Spring is the time for the awakening of nature, the singing of birds and the riot of bright colors of various colors. A lot of them bloom, but there is a single flower that, without any doubt, will attract your attention. This primrose is popularly called by several names: moth, scrofula, half-flower, viola, ivan-da-maria, tricolor violet and many other equally poetic names. This flower is best known as pansies. In nature, there are annual, biennial and perennial varieties.
A variety of perennials and hybrids pansies, allows you to grow a flower in any flower bed. The article will discuss the methods of cultivation and proper care of the plant.
Flowers of the genus Viola exist in nature more than fifty varieties. These flowers belong to the family of violet and have a rich variety of varieties. Each has its own characteristics and unique shade of color petals. There are perennial pansies with petals of gentle light almost white color. Flowers with almost black petals and stripes of yellow, blue, blue, violet and burgundy shades look unusual.
The average size of a bush grows to 30 cm. In the first weeks of flower development, its bush is compact, small and low. As it develops, it grows and in the neighborhood of other bushes it creeps like a carpet. In a flower bed, flowers multiply by self-sowingtherefore, in autumn there are much more bushes than planted in spring.
Violets are blooming, depending on the variety and method of cultivation since mid-May and almost all summer. The sizes of flowers on average do not exceed 8 cm. There are varieties with small flowers, their size does not exceed 3 cm.
The most popular two species of this plant - three-color violet and Vittrok violet.
- The tricolor violet is a herbaceous plant of the violet family, a genus of violet. This flower is wild. It grows on the fringe of the forest or in a ravine. The bush is low, no more than 16 cm. The flower is small, it grows up to 1.5 cm. It blooms from late April to September.
- Vittrock Violets, a hybrid plant of the violet family. Different varieties and varieties of flowers originated from this hybrid. Selection by breeding varieties of flowers as one and biennial, and perennial plants. Perennial varieties in winter require additional shelter bush.
Description of the variety and agricultural techniques manufacturer writes on the package with seeds. They can be grown in pots on a windowsill, or outdoors in a garden in a flower bed. Flowers are unpretentious, they do not impose special requirements for care, therefore a novice grower can grow them.
Planting and care
Growing pansies is a simple task. To grow a two-year bush, seeds are planted in open ground. They are sown in the beds at the end of July. Sowing seeds earlier is not recommended, because the bush can leave with color in autumn and winter, this plant usually does not tolerate. The plant has an average age of 90 days, so when sowing it is necessary to calculate the time so that the pansies do not bloom.
Bloom in lush color these plants will be next year. With this method of planting be sure to take care of additional shelter beds. Not every variety is able to withstand severe frosts. In April next year, the flowers will delight with its beauty.
For this method of growing two-year or perennial flowers, it is necessary to carry out snow retention. Place for flower beds should not be in the lowlands. Viola does not tolerate water stagnation. The additional shelter is removed as soon as the temperature is + 3 + 5 ° C. If the shelter is not removed in time, the roots of the bushes will rot and die.
Growing violet seedlings
Get blooming violets in April for the first year of cultivation, it is possible only with the bushes that have grown seedlings. Such flowers will bloom all summer. Seeds for seedlings are planted from the end of February to the end of March. The timing of planting depends on the climatic region, as soon as the constant heat comes and the soil warms up, so that it will be possible to plant the seedlings in the open ground and not to torment it on the window sill. If planting in the open ground was delayed, the plants must light up the lamps for several hours during the day.
No special preparation is required before sowing seeds into the soil. Seed material, if there is a desire and opportunity, you can soak for several hours in a solution of stimulants for seedlings. It is important to purchase seeds at a specialty store and from reputable seed manufacturers.
Soil for seedlings can purchase a special for growing violets. If the volume of future seedlings will be large, the soil can be prepared independently in the fall on your own plot. Equal amounts of hardwood and compost are mixed, which is overdone and ready for planting. You can store this mixture on the street, additionally hiding or sheltering from rain and snow. Before planting the seeds, the ground is brought into heat to warm it. Heated soil, the day before planting seeds, fill tanks for seedlings. They are pretty well watered.
Capacities for growing seedlings can take any. If you plan a small number of bushes, then you can buy peat tablets for seedlings. If the volume of seedlings is large, then you can buy boxes or plastic cassettes. There are no requirements for containers.
Sow seeds in two ways..
- The easiest and easiest way to sow seeds: spread the seeds on the surface of the soil, cover with a film and place in a dark place where the air temperature will be constant at + 20 + 22 ° С. Seeds will stand until the first shoots. Seed containers must be aired by removing the film for a few minutes.
- The second method of sowing seeds with embedding in the ground: a beard is formed in the containers in the ground, the seed is placed into it. The groove must be made half a centimeter deep. Between the grooves it is necessary to make a distance of about one cm from each other. Dark place is not required. The landing box is covered with a film. It is necessary to air the seedlings every day for several minutes, not more than 10 minutes, removing the film. The temperature in the room should be + 20 ° С.
Quality seed, on average, will sprout within 14 days. Seed germination depends on the variety. Germination time description seed is on the package. It is not necessary to wait for shoots after five weeks.
Caring for green boring
Grown small green bore placed in a well-lit place. It will be good if this window is southeast or southwest. The windows of other parties must be finished in order for the seedlings to develop properly and not stretch out in length.
Emerged shoots to the air the window is taught gradually, as if tempering. Every time, increasing the time of airing the seedlings. After a week, on average, when the ventilation time reaches 6 hours, the film is finally removed and the seedlings live in room climate.
Seedlings grow strong, however, it should be remembered that the drying of the soil is unacceptable. Watering is moderated as soon as the topsoil dries out.
Seedlings, if necessary, dive. The thickened planting in phase 3 of these leaves is spiked by individual individual tanks. If the distance between the bushes in the box is two centimeters, then the seedlings do not dive. When transplanting violets, the stem is buried to the cotyledon leaves. This will give rise to additional roots and prevent the viola stem from falling to the ground due to gravity. When the violet reaches growth in the phase of the six true leaves, the stem is pinched. The plant will pick up pomp and add side shoots.
Before planting young flowers in the open ground, they are gradually hardened, accustomed to street conditions. The containers are carried out for a short time, gradually increasing the length of stay. In the bright sun seedlings should not be set up, the best is a shaded place, but not a shadow. These are flowers that love sunny places, but seedlings should be taught to the sun gradually.
Transplanting and caring for violets in the open ground
Flowers like pretty sunny beds, but can grow in shady places. The best place for growing flowers will be a flower bed, on which the sun will be a certain part of the day. If the flowers are planted on a sunny flower bed, the flowering of violets will end in the middle of summer.
The soil should be fertile, but not "oily", i.e. making manure should not be carried away. Given that the violet in the forest grows on leafy soil, it should create similar conditions in a flower bed. The soil is poor in composition, will not allow to grow varietal pansies. Such plants may have a pale color of flowers, the size of the peduncle will not correspond to the declared by the manufacturer.
Seedlings should be planted at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other. Additionally, deepening the stem is not worth it. Further care is in watering, additional feeding and pest control. Growing violets will not be tedious with systematic care.
Viola loves wet soil, but there should be no stagnant water. The root system of the flower immediately rot, because it is located in the upper layer of the soil. Water the flower bed as the topsoil dries. On average, the soil is watered 1-2 times a week, depending on the climatic conditions of cultivation. The soil around the bush after watering can be mulched.
Two weeks after planting the seedlings in the ground you can do the first feeding. Fertilizers can be used in conjunction with irrigation. Apply any complex fertilizer for flowers or violets. For fertilizing you can apply ammonium nitrate or superphosphate. These fertilizers are applied at the rate of 30 grams per 1 m2. Fertilize once a month.
When caring for flowers you need to carefully weed out the weeds that do not leave nutrients in the soil. It should gently loosen the soil between the bushes, not approaching quite close to the stem, so as not to damage the roots. In addition to weeds, pansies love to damage insects, caterpillars and larvae. Often they are affected by aphids, scoops and spider mites. To fight insects better with the help of appropriate insecticides.
Improper agrotechnology in the care of flowers often leads to illnesses. Violets are amazed:
- powdery mildew,
- black leg
- gray rot.
Diseases can lead to delayed flowering, the death of the buds, or the death of the whole plant. To avoid this only correct care will help: timely watering, feeding and weeding.
Description of the plant: varieties and varieties
Pansies - perennial plants, but the cultivation is usually carried out on agrotehnike two-year culture. Abundant flowering in the open field in the spring and the first half of summer. The touching flowers open their petals towards the first sunshine, barely the snow melts.
Single flowers with a diameter of 6 to 10 cm rise from the leaf sinuses. Sometimes the flowers of the viola emit a delicate, subtle fragrance. The leaves of the plant are delicate, light green, oval, with an urban or jagged edge.
Cultivars amaze with the magnificence of various colors. Breeders deduced a huge number of multi-colored viols, including: the whole range of purple shades, yellow, white, blue. It is not uncommon now pansies reddish-brown tones. Varietal viols have contrasting bands on the petals, eyes, edging.
Classification of Viol Wittrock: varieties and varieties.
Pansies can be divided by the height of the bush:
The second sign of the division of viola varieties is the largest flower:
- species with large flowers
- small-flowered varieties,
- with giant flowers.
In addition, pansies differ in the form of the edges of the petals:
- even petals
- wavy edge of petals.
The color of the petals distinguish the following types of viola:
- varieties with monotonous (one-color) color,
- two-color varieties,
- a series of flower varieties with contrasting spots and stripes.
Pansies make up more than 15 groups of decorative garden varieties, which differ significantly in terms of flowering time, color and size of a flower, shape, and winter hardiness. Breeders brought a lot of giant varieties with a wavy edge, including semi-double and terry varieties. They can grow perfectly in open ground.
The enchanting flowers of the Russian Size variety are in excess of 10 cm in diameter. Novelties of selection are ampelous pansies of the Waterfalls variety. These plants are designed for hanging baskets, they are characterized by abundant, lush, long flowering.
Mono-colored pansies are popular in landscape design. Planting of them makes it possible to distinguish the territory of the garden with contrasting color spots.
At the present time monochrome copies of the viola of bright, pure colors are displayed:
Planting a plant
High decorativeness of pansies in open ground directly depends on the place of planting. Although the plant is rather shade-tolerant, it degenerates in a dense shade: the flowers become shallow, lose their saturation, the stalks of the plant stretch out and fade. The flowering time of such plants is significantly reduced.
The second condition for the luxurious flowering of pansies is the soil. Viola does not tolerate dry, stony, sandy soil. This flower grows beautifully in fertile soil, with a high content of nutrients and moisture. Viola care is minimal.
How to plant pansies: planting and care
Pansies - planting and care is not difficult: you can plant plants directly by seeds in the soil. For this, the soil is loosened, the seeds are buried shallowly. Watering crops carefully carried out of the watering can with a fine strainer, so as not to wash the seeds from the soil. Shoots in the open ground appear on the 7-10 day.
To speed up flowering, you should take care in advance of applying the seedling method when sowing seeds is done in a greenhouse or greenhouse in advance. This agrotechnical technique allows you to get flush-flowering bushes much earlier than when sown with seeds. Growing seedlings begins in February. The boxes with sown viol are kept for a week in a dark place. With the advent of shoots, boxes are transferred to the brightest place. Care of seedlings is timely watering and hardening. In the ground seedlings of pansies are planted in mid-May. Flowering may begin in a month.
Important! Watering of seedlings is required to be carried out regularly, not allowing drying or over-wetting of the earth coma.
Viola - unpretentious plant. Caring for her is not difficult. The plant requires regular watering, but it does not respond well to stagnant water in the garden.
Fertilizer and dressing
When preparing the bed for planting viola, it is important to provide fertilizer to increase the flowering period. Granulated double superphosphate is perfect for this purpose. Fertilizer is embedded in the ground, where it slowly dissolves during the summer season and feeds the plants with phosphorus, which is responsible for the beauty of the flowers.
During the growing season and flowering pansies required to make complex fertilizer for garden flowers. The frequency of nutrients is made in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.
Excellent results are achieved with foliar application, when fertilizer is sprayed on the foliage.
Important! Pansies do not tolerate manure.
In addition to sowing seeds, pansies easily grafted. Reproduction of viola by cutting in the open field is not difficult. At about the beginning of summer green cuttings with 2-3 internodes are cut from the bushes. Fresh cuttings are planted in the prepared bed. When planting viola should be watered and sprayed with water.
Reproduction of culture by green cutting, allows in less than a month to get a hardened, full-fledged shrub ready for flowering.
Diseases and pests
Unfortunately, tender pansies do not bypass disease and pests. There are many illnesses of pansies:
Mealy dew affects the whole plant. The affected parts of the flower die over time, new buds are not formed.
Treatment: water-soap emulsion is sprayed over the plant.
Gray rot causes damage (rotting) of all parts of the plant. Treatment: spraying with 0.5% solution of copper oxychloride up to 4 times in 1 week.
Spotting - premature dying off of leaves, slowing flowering. Treatment: the same control measures as with gray rot.
Blackleg - development of rot on the root neck and roots of the flower. It develops with excessive watering, dense soil and stagnant water. Prevention: the use of clean planting material, properly organized watering. Cultivating a crop in an over-wet bed leads to the death of plants.
Pests of pansies - aphid and spider mite. The affected plants wither, cease to bloom, eventually die. In case of severe infection, it is necessary to treat the flower garden with the appropriate pest preparations.
Pansies: combination with other plants
Violet Wittrock is perfectly combined with stunted perennials or biennials:
При совместных посадках цветочных культур следует подбирать растения подходящего размера, чтобы рядом растущие экземпляры не угнетали друг друга.
An excellent combination on a flower bed is achieved by planting only pansies, with the choice of varieties of the same color, or multi-colored mixture. Such beds look elegant and decorative.
Pansies in landscape design
The use of pansies in landscape design is widespread and very justified:
- young cultures bloom the same year (when sown through seedlings),
- a wide palette of colors make it possible to choose the right variety for any decision of flowerbed design,
- flowering culture begins quite early in the cold spring, when there are few flowering crops.
Viola curtains look great on an emerald green lawn. They spread carpet ornaments from the flowers, planted paths with them, planted them in hanging pots. Landing does not cause troubles and difficulties, and the care of the viol is quite simple, therefore, it is often used to design the territories in landscape design.
Why so called Pansies
The true origin of the name of the flower is not known. There are only legends and myths. One of these legends tells that there once lived a girl named Anyuta. Once she met a young man and loved him very much. After some time, the young man decided to leave, but he swore an oath that he would return to his chosen one.
Annie went out on the road many times along which her lover had gone. Peering into the distance, hoping to see him. She waited a long time, but the young man never returned. Gradually extinguished from loneliness and longing, Annie died.
After burial, flowers resembling eyes, which looked tirelessly far off, grew on her grave. So the popular name for pansies appeared.
Pansies varieties photos and titles
Pansy Weiss - the variety has pure white flowers with wavy edges. The size of the opened bud varies from six to eight centimeters. The total height of the shrub reaches thirty-five centimeters.
Pansy White - This variety has white flowers with yellow splashes. The size of the opened buds reaches seven centimeters. Peduncle length varies from eight to twelve centimeters.
Pansies Blue - Flowers of this variety are painted in blue and purple. Petals have smooth edges and a smooth surface. The size of flowers varies from six to seven centimeters in diameter. The length of the shoot is about eleven centimeters.
Pansies Abengglut - The flowers of this variety have a cherry and a red tint with brown splashes. Petals are smooth with ribbed edges. The size of flowers in diameter is eight centimeters.
Pansies Golden Yellow - From the name of the variety it is clear that the flowers have a golden hue. The size of the opened buds reaches seven centimeters in diameter. The length of the shoot does not exceed ten centimeters.
Varieties with large flowers
Pansies Evening Heat - flowers of this grade of a brown and red shade. The lower petals have brown spots. The size of flowers varies from five to six centimeters.
Pansies Himmelskenigin - Flowers have a bluish tint. The size of the opened buds is no more than five centimeters in diameter. The total height of the shrub reaches thirty centimeters.
Pansies Jupiter - the flowers of this variety at the base have a purple and purple hue, and closer to the edges they get a white tone. The lower petals are completely white. The size of the opened buds reaches five centimeters. The length of the shoot is about seven centimeters.
Pansies Winter Sun - flowers bright yellowish with purple incrustations. All petals have ribbed edges. The length of the stems reaches nine centimeters, and the diameter of the flowers is five centimeters.
Pansy Magic March - This variety has flowers that appear with a dark purple color, but after two days they acquire a black tone. The petals velvet surface and smooth edges. Flowers grow to five centimeters in diameter. The length of the shoots is ten centimeters.
Pansies Heavenly Queen - the flowers of this variety appear with a blue color, but after two days the petals begin to lighten, acquiring a light blue tint. The size of the flowers reaches a diameter of five centimeters. The length of the shoots is about nine centimeters.
Pansies Ice King - The flowers of this plant are white in color with long, violet patches. There are varieties with petals that have white, yellow, purple and green shades. The height of the bush reaches twenty centimeters, and the diameter of the flowers is five centimeters.
Varieties with small flowers
Pansies Fire King - flowers with a dark red shade with the basis of black color. The lower petals are colored yellow. Flowers have a diameter of four centimeters. The total height of the shrub is twenty centimeters.
Pansies Little Red Riding Hood - the variety was named in honor of a girl from a folk tale who had a red cap. Similarly, the flowers of the plant at the edges have a light or dark shade of red, and in the center of the petals are black in color. The size of the flowers is only three centimeters.
Pansies Snow Maiden - Flowers with velvet petals of pure white color. The size of flowers can reach four centimeters in diameter.
Pansies Blue Boy - this variety has delicate petals with blue and light blue tint. Flowers grow to four centimeters in diameter.
Pansies growing from seed
To please yourself with flowers in the first year, you need to know how to plant this plant correctly. It all starts with sowing seeds at the end of February. To do this, use any plastic boxes filled with slightly acid soil.
Seeds need to be laid to a depth of 5 mm. Then put the boxes in a dark and warm place. After five days, the seedlings will germinate. Having noticed the first shoots, transfer the seedlings to a bright place where the temperature does not exceed + 17 ° C. Watch for the moderate soil moisture, feed the seedlings with soluble fertilizer containing potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
When the seedlings germinate well and two leaves appear on each stalk, proceed to seating in the cassettes. After completing the transplant, put the boxes in a cool place, where no more than + 13 ° C. During this period, continue to monitor the soil moisture and fertilize.
Violet is a very beautiful flower that can be grown and when you care at home, the main thing is to follow the rules of care and you will not have any problems with it. All the necessary recommendations can be found in this article.
For tricolor violet, you must choose a nourishing soil. In poor soils, such as sandy or clayey, flowers grow poorly, becoming nondescript dwarfs.
To improve the poor soil, you need to mix it with fertilizer. For one square meter, add 5 kg of vegetable compost or last year's manure.
Violet tricolor not whimsical when grown in open ground. The only thing she needs is a vast place and warmth. For planting, choose an open, sunny patch. When you start planting seedlings, keep the distance between the seedlings (15-20 cm). Plants will take root in 3-4 days.
Important! Seedlings planted in the open land two months after the dive. The number of leaves in a seedling should be at least 4 pieces.
You need to water the flowers three times a week, and if the weather is hot, then every day. Try not to fill the seedlings, but to maintain a moderate soil moisture. Water pour at the very root.
Important! Do not let the water stagnate in the ground; this can cause flowers to rot. After watering, loosen the soil.
Fertilizer for three-color violets
The first dressing of flowers should be done two weeks after transplantation into the open ground. As a fertilizer, any complex of minerals (phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) will do. The following feeding should be done during the appearance of the buds and before flowering.
Important! You can not fertilize this plant with fresh manure.
Violets multiply rapidly, throwing seeds into the soil. If you do not want the flowers to grow strongly in one place, then you need to remove the seed boxes in time. Cut flowers need at a distance of five centimeters from the ground.
After three weeks, you will have new inflorescences. Circumcision is also done if the bushes begin to turn yellow and dry, and the flowers dim and diminish. In two weeks the shrub will give new shoots.
Important! Leave two leaves on each stem of the field trimming.
Pansies flowering period
Violets give abundant bloom from May to frost, that is, 4-5 months a year. Such a long flowering occurs due to the constant change of flowers, which occurs unnoticed.
Old flowers fall off after 3-4 days, and new ones appear in their places. If you want flowers to begin to appear from early spring, then sow the seeds in the open ground in the second half of summer.
Tricolor violet in winter
Violets tricolor easily survive the cold season. But they need help to prepare for the winter.
After the onset of sustained frost pruning bushes. Then cover the plants with dry leaves. In early spring, remove the leaves so that the flowers do not mimic.
Pansies reproduction cuttings
This method of reproduction helps to preserve the plant with its features.
For example, large-flowered varieties degenerate with time and begin to produce small flowers. The grafting method can save and propagate such a rare specimen.
To do this, cut a small shoot from the plant with two leaves and plant it in a glass with the soil. Such a stalk itself will take root without additional stimulants.
Planted shoots, pour and place further from the light in a shady place. In a month, the cuttings will become full-fledged plants that can be transplanted into open ground.
Important! Use the soil from the site where you plan to plant flowers. This will help the plant to immediately adapt to the characteristics of your soil.
The reproduction of tricolor violet by dividing the bush
This method is used for breeding perennial varieties. Violets should not grow in one place for more than four years. They degenerate and disappear.
To prevent this, a large shrub is divided into small parts. To divide the plant should be in early spring before flowering.
Pansies healing properties
Tricolor violet is a unique medicinal plant that contains many beneficial substances: vitamin C, carotenoids, rutin, salicylic acid, trace elements, etc. Thanks to its chemicals, the plant helps to cope with cough, bronchitis, gastric and intestinal diseases, urinary infection bladder, neurosis and insomnia.
There are contraindications to the use of viola. You can not use the plant for inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) and kidney disease (glomerulonephritis). The frequent use of decoction of tricolor violet can cause irritation of the stomach.
Broth from the flu: Pour one cup of hot water into the container. Add one tablespoon of dried, ground herbs. Put the container on the fire and boil for 15 minutes. Wait for the broth to cool and strain. Take one teaspoon three times a day after meals.
Cough syrup: add five tablespoons of dried, chopped herb to the container. Pour five cups of boiling water. Leave the solution for twelve hours and then strain. Add five tablespoons of sugar and set on fire. Boil the mixture to a syrup density. Five minutes before the end of cooking, add lemon juice. Use hot tea syrup - one tablespoon of syrup per cup of tea.
What sort of pansies to choose
Breeders and sellers of seeds divide them into two categories:
- varieties with large flowers - large-flowered,
- varieties with small flowers - many-flowered.
In the largest flowers reach a diameter of 10 cm, in small - about 6 cm, and the rest - somewhere between.
Shoot themselves, care is minimal - self-seeding, photo
When choosing a variety of pansies, you should not think that the bigger the flower, the better. As experience shows, the most hardy, strong plants have just small flowers. In addition, small multi-flowered varieties are better adapted to rainy weather, temperature extremes. Although they have small flowers, but a lot of them. So the overall effect is brighter than from the same number of bushes with large flowers.
Experience shows that where the climate is colder, small-flowered varieties win. But small-flowered viols became leaders also in the south. For the sake of justice, it should be admitted that in the south there is one interesting feature of the large-flowered ones: the hotter the weather, the smaller the "Annies" become. Thus, having planted small-flowered varieties in the spring, by the end of the season you will receive absolutely small flowers. That is why large-flowered viols traditionally dominate in city beds, for example, they look great in hanging baskets or containers.
When to plant pansies
So, the most difficult thing is over: the variety is selected. You can go along the line of least resistance, and at the same time save a lot of time - buy seedlings, bring them home, plant them in a country house or plot.
However, if you prefer to germinate the seeds yourself, then you should know that in order to have pansies in your garden this spring, you will have to start working in the winter. Two and a half, and even three months will be needed to get seedlings from the germinated seed, which can be transplanted into the ground.
Since the viols are well tolerated by the cold, they are transplanted two to three weeks before the last spring frosts. Remember the bad season, when then the last frosts happened, count from this date three months ago - and get down to business.
Dynamite Orange, photo
The most common mistake of amateur gardeners is that they begin to germinate seeds too late. Remember that these flowers love cool, because they have never been tropical plants.
The ideal temperature for germinating seeds is relatively low: 18 ° C. Do not germinate them where you dried or stored gladiolus bulbs. Gladioli are often infected with thrips, and these pests love to feast on the seedlings of pansies!
Sowing in January in the greenhouse or in April (in the Kuban) in open ground, the seeds are slightly sprinkled with earth. Germinate on day 7-14. Shoots pritenyayut from direct sunlight. The best temperature for plant growth is + 16-18 ° C during the day and + 10-15 ° C at night. It is necessary to monitor the constant soil moisture. Planting winter seedlings to a permanent place in the spring, and summer - in the fall.
How to plant pansies on seedlings
Sow the seeds in a wet soil for seedlings, sprinkle them with a thin layer of vermiculite or sand. In the light, the seeds of "pans" do not germinate.
Until the shoots appear (as a rule, this happens after about a week), moisten the soil, but not too much. If possible, water through the drip tray. To retain moisture, you can cover the box with a film, just do not forget to provide ventilation, otherwise cold-lipped pansies under this shelter just cook.
As soon as the seeds germinate, put the box where it is light, cool - so that the seedlings do not grow too long, thin. A cold greenhouse or sheltered bed is perfect for this purpose: there is a lot of light and a suitable temperature of 13-16 ° C.
If you germinate seeds at home under a fluorescent light, choose a cooler place. Place the box next to the light source, but no closer than 5 cm. In a month, transplant the seedlings into pots. As soon as the air temperature reaches + 5 ° С, take the pots outside during the day.
When the plants are 10-11 weeks old, start tempering, which will help them to adapt more easily after landing in the ground. A protected garden bed is also suitable for this purpose. If severe frosts are expected, cover the seedlings with a thin layer of straw or covering material.
Pansies - plant care
Due to winter hardiness and endurance, it is easy to grow modern varieties of viols. Open space and soil with good drainage - that’s probably all they need. If you live in the south, plant them in a lace shade - this will help the plants to survive the heat more easily. Regardless of the climate, the soil should have good drainage. If the earth is dense and moist, the pansies will get root rot. To avoid this scourge, for a start, plant them on a high bed.
What to feed? Compost, of course. They do not need any other fertilizer. If you do not have compost, use any other organic fertilizer with a relatively high content of phosphorus and potassium and a small amount of nitrogen.
A mixture of varieties on the lawn, photo
If you want to maximize the period of flowering pansies, regularly remove wilted. Since they have rather shallow roots, with the onset of heat, mulch them with straw or grass clippings - this will also prolong the flowering period. If they still bloom in August, do not forget to cut the seed boxes, and flowering will continue throughout autumn.
Growing Pansies Tips
- Want to extend the spring? Then leave the pansies to winter. We assure you, this is not a joke! Plant viola seedlings closer to the end of summer - they will bloom all fall, during the winter thaw, even next spring!
- Эта культура может похвастаться на редкость здоровой наследственностью: её предки — полевая фиалка трёхцветная и лесная желтая. По сути современные садовые анютины глазки относятся к многолетним растениям и, если укрыть их на зиму, живут несколько лет, хотя чаще всего мы обращаемся с ними как с однолетниками и с наступлением жары безжалостно выдёргиваем из земли с корнем.
- If you plant them from August 15 to September 10, then Vittrock's violets will take root, decorate your garden not only in the fall, but also next spring. After wintering, they will bloom in early spring, they will bloom all March, April, and especially magnificently in May.
- Small-flowered varieties tolerate wintering particularly well. Pansies of classic colors (golden, purple, white and yellow with spots) winter better than modern orange, red, pink and pastel.
- If you decide to plant viols in the fall, leave them to spend the winter in the garden, find a place protected from the wind, provide them with well-drained soil, such as a high bed along a wall or some other shelter. Wind, land with poor drainage will kill wintering plants. Plant them into the ground at least one month before the onset of frosts, so that the roots can adapt to the beginning of winter.
- We recommend to plant pansies interspersed with bulbs of tulips or daffodils - in the spring you have a garden that will have a refined carpet.
- The best shelter for "pans" - is snow cover. If the winter will be cold, but little snow, cover the plants with mulch, for example, pine spruce branches. You should not use fallen leaves for this purpose - they absorb too much moisture, crush, damage the plants.
- If you live in the northern territories, you want to plant these flowers in the fall, even leave them for wintering, find out in advance if there is a seedling for you in the nursery. If it does not, germinate the seeds of suitable varieties themselves. They must be germinated in the middle of summer. Prepare a cool place (cellar), get to work.
- You can wait for the fall, sow the seeds in a cold greenhouse or a protected garden bed, and transplant the seedlings into the open ground in early spring. In the fall you will not wait for flowering, but from early spring viola will decorate your garden.
- As a rule, there are no pest problems with pans. However, sometimes, when there is dryness, heat, red mites appear. It is necessary to treat the plants with any insecticidal soap solution.
Video about the care, planting and reproduction of pansies:
Viola Vitrok, mix
Choosing between Viola and Violet for your needs
The affectionate name of the pansy belongs to the viola flower or, as it is also called, a violet of a tricolor, herbaceous perennial plant of the violet family. There are 300 different varieties of garden violets, which are combined into 15 groups.
Groups differ in color and size of the flower, the timing of flowering, the height of the bush and other characteristics. Such a variety of varieties will allow you to choose the right type for planting even the most demanding and sophisticated gardeners!
The choice of variety depends not only on your color preferences, but also on the region in which you plan to grow and care for the viol. In areas with a warm climate, violets may begin to bloom in early April; for colder regions, this period shifts to the beginning of summer.
Most pansies are heat-loving plants that love scattered sunny color, so if you live in cool regions, be careful when choosing a variety.
There are two of the most famous varieties of viola:
- Violet tricolor - An annual or biennial plant with small flowers. The tricolor violet reaches a height of 30 - 45 cm. This type of plant is perfectly distributed by self-sowing. Thanks to its well-known proven healing properties, such a tricolor violet often finds its application in traditional medicine.
- Violet Wittrock - This is a perennial herb. It is this variety that can often be found not only in garden beds, but also on summer balconies in flower pots and flowerpots. Vittrock violet flowers can grow up to 10 cm, the height of this plant is 40 cm.
The flowers can be smooth or pleated at the edges, monophonic or mix a variety of colors. Vittrock violets have many varieties, among the most popular are Alpensee with large flowers of rich purple color, Bambini with small yellow flowers, dark strips like cilia separated from spots, snow-white PureWhite, orange SkylineOrange and many others.
Preparing seeds for planting
After you have chosen the variety that suits you, you need to think about planting. Pansies are planted on a flower bed with seeds or seedlings. If you want to see bright flowers on a flower bed early in the first year of planting, then grow a viola with the help of seedlings. In the second year, planting seeds in the ground in June of the previous year will help achieve early flowering.
In the first year, the viola is usually planted in the beginning - middle of May. To do this, make small holes no deeper than 1 cm, at a distance of 5-7 cm, in each place 2-3 seeds. After that, lightly sprinkle the seeds of the pansies with earth, be sure to water it, and on top of it, hummer the surface to keep it moist.
You will see the first flowers 20 days after planting, that is, at the beginning of summer. If you decide to grow viola seedlings, you can see the first flowers earlier.
Growing seedlings without errors
Novice gardeners are sometimes afraid to grow pansies on their own at home and buy ready-made seedlings in the store. You should not buy an unknown expensive seedlings, when you can grow your own without any problems. Do this in early February.
For this you need:
- Prepare seedling containers with a fertile wet substrate, which should consist of half of turf or leaf soil, and the other half of rotted compost.
- Before planting pansies, it is necessary to disinfect the ground, for example, using a fungicide.
- After the earth dries, make it shallow grooves, put the seeds there and sprinkle with soil. Containers with seedlings put in a dark but warm place.
- The first shoots can be seen after a couple of weeks. When they appear, you need to put pansies in the warm sunshine. At this point, the air temperature should not be colder than 10 degrees.
- When the plant appears more than two leaves, you need to transplant the plants into separate containers. After that, you can briefly expose and harden the pansies on the balcony.
- Feed the plant with any flower fertilizer once a week, but it is better to choose what is suitable for violets.
- In early May, seedlings can be planted in a flower bed.
Picks - tips from professionals
When growing seedlings indoors, it is necessary to double-pick the pansies. The first time it is better to do this when more than two leaves appear on the plant approximately 14 days after planting.
After this, the viola is best planted in individual containers. The second time the seedlings dive in two weeks - 20 days according to the scheme 6 by 6 cm.
Pansies: the history of origin
The tricolor violet has become the ancestor of the "pans" in the wild - a perennial plant, common in Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus, North America. In Russia, it is known as Ivan da Marya and has been used in traditional medicine as a treatment for furunculosis, diathesis, bronchitis. The first pansies, hybrids from crossing tricolor violets with horned, were obtained in England. Swedish botanist professor Veit Wittrock devoted many years to studying this plant and wrote a book about it. In his honor pansies got the second name - Vittrock violet.
Favorite gardeners plant is a grassy, sprawling little bush height of 15-35 cm. The roots go deep into 15-20 cm. Five flower petals are fan, have a diameter from 5-6 to 11 cm, different colors and shades. In the center of the flower stands a speck, it makes the flower look like an eye with a pupil. Fruit - a box with small seeds (width - about 1 mm).
Viola and the language of flowers
Flowers were brought to Russia at the beginning of the 18th century. Mini-bouquets served as an addition to the dresses of ladies of high society. A garland of pansies adorned the hairstyle and belt of Anna Karenina’s black ball gown. In the language of flowers, this meant the beginning of love and the thought of one person. Butterfly-like flowers quickly settled on ladies' hats and umbrellas.
Pansies on napkins
Lilac-yellow pansies look at us from napkins, tablecloths and curtains, embroidered in the 50-60s of the last century.
Gardeners appreciated this fragile-looking, but unpretentious plant. Pansies have become popular in the design of urban parks and garden plots. Their combination with early onion flowers is successful: the viola replaces the hyacinths and daffodils that have finished flowering.
The choice of growing method
Pansies are perennial plants, but after the 2nd year, the flowers on the bushes shrink, almost no buds are formed. With two years of cultivation during the 1st year of life, a bush is formed, next season flowers appear. This period can be shifted to earlier periods depending on the methods of growing the plant. The choice of the method of breeding Viola depends on the climatic conditions and the preferred period of flowering.
Table. Planting techniques pansies.
The best is to grow plants from seed with sowing at the end of winter in a container. In this case, you can admire the flowers for 2 seasons, even in the middle band. For regions with cold winters, this method is also suitable, but the viola must be raised as an annual or very securely covered before the onset of cold weather. The most popular varieties of pansies: Dynamite, Freedom, Aurora, Strawberry and cream.
The cultivation of pansies from seeds can be implemented in two ways:
- planting in containers - picking - transfer to the site,
- sowing in the soil - transplanting to a permanent place.
Learn more about sprouting seedlings in our article.
Note! Seeds give good germination, if stored no more than 2 years.
How to grow pansies from seeds in a container
To obtain viable seedlings in a given period are required:
- quality seeds,
- tweezers (manicure),
- seed box,
- glass or film
- lamp for additional illumination - LED lamp or phytolamp,
- a room in which the temperature is not higher than 23ºС (preferably 18-20ºС),
- containers for picking (pots with a diameter of 10 cm or boxes, if there are many seedlings),
- tank for settling water
- spray gun
- watering can with a capacity of about 1 l.
Important! It is better to use an LED lamp: in its spectrum there are blue and red colors necessary for plants, they are economical and safe to use.
Care of crops
Care of crops includes:
- short-term ventilation since condensation begins to form on the walls of the container,
- timely and moderate watering: do not flood and prevent drying,
- temperature condition: 18-22ºС, 25 is allowed,
- if the window faces south, shade the crops,
- care for seedlings of flowers.
If all recommendations were followed, then in 10-15 days shoots will appear.
Type of sprouts in 10-14 days after sowing
Creating favorable conditions for sprouts
When sprouts should be:
- free the container from cellophane or the lid,
- irrigate with a spray as the soil dries,
- provide light day 14-16 hours
- the temperature in the room should not exceed 15ºС so that the plants do not stretch,
- prepare deep picking containers, there must be a hole in the bottom,
- wait for the appearance of two true leaves - after about 2 weeks.
Watering should be done with a spray as the soil dries.
Planting pansies in open ground
In early May, buds appear on the bushes. This is a sign that the viol can be sent to a flower bed. A possible lowering of the temperature, even small frosts, will not harm the plants.
Plants on the eve of transplanting to a flower bed
- determine the place where the flowers will grow - it should not be a lowland,
- sufficient, but brightly lit place - suitable partial shade or a plot under the trees with diffused sunlight,
- make holes of sufficient depth at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other,
- pour water into the wells, pour a handful of biohumus,
- pull the plant out of the container, slightly wrinkling it from the sides,
- put the viol in the hole, sprinkle with earth, pour.
Pansy bush ready for transplanting into open ground
Plant care during the summer
- periodic watering as needed,
- obligatory loosening after watering,
- mulching the soil around the bush with sawdust,
- weed control that weakens the plant,
- timely removal of faded flowers will stimulate the formation of new buds,
- removal of reddened leaves, they will, if frost occurred,
- fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
Note! If the plant is planted in a flower bed, it should be fed 1-2 times per season. When grown in decorative pots - every two weeks.
Pansies on a bed
Cultivation of pansies seeds in open ground
Growing seedlings can be organized by sowing seeds immediately in open ground. The crucial moment is the determination of the time of sowing. If you sow too early, the violet will begin to bloom, not having received enough root mass. By winter, the plant will weaken and may not suffer frost. In case of late landing, the viola will not be able to root well enough after picking and get stronger for wintering. The optimal period depends on the region - in the Leningrad region this is the second half of July, in the middle lane - the second half - the end of May.
To do this, perform the following work:
- choose a well-drained place, in the lowland the violet will freeze,
- the best option is loamy or sandy soil with an acidity not higher than 8 pH,
- carefully prepare a place for future crops - dig up the beds, map out rows,
- seeds sown to a depth of 1 cm at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other,
- lightly sprinkle the ground on top and grind,
- each variety to form a separate row.
Shoots appear on the 10-14 day.
Care of crops:
- watering with a watering can, providing drip irrigation so as not to wash the seeds,
- loosening between the rows.
After 2 weeks, the plants are planted in a permanent place, the distance between the sprouts and rows of 20 cm. In order for the viola to get stronger and well rooted for the winter, you should ensure:
- thorough weeding and loosening
- top dressing for plants in open ground - ammonium nitrate and superphosphate or Kemira preparation,
- if the soil is poor, fertilizing with humus with compost, otherwise the plant will turn into small-colored or will stop pleasing with flowers.
The next spring, the plants will start to grow early and bloom in April.
Important! Fresh manure cannot be used as fertilizer - the plant will die.
Diseases and pests of pansies
Let's sum up
- Pansies - a beautiful flowering plant, unpretentious and hardy.
- You can admire plants for two seasons. If you grow seedlings at home. Sowing seeds at the end of winter.
- When sowing in open ground, flowers will be pleased for next year.
- Observing all the recommendations and consulting with experts, you will be justly proud of the design of your site or balcony.
How to choose a place to plant in the garden
There are several varieties of pansies:
With proper care, the tricolor violet will grow well on the balcony if the flower is surrounded with the necessary care and attention. When landing on your site will have to take care of creating a high flower bed, such a location will create the necessary conditions of humidity and lighting.
Pansies prefer to grow in coolness, but they do not like the lack of light. It is best to give preference to a slightly shaded place on the site.
Note gardener. It is possible to break a flower bed next to young trees, which, with their small crown, do not yet completely cover the sunlight. With a lack of lighting, the viola has less violent flowering, and the flowers themselves are small and not very bright.
The most suitable soil for a flower is loamy soil with a fertile layer that needs to be moistened in a timely manner, but at the same time to prevent excessive moisture. It is detrimental to the root system of pansies. The location should be chosen in such a way that the groundwater lies as deep as possible.
Pansies choose a place to plant
Before planting, the soil is drained and loosened. This work is convenient to perform policom Strizh. You can make a certain amount of peat, which will retain heat, and pass moisture. In addition to these beneficial qualities, this supplement is replete with nutrients that will be beneficial to the plant.
It is important to know! It is strictly impossible to fertilize the landing site with fresh humus; it is best to use superphosphate or ammonium nitrate.
Rules for planting pansies in open ground
Most gardeners plant the viola directly into the ground. The best time for this is April-May, because the plant is not indifferent to coolness. The soil is done as follows, mix:
- sod land in the amount of two parts
- as much humus
- and one part of the sand is taken.
It is important not to forget about the drainage, in which quality you can use the crushed coal.
Саженцам необходимо подготовить углубления в грунте, оставляя пространство в 15 см, затем высаживают росточки и присыпают землей, затем нужно утрамбовать верхний слой и произвести поливку.
Садоводу на заметку. Если принято решение посадить несколько разных сортов виолы, то лучше всего разбить несколько клумб в разных частях сада для каждого сорта, чтобы избежать перекрестного опыления.
How to care for Pansies
Each gardener dreams that pansy flowers grow lush and healthy, to achieve this effect is very simple if you follow the simple rules of plant care:
- systematic removal of wilted flowers
- grind the soil layer with the onset of heat,
- tear the seed boxes
- when flowering deteriorates and a small amount of new buds are recommended to prune the plant,
- After such a procedure, fertilizer and dressing must be applied.
In the photo you can consider in more detail how to plant and care for pansies.
Watering the flowers
With the onset of hot days, the root system may begin to dry up due to its proximity to the upper layer of the soil. To avoid this, the viola must be watered regularly, but without fanaticism. Excess moisture, as mentioned above will not like the plant, besides root decay begins. With average temperatures, watering is carried out up to three times a week, but when the onset of heat, the flowers can be watered daily.
Pansies care and cultivation
Feed pansies every 30 days, use superphosphate or ammonium nitrate. You can use and complex fertilizers that are rich in potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen and other useful trace elements.
Fertilizer for Pansies
It is impossible to ignore such a topic as garden pests. Pansies are unpretentious plants, but if the care was wrong, then diseases can not be avoided.
Not only young plants, but also already grown flowers can be affected with a black leg. This happens if the bushes grow too close to each other or weeding is not done in a timely manner. Also, damage occurs with excessive soil moisture.
The diseased plants are removed, and watering stops for a while, and wood ash is introduced into the ground.
How to plant seedlings of pansies
Planting Pansies in open ground
Viola seeds have one peculiarity, they are very small, and then it is very difficult to produce uniform sowing. As soon as the sprouting leaves appear, it is necessary to make a pick in order to plant the flowers in separate containers.
After preparing the soil, grooves are made in it, and the seedlings are separated. For better growth of the root system, it is recommended to do a pinching of the central root by about 1/3.
After planting the seedlings, the soil is necessarily moistened, and the containers are placed in a bright place, but shelters are made for future flowers, so that the direct rays of the sun do not fall on them. The next step will be hardening, as it is written above.
Plant pansies in a flower bed can be at the moment when the threat of night frost is over and the temperature is set to a positive mark.
After 30 days, the garden violet begins to bloom, and becomes a real garden decoration, which will be enjoyed by the gardener before the onset of autumn.
If a long-term variety is chosen, then with the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to take care of the weatherization of plants, for this purpose a layer of sawdust, scattered under the bushes, and also fir fir branches will do.