Garden flowers, plants and shrubs

Planting and care of hyacinths in open ground


The author: Tamara Altov. August 31, 2018 Category: Garden Plants.

Hyacinth (lat. Hyacinthus) is a genus of bulbous plants of the Asparagaceae family. Previously, this genus was isolated in a separate family Hyacinth or attributed to the family Lilein. Some researchers have up to 30 species in this genus, others consider the genus to be monotypic, that is, including one, but with a large number of forms and varieties. In the wild, hyacinths grow in Central Asia and in the eastern Mediterranean, but they are grown everywhere in culture.

The name of the plant hyacinth was in honor of the hero of the ancient Greek myth - a beautiful young man who was beloved of Apollo and died because of jealousy also in love with the god of wind Hyacinth. In memory of his deceased friend, Apollo created from his blood a beautiful flower hyacinth.

In 1543, the hyacinth was introduced from Asia Minor to the botanical garden of Padua, in northern Italy, and gradually became a flower of luxury: it was grown in the gardens of rich people and aristocrats. In the 18th century, Dutch breeders were fascinated with hyacinth, fascinated by its aroma and dense texture of petals, and white, cream, pale lilac, crimson, blue and, eventually, even yellow hyacinths soon appeared. Were engaged in breeding new varieties of this plant in Germany and in France. Today, hyacinths are grown not only in gardens, but also at home, and recently it has become popular to plant hyacinth bulbs for distillation in order to get a beautiful flower by a certain date.

Hyacinth flower description

A perennial hyacinth has a dense onion consisting of lower fleshy leaves that occupy the entire circumference of the bottom, the immediate continuation of which is the peduncle. On the stem, a raceme-shaped inflorescence is formed from brightly colored bell-shaped flowers with folded perianth lobes. After completion of flowering, the stem and the green leaves sitting at the very bottom dry out, but in the corner of the top leaf a bud forms, which will become an onion and give a flower stem in the next season. In the corners of the other leaves of the hyacinth, onions can also be formed, which can be separated and grown, so that in a few years they also throw out the floral arrows. Hyacinth fruit has the appearance of a leathery three-capsule box, in each nest of which two seeds ripen.

Soil for hyacinths

These early flowers are grown in places well lit and protected from the wind, far from bushes and trees whose roots do not allow hyacinths to fully develop. In the area where hyacinths grow, there should be no melt and rain water, so choose flowers for planting with a flat surface or with a slight bias. Groundwater should lie no closer than 50 cm at the site.

Soils hyacinths prefer well-drained, with a high content of humus, but fresh or not fully decomposed manure for the fertilizer area is not suitable. Peat and river sand should be added to the clay soil for digging, and the acidic soil should be neutralized with limestone or chalk, since the hyacinth needs a pH not lower than 6.5 units.

When to plant a hyacinth

The site for hyacinths must be prepared at the end of the summer, in August, so that the soil two months before planting has time to settle. If, however, the site is re-excavated immediately before planting, then, as a result of natural sedimentation of the soil, the developing roots of hyacinths can break. They dig up the soil to a depth of 40 cm, adding 10–15 kg of humus, 60–80 g of superphosphate, 15 g of magnesium sulphate (or 250–250 g of dolomite flour) and 30 g of potassium sulphate (or 150–200 g of wood ash) for each m². ). Peat and sand are added to clayey soil, and when treating sandy soil, the rate of magnesium and potash fertilizers is increased by one and a half times. Sour soil is lime for two weeks before fertilization.

Hyacinths are planted at the end of September or in October - specific dates depend on the climatic and weather conditions of the area. If the hyacinths are planted too early, they will grow and die in winter, and if they are too late to plant, the bulbs will not have time to root until the soil freezes and, at best, just lie in the ground until spring, and at worst - they will die.

Planting hyacinths in the ground

When choosing planting material, medium-sized bulbs should be preferred, the so-called “flower beds”: the hyacinths that grow from them form more weather-resistant floral arrows. Planting bulbs are not suitable for planting, soft, rotting and with mechanical damage. A healthy planting material is etched in a solution of fungicide for half an hour and planted in the ground.

The distance between the holes in the row should be about 15-20 cm, and between the rows - 20-25 cm. Landing is carried out at a depth of three onion diameters, that is, there should be a layer of soil two times thick in the bulb. At the bottom of the hole poured a layer of dry coarse sand thickness of 3-4 cm, then put a hyacinth onion, slightly pressing it into the sand, then fall asleep the bulb with sand to the top, and the remaining space in the hole is filled with soil. This method of planting is called "sand shirt", it can be used when planting any bulbous plants in order to avoid bulbs rotting from stagnant water. If you planted hyacinths in a dry land, after planting the area should be watered.

How to care for hyacinths. Watering hyacinths

Hyacinth care includes weed control, soil loosening, fertilizing and, if necessary, watering. Humidification will be needed by plants only during the period of anomalous drought: in spring, when hyacinths grow, the land is saturated with melt water, so there is no need to water the plot. If the winter was snowless, and spring without rain, then watering the hyacinths is carried out in such a way as to soak the soil in depth by 15-20 cm - to the level of the occurrence of the bulbs and roots. To relieve yourself the work can be done by mulching the surface of the plot with organic materials that will not allow moisture to evaporate quickly and weeds to sprout. After watering or raining, it is necessary to loosen the surface of the plot to a small depth several times per season.

Feeding hyacinths

Hyacinths are fed 2-3 times per season, and fertilizers are applied both in the form of granules and in the form of a solution. However, if you prefer to fertilize the soil with nutrient solutions, then keep in mind that they need to put less fertilizer than with the dry method. The first feeding is carried out at the very beginning of active growth. It consists of 20 g of superphosphate and 25 g of saltpeter per 1 m², which are scattered over the surface of the site. When cooking solution the dosage of each ingredient per unit area is reduced by 5 g. The second time hyacinths are fed during budding at the rate of 20 g of potassium sulfate and 35 g of superphosphate (for a solution, the dosage of both elements is reduced by 5 g), and the third dressing is carried out after flowering is over, and consists it is from an equal amount (35 g for the dry method and 30 g for the solution) of potassium sulfate and superphosphate per square meter area.

When digging hyacinths

Dig up hyacinth bulbs in summer. After completion of flowering hyacinths feed phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, then the bulbs give some time to recover the forces expended on flowering. When the leaves of the plants begin to turn yellow and fade, you can begin to dig out the bulbs, but it is not necessary to wait for the complete wilting of the ground organs.

Hyacinth Transplant. How to store hyacinth bulbs

If you want the hyacinths to bloom magnificently every spring, they need to be replanted annually: dig up, separate the children and plant them in the fall again in the fall. The bulbs removed from the ground are washed under running water, etched for half an hour in a three percent Karbofos solution or 10 minutes in a thermos with water at a temperature of 50 ºC, then dried in the shade for a week at 20 ºC, freed from residues of roots and dry scales, separated by large kids and laid out planting material in one layer in the boxes on parsing: small onions - in one box, large - in another. If the bulbs are few, you can store them in paper bags.

The storage period for hyacinth bulbs is divided into two stages: the first two months they are kept at a temperature of about 25 ºC, the third month the storage temperature is lowered to 17 ºC. Air circulation in the room should be free, and the humidity should be moderate so that the bulbs do not rot and dry. Small children may appear on the bulbs during the storage period, so be careful when planting.

Hyacinth multiplication

In addition to the vegetative method of reproduction by children, which we have already described, hyacinths propagate by the seed method. Seeds of hyacinths are sown in boxes with soil consisting of two parts of humus, one part of leafy ground and one part of sand, and the crops are placed in a cold greenhouse, in which hyacinths are grown for two years before planting the bulbs in open ground. However, the seed method does not preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plants in the offspring, therefore it is only suitable for breeding specific hyacinths or for breeding new varieties.

Professional growers prefer to multiply hyacinths in such a way as cutting the bottom. As a tool, a sterile teaspoon with a sharp edge is used, with which the bottom is cut out, removing the bases of scaly leaves and leaving the rest of the bulb intact. To avoid the development of infection, the cut surface is treated with a fungicide, after which the bulbs are placed cut up on a tray with sterile sand and kept at a temperature not lower than 21 ºC waiting for the formation of callus. After 65-90 days, from 20 to 40 children form on sections of each bulb. These nests are seated in pots in such a way that the children are slightly covered with soil. After two weeks of tempering procedures, the pots are transferred to cold greenhouses. In spring, young bulbs will start to form leaves, gradually destroying the mother bulb. At the end of the season, young plants are separated and planted for rearing. They bloom in the third or fourth year.

Hyacinth diseases and their treatment

Outdoor hyacinths are extremely resistant to infections. Hothouse and vygonochny plants suffer from diseases more often. If the storage conditions of hyacinth bulbs are disturbed, penicilla sores or storage rot caused by Penicillium spp. Can affect. The causative agents of penicillosis are activated when the bulbs are stored at a temperature below 17 ºC in conditions of high humidity. Planting material with mechanical damage is especially susceptible to infection. A sign of penicillosis is the drying of the ends of the roots, which is usually detected before planting. If you make a cut just above the bottom, you can see that the internal tissues have acquired a light brown shade. Imperceptible from the outside, the process of decay continues during and after planting of infected bulbs, which either do not form roots at all or do not form enough. In such plants, peduncles do not gain height and break easily. In the field of infection on the bulbs colonies appear fungus, tissue becomes soft and darken.

To avoid the development of infection, store hyacinth bulbs in a well-ventilated area, at a humidity of no more than 70%, and bulbs with prematurely grown roots should be planted in the ground immediately.

Hyacinths can cause yellow bacterial rot, which turns plant tissue into fetid mucus. Symptoms of the disease are stunted growth, the appearance of spots and stripes on the leaves and the flower arrow, and then decaying areas. Suffer from disease and bulbs. When the first signs of bacterial decay are found, the diseased plant should be excavated and burned, and the place where it grew should be shed with a 5% solution of Formalin or bleach.

Hyacinth pests and control

From insects to garden hyacinths, flower flies are annoying, the larvae of which feed on the foliage of the bulb. Flies are destroyed before the eggs are laid by treating the plants and the soil around them with a solution of preparations such as Fly-eater, Tabazol or Aktara.

Meadow mites are also enemies of hyacinths. Its activity occurs at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. The main danger of arachnids is that they are carriers of incurable viral diseases. In tick-infected plants, peduncles are bent, and the leaves turn yellow and fade prematurely. Destroy ticks with acaricides - Aktellik, Talstar Pro or other drugs of similar action.

Danger for hyacinths are medvedki, damaging the flower bulbs right in the ground. The activity of these insects begins in May, when they crawl out of the earth warmed by the sun. To collect and destroy all pests, dig shallow holes in the plot, place fresh manure or half-ripe straw in them and cover with old slate or a piece of board. Bears crawl into traps to lay eggs in them, and you can begin their destruction in 3-4 weeks. Among toxic chemicals, Medvetoks, Bearskin, Bowerin, Grizzly, Thunder, and other drugs of similar effect showed efficacy in the fight against pests.

Types and varieties of hyacinths

All garden forms and varieties descended from Eastern hyacinth and its two varieties: Roman hyacinth, or Eastern white hyacinth, and olive hyacinth. There are varieties in size inflorescences, the length of the peduncle and the timing of flowering. In the latter category, hyacinths are divided into early, mid-flowering and late. The difference between the beginning of flowering of early and medium, medium and late varieties of hyacinth is not more than two weeks. The most interesting garden plants can be called:

  • Amethyst - Hyacinth up to 25 cm in height with a dense wide cylindrical inflorescence up to 9 cm long, consisting of 18-20 delicate violet flowers up to 4 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in late April or early May and lasts about a week,
  • Arentina Arendsen - variety up to 28 cm in height with a cylindrical inflorescence of 20-22 white flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm. Flowering begins in mid-April,
  • Bismarck - Hyacinth up to 28 cm high with a large cylindrical inflorescence up to 13 cm long from 20-25 light purple flowers with a diameter up to 4.5 cm. It blooms about two weeks from mid-April,
  • General de Wet - a plant up to 24 cm high with an average density of inflorescence up to 11 cm in length from 18-20 white-pink flowers with a diameter up to 2 cm with strongly twisted perianth segments. Flowering begins in mid-April,
  • Grand Laylack - hyacinth up to 35 cm high with inflorescences up to 11 cm long, consisting of 15-20 porcelain-blue flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm with lighter ends of the perianth. Flowering begins in late April and lasts up to two weeks,
  • Grand Maitre - variety up to 28 cm in height with loose inflorescence up to 10 cm in length from approximately 18 light-blue-lilac flowers with narrow and strongly twisted perianth segments. It blooms in late April,
  • Groovest - hyacinth up to 30 cm high with a loose inflorescence 13 cm long from 5-15 double flowers of a dingy light lilac shade that begin to open in April or early May,
  • Indigo King - a plant up to 25 cm high with a loose inflorescence up to 10 cm high from 7-18 black-purple, ink flowers up to 3 cm in diameter. It blooms about two weeks from the end of April,
  • Yellow Hammer - variety up to 30 cm in height with dense inflorescence up to 12 cm in length from 20-25 light yellow flowers with a diameter of up to 3 cm, opening at the end of April,
  • Lord balfour - Hyacinth with a peduncle up to 24 cm long, bearing a loose inflorescence of 8-13 purple-violet flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm with lighter ends. Flowering begins in late April and lasts up to three weeks,
  • Madame Sophie - Hyacinth up to 25 cm tall with a loose inflorescence up to 15 cm long, consisting of 15 white double flowers with a diameter up to 3.5 cm. Flowering begins in late April and lasts about two weeks,
  • Prince arthur - variety up to 30 cm in height with inflorescence of medium density up to 14 cm in length from 13-16 double flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter. It blooms from the horse April 15-18 days,
  • Rosalia - a grade only 20 cm high with a narrow cylindrical inflorescence up to 8 cm long from 10-15 bright pink flowers with a diameter up to 2 cm. Blossoms since the beginning of April,
  • Chestnut Flower - Hyacinth up to 25 cm high with a loose inflorescence up to 12 cm long from 12-15 light pink double flowers with a diameter up to 4.5 cm with strongly twisted perianth segments. It blooms in late April,
  • Edelweiss - a plant with a height of 20-25 cm with a dense wide inflorescence up to 11 cm long, consisting of 13-20 white flowers with a diameter up to 3.5 cm. Flowering begins in mid-April,
  • Edison - Hyacinth up to 22 cm high. Loose inflorescence consists of 7-10 double pink flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in late April.

Selecting a landing site:

  • Plant loves the sun's rays, there should be more light on the plot, so they are not recommended to plant near fences and under trees.
  • Hyacinth loves light, nutritious soil. The soil must be breathable.
  • Draft and strong winds do not really like the plant.
  • Landing plot should not have groundwaterthat run close to the surface.
  • Если почвы тяжелые, то их самостоятельно можно сделать более легкими, добавив в почву дренажные материалы, такие как песок, керамзит и так далее.
  • Гиацинт не выносит низких мест, ведь в них всегда скапливается вода. So that the roots do not have stagnant moisture, the plant is planted at a certain elevation.
  • Hyacinth will not grow on acidic soilstherefore, dolomite or lime flour is added to such soils. For deoxidation, you can also use egg shells, which are well crushed.
  • Hyacinths can not be planted after tulips, daffodils, crocuses and so on.
  • Every year the plot for planting hyacinths is worth changing. The former landing site is often affected by pests. The plant can be replanted to the previous site only after 3 years.

Bulb selection

Quality seed material is a guarantee that the plant will grow healthy, large and will not be exposed to diseases and pests.

Optimal bulbs for planting will be specimens with a diameter of 5 centimeters and a bottom size of 3 centimeters.

Before purchase the bulb is inspected for damage. The wounds in contact with wet earth will be affected by pests and rot, so a beautiful flower cannot grow from them.

Soft spots on the bulbs signify the onset of decay and destruction, such material is unsuitable for planting.

Healthy bulbs are solid, smooth, have a light color and a whole peel.

Planting hyacinths in the fall

The site for planting hyacinths in open ground should be prepared in the fall. At the end of summer or early autumn, the site is dug up to the depth of a bayonet spade. Before digging, organic, phosphorus-containing and potash fertilizers are distributed on the ground. If necessary, you can make dolomite flour, it is introduced into acidic soil to equalize the acidity. For disinfection, wood ash is introduced into the soil. All ingredients are distributed in the soil during digging.

Fresh manure not recommended use as fertilizer hyacinths. Such a powerful fertilizer can burn the roots and cause the roots to rot.

The bulbs must be planted in open ground before the start of frost. When the temperature is 7-9 degrees outside, the plant should increase the good root system. If the plant does not have roots or they are still weak, the bulbs will die during the wintering process.

When the plant has not yet grown, and the frost has already come, you can cover the seedlings with a special covering material or dry foliage. All beds covered with thick plastic wrap.

When to plant hyacinths? In the temperate climate of Russia, hyacinths are planted in the second half of October.

How to plant hyacinths:

  • The first thing you need to properly prepare the bulbs. To decontaminate and increase immunity to diseases of the bulb, it is necessary to immerse it in a fungicidal solution. After 30 minutes, the plants can be planted in open ground.
  • In the prepared soil make holes. Between plants should be left 15-20 centimeters. The depth of the holes should be at least 15-18 centimeters.
  • Separately it is necessary to prepare the substrate. For its preparation peat, sand and humus are mixed. Growing hyacinth in heavy, clay soils will not succeed.
  • In the hole poured a layer of the prepared substrate.
  • Bulbs are planted in the substrate. Moreover, it is necessary to firmly press the bulb to the substrate. Air pockets should not be allowed to form, they can damage the plant.
  • On top of the bulb covered with substrate, and then a simple ground. Thus, each bulb will be surrounded by a nutrient and light substrate.
  • Immediately after planting, hyacinths are carefully shed.
  • When the temperature outside decreases, the area with plantings is covered with spruce leaves, dry leaves or other suitable materials. With frequent rains, the bed should be covered with a film so that the bulbs do not get too much moisture.

Hyacinth planting in the spring

In the spring, hyacinths are planted infrequently, but it is quite possible. Growing can be started only after the air temperature normalizes and the frost

s no longer expected. To prepare the bulbs for flowering this year, they must be put in the freezer. The bulbs in the freezer store not more than one hour.

The bulbs are immersed in the soil at a depth of about 15 centimeters. Between plants of medium size leave a distance of 15-20 centimeters. If the bulb size is rather small, then the distance between them should be reduced. And large bulbs are planted at a distance of 30 centimeters from each other.

In the hole poured a layer of sand in three centimeters. Now you can plant the bulbs and sprinkle them with earth. Large landings are best done at low elevations.

Spring hyacinth care

Hyacinth - planting and care in the open field is carried out in the fall and spring. Winter care in general is not required.. But as soon as the weather got better and the first rays of spring began to warm, they take the film off the plants.

After a while, seedlings will appear, which means that very soon a flower stalk and beautiful flowers will form on the plant. From this period, the hyacinth is watered moderately, moisture should be 20-25 centimeters thick, so that the roots also get moisture. When watering can use only warm, settled water.

During the flowering period fertilizer needs to be applied with nitrogen content. They will help the plant to form more flowers and the flowering time will increase. In May you can make an infusion of weeds and water them young sprouts. All types of fertilizers are applied in liquid form and only after the planting area is well watered. Wet soil will properly distribute fertilizer and they will not damage the roots.

When buds begin to form on the plant, it is necessary to add a humate or an infusion of ash.

After flowering hyacinths feed infusion of wood ash or compost.

As weeds grow, they are immediately removed. They take moisture from the soil and nutrients. Weeding can be carried out together with loosening. This procedure will simplify the care, because at the same time weeds are removed and oxygen is supplied to the roots. To avoid weeding you can grind the soil around the plants. As a mulching material, you can use chopped bark, peat or fallen leaves. The mulch layer is laid 5 centimeters thick.

Leaving after flowering

After flowering, the plant requires special care. Once all the flowers have dried, and the leaves began to turn yellow, the bulbs are dug out and inspected. They clean the earth, check for pests and damage. All leaves and buds need to be cut.

The bulbs are dried in the shade and removed for storage. Seeds can be placed in boxes, packages, containers. Importantly, boxes and containers should have good ventilation. And if the bulbs are planned to be stored in a bag, then you should choose only paper materials. In the plastic bag, the bulbs will not breathe and will soon begin to rot.

Store the bulbs in a dry, warm place. The air temperature during storage should be within +24 degrees.

In such a room hyacinths are stored for at least two months. Then the bulbs should be removed for pre-storage. To do this, the seed is transferred to a room with a temperature of not more than 17 degrees. Moreover, it must be remembered that low humidity contributes to dehydration and drying of the bulbs. Therefore, in a room with hyacinths, it is necessary to maintain an increased level of humidity, but not less than 70%.

For abundant and prolonged flowering, the next time the plant needs to provide a rest period of at least 95 days. If the rest period is shortened or extended, flower cultivation will be problematic, it will grow poorly and form flower stalks.

Selection of planting material

Hyacinths are typical bulbous plants. Perennial bulb of this species:

  • fully formed by 4-6 years
  • has a spherical shape with a prominent neck,
  • consists of numerous scales, with the internal dense and fleshy, and the upper thin and looks like parchment.

The growth of the bulb is due to the regeneration formed in the core of the kidney, consisting of several leaf buds and the future peduncle. Adult bulbs of 5–6 years form the rudiments of daughter bulbs, children, at the bottom under the accumulating scales.

Moreover, depending on the grade of hyacinth, its bulbs can have different sizes. As a rule, the bulbs giving terry flowers are smaller than usual.

  • If hyacinths are to be grown in open ground, by the time of planting the bulb must be elastic, with a diameter of at least 4 cm and consist of several surface scales, 6–10 scales of accumulation and a fully formed bud.
  • On the outer surface of the planting material should not be mechanical damage, traces of mold, diaper rash or lethargy.
  • Looking at the bottom, high-quality bulbs, you can see the two-millimeter rudiments of the roots.
  • The diameter of high-quality bulbs and a half times the size of the bottom.

Such planting material will not only successfully take root and overwinter, but in spring will give abundant flowering.

Selection of a place for growing hyacinths in open ground

Competent choice of a place for planting hyacinths in open ground and caring for plants before and after flowering is the key to a long spring flowering.

The area where hyacinths are to grow should be well lit, which in spring, when there is little foliage, is not difficult to secure. But on the protection of the flower garden from the wind will have to take care.

Many gardeners make the mistake of planting bulbs under tree crowns or near tall shrubs. On the one hand, such large vegetation will really protect the inflorescences from the cold wind and will not obscure until the foliage blooms. On the other hand, when it comes time to dig up hyacinths after flowering in the garden, there may not be enough nutrition for bulbs to replenish forces, which will affect their quality.

Hyacinth bulbs react extremely poorly to waterlogging. If the groundwater at the site is closer to the surface closer than half a meter, high ridges are arranged for planting hyacinths or powerful drainage is needed. To ensure the outflow of spring or rain moisture, sometimes make a small bias.

All preparatory work for planting hyacinths in the open field and caring for bulbous plants is best done at the end of the summer. For a month or two, the soil will settle, and the autumn rooting of the bulbs will be faster and easier.

Terms of planting hyacinths for cultivation in open ground

In most regions of Russia, hyacinths can be planted in the ground from the beginning of September to mid-October.

  • If the bulbs fall into the ground earlier, or the autumn turns out to be unusually warm, the plants start growing and die when frost occurs.
  • If you are late in planting, the bulbs will not have time to give roots to the moment when the ground is frozen.

Still, the bulbs can be buried in the ground in the first weeks of November. For this, the landing site must be pre-folded with foliage or other suitable material and covered with foil. The soil will keep warm, and the bulbs that have fallen into it will start growing as it should.

For the winter, the landing sites of hyacinths should be sheltered from frost with the help of mulch from peat, sawdust, foliage or lapnik. The shelter will have to be removed in early spring in order not to damage the emerging shoots.

Cultivation of hyacinths in the open field and care for them

After planting hyacinths, care in the open field is reduced to regular feeding, loosening the soil, weeding and watering, especially during the set of buds and flowering.

  • Immediately after the emergence of sprouts, hyacinths need the first additional feeding at the rate of 30 grams of ammonium nitrate per square meter.
  • The second application of fertilizer falls on the period of dyeing buds. In this case, under the hyacinths contribute not only 20 grams of ammonium nitrate per meter, but 30 grams of potassium chloride and 40 grams of superphosphate.
  • When flowering is completed, the plantation is fertilized at the rate of 40 grams of superphosphate and the same amount of potassium chloride per square meter.

All feeding is made in the aisle or the space between the plants, covering up to 10 cm, and then the plantation is watered. And the care of hyacinths after flowering in the garden also begins with watering, which is extremely necessary in the first two weeks after the flowers have dried.

Hyacinth care after flowering and cleaning the bulbs

Hyacinth blooms magnificently but transiently. After the flower stalks dry out, the plant quickly loses its decorative effect. When the hyacinths are blooming, what to do next in the garden? First of all, especially if the spring planting of bulbs is combined with some other ornamental cultures, the locations of hyacinths should be noted. After all, soon, when the leaves wilted, it will be extremely difficult to find them. Then the plants that restore power after flowering do not bypass the quality watering and fertilizing.

If in the Mediterranean climate the bulbs tolerate the winter well and again delight with bright arrowheads of inflorescences, then in the middle zone of heat in the dormant period hyacinths are clearly lacking. So, do you need to dig hyacinths every year? Yes, it is such a measure in the middle lane that will help create the necessary conditions for the bulbs for the formation and development of bud replacement and the buds of the future floral arrow.

If healthy hyacinth bulbs in a temperate climate, not digging up for the summer, leave for wintering in the ground, their flowering next year will be much weaker than before. Only gardeners in the Kuban, the North Caucasus, the Crimea and in the south of the Black Soil Region can not burden themselves with annual digging of bulbs, and then only during a fairly hot summer. When to dig hyacinths after flowering in the garden?

The best time to extract the bulbs is the last decade of June or the first days of July. By this time, the leaves noticeably turn yellow and weaken at the base, now they will be easy to remove.

Storage of hyacinth bulbs

When the bulbs are cleared of soil, washed and dried:

  • they are examined, separating the diseased or injured specimens,
  • Separate children requiring rearing,
  • planting material is treated with pests and diseases for bulbs.

During the week, the bulbs are kept at a temperature of about + 18–20 ° C in a ventilated room and laid out in paper bags or containers in 1–2 layers.

Care for hyacinths after flowering in the garden and storing bulbs is the most serious event for the florist.

During this time, the covering scales of hyacinths dry up, the plant is acclimatized and ready for the next stage of storage, when for two months the bulbs must remain at a temperature of about + 30 ° C, high enough humidity and good ventilation. A month before planting, the air temperature is lowered to +17 ° C, so that planting material can more easily transfer the upcoming hyacinth planting in open ground.

Landing place

To place the planting of hyacinth in the open ground, it is necessary to select the area where there will be no stagnation of water. Best suited area under a slope or on a hill.

It is also necessary to take into account that the location of groundwater under this platform should not be closer than 70 cm to the surface.

For hyacinth in the garden is also important soil composition. The primer should be light, air permeable and air permeable.

The flower is demanding on the amount of nutrients in the substrate. Acidic soil must necessarily aggravate, and in the clay to add a sufficient amount of sand or peat.

Time and landing rules

Hyacinths are planted from late September to early November. Early planting provokes growth, and the flower will not be able to winter. If you are late in planting, then cover them with a foliage.

Before this, the soil must be carefully prepared. Dig the site to 2 months. At the same time, humus 10–15 kg, superphosphate — 70–80 g., Potassium sulphate or wood ash — 200 g., Dolomite flour or magnesium sulphate — 250 g. per square meter.

In the wells also add humus. But you can not add fresh or weakly dung.

How to select and prepare the bulbs?

The bulb has a spherical shape. Its core consists of a germinal bud, which is surrounded by numerous scales, which are formed over four years. Full planting material becomes 5-6 years. After the sixth year, daughter scales appear on the bulb, from which new specimens can be grown.

Planting material, depending on the variety has different sizes. Terry varieties have the smallest onion.

Bulbs suitable for planting in open ground not less than 4 cm in diameter. At the same time they must be tight, elastic, without damage. On the bottom side should be visible the beginnings of the roots.

Landing rules

Before placing the hyacinth in the soil it should be disinfected - soak for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate or foundationol.

The bulbs are located at a distance of at least 20 cm from each other. Between small ones, it is necessary to leave a distance of 10 cm. The holes are dug out in such a way that the bulb deepened no more than 15 cm. The bottom of the hole is necessarily laid out with a layer of sand that acts as a drainage.

After planting, hyacinths sprinkled with a layer of soil, and then cover with a mulch layer. When frost occurs, the landing area with plantings is additionally covered with spruce branches or branches.

To carry out proper fit and care for hyacinths in the garden in the open ground will help you photo:

Spring care

As soon as the snow cover disappears, the mulch layer is removed. Immediately after the snow melt, they do not need to be watered, as moisture in the soil is sufficient, and waterlogging for hyacinths is dangerous, they can become infected with fungus.

Полив необходим только в том случае, если нет дождей и видно значительное высыхание почвы.

Трижды за период выращивания гиацинты следует подкормить: после появления первых ростков, во время цветения и сразу после отцветания. Первая подкормка проводится селитрой. Во вторую к небольшому количеству селитры добавляется суперфосфат и хлористый калий. The third dressing consists of superphosphate and potassium chloride.

Preparing for the new season

After flowering wait for the leaves to dry completely, only after that they need to dig.

The annual procedure for removing bulbs from the ground - a mandatory procedure. If they are not digged, the flowers become smaller.

Dig out the bulbs in June-July. They are thoroughly cleaned of leaves and earth. It is advisable to wash the bulbs in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dry.

Drying process lasts a week or two. Bulbs should be stored at a temperature of 18-20 degrees in a dry place. Then hyacinths are placed in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Further storage of planting material is a crucial moment, since it is at this time that the buds of the flower are laid.

Two months of the bulbs are kept in a room where the temperature is at least 25 degrees. Then you should sharply reduce the temperature to 15-17 degrees. Humidity needs increased air so that the bulbs do not dry out.

How to propagate the plant?

Hyacinths are propagated by seeds and children.

  • Seed method. With this method, you can get varieties of new colors. Hyacinths grown from seeds will bloom in 6-7 years. Sowing is done in boxes filled with a mixture of humus (2h.), Leafy earth (1h.), Sand (1h). The growth of seed bulbs lasts 2 years.
  • Reproduction kids. Maternal bulb produces 1-2 babies per year when it reaches 4-5 years of age. It is possible to separate a baby from the main bulb only when it practically falls off from it. If the baby keeps tight, it can not be broken off.

The resulting kids are planted in a separate area at a shallow depth. Planting is covered with a large layer of mulch.

Accelerated breeding method

It is an artificial increase in the amount of planting material. For this method, you will need to sacrifice an adult onion, which will no longer be able to give flowers.

Hyacinth can multiply quickly in two ways:

  1. Interruption of flowering. As soon as the peduncle appears from the center of the spring bulb, it must be cut out and continue to care for the hyacinth as usual. This technique allows you to direct all the forces of the mother bulb to the formation of children, and the field of the withering of the leaves you dig up the bulb from the ground and find its division into a large number of small onions.
  2. Cutting Donets. At the bottom of an adult onion, a cross-shaped incision is made with a depth of 0.5 cm. After that, it is necessary to hold the bulb in a dry, warm room where it will open. Then it is treated with a fungicide and planted in the ground cut up. At the site of the cut grows 8-10 small onions.

Growing hyacinth requires some effort. But with all the rules, he will delight you with bright and fragrant buds more than one spring.

How to care for hyacinth

After the protective cover is removed, the care of the plants will consist in weeding, regular watering, loosening of the soil, making supplements. It should be borne in mind that hyacinths are poorly related to the neighborhood of weeds. When the buds start to tie and the flowering time comes, fertilizing the soil becomes especially relevant. After sprouting sprouts, flowers can be fed with saltpeter (25-30 g per 1 m²).

The second stage of fertilizer follows the period when the buds are picking up color. Now, in addition to ammonium nitrate, you can add potassium chloride (25 g) and a phosphorus additive (for example, superphosphate, 35 g). At the end of flowering, superphosphate and potassium chloride are added to the plot - 35 g of each product per 1 m² of area. Fertilizers are cultivated between the rows or between the flowers; after adding fertilizing, watering is always necessary.

Hyacinths - how to care after flowering? Unfortunately, this beautiful period is swift, after drying the flowers should continue to saturate the roots with moisture. In order for the tubers to recover well after flowering, watering and fertilizer should come first. If you live in a “cold” region, you cannot leave hyacinths for the winter, you have to dig them up - these are necessary measures for further favorable formation of kidney replacement.

If you live in the Kuban, in the Crimea, in the north of the Caucasus, then the annual excavation of tubers can be avoided, but only on the condition of a very hot summer. It should be borne in mind that the bulbs left in the ground for the next year will give much less flowers.

From my experience I can share this observation: I accidentally dug up several bulbs of hyacinths, forgetting that they grew from me in this place. I did not begin to drift, because I urgently needed to plant a rose seedling. And forgot about them, leaving to lie on the porch. Stumbled upon them only in the fall. Planted. And in the spring I was surprised by large flower stalks, abundantly dotted with flowers, which crawled out of the ground at this very place. Other hyacinths also bloomed, but their flowering was much more modest, about the same as in the photo below.

Hyacinths have not been transplanted for a long time (photo by Anna Nepetrovskaya, Novokubansk, Krasnodar Territory) ↑ to content

Cutting Hyacinth Tuber

Even when landing on the site is determined by the place where the largest bulbs are planted. After the leaves turn yellow in the plant, the tuber is removed from the ground and immediately, without letting it dry out, they arrange a “shower” under strong pressure of water. During this process, old scales are removed along with the soil. Then the bulbs are laid out in one layer in a ventilated box, put into a shaded place, dried for about 7-10 days. After this time, using a sharp knife on the bottom, a wedge-shaped cut is made, at which the kidney and the bottom itself are completely removed. The cut must be processed with crushed activated carbon.

After this operation, the tubers spread in a container, the bottom of which is carpeted with a layer of perlite. Bulbs should be laid cut bottom up. Next, the container is placed in a large plastic bag (garbage bags can be used) to create the required microclimate. At a temperature of + 30 ° C and high humidity, children will appear at the cut-off site, and after 2-3 months they will reach about 1 cm, acquire rudiments of roots and start small processes. If the cutting of the ground leaves was done in the first months of summer, then the tuber with the children can be planted in the soil and covered with sawdust (or peat).

If time is missed, the tubers are turned upside down, placed in a container with soil, placed in a cold (refrigerator, basement), and when spring comes, they are planted on the site.

After the hyacinths have faded, what to do next? With the onset of August, these tubers are dug up (by the time they are already covered with babies), they separate the babies. By the beginning of September, the young generation of hyacinths is buried in the soil, covered with 10 cm of a layer of mulch (sawdust, spruce, foliage, peat). At the end of the first wintering, the mulch layer is removed, but left in place after the second winter. In the third year, these hyacinths give color and delight you with a wonderful aroma.

Reproduction scales with bulbs

Large tubers (about 5-6 cm in diameter) are cut into 4 parts, after which some scales are separated from the bottom, the “wound” surface is treated with crushed activated charcoal. Further, a container is taken, at the bottom of which perlite or clean sand is poured, it is also possible to use crushed charcoal with ash. Broken scales are put into this container, then it is placed in a transparent plastic bag, securely tied and aged for 2 months in case of not too bright lighting.

At the same time, the air temperature should be approximately + 19..23 ° С, but at the second stage, which lasts for a month and a half, the temperature should be reduced to + 16..19 ° С. During this period, several onions will be tied up on scales. Storage of young stock is similar to the method described in the first method.

Cutting Donets as a method of breeding hyacinth

In this procedure, the Donets is not removed, as in the first case, but is incised in a crisscross pattern. On large tubers, a pair of crosses is made, on those that are smaller, one. The damaged areas are treated with powdered activated carbon, then the bulbs are placed in a warm room for 24 hours (+ 20..22 ° C) so that the “crosses” will open. All further actions are similar to the above recommendations. With this method of stimulation of the tuber it is possible to get about 10-16 large young onions.

In order for these heralds of spring to please you with long flowering, pomp of brushes and amazing aroma, you need to make an effort. Now you know how to grow hyacinths, planting and care in the open field for which, although they are difficult, they undoubtedly are wasted time and effort.

The first flowers (photo Love White, Krasnodar)

Description: varieties and varieties of hyacinths

An amazing hyacinth flower with the most delicate coloring and captivating scent is one of the first to start blooming in the spring garden, driving gardeners crazy with its colorful and fragrant inflorescences. The rich color palette ranging from snow-white and yellowish to burgundy and resin-colored, complemented by an amazing shape of inflorescences, is amazing. No wonder that a hyacinth is called a universal plant: this flower of rain is great for planting in the ground and early forcing in greenhouses. You will learn more about how to plant and care for the plant, what methods of reproduction exist, and how picturesque hyacinths are used in landscape design!

Homeland of hyacinths - Asia Minor and Greece. Here at every step you can find a wild flowering plant. Flowers owe their popularity to Holland in many respects, where famous breeders actively cultivated them. From here come many hybrid varieties that have fallen into our country. Speaking of varieties. Information on sources varies, but, as breeders say in nature, there are at least three types of hyacinths:

  • Transcaspian (Hyacinthus transcaspicus),
  • Litvinova (Hyacinthus litwinowii),
  • Eastern (Hyacinthus orientalis), who became the ancestor of the ornamental varieties of this plant.

Flowering only once per season, hyacinths can be distinguished by the timing of flowering: garden culture can be early, medium and late flowering.

In the middle lane of our vast country, gentle hyacinths bloom early, making up a worthy company to the first tulips. Weather conditions inherent in a particular region, can shift the flowering time by 2-3 weeks, so these plants are considered very sensitive to climate and air temperature. The duration of the flowering process - from 7 to 15 days, again, taking into account whether the weather favors or not.

Planting a plant

The time recommended for planting hyacinths is autumn. If you live in the middle lane, then tune in to landing work in the first days of October, when the temperature on the soil drops to a level of 10ºС.

Important! When choosing a time to disembark, first make sure that the onion plants can take root before the onset of frost. This will increase all the chances for wintering, and next spring your garden will be filled with colorful and fragrant hyacinths. By planting flowers too early, you can never wait for the shoots: the bulbs will simply die. But too late planting threatens with the fact that the onions will not have time to form their root system, and the soil will already freeze.

When choosing a place for planting, remember that warm countries are home to a naughty hyacinth, so you should plant them on sunny and windless hillocks, preparing the soil in advance. The flower has special requirements for it: the ground must be permeable to water with a considerable content of humus. However, it is better not to resort to the use of fresh and weakly decomposed humus. If the soil is thick and clay, then it is mixed with peat and sand. On soil with increased acidity, the gardener will not be able to grow a luxurious flower bed, so this soil will have to be diluted with limestone or chalk.

Before planting, the material is carefully reviewed. It is better to get rid of soft and diseased bulbs immediately. For planting, use medium sized onions, since plants grown from them will be easier to tolerate bad weather, but larger bulbs are more suitable for forcing.

Onions of hyacinths are planted to a depth of 15-17 cm at a distance of 15 cm from each other. If the baby is shallow, then the depth and distance will have to be slightly reduced. Having completed planting work, the soil is powdered with a mulch layer (sawdust, peat, fallen leaves), and after the temperature drops to 0 ° C and the appearance of stable cold weather, it is covered with a film or other covering material, which is removed already in early spring, when the soil thaws slightly.

Fertilizer and feeding of hyacinths

The key condition for growing flowering plants is regular feeding. The first mineral dressing occurs in early spring, when sprouts begin to appear. Superphosphate, ammonium nitrate or potassium chloride can be used as fertilizers. With the formation of the first buds, the plant is fed a second time using the same fertilizers. The third time fed culture after flowering, when the hyacinth must store nutrients for the formation of renewal buds and laying axillary buds. Potash, phosphate fertilizers, as well as potassium chloride and superphosphate, previously dissolved in water, are used for top-dressing.

Tip! After applying the necessary fertilizers, the soil is carefully loosened!

Plant propagation

Usually for breeding varieties breeders use the seed method. Cultures grown in such a way will please their colorful inflorescences only after 5-7 years. Seeds sown closer to October in a container with soil mixed with humus and fine sand, and grown for 2 years in closed greenhouses.

The process of natural reproduction of flowers is extremely slow. An adult bulb can form only one to three children. If the baby is easily separated from the mother bulb, then it is grown separately, otherwise it does not break off, and thrown into the ground with the mother bulb.

The onions selected for propagation are pretreated with a solution of manganese-acid potassium (1%) and dried over the next two days.

Diseases and pests

Grown hyacinths are extremely rarely affected by pests and almost never suffer from diseases. However, if signs of pest damage were noticed (cessation of growth, curvature of flower stalks, wilt or yellowing), then the reasons may be the following:

  • contaminated material was used for planting
  • unsuitable soil (waterlogged or acidic),
  • excess mineral supplement,
  • irregular culling of onions for landing,
  • incorrect prevention,
  • violation of landing rules.

Of the diseases that hyacinth can encounter, the most common is bacterial yellow rot, which turns the onions into a slimy formation with a pungent odor. As a result of infection, the culture stops growing, and spots and stripes can form on the leaves. The diseased plant is to be removed from the flower bed, and the cleared hole is carefully treated with bleach.

Hyacinths: combination with other plants

In landscape design, fabulous hyacinths are perfectly combined with many spring bulbous plants that bloom around the same period as the hyacinth. The most organic and picturesque tandem form:

  • bright blue hyacinths and sunny daffodils,
  • blue hyacinths and white tulips,
  • orange-colored hyacinths and scarlet tulips.

Hyacinths in landscape design

Hyacinth is a universal flower, because it is successfully grown in flower beds on open ground, in flowerpots and pots on window sills. These flowering plants of the same color solution look incredibly elegant in the company of lush and short perennial crops. The garden path in a frame of well-groomed hyacinths, as well as trees and bushes decorated by them will look wonderful. Gardeners assure that hyacinths are better planted together with other plants, so that after they bloom, the soil is not empty.

What land is needed for hyacinth

Before you start planting, it is important to choose the right soil. The most suitable for the bulbous plant will be loose soil, which easily passes water. An ideal variant is obtained if such land is additionally enriched with mineral fertilizers. For this, both purchased packed product and ordinary humus, which is brought into the soil to a depth of 30 to 40 cm, are suitable. The only thing to be noticed in this case is that the soil for hyacinths with the help of mineral fertilizers should be prepared in advance, ideally , a couple of months before landing.

Hyacinth loves the sun or shade?

It is possible to grow up an unpretentious plant both on sites opened for sunshine, and in slightly pritenenny places. It is not necessary to plant the bulbs under the bushes or close to the trees, the root system of the latter can drown out the growth of flowers. The most important thing is to protect bulb plants from drafts and constant gusts of wind. It is worth paying attention to the possibility of water stagnation at the landing site. Как и любые луковичные растения, гиацинт не любит лишней влаги, постоянно мокрая луковичка может попросту сгнить. Поэтому если есть сомнения, лучше посадить цветы на небольшой возвышенности или на склоне, в таком случае вода точно просочится ниже уровня посадки и обильные погодные осадки не повредят им.

Уход за гиацинтами в саду

Когда посадка закончена, о луковицах можно забыть до начала роста. Именно когда появился молодой расточек, и начинают подкормки и поливы растения. Ammonium nitrate and superphosphate are quite suitable for the first feeding. You can simply spill the substance in the indicated dose on the package, and then, loosening the ground with garden sap, pour the soil.

How to water hyacinths in the garden

After planting, the question may immediately arise: how often water the hyacinth? At home, everything is clear: it is enough just to ensure that the soil does not dry out and water the pot from time to time to the top with settled water at room temperature. In the garden, the process, frequency and temperature of water for irrigation regulate precipitation. If there is no rain, all that remains is to prevent the land from completely drying, especially during the flowering period, otherwise the bulb may simply drop inflorescences from a lack of moisture, and the plant, which could please the eye for a long time, will hibernate until next year.

When the plant is completely ottsvelo and only onion remains in the earth, it is not necessary to water it at all, it should lie at rest before transplanting.

If it is decided to transfer one of the plants from the dacha to a favorite window sill, it is better to pre-place the dug bulb in a glass of water. She certainly shouldn’t swim there, it’s worth picking up a glass by size, germinating a hyacinth goes the same way as a normal onion at home. When the green bore appeared, the flower can already be planted in a full pot with earth. Of course, it is better if it is specially selected purchase soil.

How to care for hyacinths in the garden

Do not forget about mineral fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium sulphate), which are best used at the beginning of the formation of hyacinth buds. This can be done either by scattering the substance (in a dry form), or during the irrigation process, diluted in water. Already in the flowering period, so-called micronutrients will be suitable for fertilizing, such as: boric acid and zinc sulfate, for example.

How to plant hyacinths in the spring in the garden

Despite the fact that the hyacinth is considered to be primrose, its charming flowering can be admired later. To do this, the bulbs in the open ground planted in the spring. If this season is chosen for planting, then before starting the process, it is recommended to place the flower bulbs for an hour in the refrigerator, or rather, the freezer. This method of planting growers called stratification. Thus, fraudulent conditions are created to imitate the “winter cold”. The main thing is to do everything with the mind, do not frost the bulb for too long, otherwise it will freeze, and you can not wait for flowering. When planting hyacinths in the open ground in the spring prompts common sense and weather forecasters with a meteorological forecast. The soil must be warmed by the sunny spring rays, and the threat of frost is also unacceptable.

Ammonium nitrate and potassium will serve as fertilizer for the soil during the spring planting period. Of course, they should be used on the ground after the snow has completely melted.

To make the roots of the plant breathe, it is recommended to loosen the garden tools from time to time after spring planting.

When the beauties of the hyacinth have faded, its bulb will again require attention and care. During this period, the soil will again need to be treated with superphosphate and potassium sulfate. The faded flower itself can be cut higher, allowing the plant to wither in a natural way. It is not recommended to leave the bulbs every year in the same place, the earth and the flower should rest from each other for 3 years. The fact is that the soil can accumulate pests and various pathogens, and the handsome bulbous is sensitive enough to them.

For the year, each onion planted gives 3-4 shoots, because to breed the beautiful spring primroses is not difficult! With proper care, the bulb will again and again delight with flowering and aroma.