The Latin name is Juniperus communis L. s. l.
incl J. depressa Stev. /. hemisphaerica J. et C. Presl, J. oblonga Bieb., J. pygmaea C. Koch
Genus Juniperus - Juniper
The genus Juniper belongs to the noble cypress family and unites more than 70 species distributed in Eurasia and North America. In Siberia and the Far East, there are 8 species
Common Juniper - Juniperus communis L.
Juniper ordinary (Juniperus communis L) - evergreen coniferous dioecious shrub 1-3 m high or less often a tree up to 8-12 m high. Accordingly, fruits are formed only on female plants. It must be remembered when growing it on the site.
Crown cone-shaped with upright branches or ovoid with shoots lagging in different directions.
Bark trunks gray-brown, young shoots - reddish-brown.
Needles acicular, dense, 1-1.5 cm long.
Develop cones (fruits) slowly, their full maturity comes in the second year. At full ripeness, they are bluish-black in color with a bluish wax coating.
It blooms in May, the seeds ripen in the autumn of next year.
Juniper ordinary widely distributed in the forest and forest-steppe zones. It grows in the undergrowth of pine, spruce, larch, coniferous and deciduous forests.
In the Teberdinsky nature reserve on rocks and stony places from forest to alpine zones, on open slopes in fir-spruce and mixed forests. Particularly often near the upper forest boundary, where it forms continuous thickets, 1350-3100 m above sea level.
Growing on the plot
Recently, many species and cultural forms are grown in ornamental gardening. Common juniper can also not only a medicinal plant.
Highly resistant (5 points) and drought resistant (4 points), can be badly damaged by diseases and pests (2-3 points). Shishkoyagody ripen in the autumn of next year (4 points). It grows slowly. Heliophilous, undemanding to soil fertility.
When choosing a place for its planting, it should be remembered that it practically does not tolerate exhaust gases: the plant begins to wither, quickly drops its needles and dies. Do not buy excavated plants from the subway or railway stations. As a rule, they have badly damaged roots, and they most likely will not survive the transplant, even with the most painstaking care. If you decide to dig a plant in the forest, first of all do not be greedy, choose a young and small plant. It is better able to withstand moving to a new place. In addition, it does not have a very large root system and there is a chance when digging it is not much damage. Wrap up the plant dug out with a lump with a wet sacking and as fast as possible deliver to the place of landing. Before planting, the roots must be dipped in a clay mash and powdered with a root, (a root-forming agent based on indolylbutyric acid). After planting, wrap the plants with sacking or agryl for a month when planting in the spring and for the whole winter when planting in the fall, until they take root.
Juniper is relatively undemanding on soils, but prefers lightweight for its mechanical composition. The site is better to choose a well-lit.
You can propagate the plant and seeds. They are harvested in the fall a little unripe and sown before winter. Seeds require pre-cold stratification for 3-4 months at a temperature of 2-4 ° C. There are also indications of stratification of seeds at high temperature (20-30 ° C) for 1 month, and then 4 months at 13-15 ° C.
Shoots appear in the spring. To facilitate further transplants, it is better to grow them in pots or containers dug into the ground, in order to further transfer them to a larger volume of soil or to a permanent place. The plant responds very well to spraying with epine (prepare the solution according to the instructions for the preparation).
In winter, it is desirable to tie the plants so that they do not fall apart in different directions under the weight of snow. The plant tolerates a haircut, and in the spring its shape can be corrected.
Juniper cuttings only with the use of growth regulators, all the same root. It is best to harvest cuttings in April or February. When rooting requires high humidity with moderate humidity of the substrate.
Council Common juniper, as well as other species of this vast genus, is recommended for landscaping in single and group plantings.
Medicinal raw materials
Gather the fruits in September-October, when they acquire a characteristic dark color, spread a tarp or a mat under the bush and shake ripe cones on them, and then clean them from needles and twigs
You can not beat a stick on the trunk, as showered and green fruit, which can not be allowed. Firstly, they litter the raw materials, and secondly, this is the harvest of the next year, because it takes 2 years to form cones. You can not cut down plants and cut branches. The plant begins to bear fruit on the 5-8th year of life. The periodicity of fruiting is 3-5 years.
After collecting, the raw materials are cleaned, especially from grass bugs, which spoil its quality. Dry in a dryer at a temperature of up to 35 ° C or in a shade under a canopy. If the raw materials are dried at a high temperature, the precious essential oil, which is one of the main active substances, disappears. Dry the fruit 2 times.
In the finished raw material should be at least 0.5% essential oil.
Shelf life with proper storage for 3 years.
Investigation! In raw materials, an admixture of poisonous Cossack juniper (J. sabina), common in the Crimea, in the North Caucasus and the Southern Urals, is unacceptable. It is distinguished by a creeping growth form and flat scaly leaves. Its bumps are hilly and usually have two bones inside.
Use in official and traditional medicine
Juniper berries have a tonic, tonic, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal, expectorant, laxative and strong diuretic action. They are used as a diuretic for edema, kidney stones, inflammation of the bladder, in the presence of protein in the urine, edema associated with renal insufficiency, in chronic pyelitis, cystitis, and edema. In European medicine, infusion is used as an expectorant. Sometimes as a blood cleanser for eczema, dermatitis, scabies, skin eruptions, furunculosis.
In scientific medicine, the infusion of juniper berries (1 tbsp of chopped raw material for 1 cup of boiling water, heated for 15 minutes in a water bath, infused for 45 minutes, filtered and take 1 tbsp spoonful 3-4 times a day after meals) is prescribed mainly as diuretic for edema associated with renal failure and impaired blood circulation, and also as a disinfectant for chronic pyelitis, cystitis, urolithiasis, etc. Shishkoagodi are also used in combination with other plants for chronic diseases of the respiratory tract (tracheitis, laryngitis, bronchitis) - to liquefy sputum and improve its expectoration. In addition, they are recommended for stimulation of appetite, Strengthening of bile formation, improve digestion and motility of the intestine, used for gastroenteritis, hepatopathies associated with the stagnation of bile, the tendency to the formation of gallstones.
In modern traditional medicine, juniper berries are widely used, they are used in asthenia, anemia, furunculosis, joint diseases, chronic skin diseases, gallstone and kidney-stone diseases, gout.
In gynecological practice, decoction of cones is used for douching with colpitis and belium of bacterial origin.
Essence of fresh ripe fruit is used in homeopathy.
It is recommended for diseases of the respiratory tract, liver, gastrointestinal tract, various diseases of the kidneys and bladder (chronic nephritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, uro- and nephrolithiasis, acute and chronic urethritis).
For sand in the bladder, take 60 g of juniper fruits, chop, add 10 g of lemon peel, pour 1 l of white wine and leave for 10 days. Drink 100 g 2-3 times a day.
A cold infusion of berries is used as a diuretic (1 teaspoon of crushed raw materials is drawn for 2 hours in 1 cup of cold boiled water and taken 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day).
In case of hypertension, 10 g of juniper fruits and 5 g of oat seeds and wheatgrass rhizomes are taken, 1 liter of boiling water is poured and boiled over low heat until 0.75 l of liquid remains. The resulting broth is drunk little by little during the day.
Fresh fruits can be consumed as a blood-purifying agent: on the first day, 6 berries are carefully chewed (seeds are spit out), every next day, for 2 weeks, the dose is increased by
1 berry, thus reaching 20 fruits, and then reduced by 1 berry daily - to 6.
There is evidence that the infusion of juniper bark stimulates sexual activity in men. When impotence for the initiation of sexual activity is recommended to take a decoction of the bark of young branches of juniper ordinary: 1 tbsp. spoon pour 2 cups of boiled water, insist 10-12 hours, boil for 15 minutes in a tightly sealed container, cool, filter and then drink * / 2 cup 3 times a day before meals.
And in Croatia, using infusion of juniper treat female infertility. To do this, take the three tops of juniper branches (4-5 cm long) growing on dry lime soil, and pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. Boil for 5-8 minutes. Drink 50 g in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before bedtime for 20 days of each month.
Juniper essential oil traditional medicine recommends for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea): 2-5 drops per reception 3 times a day. There is another recipe: pour 20 grams of boiled water over 20 g of dry shredded shoots of the thuja, leave in a warm place in a tightly sealed container for 5 minutes 1'-strain. Drink 1 glass 3 times a day. Before taking the glass add 1-3 drops of juniper essential oil. This infusion follows when "
Chronic gonorrhea as an adjunct to antibiotics. However, it should be remembered that the thuja is poisonous.
Outwardly, a decoction of fruits and branches (at the rate of 50 g of raw material per bucket of water) is used for baths with rheumatism, gout, eczema. The broth is prepared in a sealed container for half an hour. Take a bath for 20 minutes a day at 38 ° C. Juniper oil or tincture for rheumatism rub painful joints and muscles.
For scabies, it is recommended to prepare an ointment: 50-60 drops of juniper essential oil mixed with 30 g of lard.
Attention! Internal use of juniper drugs is contraindicated in acute inflammatory diseases of the kidneys (nephritis, nephrosis and nephritis).
In some European countries and in Russia, juniper berries have long been used for food purposes, mainly as a spice to impart a characteristic aroma to kvass, beer, soft carbonated drinks, pickles, pickles, and canned fish. Juniper gives a special taste and forest flavor to poultry and game dishes (7-8 berries per 1 kg of meat). In addition, it discourages the unpleasant odor characteristic of the meat of wild animals. The hare with juniper berries is especially elegant.
Due to the high sugar content in pine cones, sweet syrup was previously obtained from them. In Russia in the XVII century. from juniper berries they drove syrup and made intoxicating drink "juniper wort", which was served to the tsar and the boyars on fast days. Juniper spirit was used to produce apoplectic vodka, which was considered a medicine for almost all diseases.
Mature dried fruit mined juniper sugar, make sugar syrup, beer, kvass, juice, molasses, fruit jelly, candy. In some national cuisines, berries are used as a spice: they add 7–8 berries per 1 kg of meat for flavor in soups, soft drinks, in meat and poultry dishes (home and game).
Juniper branches with needles are used in the villages for steaming barrels and tubs before salting cucumbers, mushrooms and cabbage.
Juniper brooms in the bath for diseases of the joints can do a good service. Juniper wood is dense, with a beautiful texture and characteristic odor. It is used for the manufacture of small joinery and turning products, smoking fish and various meat products. With its delicate, pleasant aroma that lasts for decades, juniper Wood is not at all inferior to the famous sandalwood tree.
Family cypress - Cupressaceae.
Echnozeleny coniferous dioecious plant, often a shrub 1-3 m high, less often a small tree up to 12 m tall. Crohn conical or ovoid. The bark is dark gray, scaly and flaky. The needles with the longitudinal stomatal strip, below with the keel, are assembled in three-membered whorls. Male spikelets yellowish, one by one in the axils of the leaves.
Female cones are numerous, oblong-ovoid, pale green, after fertilization they become fleshy and turn into a cone 7–9 mm in diameter, which ripens in the second year and becomes black or dark blue and covered with a waxy bloom.
Common juniper "Juniperus communis L.": It blooms in May, the pine cones ripen in the autumn of next year.
It grows in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part, Western and Eastern Siberia in the undergrowth of coniferous and mixed forests, on clearings, forest edges, on wooded mountain slopes and river banks. Occurs in dry pine forests on sandy soils and in wet spruce forests. It prefers moderately wet habitats.
As a medicinal raw material, mature juniper common cones are harvested. They contain essential oil, which consists of camphene, pinene, terpineol, cadinene and borneol and other compounds, sugars, waxes, resins, organic acids (acetic, malic and formic), bitter glycoside (dye), uniperin, pectins, pigments and tannins.
In medicine, pine cones are used as a diuretic and disinfectant for edema and diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. They irritate the renal parenchyma, therefore, in nephritis and nephrosonephritis, their use is contraindicated.
Broth cones drink to improve appetite. For internal use, an infusion of 10 g of dry cones and glasses of boiling water is more often prepared. Take a tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
Juniper cones are harvested in the fall, during full ripening. when they turn black and blue. They are shaken off with a hand from a plant onto pre-spread cloths. You should not upholster the bushes with a stick, as this leads to the shedding of immature fruits, needles, which litter the raw material and reduce the productivity of the plant. It is forbidden to cut juniper trees and cut their branches. Collected fruits are cleared of pine needles, twigs, immature lumps and grass bugs. Dry them under canopies or in dryers at a temperature not higher than 30.
It is not recommended to dry the raw materials in the furnaces, as this impairs its quality.
Characteristic and origin.
Juniper ordinary - evergreen coniferous shrub, reaching a height from half a meter to several meters. In its wild form, it grows almost throughout Europe on dry slopes, pastures, in rare coniferous, mainly pine forests and on their edges. In Czechoslovakia, juniper is among the protected plants.
Fruits contain up to 2% of essential oil, invert sugar, uniperin, resins, bitterness, tannins, various acids, terpenes, vitamin C, etc.
In the past, juniper fruits have been a popular remedy for treating diseases of the urinary tract and stomach. They have diuretic (diuretic) and diaphoretic action, stimulate the formation of gastric juices. In Slovakia, they are credited with a special healing effect on diseases of the stomach and gall bladder, rheumatism and cough. They have a disinfecting effect on unwanted intestinal bacteria, help to weaken diarrhea and flatulence.
The fruits of juniper have a spicy, light balsam smell, reminiscent of the scent of the forest and meadows. Their taste is bitter, spicy, resinous and sweetish. Used for the production of famous juniper vodka and gin. They are part of many mixtures of spices. First of all, juniper is used in all methods of cooking game, dark sauces, meat products, mainly fatty pork and lamb (several berries).
Gourmets highly appreciate the excellent delicate taste of sauerkraut after adding juniper fruits. It is thanks to him that cabbage fermented in barrels, gained fame throughout the world. It improves the aroma of savoy, red cabbage and beets.
The article uses materials from open sources: Author: Shedo Anton - Book: “Spices”
Based on: belkablog.com
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Description and places of growth of juniper ordinary
In Latin, juniper sounds like juniperus communis, which translates as "prickly." In nature, there are both handicraft and woody species of plants, and, as well as same-sex, and heterosexual. The flower belongs to the family of cypress, to coniferous evergreen shrubs. Often you can hear other names of the species, including “archa” or “veres”.
As mentioned above, распространение можжевельника замечается практически во всех регионах Северного полушария. Его можно встретить даже на малоизученных землях Арктики и даже в зоне горных субтропиков. Для примера, вид восточноафриканского можжевельника покрывает большие территории восточных африканских стран. Our forefathers endowed the conifer tree with magical powers and used it to scare away evil spirits from the house, attracting good luck and good health to all family members. For this purpose, they wove juniper wreaths of beautiful shrub branches.
A significant accumulation of large representatives of the species leads to the formation of large juniper forests. True, to meet them in the real world is quite difficult. In most cases, such natural objects are located in the regions of Central Asia and the Mediterranean. You also have to deal with them in Mexico and in the south of North America. Tall varieties are considered rare and most likely play the role of undergrowth of deciduous and coniferous forests. In turn, low individuals massively cover rocks and rocky precipices near mixed forests.
In the world there are about 60 varieties of junipers, 20 of which germinate in the territory of the countries of the former USSR. However, in the Caucasus, the plant has a different name - archa. Most species of juniperus communis do an excellent job of exposure to high temperatures and lack of precipitation, but they need constant contact with sunlight. The flower does not impose special requirements on the soil composition, although it is most often found in light, nutritious lands. For comparison, some plant species grow only in the Arctic, while others prefer subtropical areas. All types of juniper react poorly to shading. Life expectancy reaches 400–500 years.. Less often - 600 years.
Root, needles and cones juniperus communis
The needles of young junipers take a scale-like appearance. In turn, there are no scales on the kidneys. Sometimes they are completely bare, and sometimes tightly pressed to the branches with short leaves. As for scaly leaves, they are characteristic only for representatives of the juniper juniperus drupacea variety. The plant node has 3 needle-like sheets with a longitudinal vein.
Coniferous specimens are distinguished by a greenish-blue tint, needles with three faces and sharp ends. Male Spikelets resemble the stamens, placed in a pair image and covered with scales. Each stamen forms an opening boot. Female spikelets have whorls of carpels (one, two or three pairs). In each whorl is from one to two ovules.
As for the juniper cones, they resemble tiny gray or blue balls with scales closely adjacent to each other, preventing the full opening of the cones. Regular buds of a significant number of varieties can reproduce from 1 to 10 seeds, which are placed separately. The formation of cones occurs in the second year of the flower life cycle. Stone plants have fused seeds.
The root of the plant has an axial shape. When planting is important avoid damage to the rhizome, because otherwise it will lead to the appearance of various diseases. The damage to the root also impairs the natural resistance of the coniferous shrub to the winds.
The most common ways shrub (tree) breeding are:
The latter solution involves the preliminary preparation of planting material, which is carried out in mid-September. It is important to seed the seeds of assiduous stratification. As for rare varieties and varieties of juniper, they are propagated by vaccination.
Valuable properties of juniper berries
Fruits of juniperus communis are characterized by excellent taste and high medicinal value. Regular consumption of berries in food brings great benefits to the human body. The fact is that such products contain a variety of nutrients that contribute to:
- Reduce bloating. If you suffer from flatulence, the juice from the berries of the plant can be a very useful tool to combat the problem,
- Improve digestion. Due to the valuable bitterness, providing natural stimulation of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the berries effectively fight heartburn and indigestion,
- Also, the berries are characterized by rich antimicrobial and antifungal properties, diuretic ability and the rapid elimination of pathogenic bacteria and dangerous toxins from the body,
- The product can be used as a powerful antioxidant, which is why it is often used to fight cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Also, the berries have an excellent impact on the skin, nails and hair. They are able to prevent the rapid aging of the dermis and the formation of wrinkles,
- Regular consumption of tea based on juniper berries helps to quickly get rid of the diseases of the bronchopulmonary system. The drink has an expectorant effect, which effectively dilutes viscous sputum,
- Also in the berries of juniperus communis contains anti-inflammatory substances. They struggle well with terrible pains in compounds, rheumatism, arthritis and gout. For these purposes, many doctors recommend brewing juniper tea,
- The berries are rich in natural inulin, which makes them a valid product for diabetics,
- The diuretic effect makes the berries a valuable tool for people who are overweight and obese.
Of the contraindications for use should be highlighted:
- lactation and pregnancy
- the presence of allergic effects and individual intolerance to products of coniferous origin,
- kidney disease
- severe forms of hypertension.
It is also not recommended to use medicinal preparations based on juniper in acute degrees of disease. To avoid problems, it is better to consult a doctor in advance.
Recipes for the preparation of valuable medicines
Preparing a tincture or a decoction of the berries juniperus communis is very simple. Among the time-tested and experienced recipes of many people, should pay attention to these:
- Infusion for the prevention of diseases of the oral cavity. To prepare the product you need to take a tablespoon of berries and pour them with a glass of boiling water. Then, it remains to wait for the complete cooling of the infusion, strain it and rinse the mouth cavity. This tool has an excellent effect in the fight against stomatitis or pharyngitis,
- Diuretic infusion. To create a drug you need to take a similar amount of berries and water than in the previous case. It is important to withstand the infusion for at least 3 hours. Consumption occurs in one tablespoon 3 times a day after meals. This remedy effectively fights cystitis and pyelonephritis,
- Infusion to normalize the menstrual cycle. The recipe is very simple: take a liter of water and 2 tablespoons of berries, boil the mixture for 4 minutes, cool and filter. Take the infusion need every 2 hours, one sip of 12 hours,
- Broth to fight bronchitis. Prepare this tool is easy. It is enough to take 1 spoonful of berries and 200 milliliters of water, hold for 15 minutes in a water bath, cool, strain and bring to the original volume. Eating occurs three times a day before meals.
- Decoction for the treatment of joints. Its preparation involves the use of 100 grams of fresh berries and juniper branches ordinary. The mixture is kept in a water bath for about ten minutes. For such a volume, one cup of water is sufficient. Broth is filtered and poured into the bath. The remedy fights arthritis and rheumatism well,
- Infusion to combat skin diseases. It is known that juniper perfectly fights against many skin diseases. For its preparation takes 200 grams of branches, which are filled with water and infused for about two hours. Then the infusion is boiled, keeping on low heat for about 25 minutes.
Juniperus communis based essential oils
In addition to berries in their natural form, essential oil based on juniper is of particular value. It contains many substances, including tanning components, macro- and microelements, organic acids, terpenes, camphene, and many others. The product is characterized by excellent phytoncidal features that help it conduct high-quality air purification from dangerous pathogenic microorganisms. For this reason, the essential oil is often used to combat tuberculosis.
Among the key effects of using essential oil:
The composition of the essential oil is a high concentration of very valuable healing components with a pungent odor. Because of this feature, it is often used in aromatherapy, pouring the finished mixture into aroma lamps, taking baths with it and conducting inhalations. Such procedures well soothe the nervous system, contributing to the normalization of sleep, relieve stress and tension. They also set up a person in a positive way. Use of aromatherapy with oil is considered an excellent procedure for the prevention of colds.
In addition, essential oils are a special treasure for cosmetology. Active substances help fight cellulite and stretch marks, improve skin tone and smooth wrinkles. They are also considered an excellent disinfectant, due to which they are added to night creams. The tool will be an effective solution for a long war with acne and acne.
Also, the essential oil is suitable for use with day cream, which significantly improves the complexion, tightens pores and reduces swelling, further moisturizing the dermis. A few drops quickly enrich any shampoo or hair balm.
Now you know what the basic value of juniper is.
Botanical characteristics of juniper
Juniper ordinary - Juniperus communis L. is a shrub from the cypress family (Cupressaceae) with a height of 1–4 m or a small multilateral tree with a height of 5-7 (up to 10) m with a cone-shaped crown. The bark of the trunks is greyish or red-brown, its outer part flakes off and peels off in thin plates and stripes. The leaves are needle-shaped, in the form of barbed needles with a length of 0.5 to 1.5-2 cm, arranged in bunches of 3 needles. Each needle is alive for up to 4 years, so juniper is an evergreen plant, since its needles do not fall at the same time, but gradually, and individuals never remain completely without leaves. The needles at the top with a thorny tip, on top with a groove and a white stripe along the midrib, on which the stomata are located, below with a rounded blunt keel.
A dioecious plant - some individuals carry only male spikelets with anthers, other cones in which seeds develop (monoecious plants are known as a rare exception). Both male and female generative organs are located in the leaf axils. Male spikelet yellow, almost sedentary, rounded oblong, 2-4 mm long, consists of 2-3 verticils of the bracts and 3-4 verticils of anthers located above them.
The female spike is greenish, with a short stem, oblong-ovoid, up to 2 mm long, consists of several 3-scaly whorls, but only in the axils of the scales of the upper whorls there are ovules, from which after fertilization the seeds develop. The rest of the scales become fleshy, grow together with each other and form together with the seeds a spherical berry-like cone - the cone.
Pollination occurs in April - May, in northern areas in June, cone-leaves develop slowly, their full maturity occurs only in the second year, and even then in the fall, therefore on the same female individual one can almost always see how completely ripe two-year-olds and green solid cones of the first year. The mature pine cone is soft, shiny, bluish-black, with a bluish wax coating, its diameter is 7-9 mm. In each pine cone 3 (less often 2 or 1) seed. Seeds are oblong, 4-5 mm long, obtuse-triangular, yellow-brown in color. Abundant seed yields are repeated after 3-5 years.
Juniper propagated by seed. At the time of hatching seedlings enter into 5-10 years. Common juniper lives for a long time - its age limit is 600 years, but according to some data older trees are known.
Economic use of juniper
Juniper cones, commonly called juniper berries, have long been used in the production of hard liquor. The English gin, which is constantly imported into our country, gained particular fame. It is obtained from barley kernels with the addition of juniper berries. In lumps contains up to 40% of sugars, represented by glucose and fructose, up to 9% of resins, tannins, some acids, the content of essential oil reaches 2% (the specific aroma and taste of gin depend on it). According to historians, our ancestors in the ancient Novgorod made from cones the intoxicating drink “heather mash” (then juniper was called heather), as well as fragrant kvass and fruit drink. Juniper beer is still brewed in Sweden and Finland.
The peculiar tart taste of juniper cones has long attracted the practical interest of hunters-fishermen - they use them as a spice for game and fish dishes. Fish canning production also uses this spice: juniper berries give the fish a specific pleasant smell and a special taste. Fish, meat and ham receive a unique aroma if juniper branches are added to the wood when smoked.
Fans enjoy fragrant juniper bath brooms. It is said that in the old days juniper brooms were ordinary utensils, they not only went to the bathhouse, but also swept the floor with them, raked the ashes in the kilns. It was rightly believed that such brooms would drive the “bad Spirit” out of the hut. With the branches of juniper steamed dairy Krynka, tubs and wooden barrels, which are salted mushrooms, cucumbers, cabbage. In some Russian villages this operation is called “strangling the pots”.
Juniper has a strong, beautiful and fragrant wood, which, despite the small size of the trunks, is widely used for various handicrafts: dishes, toys, jewelry, souvenirs, walking sticks. In Russia, valuable juniper crosses were valued. Juniper smoking pipes are in demand. Historians have established that in ancient times our ancestors, the Slavs, used juniper roots as a dratv - they sewed boards when building boats. They called this material "heather threads". Wood can be used as a brown dye.
Features of the preparation of medicinal raw materials of juniper
In medicine, pine cones (juniper berries) are used; they contain up to 2% of the essential oil, which includes pinene, cardinen, tercineol, and other biologically active compounds (sugar, tar, acetic acid, malic acid, formic acid). Collect them in the fall, in September-October. A canvas is spread under a bush and ripe cones are shaken off. They are dried on the air in the shade, in attics, sheds, and in other ventilated areas, scattering them in a thin layer and periodically stirring until completely dry. In the ovens, juniper can not be dried, as the quality of raw materials deteriorates. Well-dried cones can be stored for up to 3 years.
Medicinal value of juniper and methods of therapeutic use
Juniper - one of the most popular medicinal plants with tonic, tonic, phytoncidal, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, laxative and strong diuretic action.
Preparations from it in antiquity recommended Avicenna. This plant is mentioned as a healing and Roman poet Virgil. That is, from time immemorial both in Europe and in Asia, the therapeutic value of juniper by folk medicine, and now scientific, has been appreciated.
For the preparation of drugs used mainly lumps, although it is believed that all parts of the plant are good for health. Infusions and decoctions of them prescribed for dropsy, kidney stones, inflammation of the bladder and other diseases. Juniper cones - a component of many diuretic charges.
Tinctures made from pine cones take to stimulate appetite and improve digestion, as they have a peculiar spicy taste and increase intestinal motility. Infusion of pine cones has a choleretic effect (albeit, rather weak), and liquefies sputum and facilitates its separation in case of respiratory diseases.
In domestic folk medicine, water infusions and oil extracts of juniper cones are used to treat scabies, malaria.
Take 1 part of the cones on 20 parts of boiling water. Take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day as a diuretic and disinfectant for edema, kidney stones, bladder inflammation (only prescribed by a doctor!). Contraindications: acute and chronic kidney disease.
A decoction of juniper is prepared at the rate of 1 tablespoon of cones for 2 cups boiling water. Boil for 20 minutes. and filter. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for diseases of the upper respiratory tract to liquefy and facilitate expectoration of sputum and as a mild choleretic agent.
50 g of dry cones on 1 cup of water. После процеживания в отвар добавляют мед или сахар до получения сиропообразной консистенции и принимают по 1 чайной ложке перед едой для возбуждения аппетита и улучшения пищеварения, а также в качестве несильного желчегонного средства.
Сырые ягоды по несколько штук в день съедают при язве желудка, плохом аппетите и как желчегонное.
При подагре и ревматизме отвар можжевельника (из расчета 100г высушенных шишкоягод на 1л воды) применяют в виде ванн и компрессов на суставы.
Масло из хвои можжевельника используют для растирания болезненных суставов и мышц при ревматизме, параличе конечностей, невралгиях, подагре. Маслом в растворе лечат плохо заживающие язвы и раны.
В старину, сжигая ветви можжевельника, окуривали помещения во время эпидемий.
If, during a patronage, a mozhzheelovoe branch is formed and we create smoke with it, then no destructiveness of blackness touches the person and does not fall on the person, which the smoke will cover.
In America, the Indians used a decoction of pine cones for treating tuberculosis of the skin, bones and joints. They took patients to the juniper thickets, where the resinous air, rich in volatile production, significantly improved their health.
Two teaspoons of crushed cones are poured over 2 cups of boiling water. The cooled and filtered infusion is boiled with sugar in a water bath.
Acceptance of such syrup 1 teaspoon 3 times a day helps to cure chronic skin diseases (eczema, neurodermatitis, psoriasis), in acute conditions it reduces the sensation of itching, burning skin.
A decoction of juniper berries and branches drink during diathesis, in the absence of menstruation.
One tablespoon of berries and 1 tablespoon of crushed apical branches to 1 liter of water, boil for 5 minutes. Take in small sips throughout the day every 2 hours. Not recommended for kidney disease!
Broth bark is used as an aphrodisiac for impotence.
Soak ground bark at night: 4 teaspoons per 0.5 l of water, boil for 15 minutes over low heat in the morning, take 100–150 ml 3 times a day.
In folk medicine of Belarus, juniper berries are popular with inflammation of the appendages. Collect them in the second year of life, when they turn black and covered with a bluish bloom. Ø One tablespoon of berries pour 300 ml of boiling water overnight in a cooling oven, but you can also insist in a thermos (at least 6 hours). Drink 100 ml 3 times a day for half an hour before meals.
It must be remembered that juniper is not suitable for prolonged use: after 4-5 weeks it is better to switch to other means. It is undesirable to use it by people with diseased kidneys.
In case of inflammation of the middle ear, cotton wool moistened with a tincture of berries is introduced into the ear canal.
“If the oil drops drop by drop into the ears, then deafness will disappear”
"The same oil, Velmy stands, who hold the essence of a falling sickness, when someone sleeps and ridges anoint"- Russian folk healers thought so in the old days.
With spring avitaminosis and asthenia, it is recommended to chew juniper berries: On the first day, 4 berries, on the following days, 1 berry is added per day, bringing their number to 15, after which one berry is gradually reduced to the original four (recommended by the end of the 19th century Bavarian). priest and doctor S. Kneipp). Since this treatment has a strong effect on the kidneys, it never takes longer than 4 weeks.
On the basis of juniper prepare diuretic teas. In addition to the collection of juniper berries, horsetail grass, wild rose hips and roots, licorice root, bearberry leaves and cranberries, birch buds and wild carrot seeds are added to the collection.
One tablespoon of pine cones is poured with 1 cup of boiling water, insulated in a tightly closed container for 20 minutes, filtered and taken in the morning and evening, 1 cup in the treatment of urinary tract and digestive disorders.
Contraindications: prolonged use and large doses of teas and such decoctions irritate the parenchyma and can cause renal hematuria. You can not use juniper pregnant and sick with acute glomerulonephritis.
When treating paralysis juniper is used for both baths and compresses.
200 g of pine cones and chopped up branches of the plant should be boiled in 3 liters of water for 30–40 min on low heat, without boiling. After removing from the heat, insist 15min., Strain. Bathing for 20 min. at a temperature not higher than 38 ° C. A course of 8–10 bats of baths is recommended to be replaced by a similar one from hips.
Bathing goes well with compresses and rubbing herbal infusions and extracts in the numbed parts of the body. W For compresses, you can use the already described decoction, and even better alcohol extract: one handful of juniper berries with the idea of a handful of chopped branches pour 0.5 liters of vodka, insist 2 weeks. Rub into the affected places 2-3 times a day.
The juniper has the strength and flagella, and the sharp is pretty.
Nested in hot coals, it stifles away the smell
The creeping creeps and the fruit of the juniper round has
The smell is strongest when placed in the mouth resides,
He and the stomachs are useful. Jacques, the chest healing area,
He calms down an excessive, even ingrained, cough.
He's against various poisons, able to help,
So from the cramps he, and even from the gaps will help,
The uterus is a vice and a disease that infertility gives, it carries off,
Its juice heals those whom the viper bit.
So, if it is burned through and mixed with pure water,
That, by leering, leprosy will drive out from the shameful body.
The sap of the wood its intoxication destroys,
If you drink pitch, they say, coughing is appeased.
A well-established, also parotid disease retreats.
According to Raphael, juniper is ruled by Mars and is healing for those born under the sign of Aries and Scorpio.