Lovers of unusual exotic flowers are sure to be interested in tillandsia - this is one of the representatives of perennial evergreen herbaceous plants, belongs to the Bromeliad family.
The homeland of tillands is the tropics and subtropics of South America, as well as some US states.
The plant was discovered and studied in the 17th century. Named in honor of the Swedish scientist - botany E. Thillands.
Such a “blooming miracle” can be found in the forests of tropical zones, arid savannas and even in semi-deserts. Therefore, the conditions of detention of different species may vary. Externally, different varieties are also significantly different.
Flowering period: July-August. The flowers, in most species very bright, can be of different shapes, but the ear shape with attached bracts of another color prevails.
After flowering, the mother plant dies off, forming new shoots.
Tillandsii - epiphytic vegetation, they feed on, absorbing everything you need through special scales, which are densely covered with their leaves. They do not have to go deep into the ground, and in some species the root is practically absent - this is the so-called “atmospheric tillandia”. Most of them in the wild join roots to stones and trees.
May have a stem, or be stemless. Sheets are narrow, rather long (up to 40 cm). In the center form a rosette with bright buds.
Tylandseus species and varieties
There are more than 400 varieties of this plant.
By types of root systems, the following groups are distinguished:
"Atmospheric" or "Gray" - the root is almost absent. The leaves are very thin, thread-like. The scales on their surface reflect light, which makes them look gray. Inflorescences pale shades. They are difficult to grow at home, because you need to maintain a stable temperature and high humidity, so they are usually kept in specialized floraria, or small greenhouses.
“Potted” or “green” - the root is more developed than that of the “atmospheric”, the leaves form a dense rosette, and the flowers are distinguished by extraordinary color and brightness. They are popular among lovers of indoor plants.
Tillandia care at home
For successful growth and flowering, the plant must be placed in a suitable soil. In this case, it should be a substrate of earth, peat, sand and sphagnum. And also requires drainage, at least a third of the pot. It is best to purchase special soil for bromeliads. However, such a mixture can be prepared independently from charcoal and bark treated with a fraction of 5-10 mm.
It is advisable to adhere to a stable temperature, without sudden changes. From 18 to 28 degrees. "Atmospheric" species withstand up to 12.
The optimum air temperature in the summer months is 20-24 degrees, and in the winter time - about 18-20.
Since this exotic plant needs fresh air, it is extremely important to air the room regularly. You also need to protect the flower from drafts, as it does not tolerate sudden changes in temperature.
Illumination of tillands
“Potted” or “green” tillandsia should always be kept in a well-lit place, avoiding direct sunlight. "Gray", or "Atmospheric" can be placed in a more shaded place.
Since the plant needs good lighting, during the winter months, it is necessary to artificially increase the light day using ordinary fluorescent lighting.
The air in the room where tillandsia grows should be humidified by at least 60%, and ideally by 70-80%.
With sufficient air temperature, the plant must be sprayed every day at room temperature with water, it is important that it is soft, as in nature with natural rainfall. It is best to use rainwater or pre-settled water.
"Gray" varieties get moisture only through the leaves, so they need high humidity.
For "green" varieties, you can put a pallet with moistened pebbles under the pot.
Do not spray the plant during flowering!
Each species of tillandsii has its own characteristics, so watering is slightly different.
Green or potted species, characterized by a developed root system and a dense rosette of leaves, are poured in the usual way, that is, into the ground. In summer, soil moisture should be maintained constantly. It is necessary to pour water into the center of the outlet and moisten the leaves. In the cold season, watering should be less abundant.
Atmospheric tillandsia is not watered, but only regularly sprayed from a spray bottle.
Uneven tillandsii need to be immersed in water from time to time. Twisted leaves say about insufficient saturation of the plant with moisture. This is a natural way to preserve moisture. In the case of dehydration of the flower, the pot should be immersed in water overnight, after which you should try to stick to the usual schedule for watering and spraying.
The optimal time of spraying the plants is in the morning.
Top dressing and fertilizer for tillandsii
Green tillands are fertilized mainly in the summer every two to three weeks. Fertilization period is from March to September. Used flower fertilizer. You can apply the orchid substrate. It is important to choose fertilizers with a low copper content, since a high content of this substance is toxic to bromeliad family flowers. In order not to harm the plant, the concentration of fertilizer should be two to four times less than indicated on the package. In addition to the substrate, from time to time, foliar feeding can also be carried out by spraying the leaves. Such processing is suitable for both gray (atmospheric) and green varieties. As for the cold season, you can do without fertilizers.
If spots of a different color appear on the surface of the flower or the leaves become transparent, you need to carefully remove the affected areas and review the conditions of plant maintenance and care.
After acquiring a plant, it must be transplanted from the transport container into a larger pot. The next transplant will be made at the separation of the daughter outlets.
All varieties of tillandsii need to be replanted every two to three years, as the pot over time becomes cramped for the growing exotic plant, and the roots begin to protrude from the pot. In this regard, the flowers may cease to appear.
Transplant is carried out in the spring. At the same time the soil is completely updated. When choosing a flowerpot, it is best to give preference to wide and not very high pots. The land should be loosened. Compounds containing peat, rhizomes of a fern, chopped coniferous bark, and humus from leaves are used as a substrate. Mandatory drainage of charcoal.
The reproduction of the plant is carried out by separating the new shoots formed from the side. To separate the child shoots need to be very careful not to damage the main plant. You should choose processes with 4-6 leaflets and pronounced roots. If the shoots are cut with a sharp knife, sprinkle with chopped charcoal. After this, the shoots are immediately planted in separate pots. It is important to maintain an optimum temperature of 22-25 degrees and close young plants from direct sunlight. The soil should remain relatively wet for several weeks. After a half to two months, you can switch to the maintenance mode for adult plants. The first flowers will appear no earlier than in a year or two.
Tillandia pests and diseases
Dying off of the maternal outlet is a natural process that occurs after the separation of the daughter outlets. If tillandia doesn’t have additional shoots, this may be due to poor nutrition. It is important to feed the plant with organic and minerals.
Excessively moist soil can cause rotting of the root system and stem base. This problem is easily fixed if you reduce watering and replace drainage.
Weak wilted leaves - a consequence of low air temperature. To eliminate the problem you need to increase the temperature in the room.
The cause of the grayish spots on the leaves is a fungus. To get rid of the fungus, you need to treat the plant with a special solution.
The darkened tips of the leaves, as a rule, appear due to excessively hard water. In this case, you need to replace the water with softer (rain, melt, or at least pre-settled).
One of the common pests that infect plants are spider mites. There are many options to combat these pests - from folk remedies to chemicals. It may need several treatments for the complete destruction of insects.
Possible content errors
The most common mistakes made by owners of exotic plants:
insufficient (or excessive) watering,
low level of air humidity (need to be sprayed daily),
using unsuitable hard water
planting in the ground (most species of tillandia grow on stony surfaces and trees, planting in the soil can lead to rotting),
low temperature content, drafts,
improper placement of a flower (plants that lack fresh air and lighting are more susceptible to various diseases).
It is desirable to acquire only those flowers that are grown in a special greenhouse.
Caring for a plant requires special attention, patience and skill. However, decent care will be rewarded, and flowering tillandsia will charm you with its adorable vestments.
The genus tillandsii includes two groups of plants. They differ in characteristics and appearance.
- Green tillands. Popular pot plants. Decorative value is foliage and unusual beautiful flowers. Growing in ordinary soil, the requirements for care are not too high.
- Epiphytic tillandsii. Grown for beautiful foliage. Soil is replaced by snags and moss. Very capricious, found mainly in the collections of experienced flower growers.
The main distinguishing feature - the color of foliage. Potted species have a green color, epiphytic - silver. Both belong to the bromeliad family. In the homeland of the plant - North and South America, several hundred species are known. As a house plant, tillandsia includes a number of bright colorful hybrids.
Green species are evergreens. From long pointy leaves formed a powerful outlet. The root system is underdeveloped. Peduncle appears from the center of the outlet. The inflorescence is large, spicate, unusual. The flowers are modest, the bracts of bright pure flowers - white, lilac, orange, blue, purple. After flowering, many affiliated sockets are formed. The plant dies, is replaced by new young bushes. So there is an independent rejuvenation of the plant.
The most interesting varieties
Most bromeliad plants belong to the genus tillands. Many are used as indoor cultures.
- Tillandsia is blue. Delivered to us from Ecuador and Peru. Small, compact bush no more than 25 cm tall. Bloom lengthy - up to several months. Begins to bloom in early autumn, ends - in the middle of winter. The leaves are thin, directed upward, independently held in a vertical position without the use of props. The species is represented by a number of varieties of different colors.
- Tillandsiya osneevidnaya. The most common epiphytic plant species. It looks like a thick hanging beard. The shoots are very thin, branched, with tiny rosettes of leaves. Shoots tightly intertwined, something like moss. Color - greenish gray. In nature, pterygoid tillandsia can grow on tree branches, needles of cacti - on any suitable support. The plant has no roots, they do not parasitize on trees. Moisture is obtained from the air.
- Tillandsia Anita. Hybrid variety. The socket is dense, the leaves are thin, sharp, moderately covered with scales. Flat, wide inflorescences sit on short peduncles. The flowers are pure blue, the bracts are purple or pink. Fade quickly, for a long time retain decorative at the expense of bright bracts.
Peculiarities of care
The care is not too complicated, there are no special requirements. For rapid growth and long flowering is recommended to adhere to a number of simple rules.
- Lighting. Better light penumbra than intense lighting. The place is chosen light, but they must be shaded from the direct sun. From bright sunlight leaves turn yellow, dry.
- Temperature. Throughout the year, maintain a stable temperature of 22-29 ° C. Room conditions favor the full development of the plant. In winter, do not allow a drop below 17 ° C.
- Watering. In spring and summer, the soil is moistened abundantly, in winter - moderately. Use soft water at room temperature. Pour it under the root neck.
- Humidity. Prefers high humidity conditions. It is recommended to spray the plant daily, periodically pour water into the funnel. In the heating season, batteries are covered with wet towels or a cloth. The use of special humidifiers is encouraged.
- The soil. He likes friable light soils with the addition of sand, sphagnum, peat. One third of the pot is filled with drainage materials - pebbles, expanded clay.
- Top dressing. In the summer and spring make a moderate amount of fertilizer. Use mineral complexes for flowering plants. The dosage is reduced by 2-3 times.
- Transfer. The first transplant - immediately after purchase in a suitable size pot. When planting, avoid plugging the socket into the soil. After this, the plant is not disturbed until the children are separated from the mother bush.
Epiphytic varieties propagate only vegetatively. Cut off the shoots with leaves, fix them on a branch, stone or bark. Any length of branches is acceptable. Fastening on the support occurs only when the air humidity is above 80%. Potted varieties propagate vegetatively and sowing seeds.
- Child outlets. Tillandsiya after flowering releases many child outlets. The easiest way to breed is to deposit them in separate containers. Plus - the rapid onset of the flowering period. Separate outlets that have reached half the size of the mother bush. Early separated "kids" are not rooted, die. They are deposited in the spring or summer.
- Seeds. Seeds are sown on nutrient soil, slightly pressed down and sprayed. Capacity with the substrate covered with glass, put in a well-lit place. Shoots appear quickly, but seedlings grow very slowly. Its first flower tillandsii release ten years after planting seeds.
Tillandsia flower: home care, types and varieties
The evergreen herb Tillandsia belongs to the family of Bromeliads and is an epiphyte. In nature, the plant grows in South and Central America, Mexico, Chile, Argentina. There are more than four hundred species of tillandia, of which the most interesting are grown as indoor culture.
Tillandsia flower - description
It is difficult to give a precise description of the plant., because some species are very different from each other:
- Some representatives of epiphytes have a rosette of curved, leathery dark green stems with a reddish tinge. In other species, the leaves are narrow, elongated and gray.
- The leaves of the plant may be covered with scales in whole or in part. With the help of these scales flower absorbs moisture from the air.
- There are species completely without a stem and epiphytes with small stems, on which the leaves are arranged in a spiral.
- In tillands, with bright green, long and flat species, small flowers are formed with bent, pointed petals.
- In species with leaf rosettes, spike-shaped inflorescences with large, overlapping bracts are formed. They have a bright color and bloom from June to August.
Some time after flowering in any species of tillands, the children grow back, and the mother plant itself dies.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Care
- 3.1. How to care
- 3.2. Watering
- 3.3. Fertilizer
- 3.4. Transfer
- 3.5. Bloom
- 4. Reproduction
- 4.1. Seed propagation
- 4.2. Breeding kids
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and care for tillandia (in brief)
- Bloom: usually in summer, sometimes for several months, but after flowering the socket dies.
- Lighting: species with green leaves from March to September need bright diffused light, and from October to February - direct sunlight, but they can grow in partial shade. Plants with silver leaves should be kept in partial shade all the time.
- Temperature: in summer - 22–30 ˚C in the daytime and 15–18 ˚C at night, in winter, in the range of 14–15 C. The upper temperature threshold for tillandia is 34 ˚C, the lower one is 10 ˚C.
- Watering: melted, rain or filtered water at a temperature not lower than 20 ˚C is poured into the center of the rosette formed by the leaves. Watering is frequent in summer, rare in winter. Substrate is watered only after it is completely dry.
- Air humidity: plants with green leaves require daily spraying and wetting with water. Twice a month, such a tillandia is washed under a warm shower.Especially moisture-loving species can live only in the florarium.
- Top dressing: once a month and a half from September to March with irrigation water, fertilizer solution is applied to the outlet for orchids or for bromeliads that do not contain copper and boron. The concentration of the solution should be four times weaker than indicated in the instructions.
- Rest period: in some species it occurs in winter, but in most plants this period is not clearly pronounced.
- Transfer: epiphytes do not need transplantation, and plants with green leaves are transplanted once in 2-3 years, but at the same time every spring should be renewed in their pots the top layer of the substrate.
- Breeding: seeds and children.
- Pests: Mealybugs, whiteflies or scutes.
- Diseases: viral and fungal infections from improper care.
How to care for tillandia.
Room flower tillandsii nekaprizen. Caring for tillandia at home is so simple that a beginning gardener can handle it, but growing these plants has its own nuances. For convenience, types of tillandsia can be divided into two groups:
- - group A (atmospheric species) - capricious plants with gray (silvery) leaves,
- - group G (potted species) - plants with green leaves.
For plants of group A, a place will be suitable in partial shade, in the extreme case - in the shade, and for tillands of group G from March to September, bright but diffused lighting is required, and from October to February they need direct sunlight. In extreme cases, you can place these plants in the penumbra.
The temperature of all tillands in the summer is 22-30 ºC during the day and 15-18 at night, and in winter at least 14-15 ºC. The permissible maximum temperature is 34 ºC, and the permissible minimum is 10 ºC, although for a short time tillandsy can tolerate a decrease in temperature to 4 ºC.
Humidity in the room with tillandia should be maintained at 60%. To do this, from March to September, it is advisable to daily spray soft water with thillandia three times a day, trying to keep the spray from falling onto the inflorescences. In the remaining months of the year, spraying is carried out once a day in the morning. Water should evaporate from the leaves of the plant within 4 hours.
The room in which the tillandsia grows should be aired frequently, but one should not allow drafts to appear.
Tillands at home can grow in a pot or on an epiphytic tree - depends on the type of plant. Atmospheric varieties with a small amount of roots are best grown on a pole or drift with remnants of bark. In this case, the nutrition and moisture of the epiphytic species of tillands will be obtained from the bark and the environment, and watering can be completely replaced by spraying.
Tillandia care involves fertilizing for orchids or special fertilizers for bromeliads that do not contain boron and copper, which poison tillandsia. The concentration of the nutrient solution should be four times weaker than that indicated by the manufacturers. Fertilizers are applied during the period from March to September, simultaneously with irrigation, directly into the tillandsia outlet. Some species are better to feed on the leaves. Feed frequency - once every six weeks.
Tillandsy flowers are diverse - their flowering can last several months, and can end in a few days. Their color is also distinguished by a variety of colors - orange, pink, white, blue, purple, violet, bright yellow, crimson, red. There are species that bloom willingly, and there are those that need to be forced to bloom, using growth regulators, for example, Zircon.
Flowering usually occurs in summer, but various factors sometimes interfere with the development of the plant, so you can see the formation of the peduncle at other times of the year.
Head of a jellyfish (Tillandsia caput-medusae)
- This is an epiphyte plant, similar to squid, jellyfish or octopus. Its tightly closed light gray leaves form the base of the bulb, bending only at the top. They stick in different directions, creating bizarre outlines. The water accumulating in the bulb drains from the leaves. When flowering, the head of a jellyfish produces a whisk of several spikelets with granular red bracts and narrow tubular blue-violet flowers, creating contrast to the bracts,
What kind of flower is it?
Tillandsia is a herbaceous perennial from the Bromeliads. Home species of tillandia live about 5 years.
"On the outside" it can be seen in Chile, Mexico, in the south of the USA and in other countries. There are a lot of plant species, they live in savannas or semi-deserts, and in mountains, and in marshlands.
Some species grow in the ground, others cling to the bark of trees (they are epiphytes), and still others grow on rocks (lithophytes).
There are species with and without stem. They bloom green, gray, but mostly purple flowers. True, most of us consider flowers of tillandia to be its noticeable bracts, similar to a flattened spikelet. Tillandsii bloom lasts about 2 months and occurs more often in summer.
Such a plant has impressive (1-3 meters) stems. Its leaves also resemble threads, but up to 5 cm long.
The whole plant is covered with scales that reflect light, so the day may flicker a little.
It blooms in summer, yellow-green flowers.
In the photo above, it is compact, but with long-term cultivation it can be a long, silvery branched “vine”, which can beautifully braid an entire wall. In the wild, these "creatures" effectively entwine trees, hanging from the branches with live waterfalls.
Important: plant a flower sprout down. He does not need support.
And on the other hand, these plants have roots on them, and they are relatively powerful (although looking to compare with something - if you put a regular spathyphylum next to it, then its roots will seem giants next to tillandia roots).
The leaves are strong, elastic. Food for life-like flowers are obtained from the soil, so they are grown in pots.
Leaves in the form of "weed" are collected in a socket-bundle. Bottom they are reddish, green above.
The plant grows to a maximum of 30 cm.
Hybrid blue tillandsii, bred specifically for growing at home.
Anita's bract can be pink or lilac, the flower blue or purple. True, the flower fades almost immediately after blooming - but the bract after that for a long time "holds the mark." If he began to turn green, it means that the flower signals you the completion of the flowering process.
This species is similar to the previous one, but its leaves are narrower, and the bract is, on the contrary, more magnificent. "Spike" can be both pink and reddish.
Blooms blue flowers.
Many of our compatriots notice that the bract of this species looks like an acacia flower, but enlarged, and red and / or orange.
How to care for this amazing plant
Although tillandsiya seems to be a guest from space, it is easy to care for this flower, as it is not picky. But there are nuances!
- Shine. It should be bright, but not direct, but scattered. In summer, the flower (especially epiphytic species) can be pritenyat. But! Without the proper amount of light (and in the winter - without lighting) tillandsia may not at all please flowers.
- The temperature in the room. It is a thermophilic plant. And in winter and summer, it must be maintained at 20-28 degrees. If the temperature drops below 18, tillandsia (regardless of the species) may begin to hurt. If in the summer you are very hot (above 30 degrees - it’s too much for a flower), you can put your pet out on the street, but of course, not in the sun, but in the shade.
- Watering. Always defend water (if you have a cleaning system that makes tap water potable, then you don't need it). Tillandsia constantly needs moisture and will even forgive you if you flood all its sockets. In the summer, water your favorite more often (without letting the ground dry in the pot), in the winter less often (so that the top of the ground is still dry).
- Spraying. Also a desirable procedure (take warm water in winter). If the view is atmospheric, except for spraying, arrange him a regular shower. And pot varieties do not need this - for them, even spraying can be replaced with a simple tray with wet expanded clay.
- Nutrition. In the summer you can buy mineral compositions (complex) for decorative flowering flowerpots. The concentration of water greatly increase (preferably 2 times). Bring them once every 2 weeks using a spray bottle, and you need to process the leaves.
- Transfer. It is often carried out immediately after purchase, transferring the plant to a proven soil and (to be honest) a more beautiful pot. After the procedure, the flower is not watered for a week.
- Priming. You can buy a substrate for orchids, if your store sells good. If not, mix: sphagnum + peat + leafy soil (in equal shares) + a pinch of charcoal.
- Pot. Not deep, but wide.
Important! After flowering, your pet can die off completely. Do not reproach yourself, thinking that they were ruined by improper care - if the children were left in the pot, it should be so.
All methods of reproduction of this "weed"
There are two of them - kids and seeds. The first is good if you already have tillandia, the second if not, but you want to get it for a penny. Yes, it is more laborious, but accessible to all.
- They are germinated in sand + peat.
- Seeds just lay out over the ground, without deepening.
- Germinate seeds in a homemade greenhouse at 25 degrees and sufficient light.
- These babies sprout in a month.
- The resulting plant will bloom as much as 5 years.
By the way! If you are curious, you can gather seeds from your own tillandia. They can also germinate.
Potted plants grow many babies. If you separate them immediately after flowering, tillandsia may not even die off. Important: take only the children with roots, dorosshie up to 10 cm.
- Children are planted in the sand + peat. In such a soil, small tillandia is kept for 2 to 3 months, and when it grows up, it is transferred to the “adult” soil.
- If the mother plant is already dead, you can not touch the kids. Let them grow in an old pot. They will bloom in 2 years.
Do you have atmospheric tillands? It is even easier to multiply: insert a bunch of leaves into a wet sphagnum. He will grow there.
We solve problems with tillandia
- The plant has faded, what's next? Cut off a withered bract. Dried leaves are also under the knife.
- The plant does not bloom. You can spray it once a week with “Zircon” or succinic acid.
- Attacked pests. It can be mealybugs or scale insects. They come when tillandsia is incorrectly transplanted or kept in too dry air without spraying. "Epidemic" started? Wash the leaves of the plant with soapy water and treat them with insecticide.
- Does the plant have fungus (black, dark spots)? You poured it for a long time. Have to buy a fungicide. It is more difficult to get rid of a fungus than insects, but with persistence and, most importantly, a quick response to the first signs of illness, you have chances of success.
- Leaves dry and curl, or leaves and bracts blend? You water a little and spray the plant.
- Leaves fall? One of two things: either the root and / or stem decay, or it is a reaction to light or temperature jumps.
- On the leaves of reddish, brown spots. Most likely, direct sunlight falls on them and it is a burn. Try moving the pot to a shaded place.
- Whitish bloom on the leaves, the general decline of the plant: the water is not defended, but it is too hard. Try to defend it for a day, and even better to boil.
- The tips of the leaves dry. So the plant reacts to various inconveniences: hard water, cold in the room, draft. Or maybe he just is not enough watering / humidity.
If your pottery tillandsiya has faded and is now turning green and peaceful, not hurrying to throw out the “feather” again, this video may be useful to you. It will tell you how at home to cause flowering of this beautiful plant:
Tillandsia is a grassy, slow-growing perennial. Most of the members of the genus lives on the snags and trees of the rainforest. Some flowers have adapted to life on the rocks. All of them have a rather short and fragile rhizome, which serves only to consolidate. The main power is through the leaves.
The height of adult Tylandusia is 5–60 cm. Rigid sheet plates have a narrow, slightly curved shape. On the dark green surface of the sheet sometimes appear red-brown strokes and stains. Sheet length varies between 5 and 35 cm, and width is 3-12 mm. The entire leaf or only a part of its surface is covered with tiny scales that absorb water and nutrients from the air.
In September, a strip-like inflorescence on a sturdy peduncle opens out from the center of a leaf rosette. The buds are flattened and hidden by rigid perianths of crimson or orange color. They are arranged in pairs on both sides of the stem. Flowers bloom 1 or 2 at a time. Soft violet-blue petals resemble moths, crouched to rest on a bright ear. The diameter of the open corolla is 20-25 mm. In total, there are up to 20 buds on the inflorescence, their flowering continues until January.
After flowering, the rosette dies off and tillandia goes into a state of rest. The following season, new shoots are formed from the formed buds. One outlet lives up to 5 years. Even before the complete death of the mother plant, babies can be found on it. They are recommended to separate in the year of appearance and grow independently.
Popular types of tillands
The genus tillandsii consists of more than 400 species. They are conventionally divided into atmospheric and land plants. Atmospheric or epiphytic tillandsia has a very small rhizome. Its leaves are completely covered with reflecting light scales, therefore, are colored gray or silver. The most interesting representatives of this group are the following:
- Tillandsiya osneevidnaya. For a very exotic appearance, this variety is called "Spanish moss" or "old man's beard." Thin branched shoots grow up to 1 m in length. They are covered with narrow silver leaves up to 5 cm long and about 1 mm wide. Crohn forms a thick cascade. In summer, the plant blooms with yellow-green unremarkable flowers. Grow it as an ampelous plant.
Potted or green Tillands are grown in a classic way. They pick up a special soil and planted in a pot. Representatives of this group include the following plants:
- Tillandsia Anita. Decorative compact appearance has a dense outlet of gray-green leaves. The narrow and long foliage is only partially covered with scales. During flowering a short, obovate inflorescence of pink color is formed. It takes turns, starting from the bottom, lilac or purple flowers bloom.
For planting tillandsii use wide and shallow containers, as the rhizome has a very modest size. Regular transplants are not needed. It is only necessary to periodically replace the old substrate. If a large number of babies are formed, they must be separated and transplanted into their own pots. Atmospheric specimens do not need a pot at all. In the shops they are sold with a piece of stump or stone. During transplantation, it is important to be careful not to damage the fragile plant.
The soil for tillands should be well drained and fibrous. It is best to use substrates with a neutral or weakly acid reaction. The presence of lime in the soil is unacceptable. Soil mixtures are suitable for orchids and bromeliads. You can compose them yourself from:
- sphagnum moss,
- pieces of pine bark,
- crushed charcoal,
- hardwood land
- fern roots.
Every spring, the top layer of soil is replaced with a new one.
Tillandsy require a grower experience in the care of bromeliads. These plants can not be called completely unpretentious. However, mastering the basic rules is possible.
Lighting. All types of tillandsia are grown in partial shade or in diffused light. Atmospheric varieties grow better in dark rooms, and lighter rooms are needed for potted species. It is also recommended that the latter be exposed to direct sunlight in the morning and evening. In winter, bright lighting green tillandsii necessary throughout the day.
Temperature. Tillandsia need daily fluctuations in temperature within 5-8 ° C. The optimum daily air temperature is + 22 ... + 28 ° C. Increases up to + 35 ° C and decreases up to + 10 ° C are allowed. In the summer it is convenient to put flowers on the street, where they will approach the natural conditions of detention. On the street, put flowers under a canopy. Rain in temperate climates is too cold for them.
Humidity. Near the plants it is necessary to maintain high humidity. Krona daily sprayed with well purified water. Atmospheric plants need up to 3 sprays per day. The more intense the lighting, the higher the humidity needed by tillandia. In October and February, spraying is carried out in the morning. It is also important to regularly ventilate the room. Every 2 months the flowers are bathed under a warm shower. The procedure should not be carried out during the flowering period, otherwise it will be short-lived.
Watering. Water quality for irrigation is important. It should be rain or carefully cleaned. Chlorine, lime and other impurities affect the growth and appearance of the plant. On the back of the leaves can form a raid. Atmospheric species of soil moisten extremely rarely, only after it dries completely. Potted plants are watered sparingly, but regularly. The soil should always be slightly wet. Water should be poured into the center of the leaf outlet. Periodically you need to immerse the pot in a bowl of water.
Fertilizer. Каждые 1-2 месяца тилландсию подкармливают минеральными комплексами для бромелиевых. A healthy plant is enough and half a serving of fertilizer. They are made from March to September. It is important to take into account that the flower receives a part of the food through the leaves. Therefore, dressing is not only poured into the soil (in the center of the leaf outlet), but also added to the water for spraying.
Diseases and pests. In case of violation of conditions of detention, namely, dampness and excessive watering, leaf spotting may develop. At the early stage of the disease, the leaves are treated with fungicides, but the probability of saving the plant is very small. Affected flowers or their areas should be destroyed immediately. Tillandsia can suffer from attacks of spider mites, flaps, aphids and mealybugs. Parasites are fought with insecticides.
Types of pot tillands
Tillandsia is blue. The most popular among home gardeners. Its rosette consists of leaves, which are reddish at the base first, and after a while their color changes to brownish. The socket in height can be from twenty to thirty centimeters. During flowering, it forms a flattened spike with pink or lilac dense bracts. One after another, blue-blue flowers bloom on their edge.that quickly fade.
Tillandsia Anita. The hybrid variety bred on the basis of blue tillandsii is distinguished by a beautiful pink or lilac bracts. A blue flower is formed in their center on a short stem. He also quickly fades, however, the beauty of Anita tillandsii in bright bracts. They are surrounded by pointed, narrow, scaly leaves.
Tillandsiya Duer. An elegant and beautiful plant stands out among other species similar to yellow leaves of acacia buds. The socket consists of lingual, long and flat leaves.. At the end of the peduncle are orange or red leafy oval bracts.
Tillandsia is osteiform, "Spanish moss" or "old man's beard." The plant is distinguished by filamentous leaves up to five centimeters long and thin stems, the length of which can be up to several meters. The leaves and stems are covered with reflective scales, because of what it seems that they are silver or gray. Tillandia has no roots. In nature, it grows on stones and branches, and at home the epiphyte can be fixed on a moss support or simply suspended. The plant blooms with light green flowers.
Tillandsiya is violet. Plant with claw-like silvery-green leaves, which are collected in small rosettes. From their middle spiciform violet inflorescences grow. After the appearance of the flowers, the leaves turn red, and the epiphyte looks very bright and beautiful.
Tillandsiya sticking out. The plant is different triangular, narrow, bright green leaves up to twenty centimeters. It has curved short peduncles, at the end of which a spike-like dense inflorescence is formed with nondescript purple flowers and pink oval bracts.
The head of a jellyfish. A plant similar to an octopus, jellyfish or squid is distinguished by light gray leaves, which fold upward and form an onion at the base. During flowering, epiphyte releases inflorescence in the form of a panicle. It consists of several spikelets with blue-violet narrow tubular flowers and red granular inflorescences. Leaves tillandsii Head jellyfish stick in different directions, about as the tentacles of an octopus or jellyfish. What the plant got its name for.
Diseases and pests
With proper placement and care, epiphytes rarely get sick and are barely affected by pests. At the weakened plants can live scythos, whitefly or mealybugs. When they appear, the bush should be washed with a soap and a sponge. When the leaves dry, the plant is treated with one of the insecticidal preparations. With a large number of pests processing is carried out several times.
In a cool room and when over-wetting the soil bromeliads can be affected by fungal diseases. If dark spots appear on the leaves, the bush is recommended to be treated with Fundazole or another fungicide.
Possible problems in growing tillands
In addition to diseases and pests, care errors can cause the loss of ornamental plants:
- If the tips of the leaves turned brown, then it means that the tillandsia was watered with hard or cold water, was drafted or lacked light.
- The bract does not form, the growth of the bush slows down, and the leaves become dark due to lack of light.
- If the flowers are pale, it means that the plant stands on a too bright place.
- Disruption of leaf color and loss of their turgor is a sign of sudden temperature changes.
- If the leaves become brown or brown, and the bush - soft, then we can conclude that the epiphyte was too often or heavily watered. In this case, he begins to rot the roots, because of what eventually the plant completely disintegrates.
- Leaves covered with limescale will suggest that watering is done with hard water. Such a bush after a while may die.
- Brown spots on the leaves are a sunburn.
- Dropped leaves can be a sign of root rot. It can also reset the leaves after stressful situations, which include a sharp change in lighting or temperature.
- If the leaves began to die, wrinkle or curl, and the bracts have lost their bright color, most likely the plant lacks moisture.
All these troubles can be avoided if you follow all the rules of care for tillandia at home.
Propagation side shoots
After flowering on the mother bush begin to form shoots or kids. When they grow to about ten centimeters and give roots, they should be cut off from the main bush and planted in a container with peat and sand (1: 1). Rooted babies will be about two or three months. When caring for them, care must be taken that the soil is moist but not moist. Ingrained shoots transplanted into small pots with soil for orchids or bromeliads.
If the parent plant has formed only one shoot, then it can not be cut. When the main bush dries, it is removed, and the remaining baby remains to grow in the same pot.
Tillands of group A can be propagated by dividing the bush. The ends of each bundle are wrapped in a wet sphagnum, which is sprayed as it dries.
Acquired potted plant seeds placed in a wet mixture of peat and sand. It is not necessary to deepen the seeds in the soil. They are simply covered on top with glass or transparent film and placed in a warm place with an air temperature of +25 degrees. Approximately in a month shoots will appear, and the film will need to be removed. Epiphytes grown from seeds will bloom no sooner than five years from now.
With proper care for tillandia at home, in summer the plants will decorate the house with their red, crimson, bright yellow, purple, blue, white, pink or orange flowers. Depending on the type of epiphyte, they can be placed on a window sill in a pot, or grown on a special epiphytic tree. And atmospheric varieties with a small amount of roots will look beautiful and unusual if they are attached to a bark or pole.
Description of tillands
Some varieties of plants may have a hard stem, others do not have it at all. Depending on this, terrestrial or epiphytic types of tillandsia differ. Suspended varieties of this plant have oblong narrow leaves 25 centimeters long and 1 centimeter wide. The color of the foliage can vary from gray to green. Rosettes of green tillands are formed by flat leaves with scales. Some species have a smooth sheet plate, the length of which can reach 40 centimeters. Bright pink tillandii bracts form a large inflorescence, similar to the ear. At home in a pot the plant can live no more than five years.
The subspecies of Anita does not need such abundant spraying as, for example, epiphytes of this family, for which humidity is the main factor for the absorption of nutrients. Due to such a high demand for high humidity, suspended tillandsia feel good in special florariums. In contrast, the pot with Anita’s tillandia is simply enough to put on wet pebbles or moss.
Ready soil can be bought at any flower shop. For tillandsii most suitable mix for orchids. For self-preparation of suitable soil is taken on one part of leafy soil, peat, peat moss and mixed with the addition of crushed charcoal.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
The mode of fertilization in tillandsii is in many respects similar to fertilizing in orchids. Every two weeks of summer, the complex mineral fertilizer for flowering plants should be sprayed with a foliage of the plant in half the concentration. It is better for them not to water the soil in order not to damage the weak root system.
Side shoots tillandsii often called children. They violently begin to appear when the mother plant blooms. To save the flower, after it has blossomed, young ten-centimeter shoots, which have roots, have to be planted separately. A mixture for them is prepared by mixing peat and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. It takes about 2-3 months to fully root and strengthen such babies, after which the shoot can be transplanted into a permanent pot with orchid mixture. The process can be simplified if a maternal shoot has formed in the maternal tylandusia - the old plant is simply removed, leaving the baby to grow in the same soil. The flowering of Anita’s tillandia, planted in this way, will begin in 2 years.
Tylllandsia epiphytes multiply even easier - by dividing into bundles. The parts thus assembled are inserted into the prepared supports with wet moss, where they can continue their growth.
Tillandia care during flowering
In Anita's tillandia, the flower usually appears in summer. However, various factors may affect this process, and flower stalks may begin to be laid at any time of the year. Bright inflorescence of bracts appears first, followed by small bluish flowers. This whole period lasts about two months. After that, the faded parts should be removed as well as the old foliage.
It is possible to stimulate the appearance of flowers by weekly sprinkling the plant with a preparation from Zircon. This is done if the tillandia Anita does not give a flower stem for a long time.