Peonies are associated with the arrival of heat, the first juicy and bright greens, incredible spring aromas. These flowers are loved and valued in many countries for their nobility and beauty; they can be found in almost all gardens. Quite rare species are also found among popular plants, for example, thin-leaf peony, with a photo and description of which we suggest to get acquainted in more detail.
Thin-leaved peony is also called narrow-leaved peony or Voronets is a grassy perennial with bright red flowers and stunningly decorative leaves. The plant belongs to the family Pionovye, is considered rare and is listed in the Red Book. In the wild, it is extremely rare, but its popularity in culture returns to fashion. At one time, in the 70s-80s, this species was very popular, and then replaced by new garden views to the background. For a long time this flower could be found only in the flowerbeds of true admirers of beautiful classical plants.
Adult shrub grows 40-60 cm in height, it develops numerous buds of 8-10 cm in diameter. Flowering begins at the same time, so the crows remind charming lush bouquets for 7-10 days. Perennial does not lose its beauty after flowering: thin fern-like leaves remain decorative.
Where to plant a plant?
In the wild, the black spawn grows in the steppes, forest-steppes, on stony slopes and on spacious meadows. And in the garden is perfect for creating natural flower beds, rock gardens and decoration of stone hills.
Sun or shade?
Thin-leaved peonies grow well both in open sunny areas and in slightly shaded ones. Preference should be given to well-lit places: light is very important for a grassy shrub. It is not scary if the plant will be in the penumbra for a short period of time, the main thing is that the peony will adorn the sun most of the day. It is unfortunately impossible to give an unequivocal answer to the question of where to plant flowers on the crows, as there are cases when the plant feels great on a shady spot and blooms profusely, and sometimes it happens the other way around. Peony sheet rather requires an integrated approach when planting and caring for him in the open field.
Description of the species
The thin-leaved peony from the Latin paeonia tenuifolia is considered an endangered species. In nature, occurs infrequently, is listed in the Red Book of Russia. In places where the flower grows from the Red Book, a special regime of nature management has been introduced: construction, plowing of lands, cattle grazing, etc. are prohibited. Scientists are trying to preserve the peony in nature with such methods.
Voronove was popular in the 60–70s of the last century. After some time, it was supplanted by numerous varieties of garden peonies, and the Voronets was undeservedly forgotten. Now paeonia tenuifolia is very much appreciated in the countries of Western Europe, the USA and Canada and is considered one of the most expensive and valuable copies. In Russia, not many flower growers are aware of the existence of this type of pions. There are many legends about the appearance of fine-leaved peony and its healing properties.
The narrow-leaved peony is a perennial wild-growing plant from the pion family. Blooms early in early May. Buds bloom at the same time and bloom for several days. The bush is lush, spreading, 40–50 cm tall, blooms profusely. The flowers are bright red or burgundy, large, 7–9 cm, have a pleasant odor and satiny sheen, bright yellow stamens are located inside.
The flowers are honey plants. The leaves are light green, dissected (similar to a fern or conifer needles). After the bush blooms, it will decorate the garden all season with its unusual leaves. Even less often in nature there is a narrow-leaved peony with full double flowers. He has a flowering period much longer, about two weeks.
The natural habitat of peony - meadows, steppes, edges, stony slopes. In nature, paeonia tenuifolia grows in the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Ukraine, Iraq, China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan.
Cultivation and care
- Peony bushes need regular watering, especially during budding. Bring at least 10 liters of water to the bush, but you can not constantly re-moisten the soil, otherwise the roots will begin to rot, the plant will die. But the dry soil will not allow the plant to develop buds and bloom profusely.
- It is necessary to loosen the soil under the bushes and remove weeds. An important stage of care - mulching. Under the bushes spread a layer of 5-10 cm from straw, grass, bark and sawdust. Mulch allows you to retain moisture, improves the composition of the soil, heals it, does not allow weeds to germinate. Mulch soil can be loosened less often.
- Transplantation is carried out in late August or early September. Bushes grow slowly, there is no need to replant them too often. The bush can grow in one place for 10–15 years. Transplanting is required if the bush has grown heavily and has stopped blooming. The first two years after transplanting need to remove small, weak buds to improve the development of the roots.
- Peonies are important fertilizing, you need to make mineral fertilizers with potassium and phosphorus, nitrogenous fertilizers need to be made carefully. Soil oversaturation with nitrogen will cause the shrub to grow green mass and stop flowering. When the foliage on the bushes wither, it is cut at the root.
- To collect the seeds leave a few shoots. Peony bushes are winter-hardy and do not require shelter, but if you have any concerns, you can put a layer of peat on top of the cut bush. It is important not to forget to remove peat in time.
Reproduction is carried out by dividing the roots or sowing seeds. Seed method is more difficult, suitable only for experienced gardeners, but it allows you to get more planting material. Seeds are taken unripe and sowed on a flower bed in the fall, until this time they can be stored in a cool place (refrigerator, cellar). It is necessary to care for young shoots as well as for an adult plant, they need watering and loosening of the soil.
Most often, reproduction is carried out by dividing the roots. For this, adults (not less than 5 years) will approach well overgrown bushes, they are divided into several parts and are seated in different places. Each root should have 2–3 live buds. If the soil is selected correctly, the first two years the bushes do not require additional feeding.
The plant is resistant to diseases and pests, but with improper care problems can arise.
- Sometimes shoots and buds can be damaged by spring frosts.
- Also in early spring, germinating shoots are affected by gray mold, powdery mildew or aphids, and young buds eat caterpillars and ants.
- The roots may rot, if the soil is constantly wetted, or drainage has not been done during planting.
It is necessary to process the plant in a timely manner in order to prevent the disease if it is not possible to secure the bushes in advance, will have to deal with the problems.
Useful properties of the plant
Voronet is considered a poisonous plant, but has useful properties, it is used for the production of medicinal substances. For their preparation use the roots, buds or leaves.
Marc is used to produce analgesics and antispasmodics that help with:
- kidney disease
- lung diseases
- of cardio-vascular system.
The plant contains tannins, vitamin C and healthy oils.
If the crow is used to create tinctures at home, you need to be very careful not to exceed the dosage of substances.
Variants of use for garden decoration
In the garden, peony prefers to grow on well drained, fertile neutral or moderately alkaline soil. It is better to choose a well-lit place without drafts, but the bushes can grow and develop in partial shade.
- Thin-leaved peony looks unusual among the stones and goes well with wild meadow flowers, cereals and herbs. Shrubs are ideal for decorating the garden in an ecological style.
- Peony narrow-leaved semi-double varieties planted in mixborders, decorating garden paths. Bright "hats" of flowers look harmoniously next to the bushes of Chubushnik, jasmine. Peony narrow-leaved suitable for long flower beds - rabatok, borders.
- Large peonies not only decorate the dacha, they are also grown for cutting and decorating gift baskets.
At observance of all the rules of planting and care, the thin-leaf peony will delight the owners of the site with its unusual look for a long time.
Preparation before planting in open ground
If you want to admire the narrow-leaved peonies not only in the photo, but also in your own garden, you should take care of purchasing quality planting material. Find viable seedlings can be in nurseries or from trusted vendors. Be sure to check the tubers for any damage - rot, fungal infections, cuts.
Choose a site for landing
Since the thin-leaved peony is characterized by a short flowering period, choosing the right place for its planting allows you to extend budding. It is best if the area will be slightly shaded, with diffused light. Since the plant does not tolerate drafts, it is better to plant bushes on shelters protected from the wind.
Close proximity to trees is undesirable - planting a seedling in a tree circle will negatively affect its health. The fact is that a developed root system of trees takes all the nutrients and moisture from the ground, so often in such conditions, the crow is killed.
The narrow-leaved peony belongs to moisture-loving plants, so at this point you should also pay attention during planting. Pick up a site in the valley or provide a bush with high-quality watering - for such care, he will thank you with healthy, beautiful leaves and lush flowering.
How to prepare the soil
The peony sheet does not impose any particular requirements on the soil, but for lush flowering it is still better to plant seedlings in loamy soil with a lot of nutrients. You should also pay attention to other points:
- The reaction of the soil should be neutral or weakly alkaline. It is easy to determine by weeds - in areas with the specified soil grow quinoa, bindweed or nettle,
- This variety of peony and black soil with a high content of calcium carbonate,
- Be sure to take care of good soil drainage before planting shrubs,
- Sour soil for growing narrow-leaved peony is not suitable. If there is no possibility to pick up another place for planting, it is necessary to add lime, wood ash or mineral fertilizers (100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium sulfate) to the soil to neutralize the acidity.
Be sure to carefully prepare the site before the direct landing. To do this, the soil is dug up, all weeds are removed along with the rhizomes, large ground chests are broken until the bed is completely flattened.
How to plant a thin-leaved peony
The optimal time for planting saplings of narrow-leaved peony is the end of August or the first days of autumn. Take care in advance of preparing large pits for seedlings (about 70 cm deep and 60 cm wide). It is important to observe the distance between the holes at least 1 meter.
The technology of landing is quite simple:
- A drainage layer (10–15 cm) in the form of gravel, broken brick or small crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the pit. This will prevent the stagnation of moisture at the roots and their rotting.
- A nutritious soil is prepared (1 bucket of humus, 2 tablespoons of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of calcium sulfate) and is laid on a drainage layer of about 15 cm.
- Then, in the middle of the pit, a mound of earth, previously dug from the pit, on which the plant is placed, is poured.
- Peonies are filled with soil in such a way that the apical bud is just 6-7 cm below ground level.
- If you are planting delenki, be sure to treat the cut sites with wood ash to prevent rotting of the tissues.
The final stage of planting - the construction of a small slide around seedlings and mulching the soil with humus or peat.
Care for peony sheet in open ground
Although a narrow-leaved peony cannot be called a capricious plant, it does require minimal care and attention. Proper cultivation ensures that the plant will retain its decorative effect and will delight with bright spectacular flowers from year to year.
- Watering is carried out as the top layer of the soil dries, but it is not worth admitting the formation of a crust. On average, it is necessary to moisten the soil in drought 3-4 times a week. The amount of water for irrigation should not be large - observe moderation so that the root system does not suffer from stagnant moisture,
- Loosening the soil is necessary for good aeration of the root system, and this manipulation is carried out carefully. It is recommended to bury the tool no more than 5-7 cm near the bush, and at a distance of 20-25 cm from the bush the depth can be increased to 10-15 cm. Be sure to loosen the soil after rains or watering,
- Mulching is an optional care measure, but it can be successfully used to control weeds and prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from the ground. As mulch it is best to use peat or humus, pouring them with a thin layer on the ground around the bush,
- Fertilization contributes to the proper development of perennial, as well as better and more abundant flowering. However, if top dressing was made to the soil directly during planting, then during the first years the seedlings will not need additional nutrition. Starting from the third year, fertilize the thin-leaved peony according to the following scheme:
- in the spring - 50 g of urea and ammonium nitrate (under a bush), saltpeter or carbide (50-60 g).
- in summer and autumn - mineral compositions with a high content of phosphorus and potassium according to the instructions on the package,
- Transplantation of fine-leaved peony is not often required - approximately 1 time in 5 years. This is due to the fact that the plant grows very slowly. It is best to perform garden work in the fall when the perennial root system is formed. In order for the bush to transfer the change of “place of residence” painlessly, remove it along with the earthy clod and move it to a new bed.
The narrow-leaved peony is a plant that is quite resistant to pests and diseases, but it can suffer from fungal diseases due to disturbed watering. There is also a risk of hitting the bushes with caterpillars or aphids at the beginning of the growing season. Excellent prophylactic agents for possible ills are ash, dolomite flour, mineral supplements with a high content of copper and calcium.
Thin-leaved peony: type description
In the natural environment, this type of pion is found in the steppe regions of southeastern Europe, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus and in the Balkan Peninsula, being a rare and therefore protected plant. In the people it is called in different ways: a crow or a funnel, a red azure, an azure flower.
The plant is a low (up to 50 cm) shrub with a short rhizome, with pineal thickenings and shoots covered with spectacular openwork leaves. They are narrow-linear (up to 2 mm), twice or triply pinnate and painted in shades of emerald green. Thanks to the leaves, the plant looks decorative all season.
In April-May, in the top of each shoot, buds of single flowers are formed with simple or double cups with a diameter of up to 8-10 cm. Corollas formed by a dozen outwardly curved petals of obovate form. The central part is decorated with numerous (up to 200 pieces) stamens with purple threads and yellow anthers.
Distinctive features of flowering narrow-leaved peonies are:
- simultaneous disclosure of most buds, which enhances the decorative flowering,
- short duration:
- simple forms bloom 1-2 weeks,
- on double-leafed peonies, buds remain fresh for at least 17 days.
In July, the bushes fall apart. In place of flowers, fruits are tied up — pubescent leaflets formed from 2-5 lightly bent and deflected plates. Inside the leaflets ripen dark brown shiny seeds.
In August, all ground honor dies. In the spring of next year, the plant forms it again.
Important nuances of growing
Narrow-leaved peonies are hardy and unpretentious, but there are several important points, ignoring which significantly reduces the decorativeness of the plant.
- Thin-leaved peonies can grow in the open sunny place and in the shade. However, to place these flowers better in the penumbra, for example, under the canopy of trees. This is due to the tendency of foliage and buds to fade.
- The plant does not tolerate acidic, and also waterlogged or with a high nitrogen content of the soil. Excess nitrogen adversely affects flowering quality and leads to early lodging of the shoots. The abundance of moisture provokes the occurrence of fungal diseases.
- Narrow-leaved peonies grow slowly and therefore do not need frequent transplants.
Planting in open ground
Peonies are planted in late August and early September.
Spring planting is carried out only when absolutely necessary.
Landing is carried out in the previously prepared recesses (60/80), placing them at a distance of about a meter.
- At the bottom of the recesses lay a layer of drainage.
- Поверх дренажа — почвенную смесь из листовой земли, перегноя и перепревшего навоза с добавлением доломитовой муки (400 гр на куст). An alternative option is to use a mixture of garden or peat land, taken in equal quantities, with any complex mineral fertilizer and ash.
- From soil mixture form a small mound, on top of which place the rhizome. On top of the roots sprinkled with garden soil. Renewal buds are left on the surface or slightly (2-3 cm) buried.
Loosening and mulching
Regular loosening and mulching helps retain soil moisture, enrich the earth with oxygen and prevent the emergence of weeds.
When growing narrow-leaved pions, the soil under the shoots is loosened carefully and shallowly, only 5-7 cm.
Mulching is carried out after irrigation using humus or peat.
In the fall, after lodging, the shoots are cut to the root. In areas with frosty and snowy winters, sprinkle with peat or foliage on top.
Seed material is purchased in the store or collected independently, tearing the fruits before they are revealed. The seeds of the black crowberry quickly lose their germination and therefore, before sowing, they are stored in the refrigerator, placed in a paper bag.
Sowing is carried out in the first half of September, in open ground, on razvodochnye beds, choosing areas with a light loose soil. Shoots will appear in the spring. The plants that have grown up over the summer and have grown strong by autumn are transplanted to a permanent place. Flowering will begin at 4 or 5 year.
Seed propagation is quite laborious and time consuming, therefore it is used infrequently.
Vegetative pion breeding method
Vegetative reproduction, carried out by dividing the rhizomes, will allow young plants to bloom in the current season.
The division is subject to adults (from 5 years) strongly overgrown bushes.
- in late August or early September, they dig a peony,
- the roots are carefully inspected, removing any deformed, rotted or suspicious areas,
- the rhizome is divided into parts (delenki), each of which should have 2-3 buds,
- Delenki planted in a new permanent place.
The method is good not only for reproduction, but also as a rejuvenating procedure.
Diseases, pests and methods of dealing with them
The thin-leaved peony is rarely affected by pests and is sick. However, the lack of care or the confluence of adverse factors (prolonged rainy weather) provoke the occurrence of fungal diseases.
At the beginning of the growing season there is a risk of being affected by caterpillars. For the prevention of their appearance in spring, the soil under the plant is mulched using ash or dolomite flour.
Voronets belongs to those plants that prefer fertile soil nutrient neutral alkaline. The soil on which the shrub planting is supposed to be must be well drained.
Planting and breeding peony
The narrow-leaved peony simply multiplies both by seed and by dividing the bush. The main thing is to choose the right time and place for planting perennials, given the moment that without a transplant a plant can grow for quite a long time.
It is best to collect the seed boxes when they have not yet opened. Seeds should be wrapped in paper and refrigerated until planting. Planting material quickly loses germinationtherefore, it is not worth tightening. Vorontsy usually sown before winter, that is, in the middle of autumn, in light, loosened soil. Shoots will appear in early spring.
Delenki are adventitious roots that are formed in mature plants (5 years or more). Specimens of two adventitious roots, 1–1.5 cm thick and 6–7 cm long, with 3-4 developed buds, are suitable as a seedling. Plants are planted at a distance of 55-65 cm from each other. In the landing hole must be put organic fertilizer. Delenki should not be immersed in the ground too much - the kidneys should remain above the ground. Delenki planted mainly in the spring.
In late August - early September, you can repot peonies with root cuttings with a bud, that is, dividing a bush. At this time, the roots of the plant are formed. Vertical root layers are planted at a distance of 60-70 cm. This method of reproduction is used very rarely, but nonetheless has the right to exist.
We provide the right care
Narrow-leaved peony - pretty unpretentious plant, its cultivation is possible even for an inexperienced amateur gardener. The main thing - to ensure the timely implementation of simple rules for care.
It is best to prevent in advance the possible drying out of the soil around the plant by mulching it. Mulch will not only hold moisture, but also prevent the emergence of weeds. Watering is necessary for a herbaceous plant in arid weather at least 3 times a week. But the main thing is not to overdo it with water, since excessive moisture will only harm the plant. So the pions should be watered as the soil dries, but avoiding the formation of a dry peel.
In early autumn, you should feed the plant phosphate-potassium mixtures. In the spring the shrub is fertilized with saltpeter or carbamide (approximately 50-60 g for one shrub). During the growing season it is necessary to carry out mineral supplements with a high content of potassium and phosphorus.
Perennial roots are formed in the fall, so the place should be changed in the autumn. It is necessary to take into account the fact that they grow very slowly and, accordingly, do not need frequent transplants. If it became necessary to transplant the plant in spring, the shrub should be removed with an earthy clod and put in a new place - this little trick will ensure that the procedure is painless.
Major pests and diseases
Herb plant is quite strong and resistant to various diseases. But you should always remember that excessive moisture can cause fungal diseases, so you should approach the watering very thoroughly. It is recommended to pay more attention to the pion at the beginning of the vegetative period, since it is then that he is vulnerable to caterpillars and aphids. For the prevention of possible ailments, ash or dolomite flour, mineral fertilizers with a high content of potassium and copper should be regularly introduced into the soil.
Description and popular varieties
Peony, growing in natural conditions, was named Voronets. In our time, there are more than 20 representatives of grassy and shrubby peonies. Wild representatives: evading peony (Maryin root) and Wittman peony. In the Voronezh region grows steppe pion. Its graceful stem is covered with thin leaves, and in the center there is a bright flower.
Breeder labor was bred terry peony. He does not give seeds and multiplies only by dividing the root. Breeding is carried out in August, when the plant begins a period of rest. Fragments of a rhizome take root with difficulty, therefore planting material is expensive.
- The eaglet with red flowers and dissected leaves reaches a height of 60 cm.
- Airlie Scout with cherry-colored flowers and small dark green leaves.
- Tiny Tim has the correct shape of a bush and fast-blooming semi-double flowers.
Often used in the design of flowerbeds in conjunction with flax, cereals and broom shrubs. The narrow-leaved peony becomes an adornment of the alpine hills, effectively looks about stones.
Gardeners recommend creating group plantings from early and late varieties of peony, this is how flowering is ensured throughout the summer.
If you plan to plant a peony sheet with root delenki, they are bought in the garden center or agrofirma. When choosing pay attention to the quality of the material: the tuber must be elastic without signs of rot. Saplings of any kind are suitable for open ground, as the plant is resistant to frost.
Site selection and soil preparation
The black cohosh plant has a short flowering period, so you need to come to the preparation of the landing site with special attention to observe the beauty of its flowers for a longer time. It is preferable to choose a shaded area without drafts.
- The ideal place is the alpine hill in the corner of the plot.
- The plant is moisture-loving and grows well in lowland areas.
- The soil should be nutrient neutral or alkaline.
- A good place where bindweed grows, nettle and quinoa.
- It is not recommended to plant a peony near trees, as the soil under them is depleted.
It is best to plant a black cohosh in open ground at the end of August. A landing pit 70 cm deep and 60 cm wide is prepared in advance at the site. A drainage layer (broken brick, gravel) 15 cm thick is laid on its bottom, as the plant does not like stagnant water.
Then, a layer of nutrient soil mixture with a thickness of 20 cm is poured: humus (10 l), wood ash (2 tbsp), superphosphate (100 g), potassium sulfate (50 g). Over it the garden earth is filled up.
Places slices in delenok sprinkled with wood ash to prevent rotting. Then they are buried 10 cm in the soil and covered with humus.
To protect fragile seedlings they are covered with plastic bottles for a period of two years.
In the first two years, the soil near the stem of a young peony is loosened to a depth of 7 cm after rain. Thanks to this procedure, the upper layer of soil absorbs air, which delays the evaporation of moisture from the deep layers.
- Once a week, 4 buckets of water are poured under each bush.
- Abundant watering is required for the plant during budding in the spring and early summer.
- Make shallow ditches around the bushes at a distance of 10 cm and pour water into them.
- In hot weather, peonies are watered daily.
In order for the plant in the early years to gain a thick green mass, it is necessary to cut off the buds. In the third year, it will please with abundant flowering. Side pea-sized buds should also be removed.
Nitrogen in large quantities has a harmful effect on the plant: it falls and is affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, potassium and phosphorus should prevail in the dressings.
Fertilizer application instructions:
- In the third year after planting, the shrub is fed with ammonium nitrate and urea (50 g per plant).
- Complex mineral fertilizers are applied in the summer during the flowering period, in the fall they are watered with potash and phosphorus solutions.
- The amount of fertilizer for the old bush increases by 1.5 times.
- For feeding, mullein is used, but it is monitored to ensure that it does not get to the roots.
Pests and diseases
Flower petals are eaten by bronze beetles, ants and caterpillars. To scare them, the bushes are sprayed with an insecticide or an infusion of hellebore. Nematodes inhabit the roots. For the purposes of prophylaxis, vegetable tops are burned, and the soil is dug up when mineral fertilizers are applied.
- The soil around the plant is weeded and loosened in time, and in early spring they are sprayed with a fungicide. If no action is taken, the plant is affected by gray mold.
- When a brown spot appears on the leaves, the plant is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. If the bush is in a state of neglect, it is better to dig and destroy it.
- When white plaque appears on the leaf plates, the peony is sprayed with a solution containing 10 liters of water, 200 g of green soap and 20 g of copper sulfate.
In order to protect the heart-peeling peony from diseases, it must be planted away from trees and shrubs.