Without garden processing it is impossible to get a good harvest. Especially carefully should be her spring. Since it depends on how well the whole process is carried out, whether the plantations will get rid of pests and diseases, and whether they will be able to fulfill their fertile functions to the full.
With the onset of spring, our eyes are drawn to the nature awakening from a long sleep. It seems to us that everything around is playing with an amazing riot of colors, a rich and charming palette. And so you want to quickly engage in preparing the garden for such a long-awaited period of fruiting.
To do this, you need to carefully examine the orchard to determine the extent of damage after prolonged cold, and then do the removal of damaged branches, direct treatment of trees and shrubs. But why do you need spring garden processing? What are the steps involved in this process, and which tools will be most effective in controlling pests and diseases?
For what and when is it best to conduct spring garden processing
Many of us want to eat only the freshest, natural berries and fruits. To do this, we are ready to work hard on our plots in order to personally grow a high-quality crop. But, unfortunately, lately, dacha lovers have increasingly been persecuting all sorts of parasites and diseases that breed and develop exponentially.
To combat them, it is necessary to apply chemical and organic processing of the spring garden. It directly depends on the skills and degree of professionalism of gardeners: whether the produced care can preserve and increase the harvest of garden fruits. Only these actions are desirable to carry out regularly and in a timely manner. It is necessary to begin immediately after the retreat of the cold weather and continue during the flowering and fruit ovary.
Stages of garden processing in the spring of pests and diseases
Experienced gardeners recommend gardening in the morning until 10 o'clock, or in the evening, after six, so that the spring sun does not damage the leaves. Share the whole process of spring care into the following stages:
- in early spring,
- before budding on trees and bushes,
- before and after the flowering process,
- during the appearance of the ovaries on the fruit.
Now let's take a closer look at how spring garden processing affects parasites, the course of diseases, and also learn how to carry out its stages correctly.
Spraying the garden in early spring
As a rule, whitewashing tree trunks are made before the onset of cold weather, that is, in the fall. It will help to avoid attacks of rodents and preserve the whole bark, preventing it from cracking from the frosty wind. In the spring, it is only checked after hibernation and recovers, if necessary. However, if you previously did not know about the need for treatment, the beginning of the care of trees and shrubs begins in early spring, before the buds began to bloom. When the snow has melted, gardeners begin to clean up the vicinity of the summer cottage, remove the insulation from the wrapped shtamb, remove the dead branches. Then proceed to the spring treatment of annoying insects.
Spring garden spraying
First of all, they clean the trunks of trees from all kinds of fungi, then they treat the bark with lime mortar. It is prepared in this way:
- 2 kg of lime or lime paste is diluted in 10 liters of water,
- 1 kg of clay and 300-350 g of copper sulphate are added to the resulting liquid (this will significantly enhance the protective effect),
- mix thoroughly
- the resulting solution is treated trunks and the base of the branches.
Conduct this procedure to burn out the eggs and insect larvae that remained on the bark and in the cracks of the trunk after the winter.
There are also modern, slightly more expensive, but also means with much greater efficiency, with which it is much easier and faster to whitewash a tree in order to protect it from attacks of insects and rodents. In addition, they contain fungicides that protect against most diseases. These tasks are handled by:
- acrylic whitewash such as green squre,
- acrylic paints, for example Concorde Ost,
- calcareous paste containing blue vitriol, such as the Gardener.
Another effective tool in the fight against pests is diesel fuel (diesel fuel, which can be bought at any gas station). Evenly spraying it with plantings, you will create a protective oily film and thereby save all pome and stone fruit plants from annoying insects. Their larvae and eggs will suffocate under the balloon of diesel fuel (within 2-3 hours) and will not harm unopened peduncles and open leaves.
Garden treatment in the spring of diseases and pests before and during the flowering process
Prior to the beginning of the blooming process, the buds of trees and shrubs are processed to protect them from the invasion of the codling moth larvae, as well as from the development of scab and spotting. You can use "Karbofoks", making 10% of the drug with the calculation of 70 g per 10 liters of water at room temperature. During flowering season, experienced gardeners do not recommend any action.
When the flowering period is completed garden processing is carried out for prevention, in order to improve immunity from the disease.
The period of blooming inflorescences coincides with the release of ticks from wintering. To resist them, it is necessary to process cultures of colloidal sulfur (80 g of 70% of the paste is dissolved in 10 liters of soapy water). If you miss this moment and do not protect in time, the mites will cause significant damage to all plantations.
Spring garden processing during the appearance of the ovaries on the fruit
The fourth stage of spring processing is carried out in order to protect future fruits from putrid diseases and the remaining pests. Before taking action, it is advisable to inspect all trees and shrubs for visible adversaries, since chemical exposure with potent agents can only harm the ovaries.
Spraying can be carried out with copper oxychloride, Bordeaux mixture, urea or other combined preparations with a wide range of actions. But it is necessary to ensure that the humidity does not exceed the permissible rate, otherwise the leaves may suffer from burns.
Insects are pests of the garden. Garlic extract - a reliable way to get rid
To protect the garden from aphids, coppers, rust, it is worth sprinkling them with tincture of garlic. She prepares pretty simple:
- A pound of garlic is crushed, diluted in 3-5 liters of water,
- filter and squeeze the thick,
- once again soaked in water
- the resulting solutions are passed through a sieve,
- mix and add liquid to 10 liters.
This strong-smelling garlic extract will ward off pests. There are other tinctures, herbaceous broths, with which you can try to protect your garden. But there is no guarantee that they will be more effective than chemicals.
Calculate the amount of solution
In order for the drugs to act effectively, but not to harm the plantings, it is necessary to correctly calculate their consumption. Of course, the instructions indicate how to dilute them, and such a calculation will only help determine what quantity of them must be purchased.
So: approximately 1.5 liters of solution are consumed for one young tree, and 5.5 liters for adults; from 0.6 to 1.5 liters of liquid to bushes, depending on the size of the crowns.
Processing garden in the spring - stone trees
To prevent infection of stone cultures in the garden, they should be treated before and after blooming with copper oxychloride (40 g, 90% of the substance per 10 liters of water) before they can be treated with klyasterporiosis, moniliosis, and powdery mildew.
And in order to protect the fruit plantations from leaf curl, the “Skor” fungicide can be used, it is safe and low toxic. It is necessary to use it only after flowering, the mixture is prepared with the calculation of 3 g per 10 l of liquid. Pest control in the spring will preserve and increase the yield of fruits.
Inventory for processing the garden, care for it and safety rules during spring operations
For the convenience of processing plantings use:
- Sprayer. This is the most effective way to quickly and economically garden. Various models of sprayers are presented on the market (Proton OB-14, Sadko GSP-3325, Solo 451-02). Their choice depends on the capacity of the tank, power and flow rate per minute,
- Whitewash brush. It can be used for whitewashing trunks, and for descriptions. Only it should be noted that the consumption of the solution will be far from economical,
- Electric pumps. Time-consuming, but reliable, proven method. Now popular and available brand AL-KO Jet 3000 Classic, 3000/4 GARDENA,
- Plastic sprayer. It can be made on its own from a regular bottle, screwed to the neck of the diverter (buy at a flower shop). This mini-unit is convenient to take care of undersized plants.
All the above inventory after the end of a particular stage of processing must be thoroughly washed, dried and aired. It is important not to forget about the proper storage of the instrument and its processing for the winter.
Safety rules when processing the garden from pests and diseases
In order to protect the skin and internal organs from unwanted ingress of chemicals or their fumes, all safety rules must be strictly followed.
- Carefully read the inscriptions on the packaging of products in which manufacturers clearly indicate which group this tool belongs to and what precautions should be taken when working with it.
- Cover your respiratory tract with a respirator or gauze bandage, and hide your eyes under glasses. These actions you will certainly protect the respiratory system from harmful fumes and allergic reactions.
- Be sure to wear a protective suit and gloves. This will protect the body from chemical burns.
Processing the garden in the spring from pests and diseases is troublesome, time consuming and expensive, but worth it. If it is correct to carry out all the stages, to strictly follow all the instructions, to follow all the rules - the result will not take long. All your labors will soon be rewarded with a quality harvest.
Spraying a garden in spring is an important agrotechnical event, and this is known to all. Sometimes site owners approach to spraying a garden in the spring formally, without thinking too much about the essence of this agronomic procedure. Then the annual spraying of the garden in spring risks turning into a "meaningless and merciless", even dangerous.
It is quite clear our desire to put a barrier to pests and plant diseases. With the weather in the Middle Belt, not less than 70 species of pests and about 20 species of infectious diseases regularly threaten the fruit and berry harvest. Humanity has ways to suppress the maximum of them, but then the environment and food will become dangerously toxic to humans. Finding a balance is the main task of spring events.
Refusal of treatments
Admittedly, the worst option is the lack of global preventive irrigation. It is definitely more reasonable than any excessiveness.
- It is permissible to relax a bit if the summer cottage is quite young and has not yet accumulated a large mass of harmful organisms.
- It is necessary to plant unpretentious, resistant varieties in the garden (there are trouble-free roses, apples without scab, black currants without a tick and red-gall aphids, gooseberries without a sphere library, strawberries almost without gray rot, etc.) and in the optimal place.
- We need regular agrotechnical measures (thinning, pruning, digging, deoxidation, fertilizer, mulching, traps, etc.).
- It is useful to apply from spring to autumn spraying with biological preparations and stimulants: immunomodulators Epin Extra, Zircon, Gumi, Strobi and Fitoverm biopesticides, microbiological tools such as Fitosporin. All of them act on the already growing plants.
Even the most ardent supporters of ecological farming are ready to surrender if a substantial part of the crop regularly dies in the garden. The solution is to seek a compromise: minimal harm with maximum benefit. It is necessary to reduce the number of pests and diseases, not forgetting about the ecology.
All at once
“Give me something to spray in the garden in the spring all at once and from everything” - echoes before the season begins in garden stores. Even a simple and logical question of a reasonable seller: "Is it from diseases or pests?" - able to enter the buyer in a stupor. Of course, the smart seller will lend a certain cherished product, to the delight of the buyer. As a rule, there are two results, and both are disappointing:
1. The effect of spraying almost no.
2. Garden accumulates poisons.
Contrary to any advertisements and our employment, we must stop and face it: there is no single ideal preparation and time limit for spraying a garden in spring from diseases and pests.
Spring - a loose concept
"My country is wide", and in garden recommendations it is necessary to separate calendar and natural seasons. For agrotechnical measures two natural indicators are important (in different regions dates differ by a month or more) - air temperature and plant development stages in the spring garden:
- Before the kidneys are swollen,
- "green cone" - the very beginning of the nomination of leaves,
- young ovaries.
The concept of "spring spraying" is very conditional, since there is no clear boundary between spring and summer periods. However, it is possible to clearly distinguish two stages: treatment before the buds swell and after this event (when the leaflets and buds are advanced).
The earliest deadline is the sleeping kidney phase.
The first spraying is carried out in the spring when low positive temperatures occur in the garden (+4 +6 degrees or slightly higher), but always before the buds swell over the sleeping plants. Everywhere there is a different height and rate of melting of the snow cover, and cultures wake up at different times, so it is not always possible to keep within one specific day. Black currants and honeysuckle awaken very early, but a bed of strawberries, sheltered roses and grapes, and a curled raspberry can be under the snow for a long time (especially on the northern slope).
What kind of garden crops can not be sprayed during this period?
- Honeysuckle almost does not get sick and extremely rarely toils from pests - if this is your good case, then we bypass it.
- This may also apply to blackberries (especially late maturing).
- If modern black currant varieties are planted in your garden that are not damaged by powdery mildew and bud mites, then there is no point in spraying in early spring either. Still not to get the glass-pot inside the shoots, and aphid while in deep sleep (we will later defeat it with a biological product like Fitoverma).
- They do not need to be sprayed with fungicides and gooseberry varieties that are hardy to a sphere library.
- In many gardens, sea buckthorn is not sick.
- In the case when your pears do not show serious problems from year to year, it is also permissible to put them in peace.
- If earlier there were prosperous years, protection against diseases for apple varieties that have immunity to scab and endurance to moniliosis (fruit rot) will not be needed.
- Finally, in the zone of northern viticulture often no treatments are needed to the vines.
- For decorative shrubs and perennial flowers, you need a thoughtful individual approach.
This is a very important point - to determine the range of trouble-free plants that do not require excessive care: for us - saving time, effort, money, and most importantly - the benefits of ecology. Chemical protection of the garden is carried out not at all and not "just in case", but at real risk.
Before the buds swell, berries and fruit trees (strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, plums, cherries, cherries, plums, quinces, peaches, apricots, grapes) need to be sprayed, rosebeds, flower beds. At this time, the impact is more focused on diseases and only partially on pests, many of which are still asleep.
The first spring garden treatment for pests and diseases
With the advent of heat, everything around comes alive: birds sing, babbling springs, green grass, primroses make their way, and, of course, the buds of trees and shrubs swell. Life begins. Activity is manifested not only in nature, but also in gardeners, gardeners, who are accepted for inspection of seedlings. This should be done to determine the scope of work and assess the state of plants.
In early spring, pruning of dry branches, which have not survived the winter or have deteriorated from old age and illness, is carried out. Pruning is best done in March before the movement of juices and leaf blooming. Many of us remember how order was laid in the city before the Easter holidays, leaves were cleaned in parks and squares, and the bottom of the trees were whitened with lime. On the one hand, it is beautiful, whitewashed borders and trunks look neat and the park seems to be even cleaner, but on the other hand, it is an excellent prevention of fungi, diseases, insects and even rodents.
Lime tree whitewash
The trees are whitened in autumn or spring to protect the bark from cracking and blockage of insect larvae in the pores of the plant. If there was no time for whitewashing or painting in the fall, the procedure is carried out in early spring, this will help to disinfect the stem from fungi and mold, protect the bark from rodents, insects and burn existing pests. Перед процедурой кору очищают щеткой или скребком, удаляя мох, личинки, грибковые и прочие наросты. После обработки с поверхности земли собирают спилы и старые листья, все сжигают вдали от деревьев.
Состав для побелки включает такие компоненты:
- Slaked lime (disinfectant property) - 2 kg,
- PVA glue (provides a solution density and better adhesion of whitewash to the barrel) - 1 bottle,
- Insecticide - 300-500 g,
- Water - 10 liters.
Paint the trunks with acrylic paint
The method is not traditional, but rather effective, although its cost does not cost one penny. To do this, use acrylic paints or special whitewash. Painting is carried out after drying of the top layer of soil and bark. Paint does not harm the plant, but is deadly to insects and contains a large number of insecticides, fungicides and other chemical components.
In addition to whitewash, in the gardenpurge, removing dry or diseased branches in trees, shrubs and leaves from berries. The place to cut the branches is treated with paint or garden pitch, a means for healing the wounds of fruit trees is sold in any store specializing in garden plants.
At the same time, the molding of the crown. Long and incorrectly formed shoots are removed, and the top is given an oval or any other shape.
Garden treatment in the spring from pests and diseases - iron sulfate
In addition to lime, whitewashing trunks can be made blue vitriolwhich perfectly replaces insecticide and kills all pests. Processing includes whitewashing trunks and spraying the branches, but the procedure must be carried out before the formation of leaves, otherwise the plant will receive a burn that will affect future flowering and yield in general. It is important to remember that iron sulfate cannot be mixed with such substances as lime, preparations similar in composition to Karbofos and components that are afraid of alkali.
You can use wood ash. To do this, take 1 cup of sifted wood ash and mix with three cups of boiling water, infuse the resulting solution for 2-3 days, after which it is diluted with nine liters of distilled water or rainwater and 500-600 g of vitriol is added. The same solution can be sprayed not only the tree itself or the bush, but also the soil around it. Applying iron sulfate, It is important to withstand and not to exceed its concentration:
- 5% - used in the treatment of the bark and trunk,
- 4% - for spraying fruit trees and shrubs (apple, quince, pear, grapes, etc),
- 3 percent sprayed cherries, apricots, plums, peaches, cherries and other stone fruit,
- 2% - used for spraying shrubs - raspberries, yoshty, gooseberries, currants and others.
Copper sulfate treatment
Unlike its iron counterpart, bluestone can be mixed with lime and whitened the trunks of plants. Treatment has its advantages in disinfecting the bark and shoots from fungal and mold lesions, manifestations of the disease and insect etching. The most effective composition contains 100 g of vitriol and 10 liters of water.
Copper sulfate paired with urea is an effective way to combat many of the plagues: scab, moniliasis, cholesterol, spotting, chlorosis, gray rot, septoria, etc. The Gart fungicide is considered to be the best drug made on the basis of copper sulfate.
A "Preparation 30B" is made on the basis of oil and copes well with such pests as the scale insect, leafworm, mites.
Currant bushes can be processed not by chemical means, but by simple boiled water. For this use boiling water 80-90 degrees, which shed unblown branches of the plant, thus all the larvae and pests are scalded and die, and the plant remains healthy and clean from the chemical elements.
Second treatment: spraying plants before flowering
After processing unblown garden plants, some pests still survive, and in order to protect the crop, the procedure is repeated, but using other methods and preparations.
During the second procedure, the herbs and buds are sprayed with Karbofos before flowering, and it will protect against the appearance of blotches, scab and caterpillars. To do this, take 10 liters of water and add 70 grams of karbofos, mix well and spray the buds and greens that appear.
Important! Spray "Karbofos" blooming buds can not be!
In addition, the drug can use others:
- "Avant" and similar insecticides.
In the fight against ticks colloidal sulfur helps very well, it is diluted according to the instructions, trying not to exceed the dosage. To prepare the composition, a 70% paste is taken 80 g and dissolved in 10 liters of water, to which 100 g of grated soap is added. The solution should stand up to complete dissolution of the soap and particle connections, after which the treatment is carried out using a spray bottle, spraying the crown and branches of plants.
be careful! Do not combine colloidal sulfur with other drugs, their reaction is unpredictable! It is also undesirable to spray gooseberry bushes, the leaves of which may fall due to contact with the drug.
During flowering spraying stop, so as not to harm the bees and butterflies, pollinating flowers.
Third spring treatment: spraying after flowering
The final stage of spring processing is spraying trees and shrubs after flowering, when fruits begin to form. This is done to protect the fruit from caterpillars, scab, powdery mildew, and other diseases that strive to spoil the crop.
When the ovary appears, seedlings inspect for the presence of pests (caterpillars, larvae) and putrefactive manifestations prone to occur at this time. If the latter is found, spraying is carried out with carbamide or Bordeaux mixture. To reduce the concentration of chemical processing, you can use folk remedies and protect the plant with infusions of herbs: wormwood, garlic, mustard, dandelions. Such compositions are environmentally friendly, and you will be calm for the safety of the harvest, because in the spring a lot of chemical products were used based on chemical elements aimed at combating diseases and pests.
Protect the garden from pests in the spring
Whitewashing trunks, digging the soil around bushes / trees, spraying plants with chemicals are three important procedures that include spring garden treatment for pests and diseases. With the help of the first bark is disinfected, which is often a source of pests and diseases. Tillage by digging helps fight pests living in the ground. This procedure is carried out shortly before spraying the garden with protective agents. For carrying out spring processing use different structures, including the sparing organic liquids.
Before bud break
To process a garden from diseases, pests costs stage by stage. Spraying should begin in early spring, in early March, when there are no buds on the trees. It is important to pay special attention to such garden crops as raspberry, currant, gooseberry. It is necessary to clean the plants from dried boughs, fruits, to cut the tree crown and remove the old bark. Cut branches, other parts of shrubs should be burned.
Garden processing in the spring of diseases and pests is carried out after this preparatory period. Any effective drugs are used: copper or iron sulphate, urea, carbamide, diesel, Bordeaux mixture, etc. Early spring spraying of fruit trees in the spring helps to get rid of the apple-colored beetle, weevils, sawflies, ticks, some types of fungal diseases.
Trees after flowering
When the flowering of fruit crops is completed, it is time to start the next spring garden treatment for pests and diseases. The last spraying procedure is carried out when the trees / bushes have dropped all the petals, and ovaries appear in place of the flowers. During this period, it is necessary to spray the plants in order to protect them from putrefactive diseases and to help develop immunity against spots and fungi.
It is desirable that the processing of the garden after flowering ends with a thorough examination of each fruit crop for the presence of pests. Sometimes even a few procedures do not bring the expected result, and the plantings are still subject to the negative influence of aphids or other midges. If you find insects, destroy them, however, during the period of fruit loading, the use of most insecticides is not allowed. It is better in this case to treat the plants with carbamide.
How to spray fruit trees in the spring
Spring processing of fruit trees from pests involves the use of chemical, organic or combined formulations. Each type has its pros and cons:
- So, the chemicals are very effective and easy to use, but their effect ends 1-2 weeks after spraying.
- Organic substances are as safe as possible for the garden and people, but they are not universal, as they help in the fight against only some insects and diseases.
- The most effective for spring processing of the garden from pests and diseases are considered to be combined means.
This is an extremely effective tool for combating not only insect parasites, but also their eggs, larvae. Fruit crops are treated with Nitrofen only in early spring, when the buds are closed, because if the drug gets on the leaves it burns them, in the extreme case, the tree / shrub may die. The tool is effective against lichens, mosses, aphids, caterpillars, leafworms, ticks, spotting. It is used for spraying grapes, apples, plums and other plants. Dilute the solution by mixing a glass of Nitrofen in a 10-liter bucket of water.
This procedure allows you to avoid many diseases - moniliosis, scab, coccomycosis and rottenness. Urea is able to destroy the pupae and eggs of various insect pests. The tool acts as a fertilizer, saturating the plantings with nitrogen, thereby activating the vegetative process. Urea is a mixture of ash and soap solution. Prepare the product, spreading in a 10-liter bucket of water a kilogram of wood ash. After the liquid is boiled, filtered and allowed to infuse for a short time. Before use, 20 g of green soap and 30 g of urea are added to the product.
When to spray trees from pests in the spring
Many gardeners intuitively choose the time for watering plants with insecticides, but they do it too early or delay the process. Meanwhile, spraying should be carried out strictly on time, otherwise you will not destroy the pests or together with them eliminate insects that pollinate the gardens. The result of this approach will be the absence of the ovary. Experienced gardeners advise treating fruit-bearing trees / bushes several times in the spring season, using different formulations. Below is a table showing the terms suitable for processing funds.
Spring agrotechnical events
Spring agrotechnical activities in the garden begin with preparation for the treatment of fruit crops from diseases and pests:
- We remove insulation on young saplings and process them against possible pests. We dry. Fold in a dry place until autumn.
- On fruiting crops, we remove the trapping belts and burn them.
- When a steady temperature of -5 ..- 7ºС occurs, we perform pruning of the crown, cleaning the trunk and skeletal branches from the old lagged bark, which served as “winter quarters” for pests. Cuts and cuts are treated by barb, special formulations or simply disinfect with 5% of copper sulfate and paint over with oil paint.
- April sun ardent. It is necessary to hide stumps and skeletal branches of trees from it, to put whitewash and painting into spring outfit, at the same time to destroy part of the pests.
- Adult pests (weevils, fruit sawflies) can simply be shaken off the tree. The technology of this procedure is simple, but up to 60-80% of the pests that overwintered in adult form will be destroyed. The procedure should be carried out at a temperature not higher than + 7 ... + 8 ºС, in the early morning in overcast weather, so that the numb beetles do not fly away from the cold. Remove all sticking weeds under the crown. Spread evenly film. With a long pole, shake the branches. Overwhelming pests sprinkle from the crown of the tree. It remains to gently roll the film with bugs to endure and burn pests.
Processing trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops
Before processing the wood, cover the film under it. Once again, inspect the trunk and large branches, remove the remnants of the old bark, clean the cracks, repair the hollows and wounds. The film is needed to protect the soil from pests and re-infection of plants.
The chemical industry offers ready-made compositions for whitewashing and even painting the trunks and main shoots of adult plants. The most popular dye for whitewashing - acrylic paint. On sale there are water-based and water-dispersion dyes marked "for garden trees." They keep on the bark of trees for a long time, they are not washed away by rains. Dyes contain an antiseptic, so no additional toxic chemicals in the solution do not need to be added. Sometimes, if the composition is liquid, PVA glue is added to it. With a dense consistency glue is not needed. If you can not buy ready pobelochny solution, it can be prepared independently.
Independent preparation of whitewash solutions
For young seedlings, the solution is prepared on a water-based or chalky basis. Lime can burn the tender bark of seedlings. BI-58 and copper sulphate are added to the solution as disinfectants. You can use other disinfectants. Glue, especially carpentry, can not be used. It clogs the pores in the young bark, as a result of which the gas exchange decreases, the trunks more slowly thicken (they remain weak to maintain the crown).
Council To protect the young bark of seedlings from sunburn, always install a supporting stake on the south side of the trunk. There will be additional shadow protection.
The garden is not limited to one whitewash per year. Whitewashing as flushing needs to be repeated.
For fruit-bearing trees, the following mixtures are prepared, with which the trunk and all skeletal branches are treated. Mortar is prepared on freshly lime. It burns many pest eggs laid from autumn.
Dilute the slaked lime to a thick cream. For better adhesion to the bucket of the solution, add 1-2 handfuls of clay, stationery glue (some gardeners use joiner's), copper sulphate and any strongly smelling toxic chemical BI-58, dichlorvos, etc.
Prepare a solution of freshly lime lime creamy density, add stationery glue, loose soap, copper sulphate, fungicide hom (30-40 g / bucket), oxyfine (20 g / bucket). This composition is well applied in gardens affected by fungal diseases, mosses and lichens.
In regions where nitrofen is allowed, you can add 200 g of the drug to a bucket of pobelochny solution. It is effective against hibernating eggs of garden pests.
Each gardener can use his prescription whitewash solution. The above compositions are examples for beginners.
Finish the whitewash work by installing the straw harness belts on the lower part of the trunk. Treat the harness with any powdered toxic chemical (DDT, etc.), lubricate the bole with a special anti-crawler garden glue and attach the trapping belt to the glue track. Livestock, from the soil, including the "economic" ants, will be stuck on the adhesive track in the belt and will die. During the spring trap belts are changed twice in 10-12 days. Old necessarily burn.
The measures taken will partially destroy the pests, but with the onset of the warm period, other sucking and gnawing representatives of the negative world of harmful insects and beetles will wake up.
Brief description of pests
The pests of the green world can be divided into two groups according to the method of feeding:
In sucking mouth apparatus adapted for sucking plant juices. At the same time, the normal nutrition of the culture is disturbed and, in case of an epiphytotic lesion, the plant is killed. The main sucking pests of the garden are aphids, mites, shchitovki, tsikadki, pennitsa, sheds and others. Adult individuals left over the wintering grounds for a short period of time, actively breeding, form huge colonies.
In the process of feeding, they release the sweetish liquid “honeydew”, which is a breeding ground for fungi, bacteria, viruses, and the favorite food of ants. By eating honeydew affected by negative diseases, they spread the disease across all the cultures visited.
Gnawing pests gnaw young vegetatives (leaves, buds, young shoots, roots) and generative organs (flower buds, flowers, ovaries). They cause irreparable harm to the crop and the tree itself. In some years, pests destroy the crop by 50-100%. Often cause the death of culture. This group of pests includes caterpillars of various butterflies, mustaches, snakes, weevils, etc.
Garden treatment with special preparations from a sprayer
Fruit pest control methods
Pest control can be carried out by several methods:
- Chemical, with the use of pesticides.
- Biological, using biological products made on a live bacterial and fungal basis and attracting natural predators that eat adult pests, their eggs, larvae. These include ladybugs, horsemen, certain species of wasps and birds, including sparrows, warblers, titmouse, wagtails and others.
- Народными отварами, настоями, порошками соответствующих противоинсектицидных и противофунгицидных трав, плодов, семян.
Общие подходы к химическим методам борьбы с вредителями
Как ни обидно осознавать, но наиболее распространенным остается химический метод борьбы с вредителями. Приготовленный за 5-10 минут раствор, особенно в баковой смеси, избавит сад за 2-3 опрыскивания от вредителей.
When applying pesticides you need to remember:
- all chemical preparations (solutions, powders) have a high degree of risk to human health, animals and beneficial insects,
- the last chemical treatment ends a month or more before harvesting,
- Considering their negative impact on health, it is better to process trees and bushes with tank mixture, having previously checked the preparations for compatibility. Mixtures of pesticides will reduce the number of treatments and expand the list of simultaneously destroyed pests and diseases.
Starting work with a chemical agent, especially a new one, carefully study the recommendations and act strictly on them. Increasing the dose of the drug in solution, late use will not have a positive effect, but will adversely affect the health and product quality.
Remember! The main condition for effective protection against pests when using chemicals is the exact implementation of the guidelines and recommendations for their use.
When working with pesticides, you should always work in work clothes that protect against the ingress of the poison. After working with drugs take a shower and change clothes.
Chemical drugs against sucking pests
- Before budding, fruit crops can be protected from pests by spraying with Nitrofen and DNOC solutions. Nitrafen can be replaced with Nisaran or Borneo preparations, which destroy the eggs of pests, and later on, the larvae.
- In the phase of bud swelling, before flowering and at the end of it, it is advisable to sprinkle the trees with 1% Bordeaux mixture or use a tank mixture of XOM preparations and fufanon.
- Of the chemical drugs of systemic action that destroy the gastrointestinal tract with poisonous juice, sucking pests such as aphids, scale insects, false guards, whitefly thrips, listobloshki, effectively used according to the recommendations of Aktar, Konfidor, Karbofos, Rovikurt, Benzophosphate. Karbofos and Aktellik are successfully used against ticks, including spider mites.
- Mospilan and Prestige are drugs of double action: systemic and contact. They successfully destroy eggs, larvae and adult pests.
- Contact preparations (require re-spraying after rain and watering) Arrivo, Detsis, Karate, Fastak, Fury, Tsimbush, Tsitkor, Sherpa (approximately the same in chemical composition) effectively destroy not only sucking aphids, mushroom mosquitoes, thrips, whiteflies, but also gnawing pests.
- Against ants and medvedok successfully use the Thunder and Thunder-2.
- Of the new drugs, Sunmite is recommended against ticks and whitefly in all phases of crop development, especially in apple trees.
- Stirrap with targeted destruction of a spiderweb mite.
A bucket of water, brought to a boil, is immediately poured into a watering can and we pour bushes of any color of currants and gooseberries (sometimes also raspberries and blackberries are captured) - only through sleeping bushes. It is believed that this partially destroys the wintering forms of pests and diseases. With a temperature of +65 degrees strictly, we pour water from the watering can of the bushes of garden strawberries immediately after the snow melts - from a strawberry microscopic mite and nematode.
Blue Spraying - Bordeaux Liquid
This is an old one, invented a century and a half ago, but still the most useful event against virtually all fungal and bacterial infections in all cultures and on the soil surface. Carry it out with such a tool as a strong Bordeaux liquid - in a concentration of about 3% (and not 1%, as in green foliage). In the instructions for the preparation, there is sometimes a discrepancy in the ratio of lime and copper sulfate in solution. This confusion stems from the fact that in the original recipe, quicklime was used, and now most often they use slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), and more is needed. When purchased shop Bordeaux mixture, it is better to act clearly according to the instructions. If it deals only with the preparation of a 1% solution, then for a 3% solution, we simply reduce the amount of water three times. When buying ingredients for 3 liters of water, we take 100 grams of copper sulphate and hydrated lime (or about 150-200 quicklime) each.
An alternative is the Burgundian liquid. Cooking is similar to Bordeaux, but instead of lime we use soda (soda or food grade), sometimes we also add a spoonful of soap or sugar, so that it sticks better to the branches. There is an option where we replace part of the soda with mustard powder and ammonia, give the mixture a purple color with the passage of a chemical reaction, and then immediately process it.
Official manufacturer - only "NPF Sober". This is an emulsion of petroleum jelly, originally applied in the spring to combat the shield (the most dangerous fruit pest) in the Krasnodar Territory. It turned out that the tool is practically harmless to humans, but it violates the breathing of insects hibernating on the branches of bushes and trees. In spraying in early spring, not only insects die, but also other insects hibernating in the crowns, even eggs and larvae. A liter of the product is mixed in two buckets of water and we spray the garden, spending a liter or two per bush and up to five liters per large tree. Substance dangerous for bees. A similar product Profilaktin also contains a similar oil, but plus to this also liquid karbofos (malathion), which is highly poisonous and useless at this time.
More spring spraying options
In early spring, a strong solution of carbamide is also used (600 grams per bucket), sometimes with the addition of copper sulfate (50 grams).
Ferric sulfate is used for spraying, especially in the fight against lichen and moss, as well as against various diseases on grapes, roses, fruit trees. A kilogram of ferrous sulfate is dissolved in twenty liters of water (for stone fruit such as cherries, the concentration is weaker, 600 grams per two buckets).
Both tools are considered to be very scorching, and experienced gardeners recommend using them not in early spring, but in late autumn. In addition, spraying them in the spring is capable of a week delay in budding in the garden.
The adherents of ecological farming during this period are the first two treatments with such means as Fitosporin (all in a row), Alirin (strawberries from gray rot, fruit trees), Fitolavin (apples from fruit rot).
This group may include the drug Strobe. This is a fungicide of natural origin. It is used on apple and pear at the very beginning of its growing season.
Spraying against pests (insecticides)
In this phase, biological insecticides are practically useless: neither aphids, nor caterpillars, nor spider mites while in the garden. It makes sense to apply the poison, if last year was observed the dominance of pests (weevil, raspberry beetle, sea buckthorn fly, moth, leeder, etc.). You can not spray in the time of flowering - you need either before this joyful event, or immediately after, strictly according to the instructions.
This is Alatar, Inta-CM.
Copper medications are recommended to be used separately. The remaining fungicides can be mixed with pesticides, first checking whether there is a violent chemical reaction from this. Studies show that the addition of the Epina Extra type stimulator allows one and a half to two times to reduce the dosage of chemicals while maintaining efficiency.
Adding an article to a new collection
With the beginning of spring, the garden wakes up from hibernation. And although there is still snow all around, the air is fresh in spring. But as soon as the sun begins to burn, garden pests are activated. Therefore, it is time to take measures to eliminate them and protect the garden.
Garden treatment for pests, which is carried out in early spring, is, first of all, spraying trees with special chemical solutions that neutralize harmful insects. Aphids, leafblocks, sawflies, weevils, moths and many other detractors are just waiting for the moment when the owner gape.
Summer residents carry out the very first spraying of trees right after the cold weather recedes. The following stages of processing the garden from diseases and pests are carried out before the trees begin to bloom and the first ovaries appear.
The very first thing to do before spraying is to bring order to the site: clean up the garbage and last year’s leaves, clean the tree trunks from mosses and lichens. When the frosts go away, and outside the window the stable temperature will be stable above zero, you can begin to whiten the trees in the garden.
To do this, prepare a special solution: dilute 2 kg of lime with 10 liters of water (lime paste can be used), add 1 kg of clay and, to slightly enhance the protective effect, 300-350 g of copper sulfate. The resulting mass is gently kneaded. After this, the treatment solution with copper sulfate is ready. It helps to remove the insect larvae and their eggs that have “hibernated” in the cracks from the bark of the tree.
Treating trees in spring can also be carried out with the help of acrylic whitewash such as Green Squre, acrylic paints, and lime Gardener paste, which contain copper sulphate in their composition.
Read below on how to sprinkle a garden in early spring against diseases and pests.
Processing of currants and gooseberries in spring
Although currants and gooseberries are considered unpretentious, they also need preventive treatment for diseases and pests. The first treatment of the bushes is carried out as soon as the snow melts.
First you need to carefully examine the bushes and the soil to figure out which particular pests will have to fight. When inspecting the bushes, pay attention to the condition of the branches. If they look like burned, then your bushes struck pochkovy mole. If the buds are large and resemble a head of cabbage, this is the “work” of the kidney tick. The raid at the ends of the branches indicates powdery mildew, and the holes inside the branches indicate the destruction of the bush by a glass case. The affected branches must be trimmed. This also applies to old branches, overgrowths growing inside the bush, branches with bloom and in general all "suspicious" branches.
Before trying "heavy artillery" from chemical insecticides, gardeners usually use the good old folk remedies. The soil around the bush is watered with hot water with a small amount of potassium permanganate or soda. The branches of the bushes also shed this hot solution using a watering can.
Another sure remedy that many summer residents use is copper sulfate (50-100 g per 10 l of water). The concentration of the drug depends on the age of the plant and the degree of its damage (the older the plant and the more damage there is - the higher the concentration). Basically, for the treatment of copper sulphate of a single currant bush or gooseberry spring will require 1-1.5 liters of solution.
For the treatment of diseases, gardeners widely use Bordeaux liquid - 100 g of copper sulphate, 100 g of quicklime and 10 liters of water. This is enough to handle 10 gooseberry and currant bushes. It is important that the solution be used within five hours after preparation - after this time the lime, which is present in the Bordeaux mixture, will begin to stick together in lumps and clog the watering can.
Recently, biopreparations are gaining increasing popularity for fighting diseases (Bitoxibacillin, Fitosporin, Trichophyt, Mikosan, etc.). All of them are good, but it must be borne in mind that these drugs work at a temperature of 8 ° C and above, while the first spring preventive treatments begin to be carried out immediately after the snow melts. So, the effectiveness of the above funds in early spring will be very low.
To control pests currants and gooseberries follow these guidelines.
1. Branches and shoots with signs of defeat by powdery mildew, a currant glass-case, a shield, a false shield, a currant-mite are cut to the level of the soil and burned. In no case do not throw these branches into compost - this is a ready substrate for the development of diseases and pests! But the ash after burning can be used as fertilizer.
2. Fallen leaves are also burned. The aisles, as well as the soil around the bushes are loosened, thus reducing the likelihood of infections such as anthracnose and septoria, and saving the plants from the moth caterpillars.
1. In order to prevent invasion of leaf and stem currant gall midges, a layer of mulch 6 cm thick is laid on the soil around the bushes (peat chips are used).
2. Currant bushes are plentifully watered with hot water (60-70 ° C) - this will help destroy aphids eggs.
3. To control pests, the bushes are sprayed with solutions of the preparations Aktara, Angio, Decis, Karbofos, Aktellik, Konfidor, Aktofit.
4. Fufanone (10 ml per 10 liters of water) is used to combat aphids, scabies, bud moths, weevil, and the raspberry beetle (10 ml per 10 liters of water), spending 1.5 liters of solution for each adult bush.
5. To combat the gooseberry moth, use the Malathion solution (15 ml per 10 l of water).
6. Against the butterflies of the moth, currant bushes are sprayed with the preparation Spark (1 tablet per 10 liters of water), or 0.1% Aktar.
Strawberry processing in early spring
Processing strawberries in the spring - an important event, which can not be ignored. And the time for processing is not enough - it is necessary to have time before the flowering begins. And the very first thing to do is to remove old leaves and debris from the strawberry beds, clean the sockets of dry leaves, remove weeds.
The soil also needs to be protected from pests and diseases. To do this, the soil between the rows is watered from a watering can with water heated to 95 ° C. Such a measure would save the strawberries from the larvae of the pests that remained in the ground for the winter. In order for a hot shower to be disastrous for soil monsters, it is recommended to add potassium permanganate to the water (to a slightly pink color) or 15 drops of iodine per bucket of water.
The main enemies of strawberries are powdery mildew, gray rot, white rot, black rot, and verticillary wilt. To avoid all this, it is necessary to treat the bushes with anti-fungal agents that contain copper — Horus, Topaz, Fundazol, 1% Bordeaux liquid, etc.
If in the previous season your garden was subjected to an active invasion of pests, then you need to strengthen security measures and combat them.
Grape processing in early spring
On how you spend processing the grapes at the beginning of the season, it depends on whether it will bear fruit. Spring care of grapes begins with the removal of debris, cutting dry vines, removing damaged shoots, and tillage.
The main enemy of grapes is fungal diseases. The first prophylactic treatment begins after the winter covering material is removed from it. At this time, you can apply a 3% solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture. Also at this time, the vine can be treated with a solution of ferrous sulfate (at the rate of 500 g of the drug per 10 liters of water), such treatment will help protect not only from diseases, but also harmful insects hibernating under the bark.
During the period of bud opening, the grapes are treated with preparations against the grape mite (Vermitek, BI-58, etc.).
Processing of apple and pear trees in early spring
In March, as soon as the street temperature is above zero, you can start whitewashing apples and pears. Such a measure will protect fruit trees from sunburn and pests that have hibernated under the bark and can wake up with the arrival of heat. Before you start whitewashing, prepare trees for it: cut dry, broken and damaged branches, remove the remnants of the old detached bark.
A solution for whitewashing is prepared as follows: 300 g of lime and 2 tbsp of l are dissolved in 2 liters of water. stationery glue, all stirred until smooth. Some gardeners add some copper sulfate to the mix.
The period from snowfall to bud break is considered the most suitable for treating apples and pears from lichens and fungal infections. For spraying prepare a 5% solution of copper sulphate (500 g of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water). For spraying during this period, you can use a 3% Bordeaux liquid. Also, apple trees and pears in the early spring will be protected by spraying with Pharmaid. This drug protects against fungal diseases and strengthens the immune system of plants.
Before buds begin to blossom, tree trunks and the ground around them can be sprayed with a solution of urea (680 g per 10 liters of water). This treatment will help destroy overwintering pests.
In the period before bud break, a so-called "blue spraying" is performed using a Bordeaux mixture. Timely treatment with this drug will protect fruit trees from scab and moniliosis. As a rule, while the buds are not dissolved, a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture is used, and later - a 1% solution.
Before blooming buds, iron sulfate is also used to treat apples and pears. This treatment will protect trees from lichens, pests that have settled for the winter in the bark, as well as fungal diseases. The solution of this drug is sprayed not only the trees themselves, but pristvolny circles. To prepare the mixture, 500 g of ferrous sulfate is diluted in 10 liters of water.
Iron sulfate is suitable for spraying bushes and stone trees. However, in this case, apply a 3% concentration (300 g of substance per 10 liters of water).
Processing raspberry spring
As soon as the snow melts, the gardeners begin to free the crimson bushes from the dead and sick shoots and spray the bushes with Bordeaux mixture. To do this, take 400 grams of lime-fluff, 300 grams of copper sulfate and dilute it all in 10 liters of water.
Хороший эффект получают и от опрыскивания почвы раствором мочевины (50 г медного купороса и 700 г мочевины на 10 л воды). Около 2,5 л смеси понадобится на обработку 10 кв.м грунта.
Многие садоводы обрабатывают малиновые кусты и растворами железного купороса в пропорции 100 г вещества на 5 л воды. Как правило, на опрыскивание каждого куста уходит примерно 0,5 л раствора. The above recipes will help protect the raspberry from infections, as well as its main pests - the raspberry beetle, the stem fly, the strawberry-raspberry weevil, the escaping midge. And so that the new individuals of pests have no chance at all to harm the plants, the soil dug to a depth of 10 cm is treated with Fufanon solution (20 ml of the preparation is used for 10 liters of water).
The following medications cope well with raspberry pests: Actellic - 15 ml per 10 l of water (at least 200 ml of solution is needed for each bush), Malathion - 75 g per 10 l of water (1 l per 1 bush). Karbofos is also used for prophylaxis against a glass case - 6 g of the substance is dissolved in 1 l of water - this solution is enough to process five bushes.
Plum and cherry plum processing in spring
The first spraying of plums and cherry plums in the spring is carried out before the sap flow begins. In order to protect the trees from pests such as the fruit mite, aphid, plum moth, weevil and others, you can use drugs Spark, Fufanon, Karbofos, etc.
To protect plum trees from diseases - gnomonioz, klyasterosporioza, fruit rot, gommoza and others - it is recommended to spray the trees with a solution of urea (700 g of substance per 10 liters of water) or use a solution of 3% copper vitriol, or 3% bordesk fluid . Pristvolnye circles are also treated.
Be sure to whitewash the trunks of plums to protect them from sunburn, temperature changes, as well as insects and their larvae that have hibernated in the bark.
Peach processing in spring
Peaches are started to be sprayed before bud break, but when the air temperature already reaches stable positive values.
The main goal of this treatment is the fight against a formidable disease - leaf curl. In addition, the procedure will contribute to the destruction of all pests that have managed to successfully survive the winter, hiding in the bark and shoots of trees. In this case, fungicides are used, which include copper (copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture, etc.).
The second stage of spraying is carried out in late March - early April, before the nomination of the buds. The third spraying is carried out in early May, when there is an active reproduction of ticks.
Crowns of peaches are sprayed from Actofit's pests - in the proportion of 40 ml per bucket of water. Pristvolny circle is treated with Planriz - 330 ml per 10 l of water. Such drugs as Trichodermin (20 g per 10 l of water), Bitoxibacillin (10 ml per bucket of water) are also popular.
At the second stage of spring processing, urea is used (700 g of substance, 10 l of water, 50 g of copper sulfate), solution of ferrous sulfate (250 g of substance per 5 l of water), solution of copper sulfate (500 g per 5 l of water).
When the air temperature is established at around 14 ° C, it is possible to treat the peach with the drug Skor, which will protect against leaf curl, powdery mildew and gray rot. To do this, prepare a solution of 2 g of substance and 8 l of water.
Processing cherry and sweet cherry in spring
Sprinkle cherries and cherries need to start sap flow. For this purpose, apply a 3% solution of copper sulphate or bordeaux liquid, as well as iron sulphate (300 g of substance per 10 liters of water). Also gardeners use urea for the first spraying (700 g per bucket of water). These measures will help protect the trees from aphids, weevils and other pests and their larvae, as well as to protect them from monilial burn, purple spot and scab.
If you did everything correctly, then further spraying from diseases may not be necessary. If, nevertheless, it was not possible to avoid infection, drugs are used for the treatment of: Skor (effective against coccomycosis), Poliram (coping with anthracnose), Topsin-M (used against moniliosis), etc.
On how correctly you spend the spring garden processing, it depends on whether you have a harvest. But here the main thing is not to overdo it, but to respect the measure. If you do everything correctly, your garden will be permanently protected from diseases and pests, and the trees will delight with juicy ripe fruits.
Features of processing trees in the spring: stages of processing from pests and diseases, recommendations for the garden
Treating trees from pests and diseases in the spring
You can count on a high yield only if you take care of the garden properly. Therefore, owners who are aware of this, annually carry out garden processing. The success of this event depends on the quality of its conduct in the spring. After all, it is at this moment that it is decided whether plantings will be well protected from pests and diseases.
When the spring warmth begins to be felt in the air, many have a desire to be closer to nature. At these moments, the soul wants to enjoy the variety of colors that give us a variety of plantings in the suburban areas. And in order to bring this moment closer, gardeners try to carry out more thorough preparation of the garden before the start of fruiting.
To determine the amount of work to be done, the first thing to do is to inspect the garden. By its results it will be clear what you have to do.
After a long and cold winter, many damaged branches are sure to appear, which must be removed.
However, only this spring garden processing is not limited, because it includes a lot of other important activities that are designed to protect plantings from pests and diseases.
Why and when is it best to garden?
Any sane person seeks to have only the freshest, most natural berries and fruits on his table.
To achieve this goal, many owners work from morning to evening on their plots in order to get a good harvest at the end of the season. However, this is not such a simple job, as it may seem at first glance.
Every spring, summer residents have to contend with a variety of different parasites and diseases that, without control, can fill everything around.
To reduce the harm that diseases and pests can bring, many gardeners use chemical and organic methods to combat them. However, the final result largely determines the experience of the gardener.
This turn determines what the harvest will be at the end of the season. The effectiveness of all planned activities can be enhanced only if they are carried out at the appropriate time.
Therefore, as soon as the last cold weather passes and fruit ovaries begin to form on the trees, it is necessary to start work immediately.
Spring garden processing before bud break
Next comes the next stage - the processing of fruit trees before the awakening of the buds. The purpose of these activities is to prevent insects that hatch from the larvae, as well as pathogens of various diseases, from infecting trees and shrubs. Such diseases as scab, black cancer, coccomycosis, etc. can cause the greatest damage to the garden.
Help to protect the garden from pathogens and larvae of parasites will help special chemical preparations-insecticides, which are designed to carry out such processing. Most often for these purposes use the following means: Aktara, Calypso, Avant, Lannat, etc.
However, regardless of whether you intend to use copper sulfate or another modern preparation, before using it, it is recommended that you read the instructions for use.
The fact is that in stores there are drugs that were originally designed to process only certain types of fruit trees. In order for such treatment to meet your expectations, you can hold it with a solution of insecticides and fungicides of contact action.
The effectiveness of this event will increase many times, as this will help not only to save the planting from pests and diseases, but also to prevent their occurrence in the future.
If you want to minimize the harm that will help get your plantations as a result of chemical processing, you can use a safer mixture made from herbs, tobacco and orange peel. The process of its preparation is as follows:
- A 3 L can is taken and filled with shredded tobacco in the amount of 200 g,
- then there you need to put a handful of garlic husks and as many onions, pine needles and orange peels,
- after that, water heated to 70 degrees is poured into this mixture,
- the jar needs to be sealed tightly and find a warm place for it, where it should stand for a week,
- when the time is right, the finished tincture needs to be diluted with warm water in an amount of 10 liters,
- then the composition should be thoroughly mixed and add in small portions 100 g of crushed tar soap,
- Now the tool is ready, and it can be used for garden processing. If necessary, it can be repeated after 10-12 days. However, this can only be done before flowering.
Processing the garden in spring before and during the flowering process
Treating shrubs trees can be, until the buds began to bloom. This will help not only prevent them from being harmed by the caterpillars of the codling moth, but also reduce the risk of scab and blotchiness.
To prepare the solution, you can use "Karbofoks". To do this, take 70 g of the drug and diluted in 10 liters of water at room temperature.
However, if trees and shrubs have already begun to bloom, then such a treatment cannot be done.
Re-processing of fruit trees can be carried out at the end of the flowering period. It is necessary to reduce the likelihood of infection of trees and shrubs in the next season, as well as increasing the resistance of plantings to diseases.
Usually, the inflorescences bloom at the moment when ticks appear that have successfully endured winter. Colloidal sulfur can help to cope with them. To prepare the solution, you need to take 80 grams of 70% of the drug and dilute it in 10 liters of soapy water. It is very important that this treatment is carried out in a timely manner, otherwise all your cultures will suffer as a result of the invasion of ticks.
Useful tips from experienced gardeners
Spring garden processing does not imply strict rules for its implementation. However, there are important nuances, considering which you can most effectively perform this work.
Spraying procedure. If you want to completely destroy pests and diseases, then you should treat each part of trees and bushes with a working solution, for example, copper sulphate. Usually this work begins with the crown, then move to the branches, and in the end process the trunk and soil in the root zone.
Time and conditions of work. It is best to engage in spring garden processing in the early morning. It is advisable to choose for this job a dry, windless day, during which no precipitation is expected. In this case, after treatment, the solution will be immediately absorbed and will quickly act. As a result, you will be sure that the leaves and inflorescences will not be affected.
Calculate the amount of solution. The results of spring garden processing can be different.
If it is important for you not only to destroy pests and diseases, but also not to harm trees and shrubs, then you need to correctly determine the rate of consumption of the drug.
You can find out if you look at the instructions for a particular tool. Knowing this, it will be easy for you to understand how many chemicals are required.
- the processing of one young tree takes about 1.5 liters of solution,
- for an adult - 5.5 liters.
For spraying the bushes may require a different amount of solution - from 0.6 to 1.5 liters. More precisely, how much liquid is needed, you can, knowing the size of the crown.
Experienced gardeners know how to get a good harvest. To do this, they regularly process the garden. And they begin to engage in this business in the spring.
The importance of this event is difficult to overestimate, because it directly depends on how well trees and shrubs will be protected from pests and diseases.
Knowing exactly which drugs and when it is better to use, even a beginner summer resident can count on the fact that at the end of the season the garden will bestow it with many delicious and healthy fruits.
Nikolskaya Liliya Igorevna
Garden processing for pests: features of spring processing | Construction portal| Construction portal
Spring warmth awakens all life from hibernation, including insects hiding in winter under fallen leaves, in the soil or under the bark of trees. At this time for gardeners comes the time of hard work.
Before the plants finally wake up, you need to clear the garden of plant residues, remove shelters, timely make the necessary vaccinations, sanitary and formative pruning and transplants.
But the most important thing is to preserve the health and beauty of garden crops and rely on a rich harvest of berries and fruits, it is necessary to protect trees, shrubs and strawberry plantings from harmful insects. The article deals with the spring processing of the garden.
Garden chemical treatment in spring
Unfortunately, we have to admit that the efficiency of using chemicals for garden processing is much higher than when using traditional tools or labor-intensive collection of caterpillars and beetles by hand.
- A good effect on the destruction of harmful insects gives a two-time spring spraying of garden plantings. Before flowering is the first processing of the garden. For this, you can use karbofos or keltan. After 10 days, immediately after the trees and bushes ottsvetut, processing is repeated. It is also possible to process the garden with other toxic agents, for example, “Marshal”, “Nero”, “Decis”.
- With the defeat of trees and shrubs with fungal diseases, as well as with the aim of preventing such diseases, it is recommended to spring up the garden with a solution of a copper-containing drug - Bordeaux mixture, “Homa” or “Oxyhoma”. Copper-containing preparations are recommended to be used no more than once a year: either in the spring or in the autumn after the harvest.
- The advantages of using chemicals (pesticides) for garden processing are their quick action and the length of time that the effect is preserved. In addition, after three weeks from the date of treatment, the chemicals are completely decomposed. Therefore, the danger of this event for future harvest is excluded.
- However, in this matter, gardeners should exercise extreme caution and accurately follow the manufacturer’s instructions for using any chemical agent. After all, if you are too keen on chemistry in the garden, you can harm your health and the plants themselves.
- In order to avoid unpleasant consequences from possible contact with chemical solutions, when spraying a garden, it is necessary to use a respirator or gauze bandage, gloves and goggles. Compliance with the processing times, dosages and safety measures recommended by the manufacturer will ensure that the garden plants will maintain their viability after processing, and nothing will threaten the health of people and animals.
Garden treatment from pests in spring with biological agents
- Increasingly popular among gardeners are acquiring means for the destruction of harmful insects that use biological organisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi and soil microorganisms - biological products. Although the effectiveness of these funds is slightly lower than that of pesticides.
But these drugs are more environmentally friendly. Spring processing of garden plantings is carried out with biological preparations “Fitoverm”, “Aktophyt” or “Barrier”. Spraying is performed twice: the first time long before the beginning of flowering, the second time - when the flower buds swell.
Phytoverm consumption table
- A long time ago, when chemical preparations that kill pests, there was no mention of the broths and infusions of plants that have a scaring effect on harmful insects. It is also a biological plant protection product.
Recipes decoctions and infusions for processing the garden in the spring
Gardeners who do not want to deal with chemistry prefer to protect the plants in their garden with infusions and decoctions prepared according to popular recipes:
- A glass is placed in a half-liter jar. garlicpre-ground in a combine or with a meat grinder. Add a jar of water and insist in a dark place. A week later, the contents are filtered into another glass container and tightly closed. For processing plants in the bucket of water add about 50 g of infusion.
- For spraying berry ridges you can use infusion of roots and green dandelions, the benefit of their spring is always full. In a bucket of water heated to about 50 degrees, put about 300 g of crushed dandelions and insist about 3 hours. To enhance the effect there you can add a couple of twigs of the celandine. You need to cover the bucket with something to keep it cool longer. For spraying infusion filter.
- To prepare tobacco infusion need 250 g of tobacco dust, which is added to a bucket of water. Mixture insist about 2 hours, and then filtered. For better adhesion to the surface of the leaves in the infusion add 40g of dark soap.
- Broths from potato and tomato tops help to fight with aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, apple fruit moths and other pests of trees and shrubs, spraying is carried out after the flowering period. To prepare this tool will need about 1 kg of dried tops of potatoes or tomatoes. Thrifty gardeners for spring sprays harvesting tops from autumn. Ее кладут в ведро с водой, 3,5 – 4 часа настаивают, а потом доводят до кипения и на слабом огне полчаса кипятят. Далее отвар процеживается через марлю.
- Настой порошка горчицы используют при опрыскивании после цветения всех плодово-ягодных растений против гусениц, пилильщиков, огневки, яблоневой плодожерки. Половину стакана порошка горчицы 2 дня настаивают в ведре воды. Затем настой процеживается. For spraying the liquid must be diluted 2 times with water.
- Dry wormwood it is used for the decoction of repellent aphids, moth, gooseberry moth, caterpillars, cedar insects and other insects. Dry wormwood can be purchased at a pharmacy or prepared in the fall. In half a bucket of water 15 minutes boil 1 kg of dry grass, then cool and add infused chicken manure (1 kg of litter a day insist in 3-4 liters of water). The mixture is filtered and topped up to a volume of 10 liters.
Pest control of fruit trees in the spring
- Activities for the protection of pears, apples and other fruit trees are carried out in stages. In the first stage in March, crowns are formed and the trunks are cleaned from lichens and outgrowths of the old bark. If rot is found under the bark, then the treated area is cleaned with a sharp knife to healthy wood and covered with green vitriol and garden pitch.
In the same way, it comes in detecting the larvae of insects hibernating in cracks under the bark. In the same period, the tree trunks are cleaned and loosened, sprinkled trees with chemical means, and limes are triturated to avoid sunburn.
As a protective tool, you can use "Olekupkritom", a means for the destruction of hibernating insects (aphids, hedgehog, ticks, shield).
- In April, when the buds begin to swell, the trunks are tied with catching belts to catch the codling moth and the apple-flowered beetle, and the trees are sprayed, for example, with “Benzophosphate”, which is a contact insecticide. Its duration is about a month. This drug is almost not dangerous for pollinating insects.
- During flowering, treatment with any drugs is stopped. Since pollinating insects can suffer. At this time, should be carried out agrotechnical measures: loosening and weeding of the near-barrel circles.
- When the trees bloom, a third spraying against harmful insects is carried out using chemical or biological agents.
- Currant and gooseberry bushes in the garden begin to wake up earlier than fruit trees. Therefore, it is advisable to be the first to handle shrubs.
Before using chemicals, first make formative and sanitary pruning. At the same time, branches infected with glass are detected - that is, branches with a black core, as well as dry branches affected by a renal moth.
Sick branches are cut to the ground level and must be burned.
- It is also necessary to remove the swollen buds, in which the currant bud mite is located. A good effect on the fight against harmful insects gives a hot shower from a watering can (up to + 70 ° C). Bushes should be subjected to this procedure before the appearance of leaves and bud swelling.
- As soon as the snow melts, it is advisable to cover the topsoil of the pristvolny circles with roofing material or black foil, after clearing away last year’s foliage and bursting into the ground under the bushes. This is done in order to prevent pests and their larvae from escaping from the upper layers of the soil. All old foliage burned. At the end of flowering shelter clean.
- Before blooming, bushes are sprayed with a chemical or biological agent to kill ticks, bud moths, aphids, and other harmful insects.
- If warty growths are observed on shrubs, this indicates a defeat by their acacia false shield. The larvae of this pest appear from eggs laid by females under growths, they feed on plant sap. With a strong defeat the bush may die. It is advisable to treat such bushes in early spring with nitrofen.
- Shrubs affected by anthracosis - a fungal disease, in which there is a premature leaf fall of brown leaves, which greatly weakens the plant, is treated with a copper-containing drug in early spring.
- When the buds appear, the bushes are treated with “Aktelik”, “Aktar” or “Fitoverm”. This event will significantly reduce the number of currant gall midges, kidney mites, sawflies and other pests.
- At the end of flowering, berry bushes are treated with 0.5% carbamide solution in order to prevent fungal diseases. And with aphids, mites, shoots gall midge and other harmful insects they fight with the help of biological preparations and tobacco infusion.
Strawberry beds processing
- Ridges with strawberries should be cleaned from last year's foliage and weeds, then it is good to gnaw. In order to avoid the appearance of gray rot, plantings should be well ventilated, therefore, in the spring they should be thinned out, removing weak, overwintering bushes.
If you do not carry out these agrotechnical measures, then due to gray rot, you can lose up to 30% of the crop, especially in wet summer.
- Experienced gardeners recommend shedding strawberries with water heated to about 65 ° C by adding a few crystals of potassium permanganate. The solution should be pale pink. Water should be poured into the center of the outlet.
This treatment significantly reduces the amount of spider mite and weevil. With rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, spraying the bushes with the Bordeaux mixture helps to cope. In April, with the appearance of young foliage, strawberries are treated with “Actofit” or “Fitoverm” to destroy spider mites.
And when flower buds begin to form, they struggle with the weevil, leafworms and sawflies with the help of Antitlin, tobacco broth or dandelion infusion.
If sucking pests suck up plant juices, then gnawing ones physically destroy the generative and vegetative organs of plants. The group of gnawing pests is made up of beetle buds, flowering beetles, leaf beetles, weevils, snakes, barbel.
All species of moths damage the fruits, and butterflies, passing through the stage of voracious caterpillars, in a short time can destroy the green outfit of fruit and significantly reduce the harvest. Adults of gnawing pests overwinter in fallen fruits, leaves, pruned branches and shoots, in hollows of trees and cracks in the bark. Here they lay eggs, from which, with the onset of heat, the larvae and caterpillars hatch, devouring the green crown of trees.
Chemical preparations against gnawing pests
- Of the chemicals against gnawing, the same chemicals are used as for protection against sucking pests: Karbofos, Benzophosphate, Aktara, Decis, Fastak.
- Against leafwheels of the ringed silkworm, the winter moth, moles, before the budding of fruit crops are processed, they are treated with DNOC or Nitrafen. At the beginning of bud break, Gardona suspension or (for younger individuals) Eptobacterin, Dendrobacillin is used.
- To protect against tsvetouedov in the period from the blooming of the kidneys to budding using a suspension of Phosphamide, against the glass - emulsion Fosalona.
- Moths and sawflies are effectively destroyed by the Antio emulsion. Gordon suspension, Rovikurt, Zolon can be used purposefully against moths.
- Trichlormetaphos is recommended against sawflies and miner moths.
Folk Remedies for Pest Control
Ways to protect fruit crops from pests by folk remedies involves the preparation of infusions, decoctions and powders of herbal insecticides and herbs with anti-fungicidal properties. It should be noted that the preparations prepared are not as harmless as they seem. They are sometimes based on such potent alkaloid compounds that by eating an unwashed apple or peach you can get the strongest poisoning.
Some gardeners offer decoctions of hemlock, henbane black, cow parsnip, aconite and other poisonous herbs. Judging by the rules of application, decoctions and infusions are the same chemical preparations, only of lower concentration. Using folk advice, be careful.
Spring processing of the garden from pests. © Terry Cobb
Rules of application of folk pest control methods
- Collect the aerial parts of plants (stems, leaves, inflorescences) for the preparation of solutions needed at the time of onset or full bloom, and tubers, bulbs, roots and rhizomes - in early spring or late autumn. Dry in natural conditions.
- Considering the toxicity of some plants, preparations of them (dry and liquid) must be strictly prescription and stored in places inaccessible to children and animals.
- For cooking use special dishes that are not used for cooking.
- The remains and waste from solutions to bury in the earth. They must be inaccessible to animals and birds.
- Plants are treated no more than 3 times during the growing season. In epiphytotic cases, the number of treatments increased by 1-2 spraying or dusting.
- Spraying and other treatments are carried out in the evening.
- Stop processing plants for 20-30 days before harvesting and only absolutely non-poisonous plants for 5-7 days. During flowering and harvesting solutions do not apply.
The compositions of folk remedies
For the treatment of plants from pests, we can offer several compositions:
- To protect against spider mites, aphids, a spraying of a decoction of healthy tops of potatoes and tomatoes works well.
- Against aphids, suckers, spider mites can be prepared in hot water a solution of wood ash with soap.
- Infusion of onion peel is effective against caterpillars, aphids, spider mites.
- Tobacco dust or a shag to fill in with hot water. Daily infusion with the addition of soap is effective against aphids, moths, suckers, leaf caterpillars, spider mites, slugs.
- Against the apple and fruit moths (the period of the summer of butterflies), the suckling (after flowering), aphids use fumigation with tobacco dust. It is poured on small piles of slightly wet straw with garbage or piles of waste and set on fire.
- Infusion of burdock leaves is used against whitefish caterpillars and a scoop.
Now compare the proposals of other "lovers of folk solutions." For example, to combat the caterpillars and larvae, they suggest spraying the trees with a mixture of aconite solutions (wrestler), leaves and inflorescences of the hemlock. How do you think, how harmless is this folk method, given that plants belong to the most poisonous representatives of the plant world?
List all the recommended formulations of herbs, roots, bulbs and fruits, chemical and biochemical preparations and formulations is almost impossible. But, after reading the article, you can make your choice of measures to protect garden crops from pests.
Very useful information. Thank you very much.
Very good article. Everything is short and clear. I would like to know about the popular now iodine, Zelenka, ammonia, vinegar, soda, manganese, mustard.
I wonder why fruit trees, that is, gardens in large areas of more than 2-3 hectares do not whitewash trees. And gardeners and gardeners whitewash their trees, referring to sunburns and freezer-chimneys.
Because for this there are other means of processing. This time
And two - modern varieties have much greater immunity to disease, and the right agricultural technology allows you to minimize costs. Including and due to the intensification of production, when the garden beats off its investments and makes a profit for 10-15 years, and then the new garden is laid out again.
Dachnik. You excuse me: firstly, if there are other means of processing, what kind? Secondly, you are talking about modern varieties, let's say. But before 15-20 years, too, did not whitewash, although there were no modern varieties before. My opinion Soviet times, the trees were whitened in the cities for beauty and aesthetics, so it remains to our times. And they say trees get sunburns, freezers, and so they gave, and bleach from the earth to a height of 1.20-1.50 cm. let's say this part is protected and the upper part of the crown is not protected. How to be?
How to be? Lehko. Freezers are pure physics.
Heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the material.
The more wood, the more energy is needed to heat up, and the thermal conductivity is not ice. Therefore, the local heating of the solar side takes place, and the shadow side remains cold.
So, today, at a temperature of minus 15, the sun can easily heat the bark to plus 15. But for a short time. After half an hour, the position of the sun will change, the clouds will run and become colder. Sharp cooling will lead to rupture of the cortex. And thin branches are much more plastic: they heat up more evenly and cool down due to the small mass. Yes, they do not even heat up, because they are too small. (and if it’s about the kidneys, it’s not the temperature that wakes them up, but right here — but the intensity of the photosynthetic active radiation, when the sun rises higher above the horizon and the plants get more and more of the correct spectrum)
And the trees were not whitened because of beauty - but by necessity, because lime is a good substance for disinfection.
And yes - you decide - so whitened or not whitened?))
In the south, we could not whitewash production gardens, because there were no such critically large temperature differences. But in the Middle and higher - without it - nowhere. Spring drops, as if hinting - that spring has come, the sun is active, and the cold is still doggy.
And yes, for a private trader, whitewashing is not an empty ritual, but an agrotechnical method of caring for plants, because it is associated with cleaning the plant, with a detailed analysis of its condition and drawing up a plan for further activities.
Production workers have it all easier (and more complicated) - they have a technological map. And how it is compiled - Google is here to help, and in general, the agricultural academies are waiting for their students)))
Dachnik. Everything is clear and nothing is clear. I live in the Middle Belt, in the black earth. In the Belgorod region .. And as Belogorie wrote in the gardens are not white. Well, I understand. Let everything go as usual. With respect, Khalil.
You are already south south))) South only South Pole))) About that and we are: you do not have such critical temperature drops.
You would see how it flows from the roofs at minus 15, they would understand.
And I have all the apple trees, like brides, as tall as a man, and no longer in a lime, but in white acrylic paint. To year round enough. I conduct an experiment. Freezers, in one season, can turn into ulcers of cancer, black cancer, cytosporosis, a real mycelium.
In addition, you need to do early spring processing Bordeaux liquid, from the sores of fruits and trees
And if you do not need to whiten, this does not mean that spring and autumn processing is not needed. Are needed. You have another roll - pests. If you do not do insecticidal early-spring treatment from the apple-flowered beetle and codling moth, do not expect harvest. And if, in past years, they managed without these treatments, then this does not mean that there are no pests. This means that they are accumulating. And there will definitely be an epiphytotic outbreak. Eat everything. Even that is inedible.
Summer resident, Yes, of course, we will not interfere with geography here. If the question of the south of Russia has already been raised, then the geographical position of the south of Russia is considered to be Astrakhan Region, Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory. And the period of the USSR was the southernmost point of Turkmenistan and the village of Kushka. the southernmost point of the USSR.
By the way. In the Russian Federation, they are removed from production and removed from the register of permitted pesticides and DNOC and nitrofen for extreme toxicity to the environment, animals and humans.
Unfortunately, there are articles on the Internet - reprints from books published in 1950-1980s in which it was proposed to use DDT, nitrafen, DNOC (dinitroorthocresol), HCH (hexachlorane), chlorophos, herbicide TXA (sodium trichloroacetate), Parisian greens, the drug No. 30 and other drugs that are currently discontinued and banned for use in Russia. The use of illicit drugs, firstly, leads to long-term negative consequences for the environment, and secondly, the legislation provides for criminal liability for the use of illicit drugs. I will note that only drugs allowed for use in private farms (personal, auxiliary farming, including gardening plots) can be sold to the population. In general, only products included in the “List of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use in the Russian Federation for the current year” can be sold and used (c)
It seems to me that in such articles it is necessary to insert warnings every couple of paragraphs that chemicals are harmful for use, especially if used improperly. And nitrafen and DNOC are generally a terrible poison, which could not be mentioned to use less. Every time I come to the “country” store, I hear only (just last weekend): “give something so that all the pests and worms on the grapes and in the garden should be poisoned”. And the “good” saleswoman sold such a bunch of chemistry to a man that I was just surprised how much he was not worried about such an abundance of chemicals. But no, and after him, granny, with almost the same question, got her share of the poison and happy went away to poison her “home and natural” vegetation. I am not a professional gardener and a gardener, but regarding whitewashing I can say that by starting to whitewash old trees in a neglected garden, after a couple of whitewashes, we noted that the bark at the whitewash site became healthier, cleaner, darkening near the cracks, etc. some trees just refreshed. Belim ordinary powdered whitewash with the addition of copper sulfate.
Spring protection of ornamental plants
- Perennial ornamental shrubs that adorn a garden also need protection from pests and diseases, like other garden crops.
Поэтому в список весенних работ в саду относительно декоративных растений нужно обязательно включить снятие зимних укрытий, очистку почвы от старой листвы, санитарную и формирующую обрезку, обработку химическими или биологическими средствами.
Пока не распустились почки растения, пораженные паршой, пятнистостью, гнилью или черным раком, обрабатывают бордосской смесью, хорусом или другим препаратом, содержащим медь.
Against hibernating pests, shrubs can be sprayed with drug No. 30, basezol or karbofos.