Norway Spruce (Picea abies Inversa) -
weeping form. Tree 6 - 8 m tall, with a narrow, unevenly developed crown. The maximum width of the crown reaches 3m. The branches and shoots hanging down, falling down, vertically-steep, the lower branches lie on the ground. The tip has a collapsing character of growth. The trunk is densely covered with boughs. Buds are dull, red-brown, surrounded by two relatively large lateral buds. The needles are thick, dark green, shiny. The annual increase in height is up to 10 cm, and in width up to 5 cm. This variety has good winter hardiness, USDA zone 3. Propagated by grafting - either on spruce or ordinary spruce. Spruce Inversa it is used as a soliter or in group plantings, in rock gardens. It is photophilous, takes out a small penumbra.
Planting and caring for spruce common inversa
Do not allow soil compaction and moisture stagnation. Place for landing should be away from groundwater. It is necessary to make a drainage layer, in the form of sand or broken brick with a thickness of 15-20 cm. If the spruce trees are planted in groups, then the distance for high spruce trees should be 2 to 3 m. The depth of the planting pit is 50-70 cm.
It is important that the root neck is at ground level. You can prepare a special soil mixture: leaf and sod land, peat, and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1. Immediately after planting, the tree should be plentifully watered with 40 - 50 liters of water. It is advisable to apply fertilizer (100-150 g of nitroammofoski, root roots 10 g per 10 liters, etc.).
They do not like dry hot weather, so during the hot season they should be watered once a week, about 10-12 liters per tree. To carry out shallow loosening (5 cm). For winter, sprinkle peat around the trunk with a thickness of 5-6 cm; after winter, peat is simply mixed with the ground, not cleaned. Ate can be planted in the winter.
About 2 times per season, fertilizer can be applied to conifers.
Usually, spruces do not need pruning, but if they form a hedge, pruning is allowed. As a rule, diseased and dry branches are removed. It is best to conduct pruning in late May - early June, when the period of active sap flow ends.
To protect the decorative forms of spruce from autumn and winter frosts, they can be covered with spruce branches.
Spruce Picea abies Inversa
This tree has received the greatest distribution and popularity among gardeners in recent times. Combining the properties inherent in other representatives of the evergreen, Invers fir has its unique and unforgettable features. In any case, at the site it will stand out among the rest of the plants and the gaze of any person will necessarily stop at it, thanks to its extraordinary crown shape. In Russia, it found its widespread use in a fairly short time, for which it took about ten years. But now this tree is known all over the world.
The crown of Invers' fir is artificially formedby tying or grafting her shoots. Therefore, the owner of this plant has the opportunity to decide how it will grow as a result. Since the tree does not have a main trunk, you need to make additional supports or choose one shoot and strengthen it.
On practice Spruce Inversa (from the English "picea abies Inversa") does not exceed 8 m in height, and on average stops at 5-6 meters. The diameter of the crown is usually from 2 meters or more. At the age of ten, spruce grows a little over half a meter tall. But since these parameters are formed artificially, the numbers may differ significantly from those given above.
- her needles are quite thick and have a slightly brilliant dark green color,
- branches and shoots hang down, resembling a weeping willow. In this case, the lower part of the branches lies directly on the ground, and the upper one has a collapsing view,
- the tree is covered with lots of boughs
- it has blunt buds, red-brown in color and next to it grow two lateral buds, rather large in size,
- cones measuring from 10 centimeters in length and about four centimeters in thickness, the color is light green and changes to gray-brown when ripe.
Propagate the plant by grafting, using spruce or spruce.
Planting and care
Spruce Inversa can be bought at a garden store or nursery. It is recommended to pokapat plant with a closed root system in pots. In this case, there is more chance for a tree to take root in a new place and it will have strong healthy roots. In this case, it will be possible not to hurry with the landing, as with an open root system, and do it when it is convenient.
It is better to plant a tree in spring, closer to the middle. Since in this segment the soil acquires the most favorable properties for planting. In the absence of such an opportunity, this can be done at another time. An important condition after planting during the week to produce regular watering.
Properties and requirements
- It easily tolerates frosts, intense heat and a small shadow, but more like places where there is a lot of sunshine. Shadow slows her growth a bit.
- Most spruce trees do not tolerate overmoistening, drought and compacted soil. Spruce Inversa is also no exception.
- From drying out the soil and maintaining a small moisture at the trunk, it is recommended to apply mulching with grass or any plants. Mulch, rotting, will fertilize the soil, which will give another beneficial effect of this method.
In about a year the tree will grow 20 cm up., and on good soil much more. Spruce tolerates salty and sandy soil. It is recommended to periodically make fertilizers and nutrients. They can be produced independently or purchased at the store.
There are various diseases in spruce, the most serious of which are fungal diseases. The fungus affects both the shoots and the needles of the plant itself. To avoid this, it is better to do prevention. And if the disease has occurred, then you need to use special drugs for treatment.
Spruce Inversa in landscape design
This type has found its use in landscape design.. As already known, having an extraordinary appearance, she can give any garden additional appeal and originality. The compactness of the plant makes it possible to use it in the smallest places in the garden and even on stone slides. It fits well in container compositions. It is used as a tapeworm, planted on a lawn in the form of an accent tree and participates in the creation of a group of ornamental plants.
It is enough to apply your imagination, diligence and ingenuity, so that the garden, the surrounding, of all those living next to each day brings joyful impressions and gives rise to new ideas for creativity.
Reproduction of spruce can be vegetative (plant parts) and generative (with the help of seeds).
Vegetative reproduction of spruce is carried out using cuttings or layering. For cuttings use lateral lignified shoots that are 1 or 2 years old. On the shoots must be a sleeping apical (apical) bud. This is important, since all conifers have a monopodial type of branching. Without this bud, even a rooted seedling will not grow in height.
The cuttings are carried out in the spring, before bud break. Shoots on which there are branches of the second order, cut with shears or a sharp knife. The optimal length of the cutting is from 6 to 10 cm.
For better rooting, the end of the stalk is dipped into the root (growth stimulator), and then planted in the substrate. Sand, fine perlite or a mixture of sand with peat (3: 1) is used as a primer.
After planting, the cuttings must be sprayed and covered with a film to preserve moisture. Humidity should be about 85%. To maintain the humidity, it is necessary to spray not saplings, but mainly film. In the evening, when the temperature drops, spraying is stopped to avoid fungal infections.
It is necessary to ensure that the temperature under the film does not rise above 20-25 degrees, otherwise the seedlings will “burn”. To avoid this, holes are made in the film for air circulation.
Cultivation and care
Adult spruce normally tolerates dry periods lasting a couple of weeks. But the cultivation of spruce dwarf varieties requires a more careful approach to watering. Low-growing varieties and varieties of spruce, young plants and seedlings, especially those transplanted in winter, do not tolerate a long absence of watering, which can lead to their death. Ate winter planting watered throughout the first season. Water spruce, avoiding the ingress of water on the needles.
In order not to cause rotting of the superficially located root system of the spruce from excess water, the soil around it is mulched with bark or pine needles, shavings or sawdust of coniferous trees. This prevents rapid loss of moisture and improves soil characteristics. Another option for preserving moisture is to cover the soil around spruce with expanded clay or other decorative stones. If mulching is not carried out, the soil around the young spruces must be loosened and weeded.
Diseases and pests
Spruce is a resistant plant, but it is also prone to disease. Pathogenic fungi can infect various parts of a plant. One of the fungal diseases of the spruce tree, which leads to browning and falling off of the needles, is shutte. A characteristic feature of the disease - dark transverse stripes on the yellowed needles.
Gray mold is a fungal infection of the spruce, which most often affects young plants or plants of dwarf forms. As a rule, the fungus occurs on the branches of plants that grow too tight or grow in the shade with high humidity.
For fungal diseases, spruce is treated with a fungicide.
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- Norway spruce
Norway spruce "Inverse" (Picea abies "Inversa") is a slow-growing coniferous evergreen tree with a weeping crown shape. The variety was discovered in 1884 by R. Smith in Shropshire (England). As such, the crown of this tree is not. Usually the height of this pendant spruce is formed artificially: by grafting or by a garter. To give this spruce a vertical position, one of the shoots is selected and tied to a support. The height of the support (or the height of the stock) will be the height of the spruce. Because of this, it can be placed even in the smallest gardens and alpine slides.
Crown shape and height: weeping form characterized by the absence of a central shoot (sometimes there are specimens with an unexpressed stem). It is often grafted onto a stem, from which height the future height depends, while the crown looks almost columnar-shaped with tight-fitting branches. A tree is up to 6–8 m tall, with a narrow, unevenly developed crown up to 2–2.5 m in diameter in old plants. The branches and shoots hanging down, falling down, vertically-steep, the lower branches lie on the ground. The tip has a collapsing character of growth. The trunk is densely covered with boughs. Gain of 15-20 centimeters per year.
Needles: buds blunt, red-brown, surrounded by two relatively large lateral buds. The needles are short, thick, dark green, shiny.
Cones: young cones are light green, as they ripen they acquire a brownish-brown hue, 10-15 centimeters in length and 3-4 centimeters thick.
Breeding: grafting on spruce or ordinary spruce.
Shine: light-requiring, but makes and penumbra.
The soil: fresh or wet, moderately rich in nutrients, sandy clay substrates, from acid to alkaline, generally undemanding. Do not allow soil compaction and moisture stagnation. Place for landing should be away from groundwater.
Root system: superficial, widely prostrate, strongly branched, deeper in the drained soil.
Watering / Moisture: irrigation is required during dry periods.
Care: It is recommended to keep the soil in the wheel circle in a wet and loose state, mulching the tree wheel.
Frost resistance: -28.9 to -34.4. This variety has good winter hardiness, USDA zone 4.
Application in landscape design: Inverse spruce is an extraordinarily beautiful, decorative coniferous plant that attracts the attention of both gardeners and gardeners. It will give originality to the garden with a single planting in a prominent place or can be used in combination with other perennial plants. Looks beautiful on an alpine hill, when its branches tent on large stones. Spruce Inversa is actively used in landscape design and can be the "highlight" of any garden. The compact form of the crown allows you to place it in small gardens, heather gardens and rock gardens, in combination with other plants - will give originality.
Story history and appearance description
This unusual fir appeared spontaneously in nature, and was discovered in 1855 by R. Smith in Shropshire (Britain). He called the unusual tree "Invert", but after a few years L. Beisner corrected an involuntary grammatical error.
The species spruce ordinary has received its slightly unusual name due to the shape of the crown. Recall that inversion in nature means a violation of order, when something goes contrary to the usual patterns, as if "upside down." When you look at the tree inverse, you immediately understand why it was so named. Short, but thick twigs do not grow up, as is the case in all spruce trees, but to the sides and down.
The result is an unusual, "weeping" crown, which has practically no main trunk. From the side, the tree resembles either a shock of hay, or a broad, diffuse figure, often as if stooping, slightly bent. The height of the "stacks" can be very different - from literally one meter to 6-8. This height is usually regulated by the gardeners themselves, which will be discussed a little lower. And the crown width is most often equal to about a quarter of the height, although for undersized specimens these parameters may even be equal.
The color of the needles of our beauty is dark green, remaining so even in winter. Needles are short but thick. The branches grow thickly, forming a dense, slightly shiny surface. Inversa grows slowly, especially in the first few years. But even in adulthood rarely increases by more than 20 cm per year. Significant growth acceleration is observed after reaching the age of 20. The shoots are initially light brown, darken with time, sometimes becoming even reddish-brown.
The most difficult and crucial part is pruning and crown formation. The fact is that the Inverse has neither a main trunk nor a central escape. Her twigs immediately begin to grow downward, leaning toward the ground. In order for the tree to rise in height, one of the shoots should be selected and guided upwards, regularly tied to an artificial support.
This escape-leader will grow as long as he is given support. The remaining branches will rush to the sides and down. Regularly pinching them, you can create a crown of the desired shape. As soon as you decide that you no longer want to grow tall, stop tying up the lead escape, and soon he will fall down like the rest of his fellows. It turns out that the gardener can vary the height of the plant at his discretion.
Note! Some gardeners are advised to trim the main shoot when they reach the desired height. This will immediately give a powerful incentive for the growth of side branches.
Speaking of pruning, it is useful to say that the lower branches eventually fall to the ground. There they are poorly ventilated, damp, and as a result they can “catch” various fungal diseases. To avoid this, they must also be cut off, not allowing to touch the ground.
This spruce is undemanding to the soil, although you should still pay attention so that they do not turn out to be swamped, as well as saline. Loves the abundance of light, but it is beautifully developed in partial shade. Shows excellent frost resistance, always gratefully responds to timely watering, but withstands drought.
Use in landscape design
Most often, Inversa is grown as a solitary plant, especially since it feels bad during thickened plantings. Being a very plastic tree, it allows you to create various figures from the crown, although it looks great in column-like form.
At the same time, this spruce is often introduced into landscape compositions as an element that attracts attention. Often used even in tiny areas, while its height is limited in accordance with the general space.