and the solution is ready.
Spraying kinks. Usually for these purposes they use tinder birch or tinder real, but other types of tinder can be used. It is necessary to take 100 grams of fungus, chop it a little with a knife and pour a liter of boiling water on it. After it cools, strain and use.
A solution of ash can also deal with this disease. Fill one-quarter bucket with ashes, and fill it completely with warm water. This mixture is infused for three days, after which it is necessary to add a grated soap (about 2-3 tablespoons) to it.
When spraying tomatoes it is necessary to remember that it is desirable to carry them out in the morning when the dew comes down and the sun will not be so hot and burning as there is a possibility of a burn in the plants.
Folk remedies for late blight on tomatoes
How to fight folk remedies with late blight on tomatoes is a question of almost every summer resident, because a tomato is one of the plants that is always present in the dacha garden. But to grow a healthy tomato is not so easy, it is subject to various diseases.
All summer residents know about it firsthand, but not everyone knows how to fight it, and to fight successfully. Consider a comprehensive protection of tomatoes against late blight.
Everyone who grew tomatoes, watched a picture of phytophthorosis culture disease. Tomatoe leaves begin to be covered first with little black dots or they have a black border. Then, the affected leaf blackens completely, fades and falls off.
Following the black dots begin to conquer the trunks of the plant, and then taken for the fruits themselves. As a result, the entire crop dies. And most often this happens in rainy summer, because for the phytophtoras humidity is the most comfortable state.
Like any fungal disease, phytophthora spores multiply, and these disputes are everywhere - on the ground, on household supplies (the same shovels), on the greenhouse surface, in compost ... It is estimated that disputes are transferred from the source of infection as much as 300 km.
To avoid the emergence of these disputes is impossible, but you need to try to make their number significantly reduced. This means that it is necessary to avoid the factors and environmental conditions in which late blight acquires its strength, "grows fat" and actively reproduces, spoiling the entire crop.
But do not forget about agricultural technology. The most important method of preventing tomatoes from phytophthora is their planting at a considerable distance from potatoes. Overgrown on tubers fungus germinates much faster on potato plantations and then "pounced" on tomatoes. If you divide the beds and carefully harvest the potatoes, tomato damage will be much less.
Conditions favorable for the development of the disease
There are certain conditions and substances that late blight loves. This is what should be avoided. Here are some of them:
- Excessive liming of soil. Lime is introduced into the ground, neutralizing the acidity of the soil. But you should not get involved in this process, because it is alkali - a good breeding ground for late blight. If the soil contains an overabundance, then it is necessary to take measures to restore the natural balance of the land, here you can use peat or coarse sand, well, EM-preparations, of course. Yes, and tomatoes love a weak acid reaction of the soil.
- Thickening landings. If plants cling to each other, have too branched and thick crowns, this can also be the cause of the fungus. Therefore, planted tomatoes should be according to the developed scheme, and produce timely thinning of the leaves and remove the stepsons. If the plants are planted in greenhouses, then it must be regularly aired.
- Temperature drops. Most often this occurs at the end of the summer period. This process causes the appearance of dew, which means additional moisture that phytophthora loves.
- Weak plants. Opportunities for late blight in weakened tomatoes take off at times. This is due to the lack of essential trace elements. That is why it is sometimes necessary to spray the solutions containing the missing components (such as copper, zinc), as well as to feed the plants with potassium and magnesium.
Also, for successful control and prevention of late blight, it is necessary to perform such actions.
Watering tomatoes is carried out only early in the morning, so that until the evening the moisture has gone to the ground. If the weather is cloudy, then it is not recommended to water the tomatoes at all, it is better in this case to make one loosening with a flat cutter and immediately mulch the soil tightly to the stalks of the plant.
It is advisable to follow the rules of crop rotation (planting tomatoes only after certain plants).
Pay special attention to growing seedlings. Acquire seeds that are resistant to fungal diseases, strengthen and prevent seedling diseases. We use foliar feedings for this, mixing stimulants and biofungicides. Well, the seeds are disinfected on a mandatory basis.
Clean up with the growth of leaves and stepchildren. It improves ventilation and solar heating of plants. In the heat, the growth of the fungus stops, and at + 30 ° C, the plant completely stops the disease. Therefore, regardless of the weather, be sure to remove the leaves in contact with the ground and mulch the soil (this is not a sin and repeat).
But everyone has a different climate, and the timing of fruiting depends not only on the preparation of seedlings, but also on average daily temperatures after planting. Therefore, these tomatoes are not just sick, they burn out fantastically quickly from late blight. But there are really resistant varieties, for example, “Black Brush” - the plant confidently holds fungal aggression.
There are also so-called fungal-tolerant varieties. For example, the old variety "De Barao". The lesion on the leaves in this case still happens, but thanks to the immune protection points do not apply to the entire leaf, and the plant is longer in the garden with almost green leaves.
And over-productive varietal types, it seems, on the contrary, are very susceptible to disease. They are programmed for yield, and the full potential of the plant is directed at the fruit. And when the fetus is poured, all the nutrients from plants are actively redirected to the hands, and the tissues become more vulnerable, as if they lose support from the biota.
What else to add on the resistant to fitoftor? They need to be selected for their climate or greenhouses, and checked in real conditions. It is clear, however, that in Holland some degree of sustainability may manifest itself, which does not necessarily also work in our environment. So every summer resident must select their own assortment of tomatoes.
How to spray tomatoes
It is necessary to spray tomatoes with special formulations purchased at the store, or prepared independently, in order to prevent and combat diseases. Such solutions successfully fight the fungus, but one “but” should be taken into account.
Phytophtora tends to adapt to the conditions, and simply “gets used” to the same destructive mixture for it. Therefore, they should be changed.
But let us emphasize: it is better to combine spraying with mulching, since protecting tomatoes from phytophthora with folk remedies is half the trouble, you need to prevent disputes from the ground from reaching the plants. And mowed grass or even bedding newspapers prevent sprinkling of winters from the ground long before August temperature drops.
How to process plants in the greenhouse
Important in the fight against late blight is preparing for the greenhouse season, which is planting tomato seedlings. After all, it can also be a possible carrier of the fungus (and so it most likely is).
Therefore, the greenhouse is pre-washed, cleaned of dirt, dust and last year’s plant residues.
But after that it is possible to process all surfaces - both the walls and the roof in different ways:
- Fumigation. Rather effective method, based on the use of a small piece of pure wool, which is placed in a bucket with embers. Accordingly, all the doors are closed for a period of up to a day.
- Surface treatment with ash and tobacco dust (in 1 bucket of wood ash add 1 cup of tobacco dust or Tabazol). But this process is quite laborious, you must use a mask.
- Surface treatment solutions of Fitosporin, Baikal-EM1, Shine.
If you follow all these simple rules and actions, then it is quite possible to get a healthy and prosperous crop of tomatoes. But you should not get upset if you did not save the whole crop, because late blight is an infection that you will not wreak in one year, and the necessary prevention should be carried out regularly.
You need to chop 200 g of garlic heads and soak them in a bucket of water for a day. After this, the infusion must be drained and poured into a sprayer. To increase its effectiveness, potassium permanganate can be added, and for better adhesion of the infusion to plants, grated soap.
Salt and iodine solutions
Spraying tomatoes with a solution of salt or iodine refers to preventive rather than curative measures and can be used when the first signs of phytosporosis appear. Before processing, all damaged leaves must be removed. Saline solution is prepared by diluting a glass of edible salt in a bucket of water, and iodine is prepared by adding 10 ml of 5% iodine to a bucket of water.
As an active component in such solutions use non-fat milk, kefir, whey. At the same time they are diluted in water in a ratio of 1:10. Products must be fresh, because when applied to sour solutions of tomatoes they can get an acid burn. To increase the effectiveness of the solution, you can add a few drops of iodine.
Ash infusions are prepared as follows: half a bucket of ash should be added to a bucket of water, mix well and leave to infuse for three days. During this time it is necessary to mix it sometimes. Then the infusion is diluted with water, bringing to a volume of 30 liters. So that the mixture is well fixed on the treated surfaces, add soap.
You can use dry ashes to combat blight. To do this, dry tobacco leaves are crushed into powder and put in the amount of one cup per ash bucket. This mixture is powdered bushes.
Gardeners use chemical preparations against phytophthora only at the stage of active growth of tomato seedlings. The fact is that the substances that are part of such agents poison the fruits themselves, therefore, they end up processing before pouring them. These include Strobe, Quadris, Bravo, Thanos and others.
The most popular among purchased products is a group of biologically active drugs, which can be processed for almost the entire season. These include Fitosporin, Baikal, Baktofit and others.
All fungicides according to the principle of action are divided into two groups: contact, which create a kind of barrier over the entire area of the tomato bush, and systemic plants that penetrate the tissues and circulate through it along with the juices. There are also fungicides combined, they are considered more effective.
Regardless of the choice of fungicides, the treatment with them must be alternated, since the fungus phytophthora over time develops immunity to them, and the effect of the drug decreases. Prepared solutions of fungicides should be used on the day of processing, they are not subject to storage.
Useful tips gardeners
Based on favorable conditions for the emergence and development of phytophthora on greenhouse tomatoes, a number of preventive measures can be distinguished to allow the gardener to protect them from this disease.
- Since tomatoes love moderate watering and dry air, they need to ensure these conditions in the greenhouse, for example, by mulching planting beds and regular airing. For through ventilation open doors and windows of a design. In general, if the humidity in the greenhouse is increased, it must be reduced by any means. A particular danger to tomatoes is condensation accumulating on the walls of the structure.
- For irrigation, you need to use only warm water warmed to the sun. Therefore, this operation can be carried out in the evening with subsequent ventilation, despite the fact that morning watering of tomatoes is recommended in greenhouses.
- Should carefully consider the choice of varieties of tomatoes. The most resistant to phytophthora are considered new hybrids of tomatoes. It is also recommended to choose varieties with an early and amicable yield of the crop, which simply do not have time to marvel at the disease.
- After each operation, associated with the removal of unnecessary and sick parts of the bush, it is necessary to take out all the garbage from the greenhouse and burn it. In no case can not make sick leaves and shoots of tomatoes in the compost.
- It is necessary to control the level of nitrogen in the soil. When it is in excess, tomatoes are more likely to become infected with phytosporosis. Feed must be balanced.
- In order for the disease not to be transferred annually, it is important to observe crop rotation, that is, it is impossible to plant tomatoes permanently in the same place. Bad progenitors for tomatoes are solanaceous, such as eggplant, pepper. In order to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse next year, in the fall, green mans crops are planted in it in the fall.
The appearance of phytophthora is best warned than to fight it. Therefore, we should not neglect the prevention of phytosporosis. If in advance to take care and take care of their tomatoes, their crop will not be subject to this dangerous and rapidly developing disease.
Description of the problem
Phytophthora on tomatoes in open ground appears in connection with the vital activity of a dangerous fungus called Phytophthora infestans. From the name it can be understood that the action of the pest is to destroy the tissues of the plant. Today, the fungus affects various solanaceous crops, but tomatoes yield to it in a particularly intense way.
Before you begin treatment, you need to carefully examine all signs and possible manifestations of the disease. First of all, the leaves of the tomatoes will be covered with small brown spots on the reverse side, which will begin to grow in size as they grow. As a result, the leaves will begin to dry and fall off. In addition, shoots are covered with a dark shade, and gray-dark areas appear on the fruit.
The first symptoms of late blight begin to manifest themselves. in the second half of summer. This is due to a simple fact: during this period, the fungus begins to actively develop due to suitable climatic conditions.
If night and day temperatures are very different from each other, abundant dew may appear on the bushes. If the entire summer season is accompanied by prolonged precipitation and a low temperature range, the fungus will start to infect the culture much earlier. Also, a special activity of the vital activity of a microorganism is noticed when planting tomatoes on calcareous soils and in places where there is no normal air circulation.
However, if daytime temperatures are high, phytophthora development is significantly suspended. Hot weather leads to partial and sometimes complete extinction of the colony. Naturally, every beginning summer resident, faced with manifestations of late blight, begins to ask questions: "How to deal with late blight on tomatoes, what methods to use, how and when?".
It is important to understand that success in combating late blight is not in eliminating symptoms, but in early culture processing and preventive measures. The stronger the immunity of a tomato, the faster it will resist the fungus.
In the fight against late blight, other folk remedies are showing themselves well.
One of them is wood ash. В составе подобного ингредиента находится большое количество всевозможных микроэлементов, способных благосклонно влиять на ткани томатов. Для приготовления подходящего препарата от фитофторы достаточно растворить 5 литров золы в 10 литрах воды и настаивать трое суток, периодически помешивая. В дальнейшем нужно развести раствор до объёма в 30 литров, добавить к нему мыло и начать опрыскивание.
An important feature: such prevention should be carried out at least three times per season.
In the early stages of development, phytophtora behaves well. a mixture of fresh yeastdiluted with 10 liters of water. With the help of such a composition sprayed the whole bush.
Fungal infections are very severe. afraid of garlic processing. If you make an infusion of 1.5 cups of crushed shoots and mix them with 10 liters of water, then this infusion can be a highly effective means for localizing the fungus. Each bush of culture accounts for about half a liter of tincture.
An interesting way to deal with blight is the use of copper microparticles, which can treat phytophthora and serve as a good prevention, scaring off the fungus from the plant.
You can also spray the culture infusion based tinder fungus. This remedy has a positive effect on the solanaceous immune system and is a good defense against infection. The dried mushroom is finely crushed with a knife or meat grinder and filled with a liter of boiling water. After thorough infusion, the solution is filtered through cheesecloth and used for watering.
The first processing measures can be carried out at the stage of ovary formation. Then it will remain to process the culture when the first symptoms of late blight appear.
Saline solution allows you to create on tomato leaves a thin protective film that can prevent the penetration of the fungus through the plant's stomata. To prepare the tool enough to dissolve 250 grams of salt in a 10-liter bucket of water. Using the obtained solution, all parts of the culture are processed. However, it is important to understand that treatment with saline is an exclusively preventive measure, and not a method of treatment.
Handle tomatoes better in the period of appearance of the ovaries.
Phytophthora on tomatoes: how to fight folk remedies - proven methods
Late blight on tomatoes at the very beginning of the disease can be destroyed and not by such radical methods as the treatment of the garden with fungicides. Folk remedies for processing tomatoes from phytophtoras may not be as effective, but they are harmless to the human body. How to save tomatoes from phytophthora folk remedies?
Phytophthora on tomatoes: how to fight folk remedies
Perhaps the most effective way to defeat this disease is garlic, so let's begin the story of how to deal with blight on tomatoes with folk remedies, namely with it. There are several recipes for cooking, and each deserves attention.
Their action is aimed at one and the same result, but perhaps some recipe will like it more or it is easier to prepare it than any other.
- I take into consideration 5 garlic mixtures for spraying tomatoes
- 0.5 kg of minced garlic + 3 liters of water.
He infused just half an hour, after which you can apply the solution for spraying.
- For the next recipe, you need 150 g of minced garlic, add to 10 liters of water, stir, strain and spray the bushes.
- A combination of garlic, pepper and mustard will also help.
It is necessary to chop 0.2 kg of vegetable, add to it a tablespoon of the above two components in the form of powder, add water and leave for a day. Strain, add 10 liters of water. Processing takes place every week and a half.
- You can also mix one and a half cups of minced garlic and 2 g of potassium permanganate, dilute with ten liters of water and spray every 14 days.
- Potassium permanganate - another folk remedy to combat blight on tomatoes
What can be folk remedies to combat phytophtora on tomatoes and without manganese? It is also quite popular among experienced gardeners. It is recommended to treat tomato seeds before planting with a 1% solution of this substance.
When young sprouts are planted in open or protected ground, it is recommended to shed the beds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate approximately every 7 days.
And many experts advise putting green tomatoes from the weather for half an hour into a hot solution of potassium permanganate, then wipe and spread for ripening.
A kilogram of rotten hay or straw pour 10 liters of water, add a handful of urea and let it stand for 3-4 days. Strain the infusion and process them tomatoes.
Dissolve 80 g of yeast in a bucket of water and pour tomatoes with phytophthora at the first symptoms with this solution.
Spraying tomatoes from phytophtoras can be replaced by “copper perforation”. How to protect tomatoes from phytophthora using copper wire? Wire need to be ignited on the fire or sandpaper, cut into pieces 3-4 cm long, insert such a piece into the stem of an adult tomato bush at a height of 10 cm from the soil and bend the ends of the wire down.
Some gardeners prefer to wrap pieces of copper wire around the roots of the seedlings before planting them on the bed. The fact is that microdoses of copper, enhancing oxidative processes, stabilizing the production of chlorophyll and stimulating oxygen exchange, strengthen the plant's immunity and make it resistant not only to phytophthora, but also to other infections.
- Iodine from phytophthora on tomatoes
Possessing antimicrobial properties, iodine can serve as a good remedy for the treatment of phytophthora on tomatoes. There are many recipes using iodine - choose any of the following:
- To 9 liters of water, add 1 liter of milk, preferably low-fat and 20 drops of iodine,
- To 8 liters of water, add two liters of whey, half a cup of sugar and 15 drops of iodine tincture,
- 10 liters of water is mixed with one liter of whey, 40 drops of iodine alcohol tincture and 1 tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide are added.
You can also use solutions of fermented kefir and whey (1 liter per 10 liters of water) for prophylactic spraying against phytophthora both in pure form and with the addition of a small amount of sugar.
With such solutions water the bushes of tomatoes regularly every week, starting from the moment of bud formation. Attention! Not bad in the fight against late blight on tomatoes is also such a trace element as boron.
To use it, you need to dilute 10 g of boric acid in 10 liters of hot water, cool to room temperature and spray the tomatoes. For better effect, it is advisable to add 30 drops of iodine to the solution before treatment.
Finally, the recipe of the following preparation is considered to be an agent that effectively fought against the already visible manifestations of phytophtoras on tomatoes:
- Eight liters of water is heated to a temperature of + 100 ° C and is combined with two liters of sifted wood ash.
- When the temperature of the solution drops to + 20 ° C, 10 g of boric acid and 10 ml of iodine are added to it.
- The mixture is infused for half a day.
- Then diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and carefully sprayed all parts of tomato plants.
- Before treatment, remove all affected parts of plants.
- Ash solution against phytophtoras on tomatoes
In a 10 liter of water, add half a bucket of wood ash, insist for three days, stirring from time to time. When the composition is settled, the liquid must be drained, bring its volume to 30 liters and add 30-35 g of liquid soap to the composition.
- Whey from phytophthora on tomatoes
Processing tomatoes from phytophthora with serum from yogurt also gives good results. Dilute the whey in the ratio of one to one with water and from the first days of July, spray tomatoes every day.
Common popular methods of struggle:
- Copper wire from phytophthora on tomatoes is used only as a prophylactic agent.
It is believed that a sufficient copper content in the plant prevents the reproduction of malicious spores. To do this, take a piece of wire and cut it into pieces of a length of 3-5 cm. All parts are carefully cleaned with emery paper.
After that, the lower part of the stem of each tomato is pierced with wire, its ends are bent down, but not twisted around the stem. It is believed that the plant is so saturated with copper, thereby excluding the development of the disease.
The leaves, stalks and the garlic itself are crushed and poured, 1 cup of boiled water is required per 100 g of gruel. A day later, the mixture is filtered and diluted in 10 liters of water, adding a little manganese.
If, however, it was not possible to prevent the development of the disease, the characteristic brown spots became noticeable on the leaves, such popular recipes can help:
- Iodine from phytophthora on tomatoes is a proven product by many. We must take 10 ml of a five-percent solution of iodine and dissolve it in 10 liters of water. The composition is required to spray all the tomatoes. The procedure must be repeated after 3 days.
- It is necessary to mix 200 ml of 10% calcium solution with 2 liters of water, then carefully spray the affected areas of the plant.
- Prepare a solution of 1 kg of salt and 10 liters of water. Before treatment, you will need to remove all the diseased parts of the plant, and then spray tomato bushes.
The solution forms a thin film on the surface of the leaves, stem and fruit, which prevents further development of the disease.
- Tomato processing is carried out and fungicidal preparations
Processing is recommended to be carried out regularly if you want to harvest a good crop.
It is enough to add about 2 tablespoons of copper sulfate and a couple of drops of iodine to one bucket of water. Tomato bushes are processed once. In general, iodine can be applied to almost all mixtures for treating plants, since in small doses it can have a disinfecting effect without harming organic matter.
Do not make a large dose of iodine, as an increased concentration can burn tissue.
When these funds do not help fight against fungal formations on tomatoes, you will need more concentrated chemicals that can be purchased in specialized stores. Beforehand, it is better to consult sellers regarding what dosage will be required for a particular variety, as well as on the basis of current signs of late blight.
If we treat tomato seedlings in a timely manner with these folk remedies, then treatment for late blight should be successful. It is important to remember that rain is able to completely flush substances, so a second procedure will be required.
When applying the same means to combat the disease from year to year, its effectiveness is significantly reduced. In this regard, it is recommended to periodically change drugs and drugs.
After you have managed to treat seedlings from phytophtora, you need to treat the area. The earth is watered with “Trichodermin” and “Fitosporin”, which should supervise the remains of mushroom spores in the soil. This precaution will prevent a possible illness in the next season.
If your site caught a massive disease of vegetable crops, then all the bushes must be burned, and the ground sprayed with a fungicide.
This method of struggle is very effective, if done correctly, without leaving the rough corners of the garden. Inspect the fruit carefully when you harvest a ripe crop. If tomatoes show typical signs of late blight, they should be thrown away so that the entire crop does not deteriorate during storage.
Before rolling the tomatoes, be sure to thoroughly rinse them, and once again carefully inspect.
There are several other drugs that are widely used by the people to combat blight on tomatoes.
- In a 10-liter bucket of water, dissolve 10 tablets of Trykhopol and add 15 ml of green stuff. The resulting solution can handle tomato bushes both during flowering and when the first symptoms of phytophthora appear.
- In 10 liters of water mix one teaspoon of copper sulfate, boric acid, magnesia. Add potassium permanganate on the tip of the knife and some laundry soap (can be replaced with 3 tablespoons of liquid soap).
Source: "floristics.info, krokusy.ru, fermilon.ru, agrarian-blog.ru, gryadki.com"
Chemicals for treatment and protection
To combat late blight, copper sulfate has proven itself well. 3% of the solution is treated with the earth a few days before transplanting. When planting, prepare a 1% solution and pour 1 liter into each well. Trichopol or metronidazole tablets have antifungal effects.
20 tablets diluted in a small amount of water and poured into a bucket of water. Handle planting every two weeks. Chemical fungicides are strong in the fight against late blight, but after processing, the fruit cannot be eaten for 25 days:
Copper-containing contact drug, 3 hazard class. Diluted in a bucket of water 50 grams of funds, processing is carried out 4 times for the entire growing season, an interval of 20 days,
For prophylaxis, or at the initial stage of the disease, it is recommended to use biological agents: “Alirin - B”, “Gamair”, “Fitosporin”. They belong to the 4th class of danger, are highly effective, do not cause habituation in the pathogens of the fungus.
In addition to protective measures, these biologics benefit: they remove soil toxicity after treatment with chemicals, restore the microflora, strengthen the immune system of plants and stimulate further growth and development of shrubs.
Common chemicals include:
This is an antimicrobial agent. Therefore, gardeners love to prepare a milky-iodine solution, which will easily help you get rid of phytophthora. To prepare it, take 10 liters of water, a liter of milk and 20 drops of iodine.
40 drops of this product are dissolved in water and sprayed with tomatoes.
This tool is an excellent seed antiseptic. They are placed in a gauze bag and immersed in this solution for 40 minutes. After that, washed with water and dried thoroughly.
How phytophthora is transmitted
Speaking about how phytophthora is transmitted, then in this case it is worth noting that the ways of its spread are mass - it can be infection through seeds, soil, tubers of neighboring plants, by transferring infection from site to site with equipment and much more.
With all this, the bacteria is stored for a long time in the soil cover, and especially if it lacks copper salts.
Speaking about how the transfer occurs, then in nature there is a whole scheme of its transfer and its main stages:
- So on the most affected plant new spores are formed that infect the root, the seeds, i.e., the whole healthy plant and its fruits, green or already ripe.
- Next comes their germination, when more of them develop new spores.
- The next stage of infection is their direct entry into the kidney.
- Already through the soil and contaminated soil is directly infecting new, healthy plants that grow close.
The main thing is to find out how the spores of the fungus got to your site, the tomato bush and already on this basis, and take measures to eliminate pathogenic microflora.
Not always such signs at the first stage of the development of the disease indicate exactly the infection with late blight. For example, blackening of fruits may be caused by rot, increased humidity or dry soil, and this is also a consequence of an excessive amount of fertilizer applied.
An infected plant must be carefully examined. When dry apical rot defeat spreads to the entire fruit, it becomes black. But the pulp of the tomato must be firm and absolutely without juice. This phenomenon is observed with an excessive amount of fertilizer, after which salinization of the soil occurs.
Black can also be present on the fruits of tomatoes, which have a shortage of boron and magnesium. Therefore, a periodic fertilizing of plants with fertilizer will be the way out of such a situation.
Productive plan of struggle
To combat blight on tomatoes is necessary from the first days of life of the seeds. Carry out these procedures constantly and with a certain frequency. After all, a sick plant is almost impossible to cure, and the process of infection occurs very quickly. In the early stages, the fight against late blight on tomatoes comes down to routine prevention.
Then you can use different means for spraying plants, greenhouses. A novice gardener from such a number of precautionary actions will clutch at the head, but how to deal with blight by other methods?
Only carefully planned actions in combination with biologically active drugs or folk remedies will help get rid of the dangerous fungus.
The question of how to protect the tomatoes from infection, does not close. Here you need to think through every step. For example:
- Selection of seeds and their treatment,
- Planting and fertilizing seedlings
- Hardening of plants before planting,
- The correct depth of the hole and the width of the rows,
- The composition of the soil and its processing,
- Departure in the first 2 weeks after disembarkation,
- Preparing equipment and greenhouses,
- The temperature and humidity in the greenhouse,
- The number and frequency of fertilizers against phytophthora, as well as their nature,
- Растения, которые высажены рядом,
- Предшественников, которые были высажены за 1-2 года до этого,
Источник: "ogorodko.ru, vogorode.com, teplichniku.ru"
Перед тем как высадить закаленные растения в парник, необходимо подготовить почву и соорудить теплицу. Сооружение должно быть удобным и герметичным, чтобы заморозки или холодный воздух не могли проникнуть через щели. But at the same time, the design should have several windows for ventilation.
Spraying tomatoes from phytophthora includes the preventive treatment of the greenhouse. If the construction is not used for the first year, it must be cleaned of dust, dirt and cobwebs before the start of the season. This should be done not only from the inside, but also from the outside.
The beds can be sprinkled with a mixture of ash and tobacco dust. To obtain such funds, it is necessary to take 2 cups of tobacco dust to a bucket of ash. A gardener must use a gauze bandage. Such simple, and sometimes extreme ways will be able to protect the crop from the disease of tomatoes. Therefore, before processing tomatoes from phytophthora, pay attention to the greenhouse itself.
Before you dive into the problem of processing plants, you must constantly inspect the bushes to the level of humidity. If the lower leaves on the edges are wet - this is the first sign of a possible infection. The main signal, followed by the processing of tomatoes from phytophthora. A gardener should not overfill the plants.
You can never plant seedlings in a greenhouse in which last year's crop suffered late blight disease. Before processing tomatoes from phytophthora, it is necessary to completely remove the top layer (5 cm) of soil. It is better to use seeds that are already 2-3 years old, because in a few years they cease to be a source of viral or fungal diseases.
It is best to choose a place under the greenhouse, where the solanaceous crops did not grow: pepper, potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants. All last year's plants should be collected and burned.
In order not to think later than to escape from the phytophtoras on tomatoes, the soil for the winter must be well digged. This will destroy the spores of the fungus. It is possible to plant seedlings only after hardening: a frail plant is a weak link that can become a target for a fungus.
Moreover, it is impossible to plant seedlings very thick. Always follow the planting patterns shown on the seed packets. Before lowering the plant into the hole, it removes the lower and old leaves up to 2-3 brushes. This will give more strength to the tomato, because it will not need to provide an extra piece of moisture and useful substances.
We must not forget about the mulching of the soil, but carry out this procedure only with adult and mature plants. Processing tomatoes from phytophthora is the correct technology of fertilizing fertilizers (phosphorus, potassium, copper sulphate). This is done in overcast non-rainy weather.
To defeat late blight of tomatoes, treatment must be carried out constantly, changing it from year to year. To spray tomatoes from phytophthora is necessary at the stage of planting in the soil. Use for this purchase solutions or prepared according to popular recipes.
- The first enemy of fungal spores is garlic.
Garlic heads and shoots are used. Take crushed heads and shoots (1.5 tbsp.) To a bucket (10 l) of water. The mixture is infused for 24 hours, filtered. Then add 2 g of potassium permanganate.
From the phytophtoras on tomatoes, the plant is sprayed with garlic solution when it has an ovary, and the next time it is done in 10 days. To carry out such a procedure is better 1 time in 2 weeks.
The question of how to spray tomatoes, help to close the usual salt. Need a glass of salt in 10 liters of water.
This solution creates a protective film on the leaves, which blocks the path of the spores to the mouths of the plant. You need to spray healthy bushes, because this is prevention, not a cure for the disease.
Effectively handle tomatoes from phytophthora ordinary ash.
In 10 liters of water, half a bucket of ash is bred. This solution is insisted for 3 days, not forgetting to stir from time to time. Then the mixture is diluted with another 20 liters of water and 35 g of soap is added.
It is easier to buy ready-made products and dilute them in accordance with the instructions. For example, fungicides are recognized as the most effective. They are used for 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings in a greenhouse and 2 weeks after that.
Many gardeners use old proven methods of dealing with this problem.
When the root system dries, a solution of Furacilin is prepared, which is sprayed on the seedlings. It is necessary to dilute 2 tablets in 0.5 l of water. Furacilin effectively copes with the fungus, as well as Trichopol. Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial agent that, according to reviews of gardeners, is actively coping with plant disease.
His second name is Trichopol. With a solution of means sprayed the plant every 2 weeks. For preparation, you need Trichopolum (1 tablet) diluted in 1 liter of water.
This antifungal agent has a very bitter taste, but is suitable for both people and plants. For an increased dose, use Trichopolum (20 tablets) per 10 liters of water. All these drugs are cheap and affordable.
What to work the land after the disease
In the spring, before planting, be sure to cultivate the land from phytophthora. To do this, take 3% of copper sulfate and pour it on the ground. Then you should thoroughly loosen the soil. To do this, use a special device that will help to mix the top cover with a thickness of 25 cm.
And the final stage is irrigation with phytosporin. For this, 1 tbsp. means dissolved in 10 l of water. This dose is designed for 1 sq.m. Be sure to remember that substances that contain copper can get into the food, because they should be used only in early spring.
Varieties resistant to infection
The resistant varieties before the blight include: The gift of a brother, De Barao, Vilina, Liang, Roton.
As you can see, dealing with blight is easy. You just have to choose the means you like and get to work. However, you should also follow the dosage, because exceeding the norm harm the tomatoes themselves.
What is - phytophthora
Late blight is a fungal disease, the spores of this fungus overwinter in the ground, mostly spread in potato tubers, in which they survive the winter safely, and wake up with spring plantings.
Therefore, the first blight affects the potatoes, and then the spores fly to the tomatoes.
Spots can be of different shapes and sizes. On the leaves at the beginning of the disease is whitish plaque. Fruits get sick through the stalk. At first they can remain clean, but during storage brown spots also appear on them. This disease can destroy all the planting of tomatoes in a few days.
Conditions for the development of late blight
In dry hot weather, infection of tomatoes with late blight is reduced to a minimum. Spores of this fungus do not like sunlight and are inactive. But in the period of rains and fogs, when the humidity of the air rises, they “wake up” and begin their harmful effects. If it rains for more than two days, be sure that your tomatoes have already become infected with blight.
- Usually on tomatoes the phytophthora appears in August, after cold nights and foggy wet mornings.
But tomatoes can get sick earlier - in July. Favorable weather for the development of the disease - temperatures below + 15 ° C and high humidity.
It is necessary to water the plants in the morning, so that the moisture per day is well absorbed and only under the root, the leaves cannot be wetted.
Another causes of late blight are:
- abusing nitrogen supplements,
- shortage in the soil of useful trace elements of copper, potassium, iodine, manganese,
- bushes too thickly planted.
Agrotechnical methods of prevention from phytophthora
With the observance of agrotechnical culture, you can reliably protect your tomatoes from late blight. Here is a list of activities that serve this purpose:
- in areas with excess lime content, the natural balance of the soil should be restored by adding peat under digging. When planting seedlings, it is better to fill the holes with sand,
- observe crop rotation: do not plant tomatoes on the plot where carrots, turnips, cauliflowers, beets, cucumbers or onions grew to them,
- Do not thicken the landing - follow the landing scheme developed by agricultural technicians,
- water the tomatoes in the early morning or after sunset, trying to pour water so that no water falls on the plants,
- in the period of high humidity, tomatoes can not be watered at all, but it is very important during this period of time to loosen the soil between the rows,
- feed tomatoes with phosphorus, potassium and other useful elements that help strengthen the immune system of plants - strong, healthy tomatoes are not affected by fungal infections.