A transplant for a plant is a traumatic operation that is best performed during the period of natural rest, then it takes place practically “under anesthesia”. This especially applies to seedlings with bare roots.
Most fruit trees are best planted in a permanent place after the completion of the growing season - in autumn. Roughly, this is a month before the topsoil freezes. Some trees are best planted in spring. Let's talk more about the timing of planting seedlings of fruit trees, how to fertilize and properly care for them.
When is it best to plant fruit trees in spring or autumn?
Determining that a tree is ready for transplanting is very simple. The main criterion - the tree dropped half the leaves. They are guided when planting winter-hardy varieties of pears and apple trees, as well as all berry bushes.
Varieties of apple and pears with insufficient frost resistance, as well as all stone fruit (cherry, sweet cherry, plum, apricot and peach), it is better to plant in spring. Moreover, it is necessary to do this as early as possible - before the moisture is gone and the buds have not dismissed.
Planting seedlings of fruit trees in the spring
In any case, landing pits are prepared in advance - for spring planting, for example, in the fall (August - September). The minimum deadline for preparing pits is 2 weeks. .
Choosing a sapling with an open root system
Wrap the roots with a wet sacking or newspapers in several layers. If the sapling dried up, immerse it in water for a day or two, until the bark returns a fresh look.
You can treat the roots with stimulants just before planting. (Kornevin or Heteroauxin) according to the instructions.
Especially make sure that the roots are not mopped. These areas will surely rot - they must be carefully removed to the healthy part.
How not to be mistaken
The easiest way to check how long a tree has been growing in a pot is to gently lift the plant by the root part. If the earth lump is taken out with the roots, you need to buy - the seedling “lives” in the container for a long time.
Saplings of fruit trees grown in a container
Additionally, it will help you to make sure that the choice is correct. root sprout through the hole in the bottom of the container.
The tree is set in the prepared landing pit, without violating the integrity of the earth’s clod. Watered and covered with prepared soil mixture without deepening of the seedling.
Rules for planting seedlings in the garden at different times of the year?
Choosing a place for planting a fruit tree - it is produced once and for all, success or disappointment depends on this choice. If the place turns out to be unsuitable for the fruit tree, after a few years it will be impossible to correct the error
Choose to land a sunny place, protected from the wind. The proximity of groundwater is unacceptable - a tree can successfully develop for 5-7 years, and when its roots reach an aquifer, it will die from rotting. At this age, it is incredibly difficult to transplant a tree.
Landing Pit Training
Even in the case of fertile black soil, it is necessary to start planting a tree with the preparation of a landing pit. It is necessary to dig at least a month before planting the seedling. During this time, the excavated earth will have time to be compressed. This is a factor of extraordinary importance - there will be no problems with the correct penetration of the root neck of the seedling.
The root neck is where?
It would be useful to clarify what this “root neck” is. Often, inexperienced gardeners take the place of grafting by the root of the neck, and as a result they sift the seedling for an extra 10 centimeters. In fact, this is the section where the trunk goes to the root. At this point, the dark color of the root turns into a lighter trunk bark.
After planting, the seedling should not suffer from a lack of nutrients, at least until it takes root. At this stage, gardeners often “overfeed” seedlings with fertilizers for the best of reasons.
It is especially dangerous for young plants to add fresh organic matter and too much mineral fertilizer to the pit.. These two extremes act equally oppressively on soil microorganisms, namely, they help seedling roots to absorb nutrients from the soil and air.
- For conditional seedling 1-2 years of age is necessary dig a hole about 80 x 80 centimeters and the same depth. In the process of digging a hole, the upper, more fertile layer is folded separately from the lower one. All the stones and roots of perennial weeds are removed. The bottom of the pit must be dug up on the spade bayonet.
- To the bottom of the pit to improve the water balance is desirable sprinkle last year’s leaves, house waste, wood ash. It will be not only good drainage, but also an excellent additional feeding to the tree.
- Into the pit add 2 compost or humus buckets, and proceed as follows.
- One bucket is mixed with the more fertile top layer of earth and poured into the bottom of the pit. On this mound you install a sapling, spreading his roots and fall asleep the second part of the compost directly on the roots. At the same time shake the seedling, so as not to leave air voids, not filled with soil.
- Good watert (minimum 2 buckets of water).
- Pit fall asleep to the top. To do this, use only the upper fertile layer.
- From the bottom layer of the earth form a root well around the trunk circle.
- Watered again in the formed well and fall asleep to her mulch (peat, rotten sawdust, foliage, chips), this not only saves water, but also does not allow a dense crust to form.
Scheme of planting fruit trees and shrubs
The density of tree planting depends not only on the species, but also on:
- the type of root stock of sapling,
- method of further forming,
- features of the site layout.
The most common mistake novice gardeners, too tight landing. It is very difficult to see trees at least 2.5 meters high in the twigs of one-year-old saplings after 10 years. A recommended plantation for shrubs and trees is shown below.
Plantation of fruit and berry trees in the country
Saplings of apple and pear trees on high-growth rootstocks are located at a distance of 5 meters, medium growth - 3.5-4 meters, dwarf - 2.5-3 meters . Colon shapes can be planted even after 0.5 meters in a row.
Not less distance should be laid when planting seedlings around the house, this is especially true for tall fruit forms, and especially pay attention to the location of the walnut - over time, it will be a 10-meter spreading tree.
Care for the newly planted tree in the spring and autumn period
After planting a young tree, in addition to the need to feed a sapling, it should be followed up with proper care. The first time after planting the most seedlings need watering. Among experienced gardeners of the old school there is an opinion that saplings need watering for 2 years, even if they have successfully taken root. It is necessary to water even the trees planted in autumn to the frost.. Only then will the tree grow strong and healthy.
No matter how great the desire to try the harvest from a young tree, the first flowers must be removed. This applies particularly to the first year after planting, otherwise the tree will give all its strength to the first few fruits, and the root system and the developed crown will not grow.
In addition to watering the sapling requires preventive measures to protect against pests and fungal diseases.. Do not overlook them during each processing garden. The loss of branches and leaves from pest invasion or any disease can be critical for a young tree.
Preparation of young trees for winter includes:
- mulching wheel circle,
- whitewash for the prevention of sun and frost winter burns,
- protection from rodents and hares.
The mulch layer must cover the tree trunk not only during the summer period in order to preserve moisture in the root zone. Especially needed mulch in the autumn-winter period. Even in the midland and suburbs, the roots of a tree or shrub seedling can suffer from freezing, especially if the snow cover is insignificant.
Fertilizers and fertilizer for fruit tree
A well-filled planting pit provides food for a planted tree for 2 years. Practically, it only needs watering.
Top dressing of a garden are carried out by the settled rule:
- in the spring - nitrogen and organic fertilizers,
- in the autumn - Potash and phosphate.
Fertilization is usually carried out in tree circles in early spring (1) or autumn (2).
In the root zone, fertilizers are applied at the rate of 1 hundred square meters of garden.:
- organic 300-500 kg (every 2-3 years),
- inorganic N: P: K in proportions 1.5: 1: 0.6 (in terms of kg of chemically pure substance).
In addition to root dressings, gardeners often practice leafy ones. In this case, the so-called “tank mixtures” are used - joint solutions of chemical preparations, for example, against pests and a complex of foliar dressings.
Another plus of such processing - minimum fertilizer consumption. For example, for nitrogen fertilizers prepare a solution of 1 tablespoon of nitrate to 1 bucket of water.
The only inconvenience can not be handled immediately before the rain.
The optimal time for planting fruit trees depends on many factors:
- From the climatic conditions of your region.
- From winter hardiness seedlings.
- From the type of seedling - container or “bare root”.
In order not to get confused, Ukrainian gardeners have an old rule, which is all the more necessary for colder regions - All stone fruits are planted in spring, pome seeds - in autumn.
How to select seedlings for planting?
Seedlings should be with a developed root system, grown and strong. Before planting trees in the fall, they need to be carefully examined. If the root or branches are damaged, then their experts recommend pruning to a healthy place. To do this, use the pruner. Roots should not be dried. Such a tree may not settle down. The main root of the seedling must be at least thirty five centimeters. From it should come a lot of small branches. To restore seedlings with dried roots, they need to be placed for a couple of days in water or in a container with cow manure and clay.
How to plant trees?
Having dealt with the choice of quality specimens, with the period when planting fruit trees in the fall, novice gardeners have another question. How to make everything right?
Planting trees begins with digging a hole. The top and bottom layer of soil must be laid in different directions. The hole should be such that the root neck is five centimeters higher than the surface of the earth. The width of the recess is one and a half to two times the diameter of the root.
The removed topsoil should be mixed with humus. For one seedling requires one bucket of the mixture. Two hundred grams of superphosphate and forty grams of potassium chloride must be added to the humus. If these fertilizers are not, then they can be replaced with wood ash.
Before planting, the hole must be filled to two-thirds of the depth with fertilizer and a stake should be fixed in it. After, we propose to place the root in it and fill it with the rest of the soil mixed with fertilizer.
In the hole for the seedling need to fill no less than a bucket of water (despite the autumn rainy season). Then, experts recommend to fill the hole with sawdust or peat, trample down. The soil from the remaining lower layer should be scattered around the tree. To the seedling is not broken, it must be tied to a stake.
When planting trees, you need to take into account that the soil in the hole will shrink, so the root collar must be not lower than the level of the top layer of soil.
Errors when planting fruit trees in the fall
Autumn planting trees for inexperienced gardeners can not do without errors. What are they like?
- Incorrectly chosen period when you can plant trees in the fall.
- An overly deep hole in which the root neck is deep underground. And this can cause sapling to rot (moisture exchange is disturbed).
- Large amounts of organic or mineral fertilizers.
- An undiluted cow or chicken droppings are added to the well. This will later burn the roots.
- Too much nitrate can also lead to similar problems.
- Excessive trimming of the crown of seedlings.
If the landing date has passed
Often there are situations when it is too late to plant trees in the fall. In this case, the plant is placed in the hole, dug at the highest point of your land. Water should not stagnate in this sector. The southern wall of the ditch is dug out flat, and the northern - half a meter high and more steep. Roots of seedling sprinkled with sand or earth. At the same time they are abundantly watered. If several trees are planted, their roots should not be intertwined. To protect seedlings from frost, they are sprinkled with earth and leave only the tips of the branches. To protect against rodents, young trees are covered with spruce branches. When snow falls, it must be trampled around the seedling to create an obstacle for pests.
A seedling is kept until spring. When the soil is thawed, it is dug out and placed in the prepared hole. This is done until the buds bloom.
Benefits of Autumn Planting
When to plant trees? Autumn or spring? The choice also depends on some factors. Planting in the fall has its advantages compared with the spring procedure. The beginning of autumn is rich in planting material. Undoubtedly - this is an advantage. Special care after the autumn planting is not required. Enough one watering. Further autumn rains will moisten the soil themselves. If the root system during planting at the seedling was broken, then during the winter the wounds will heal and suction branches grow.
When to plant trees in the fall is not recommended?
This knowledge is also useful for novice gardeners. There are several moments when planting fruit trees in the fall is not recommended. It will be necessary to transfer the procedure to the spring. Do not rush to acquire young plants in your garden if severe winter is expected. This can cause freezing of trees. Also, experts do not recommend autumn planting, if a large number of rodents are noticed in the proposed area.
From this article, you learned when to plant trees in the fall. We hope this information will be useful for you.
About the rules and terms of planting fruit trees
In order for a orchard to develop well, it is bookmarked with rationalism in mind, acting in the following sequence:
- First determine the optimal place for each seedling,
- carry out pre-plant preparation of the site,
- mark places for each tree,
- dig holes and plant plants in them,
- watered and cut.
Selecting the landing site, you should consider the location of the neighboring area. Tall trees can not be planted in adjacent fences - they will shade someone else's territory. You should not place them near the buildings - in the future the branches will fall on the roof and will be able to damage the roof.
It will also be inconvenient to prune such trees and harvest from them. In addition, there is additional (time-consuming) work to collect fallen leaves. If in time it is not removed from the roof, then this leaf will begin to rot there.
Dwarf trees, like shrubs, can be easily located under strong-growing crops (apples and pears). They will not interfere with each other in development.
Picking up crops for their garden, stone and seed breeds are located separately from each other at a considerable distance (as far as the garden area allows). This will facilitate the fight against diseases of fruit trees and pests.
Choosing a neighborhood, take into account the compatibility of plants:
- The apple tree gets on well with pears, plums, quinces, cherries, next to some shrubs (currants, barberries, viburnum, chubushnik, lilacs) the culture feels uncomfortable,
- it is better to plant a pear with its own kind and apple trees, trying to avoid the neighborhood with the already mentioned shrubs - they oppress the culture as much as the plum,
- it is better to plant cherry trees separately from other fruit trees, it will provide the best harvest.
On a note! Important binding to the "wind rose". Peaches, apricots and cherries are best planted in the southern, south-western directions. For the rest of the most comfortable northern side of the site. Although in this case it is worth considering also the region.
So, in the Moscow region and other areas of central Russia, the western and northwestern shreds of the plot are most often allocated for gardening. Southerners prefer only the north - so you can protect the trees from overheating.
In the northern zone, of course, the most suitable place is the southern corner of the cottage. None of the experts does not allot the eastern allotment to a garden plantation, leaving it to be used for building a house.
Note! When choosing a place you need to take into account the relief. It is not necessary to plant a slope in a garden if it is too steep - the fertile layer will constantly leach out from under the roots. It is also worth ignoring lowlands where melted water accumulates in spring and wood is damaged by fragments of sliding ice.
It is possible to grow a garden in one place for decades. But sometimes there comes a time when it is necessary to transplant fruit trees to another area. Only select viable plants suitable for fruiting.
To plant an adult tree in a new place, it is prepared for the "move" in advance. 1-2 years before, a groove located around the crown circumference was dug around the plant. The width of the recess is 0.3-0.4 m, depth - 0.8-1 m. This work is performed in early spring.
In the process, the roots are exposed, which cut off from the overall system. Slices are treated with clay-earthen chaff, to which should also be added a growth stimulator.
Ditch sprinkled with earth mixed with humus, and plentifully watered. From now on and up to digging on the roots, a lot of fibrous processes are formed around the trunk. With their help, the plant will take root in a new place.
During such transplants, the main difficulty lies in extracting the tree from the old pit. To do everything carefully, you have to use the leverage system. The removed plant is immediately transferred to a new place, where a spacious pit has already been prepared for it.
Fruit tree transplant
It is best to replant trees no older than 5 years. But this option is not suitable for all cultivated plants. To preserve the grade of cherries, plums, pears, apple trees, they are best planted on a younger tree. There are 3 main methods of vaccination: budding, grafting, and abstracting, allowing to keep (or improve) the grade.
The time of landings each summer resident determines for himself. One approaches April - the first decade of May, others are more comfortable with October. Recently, there have been such enthusiasts that they plant fruit trees in the summer.
Note! The laws of fruit cultivation recommend stonework to plant in spring, and pome seeds in autumn.
But experienced gardeners argue that one should not strictly adhere to this condition. The main thing in planting garden trees is to observe the rules of agrotechnology and maintain the layout of crop placement.
When to plant: spring or autumn
Novice gardeners often wonder when it is better to plant fruit trees in spring or autumn. To choose the best time for garden work, first of all, you should take into account the climate area:
- In the southern regions (Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories), the spring passes quickly, and May is hot, if this season trees are planted, they will root poorly, get sick for a long time, fall behind in development and start to produce later that fall.
- for the northerners, the optimal period is spring, closer to mid-May, when the soil warms up and the air temperature becomes comfortable for planting, autumn is not acceptable here, since winter can descend early and unexpectedly, destroying seedlings,
- the middle lane is average and that absorbed the features of the border regions, landing here in spring and autumn, based on weather conditions that do not occur annually.
Choosing a suitable month of planting for yourself, it is recommended to look at the Lunar calendar, which is printed annually in periodicals to help “juniors gardening”. The astrological document indicates the best days when planting fruit crops is recommended.
Do not ignore this information, because they use this method since ancient times (and not only in Russia). The moon actively influences all biological processes occurring on Earth, this fact has been proven by science.
Planting fruit trees in summer
Among modern summer residents there are those that do not like the investigator to stereotypes. They also plant garden trees in the summer. In addition, at the present time, this is really done not to the detriment of trees.
Previously, the argument against the summer period was hot weather, preventing normal rooting. But then the seedlings were sold exclusively with an open root system, which, indeed, is more comfortable to take root at a low temperature in well-moistened soil.
Now nurseries sell trees in containers with soil mixture, and the plant is no longer so important at what temperature it is sent to the pit. The roots are well protected and do not dry out.
If the site has a system of automated normalized irrigation, then summer is even preferable for planting. June is considered a suitable month. Days need to choose, based on the phases of the moon. You should wait for the second or third quarter of the activity of the night star to plant seedlings of fruit trees.
This takes into account the temperature of the soil. If it is above 25 degrees Celsius, landing work in the summer should be carried out either early in the morning (at 6-8 hours), or late in the evening, but before sunset. This will keep the root system from burning and will allow the plant to adapt better.
Seasoned gardeners highlight the advantages of summer tree planting:
- without haste, you can choose the suitable planting material - in the summer there is no such influx of farmers in the nurseries,
- during the growing season it is easier to assess all the advantages of the trees being acquired,
- Summer planting seedlings have time to take root before the cold and are more resistant to winter than those that are planted in the fall.
Important! In order for the young trees to bear the winter frosts, during the summer planting all ovaries that appeared on the plant should be removed. Otherwise, they will take away the extra juice from the seedling to themselves and weaken it.
Conditions for planting seedlings
The rules for planting fruit trees are common to all seasons. Therefore, the gardener just needs to follow this instruction:
- pits are prepared in advance - 2 weeks before planting seedlings, this is necessary in order for the excavated land to be ventilated,
- the size of the excavation is determined by the type of soil and the type of fruit trees,
- the walls are made vertically, and the bottom is loosened on the spade bayonet,
- during the formation of the pit, the top layer of the earth is set aside separately from the bottom - it will need to be mixed with organic fertilizers (peat, manure, compost, humus) and laid on the bottom,
- before the seedling is lowered into the hole, the roots are dipped into the mash (clay solution with the addition of earth),
- in the center of the pit, it is advisable to drive a one-and-a-half-meter pointed stake, straight and smooth,
- when planting a tree, it should be on the north side of the stake,
- roots straighten and sprinkle with earth,
- then the seedling is shaken, and the soil is lightly crushed, so repeat until the pit is filled with earth,
- in case of subsidence, the condition is observed - the root neck should rise 3-4 centimeters above the ground,
- tying a tree with a soft cloth to a cola, on the edge of the pit make several holes, through which the plant is watered abundantly.
Note! If at the site there is a close bedding of groundwater, then a layer of fertilized earth is not just poured into the pit, but a ridge mound is formed from it, and a seedling is lowered onto it.
At this spring and summer landing can be considered complete. During the autumn works, the final stage is mulching of the trunk circle with non-acidic peat or compost, 10 cm thick.
The mechanical and chemical composition of the soil plays an important role in the laying of the garden. The roots of fruit trees need a suitable nutrient and comfortable environment.
The most important parameter for agrarians is the ratio of cations and anions in the soil solution (pH reaction). These elements determine the acidity of the soil, which is indicated by pH.
The reaction of the soil is divided into 3 types: acidic, neutral and alkaline. The most promising land with a neutral pH of 6-7. But it is quite suitable for a number of horticultural crops weak acid soil (pH 5-6) and slightly alkaline (pH 7-8).
Increased acidity can be observed in regions with excessive precipitation (for example, the Leningrad and Moscow districts). High alkaline levels are more common in hot dry areas.
If the gardener is not sure of the acidity of the soil in his area, he can take measurements with a potentiometer or use litmus paper. Prompts the state of the soil and the composition of weeds growing there:
- For neutral, typical are garden thistle, field bindweed, creeping wheat grass, chamomile,
- indicate increased acidity belous, mountaineer, zvezdrovatka, mullein, pikulnik, plantain, horsetail, sorrel.
Improve the property of land will help meliorants. Acidity can be reduced by adding lime, and increased - plaster.
Adding an article to a new collection
Autumn planting of young fruit trees in the garden does not require prior protection of the thesis. But some nuances are best explored. How to plant seedlings on the site in the fall, read in our material.
Planting saplings of fruit trees in the fall has several advantages. In particular:
- The choice of planting material at this time of year is quite wide. At the same time, you can evaluate not only the quality of seedlings, but also the quality of fruits of a certain variety.
- The soil in the fall is quite wet and loose, which reduces labor costs and the number of irrigations.
- If the planting terms are observed, young saplings have time to get stronger, take root in a new place, increase a number of young roots and as a result spring start to grow several weeks earlier than their fellows, who only take root in the spring.
However, there are also disadvantages:
- Young fragile seedlings are not always able to survive the winter without proper care.
- In the coldest and fastest time of the year, rodents are not averse to eat the young bark of fruit trees.
When planting fruit trees in different regions
For autumn planting is best to choose plants, zoned in your area. So, what trees can you fearlessly plant in the fall? Under the conditions of the middle zone and the Urals, a pear, apple, cherry, cherry plum, mountain ash, mulberry, and plum varieties of Siberian and Ural selection are best tolerated in this season.
But with the planting of apricot, peach, cherry, almond is better to wait until spring. Autumn planting of seedlings of these plants is possible only in the southern regions, but also does not guarantee a high survival rate.
Terms of planting fruit trees also vary depending on the region. In the northern regions, September - early October is considered the best time to land. In the middle lane, fruit trees can be planted in the period from September to mid-October. And in the southern regions, gardeners are not in a hurry and are engaged in planting until mid-November.
Is it possible to plant trees if you are a bit late? Unfortunately not. These seedlings better prikopat until spring.
Fruit Tree Planting Scheme
Most of the plants develop better and bear fruit on the southern side of the site with low groundwater levels. And fruit trees are no exception. If the size and landscape of your site do not allow you to break a huge garden on the sunny side, and you are faced with a difficult choice, just keep in mind that apricot, peach and sweet cherry will not give a decent harvest in poor light. Pear, apple and plum are also light-loving enough.
Experienced gardeners go to the trick and planted plants in steps: tall - to the north, short - to the south. So all green pets get enough light.
When choosing a landing site for a tree, it is important to know in advance the approximate size of its future crown and root system. One of the most important points to consider when planting trees is the distance to the house and communications. On average, it is not recommended to plant fruit trees closer than 4.5 meters from communications, so that in the future you do not have to find funds for repairs. After all, the roots of an adult plant can cause significant damage even to the foundation. Landscape designers, guided by the principle of vertical zoning, do not recommend planting tall trees (up to 20 m) closer than 35 m from the house, and undersized (up to 6 m) - closer than 4.5 m.
It is also extremely important to consider the compatibility of your green pets. After all, some plants can be good friends, while others are able to oppress each other, depriving sunlight or even releasing chemical compounds that will inhibit the development of other trees.
- Apricot will not feel very comfortable next to the cherry.
- It is undesirable to plant an apple tree next to peach and cherry plum.
- Walnut inhibits the absolute majority of fruit crops.
Preparation of the pit and seedling for planting
The size of the planting pit depends on the root system of the plant. As a rule, for stone rocks it is worth preparing a pit with a diameter of 40 cm and a depth of about 60 cm. For seed trees, the depth of the planting hole should be about 80 cm and the diameter should be 60-80 cm. If the root system of the plant has grown too much , the size of the landing pit will have to be increased, otherwise the roots will curl inward, and the tree will develop worse and get sick more often.
It is advisable to remove the upper fertile soil layer carefully, without mixing with the rest of the earth. In the future, add to it organic or mineral fertilizers.
The bottom of the landing pit is recommended to be well drained. To do this, you can pour crushed stone fraction of 20-40 mm, river pebbles or sand and gravel.
Before planting, the seedling should be carefully examined, cut off the ground, dry, rotten, frozen and moldy root ends. It is important not to get involved. The size of the root system must match or exceed the size of the crown.
If the roots are very dry, the tree should be dipped for a day in a bucket of water.
Planting trees in the fall
At the bottom of the planting pit, it is desirable to install a peg that will serve as a support for the sapling.
The roots of the seedling must be straightened and covered with nutrient soil mixture. For its preparation, fertile land is mixed in equal proportions with rotted manure or compost (up to 30 kg per pit). Do not use fresh manure, because It can burn the roots of plants. If there is clay soil in your area, you can add 3-5 buckets of coarse sand to the nutrient substrate, and if sandy, then the same amount of clay.
In order to increase the amount of humus over time, the bottom of the pit can be expelled by turf turned upside down.
If you need to improve the quality of clay soil before planting an apple, the landing pit can be filled with a mixture of 2-3 buckets of peat, 3-4 buckets of humus, compost or chernozem, 2-3 buckets of river sand, 2-3 glasses of sifted ash and 1 cup of superphosphate.
The root neck of the fruit tree when planting must necessarily be above ground level. And for different plants, different degrees of penetration are recommended. So in apple trees, pears, plums, cherry plums, peaches and apricots, the root neck should be 5-6 cm higher than the ground, and 4-5 cm in cherries and cherries.
In order not to make a mistake and plant a sapling correctly, gardeners use any stick at hand that is placed across the pit and measure the necessary distance from it on the trunk of the sapling.
The roots are covered with soil mixture 10-15 cm thick and watered with 2-3 buckets of water. Then the pit is filled with soil until the end without additional moisture.
In the fall, the land is sufficiently wetted as a result of rains, so frequent watering will be a mistake. In general, the frequency of irrigation depends on weather conditions and soil conditions. There is only one indisputable rule: when watering seedlings after planting, the moisture should reach the root system of the tree, so it is better to water the seedlings less often, but more abundantly. In rainy wet years, some gardeners manage with just one autumn watering of seedlings directly during planting.
In order to protect the roots of a young tree from frost and slow the evaporation of moisture, the soil around it is desirable to mulch with compost, fallen leaves, sawdust or freshly cut grass.
Some gardeners rush to whiten the trunks and skeletal branches of seedlings. However, experts do not recommend whitening plants with smooth bark, because it clogs the pores, slows down gas exchange and sometimes causes bark burns. It is better to postpone this procedure until fruiting.
If you still have questions about planting saplings of fruit trees, pay attention to the advice of the candidate of biological sciences Raisa Matveeva.
When to plant fruit trees: fall or spring
In spring, the whole flora begins to grow, and it seems that just spring is the right time for planting. If we are talking about seeds, then - yes. Although there are some nuances here. But the young trees better planted in the fall. The advantage of autumn planting fruit trees is that the plant wakes up at a new place. The roots begin to grow in the soil undisturbed. If during planting in the spring one season is lost, then during planting in the fall, the tree will have time to get comfortable in the soil and in the spring it will quickly grow.
The main argument of opponents of planting in the fall: the sapling will freeze out in winter. This can really happen if,
- landing is wrong,
- the southern type of tree was planted before winter in the northern region,
- The tree was planted before the dormant period,
- in an open root system, roots have frozen or dried up.
But similar arguments can be set against planting in the spring. The landing time this season is very short: you need to have time to catch the moment between the thawing of the soil and the start of sap flow. And it is unlikely that the plant will have time to recover from a change of residence before the start of an active vegetative period.
When plants are spring-planted, the roots are often dried out, but few gardeners pay attention to this. А против зимнего вымерзания у сторонников посадки осенью есть небольшие хитрости.
Сроки посадки плодовых деревьев осенью
If in the spring you need to catch the interval between thawing of the soil and the beginning of sap flow, then during planting in the fall you will need to choose the length of time between falling asleep and the beginning of frost. The planting time for saplings of fruit trees in autumn depends on the region and the long-term weather forecast. In autumn, the interval between hibernation and frosts is slightly longer than spring. It is necessary to plant a tree in such a way that there is still 2-3 weeks to frost down. These days will allow the plant to get a little comfortable in a new place.
Dates of autumn planting of fruit trees in different regions
Given that the planting dates in the fall are tied to frost, they vary greatly in different regions. In central Russia and the Moscow region is the middle or end of October. And sometimes later. In the Urals or in Siberia - September. However, with today's weather disasters, it is impossible to predict where the frosts will come earlier. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on the weather forecast. It should be remembered that planting a tree too early in the fall will also have a very negative effect on it.
The main mistake of summer residents is the desire to buy a sapling in early autumn, while there is a choice and there are warm days. But buying and planting a tree before it falls into a state of rest, just leads to the fact that the plant dies in winter.
In the northern regions in winter they do not recommend planting heat-loving varieties of fruit crops. If a tree requires full wrapping in winter insulation materials, with its planting really better to wait until spring. But all this applies only to seedlings with an open root system, which any transplant will take very hard.
How to plant fruit trees on the plot: scheme
The schemes of spring and autumn plantings do not differ from each other, as the trees grow on this place for many years. But when planting one-, two-year "prutikov" gardeners have a desire to save space and plant fruit trees closer to each other. In this case, we must remember that small seedlings very quickly turn into large fruit trees, grow and begin to compete for a place in the sun.
To avoid this, when planting trees take into account several factors:
- on which stock was grafted: strong-growth or low-growth,
- what height each type of fruit tree grows
- will the trees in the garden be planted in lines, in a staggered manner, or wherever there is a place.
The distance between the fruit trees when planting is determined on the basis of tall rootstocks:
First of all it is necessary:
- make a plan of the entire plot
- define your place for each landing,
- get an idea of the rules of planting shrubs and trees in the garden,
- select varieties suitable for the area where the formation of a fruit garden is planned.
Decide on the choice of planting time (spring or autumn, while for each season it is necessary to clarify the dates that are intended for planting).
They should not be broken. Non-compliance with the deadlines leads to the death of plants.
Terms of planting in spring time
Any agrotechnical reception is suitable. set season. Beginner inexperienced gardeners wait for the onset of warm weather to start working in the garden. By the onset of this time, purchased seedlings are already beginning to dissolve buds. Spring landing begins with the end of the convergence of snow. Seedlings at this time are at rest.
The impetus to the end of planting spring works of fruit, like fruit, trees is the swelling of the buds.
The interaction of the moon and plants
Once the dates are determined and the weather gives the opportunity to go out into the garden, you need to look into sowing calendar. He makes his own adjustments in the order of works. Each phase of the moon contributes to one or another landing salt measures. Planting in the spring time according to the lunar calendar makes it possible to correctly determine the most favorable days. In addition, there is a period in which any agrotechnical practices are guaranteed not to be crowned with success.
The beginning of all major work usually occurs in March. During this period, on a waning moon, pruning of branches is performed and crowns are formed.
With the onset of April, there comes a time when they begin planting seedlings of fruit trees. You only need to choose an auspicious day.
Spring landing on the lunar calendar is done with the growing moon. In the waning phase, a favorable time comes to protect the planting from wintering pests.
Selection of planting material
When the landing date is set, it's time to think about seedlings. Of great importance are:
- groundwater flow depth
- terrain features,
- the quality and composition of the soil,
- climatic conditions.
For example, planting in the spring in the suburbs will be successful and contribute to the formation of a well-fruited, healthy garden, if you correctly make the selection of zoned species and varieties of trees. The most suitable for Moscow gardens are those that have excellent frost-resistant qualities. These include:
- Apple trees - Bely pouring, Antonovka, Melba, Imrus, Medunitsa, Moscow Winter,
- pears - Lada, Marble, Veles, August dew,
- plums - Blue gift, Renklod Lia, the Hungarian Moscow, Vitebsk later,
- Cherries - Bulatnikovskaya, Assol, Generous,
- Sweet Cherries - Revna, Tyutchevka.
Spring works in the Moscow region are carried out according to generally accepted rules. The roots of purchased seedlings should not dry out during transport.
Pros and cons of autumn planting
As soon as autumn troubles in the beds are completed, seedlings with carefully covered roots appear in the hands of summer residents who go to their sites. A short but very responsible time for planting trees begins, and who is convinced of the correctness of the autumn choice, is not at all mistaken.
Pros and cons of autumn planting
Cons autumn planting
- strong cold weather able to destroy the immature trees,
- winter is rich in stressful situations for seedlings: strong wind, ice, snowfall and other weather troubles can break young plants,
- in late autumn and winter, seedlings often damage rodents,
- Well, during the absence of the owners saplings in the country just can steal other lovers of fruit trees.
In winter, weather problems can break young plants.
What trees are not recommended to plant in the fall
Experts strongly advise avoiding fall plantings non-resistant varieties of fruit trees and shrubs:
- apple trees
- sweet cherries
Well, of course, it will be a mistake to plant those seedlings that were brought from more southern climatic zones in the fall in the northern regions - they simply will not survive the frost unusual for their homeland.
In the following video - practical tips, which plants are best to plant in the fall:
If the autumn planting time missed
It also happens that in the fall to plant a seedling did not work. Maybe at the very end of the season you successfully hit the sale of seedlings at “bargain” prices, or you managed to get a wonderful desired variety that is not subject to fall planting ... what to do in this case?
If the autumn planting time missed
And only you need to take care of saving your seedling until spring, then to plant it on the site. Based on practice, for this they use the three most common methods:
- storage in a cold wet basement (cellar),
- dropping in the ground.
In the next video, Evgeny Fedotov and Roman Wroblewski will tell and show how to prikopat saplings deposited from autumn to spring planting:
- Storage in the basement
Experienced Gardeners Tips
In conditions middle band, Ural and Siberia For autumn planting, it is best to choose zoned, and if necessary, winter-hardy varieties that are acclimatized and quickly take root. So, fruit trees of the Siberian and Ural selection - a pear and an apple-tree, a mountain ash, a mulberry and a cherry plum - tolerate planting quite well in the fall.
Gardeners southern regions it is better to plant trees in the fall. In these parts, autumn is long, warm, with occasional rains, which is “the most it” for seedlings. But spring here too quickly can be replaced by hot summer.
Seedlings that dug before the appointed time (up to the natural leaf fall) most often have undisturbed shoots and almost always freeze slightly.
If you bought a “beautiful tree” with leaves for planting, you risk not only getting unripe, but also dried seedling, because the main loss of moisture goes through the sheet plate. And how to choose the sapling correctly, you can learn from the article General recommendations for choosing a sapling and planting fruit trees:
Autumn planting of trees and shrubs is preferred in the south.
The main thing is to remember: the nature of any of its offspring will substitute your hands, and we should try to hand it in the most favorable time to her mature mature seedlings with a good root system. Then it will not be necessary for the young tree to sit on the “sick-list” for years, and to get a “disability” by the age of majority. If everything is done correctly, in whatever season we planted - in the fall, summer or spring - the tree will respond with cheerful growth, excellent development and a rich harvest.
Planting in clay soil
Some garden crops give preference to sandy soils, others take root well on clayey ones, and others are not particularly demanding of this factor. Many fruit trees do not tolerate heavy clay and depleted sandy soils. Sandals and loams are optimal for them.
The characteristics of tree planting and the frequency of watering depend on the mechanical composition. The hardest thing is for farmers with clay soil. In such a land, plant roots have difficulty breathing. The density of the soil contributes to the long-term retention of moisture, which in the rainy season provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Indicators of heavy mechanical structure are dandelions, bluegrass, silverweed goose, buttercup creeping. Having discovered such a “community” of weeds on one's own plotting area, it is necessary to sand until the seedlings are planted: river sand is added to the soil during preliminary digging of the plot.
Clay soil is called structureless - it has an almost homogeneous composition. It interferes with water permeability. Therefore, such a soil requires careful digging and regular loosening. Making this soil structural will allow the application of organic fertilizers during site preparation for planting seedlings.
On a note! Bringing the ground composition to the loams will help bring (together with fertilizers) chopped straw or sawdust into the hole for planting fruit trees.
A novice summer resident, to grow a chic garden on clay, should take into account the advice of experienced farmers:
- Digging of the clay area before planting seedlings is carried out twice: six months before digging dimples and again 10 days before the main work,
- the depth of the hole under the tree is less than in fertile soil,
- clay mash for the roots in this case is not used,
- it is better to fill up the seedling in the pit with imported soil mixed with fertilizers,
- after planting the trees, the ground is not hard pressed, so that it does not become compacted.
Cultivation of fruit trees will be the more successful, the more attentively the summer resident will react to the conditions of agricultural engineering. It is important to choose the right place, taking into account the composition of the soil, the determination of the optimal time and respect for the characteristics of planting. This is the only way to get a good harvest.
Planting of trees: preparation of landing holes
The survival rate of seedlings does not necessarily depend only on the dates determined by the lunar calendar. This event involves the observance of certain rules. Prepare landing pits in advance. Their sizes depend on the characteristics of the fruit crop.
If the garden has a dense clay soil, then the seats should be less deep and wider in diameter. When digging a hole, the top layer of soil is removed and laid separately, without mixing with others. This is a fertile layer. In it you need to add mineral and organic fertilizers and placed in the seat. On the planting of one tree will need 2 or 3 buckets of humus, 3 buckets of peat, 1 kilogram of superphosphate and wood ash.
If there is no mineral fertilizer, then compost and humus will suffice. It is not necessary to use manure as a nutrient mixture, as is customary to do it “in the old manner”. It is quite capable of causing serious damage to the root system.
Seedling placement rules
Spring landing involves early preparation of landing sites. They are prepared in the fall. The holes are dug and half filled with rotted compost or manure. In the spring they will put young trees.
So, in the prepared wells place the seedling, which previously removed the broken shoots. Damaged roots are cut and only healthy ones are left. But it should be aware that without much need the roots do not disturb, otherwise the plant and crop may suffer. If the roots are very dry during transportation, then they should be immersed in water for half a day or a day.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling are recommended to be immersed in a clay mash. The best survival rate show one- and two-year-old trees. When landing in the ground pay attention also to the position of the plant relative to the cardinal points. Plant in the orientation in which it was grown in the nursery.
The plant in the first years of life adapts to the conditions. Considering the young trees, it will be noticeable that its trunk has a heterogeneous color. The side of the trunk, which was turned to the south, will be darker than the one that was oriented to the north.
After placing the seedling in the ground, the pit is filled with pre-prepared nutrient mixture. Pristyvolny circle covered with top soil, taken from the bottom of the planting pit. Planting complete with abundant watering. It is necessary to ensure that the root neck of the tree after settling of the earth mixture is located at ground level. Pristvolny circle should be mulched peat.
Landing on the hill
This method is used for the close passage of groundwater. Landing on the hill is performed in a specific sequence.
- Choose a place to land.
- Drive a stake.
- The height of the support should be 1.5 m in height and not less than 6-7 cm thick.
- Around the cola dig up the soil about 20 centimeters.
- Organic fertilizers are located (8 kg per 1 meter squared).
- Then the seedling is attached to the support.
- The roots straighten.
- Create a hill of nutrient earth mixture.
- Above it is covered with turf.
- In the process of growing the seedling, the tree trunk circle needs to be increased, filling the earthen mixture.
Care of seedlings
Spring landing involves the installation of special watering holes. Saplings of fruit trees require careful care and attention. Do not allow drying of the stalk area. This requires regular watering, loosening the soil cover and removing weeds. It is also important to protect against diseases and pests. In reliance on the data of the lunar calendar, watering should be done in May, with the waning moon. At the same time carry out pinching young shoots.
Months are considered to be the most successful autumn time for updating the southern or garden plot. September and October.
This is the period when trees are at rest, and this suggests that the likelihood of engraftment at this time increases significantly. Moreover, in the process of adaptation, they will be less likely to get sick.
According to experts, literally all types and varieties of trees are suitable for autumn planting, with the exception of overly sensitive ones due to the specific vegetation of their species or variety, according to which the winter period is poorly tolerated. Such species include apricot, sweet cherry, peach, chestnut, walnut, as well as some species and varieties of southern plums.
In addition, it is not recommended to plant fruit trees brought from other climatic zones, since they have not yet stayed in the winter quarters of your area, therefore there are no guarantees that they will take root at all.
Trees that can be planted in the fall
Of the fruit tree species most autumn planting carry:
- Apple tree,
- rowan, as well as many plum varieties ..
Experts note the following pattern: trees planted in autumn produce more juicy and large fruits.
When landing in windy and clear weather, be sure to protect the plants from drying out.
For ordinary two-year-old saplings of apple, pear, sweet cherry, apricot, sweet cherry, and other crops grafted on a low-growing stock, the hole diameter should be no more than 1.25 m, depth 0.5 m.
In the case of laying a garden on poor and sandy soil, the depth of the planting holes increases to 1 m.
When planting a seedling, its root neck should be 5-6 cm higher than the soil level, because when compacting and subsiding the soil, the seedling risks a little to go deep. При посадке также не следует допускать, чтобы корни спутывались или загибались вверх.
The top layer of fertile soil will be required for backfilling. We do the filling ourselves, so that the soil particles tightly surround all even the smallest branchings of the root system.
When it is not necessary to carry out the autumn planting
Sometimes it is not recommended to plant seedlings in the autumn, in other words, it is better to postpone planting in the spring.
Autumn planting should be canceled if:
- according to forecasts, the winter period promises to be colder than usual, which can freeze young plants,
- in the area where planting is planned, a large population of rodents (for example, field mice) lives,
- the territory of the garden in the winter time remains unprotected, which does not exclude the probability of theft of seedlings.
Time to land
Fruit trees can be planted in spring and autumn. Landing dates depend on the climate of the area.
Most southern areas suggest a preference for spring planting in the spring. This is due to the fact that the southern autumn is very warm and long. Saplings that have completed their growth in the nursery and are prepared for the winter hut, when planted in the garden, will take root in the autumn period. Wounds on their roots, ending scarring, form callus (nodules). Trees planted in the fall will awaken in early spring, start to grow, and thereby avoid a possible drought or survive it without difficulty.
When planting trees in spring, plants immediately fall into drought, often become ill and take root much worse.
As practice shows, in the northern regions and the middle lane, the spring planting shows the best results. In springtime there are no droughts here, and therefore trees take root and well “grasp” in the soil. When planting in the fall, trees, especially stone trees, often freeze slightly or begin to suffer and deteriorate from winter desiccation.
In the Urals and Siberia, in areas where there is sufficient snow cover, fruit trees are planted in the fall, and in areas with insufficient snowfall and the absence of early dry winds in March and May - in springtime.
All fruit trees bear fruit well on a nutritious, deep and well-loosened earth and actively grow on it. In accordance with this and determine the width and depth of the hole under the seedling.
For annual seedlings digging 55-60 cm square hole in each side. For biennial - 100-120 cm. wide and 65-70 in depth. In case of heavy and dense soil it is necessary to add to the indicated values 15-20 cm.
Dug up the earth mixed with well rotting compost, there must be added a little sand. Now, at the bottom of the pit, you need to make the necessary for the type and age of the seedling amount of mineral complex fertilizers, and then sprinkle it with a layer of earth 2.5-3 cm.
If a tree is planted with an open root system, then it is necessary to put a mound on the bottom of the hole, on which it is necessary to establish a sapling. Then we straighten the roots and fall asleep.
We dig up a small trench around the saplings and also fill in the mounds along its edges. In the hole the ground should be lightly squeezed and watered well. When water is absorbed, the surface is mulched with sand, peat, dry earth, and sawdust.
IMPORTANT! You can not deepen the root neck! It should also not be covered with a layer of mulch.SharePinTweetSendSendSend