How much you enjoy the culture, whether you grow it in the future depends primarily on the choice of the variety. Then it remains to study the characteristics of cultivation and put knowledge into practice. All this applies to zucchini.
How to choose a grade
Kabachkov in favor of gardeners derived a great many. They differ in size, shape, color, maturation, type of growth, purpose. By these signs and try to classify our vegetable
The form derived round zucchini, cylindrical, C-shaped, pear-shaped, in the form of a barrel. The size range of different varieties is even wider: on average, from 14 cm to 70 cm in technical ripeness, weight 0.2–7.0 kg. Zucchini is one of the largest vegetables in the world. In the Guinness Book you can find specimens with a length of 1.5 m and a weight of more than 60 kg. We are also offered a wide range of colors: golden, silver, camouflage, striped, speckled, white and all shades of green. By type of growth, zucchini are bush and climbing, and in terms of ripening - early, middle and late.
Different varieties of zucchini differ primarily in appearance
Classic white-fruited zucchini
The most famous varieties:
- Gribovsky (bred in 1943),
- Dream hostess.
This species was still grown by our grandmothers. The plant forms a long crawling scourge (like a pumpkin), and white round-cylindrical fruits grow on them. Although now brought out and bush varieties. The purpose of this vegetable is universal: the famous squash caviar, stuffed zucchini, side dishes, you can keep the whole winter fresh in the apartment. Among the minuses: the fruits outgrow, the skin becomes thick and coarse, the seed chamber is large with hard formed seeds. The same thing happens during storage. If everything is clean, the pulp remains small.
Classic white-fruited zucchini
At a time when housewives grew the same white-fruited zucchini from year to year, zucchini was greeted with a bang. This species is strikingly different from the only one that exists. Zucchini is 2-3 times less than the classic zucchini, ripens literally within a week from the formation of the ovary, while the skin remains soft for a long time, and the core is dense with soft seeds that are not necessarily removed when cooking. Another advantage is a high yield with a compact plant, zucchini does not spread a whip, but grows with a bush. The downside is a good one, but not as high a fixture as the hard counterparts. The fruits during long storage rot or, on the contrary, the peel becomes so hard that you have to take up the ax. Inside, you will not find anything good: a dried seed chamber with mature seeds and a thin layer of fibrous pulp.
The main signs of zucchini: large, long, dark-green fruit with thin skin
At first, all zucchini were of bush type with large cylindrical fruits of dark green color and with a long time not coarse skin. Later, yellow, speckled, striped, white, curved appeared. The concept of zucchini blurred.
The “State Commission” believes that zucchini does not exist in nature. Natural differences are not sufficient reason for the selection of some varieties in a separate group called "zucchini".
The obvious advantages of these two types are the possibility of seed production. If you planted such zucchini and the variety you liked, you can leave it to ripen and get seeds. Every year you will have your own zucchini. But there is a nuance. If two varieties grow in the garden, or a bee flies from a neighboring squash or pumpkin, you will suddenly become a breeder. The following year green can grow out of your white zucchini, and striped green and of a completely different shape from green.
Masterpieces of World Breeding, Unusual Zucchini
Import zucchini is now in fashion, especially the Dutch selection. These varieties have a beautiful appearance and some outstanding feature. For example, Cavili on ripening terms competes with radishes. From germination to harvest the first harvest - 35-40 days. Tondo di Piacenza is also precocious, but also round. Squashes are perfect for stuffing and look spectacular on the table. Kokozelle is a classic zucchini, fruits until autumn, its flesh has a hazelnut flavor.
This squash is obtained by crossing with a pumpkin
Which grade is better
There is already a stereotype that domestic varieties are adapted to the Russian climate, fruitful, stored for a long time, and imported varieties only for early consumption, can be grown mainly in the south, they are beautiful, but tasteless. The fact that European breeders pay a lot of attention to the aesthetics of the fetus. It must have a presentation to be sold on the market. This is mainly parthenocarpic hybrids, the seeds of them are not taken, and if they mature, then your own selection, and not the Dutch or Italian.
There are squash for early consumption and winter storage among both import and domestic ones. Russian breeders also brought round (Ball, Festival, Orange) and superearly varieties (roller, superearly, etc.). The only tangible difference overseas is the high price of seeds.
Squash domestic selection Apelsinka became popular due to the unusual shape of its fruit
Zucchini is a problem-free culture, it does not get sick, it does not need pollinators and the formation of a bush. To grow, it is enough to plant a seed in the fertile land and water it. Under its large and dense tops, even weeds do not grow. Therefore, when choosing a variety, be guided only by your taste and needs.
And better buy a few varieties of different shapes, colors, ripening, manufacturers. Plant a pair of seeds and decide for yourself which one is better.
Seed preparation and planting dates
Before planting, always pay attention to the time from germination to maturity, indicated on the sachet of seeds. For example, if it is written 35–40 days, this does not mean that in 40 days you will collect the promised 10 or 20 kg. After 40 days, you are guaranteed to appear only the first squash! Fruiting itself can last 2–3 months. To have time to collect the maximum yield, and not 2-3 pieces, it is better to choose early varieties. This is especially true for regions with a short summer (Moscow region, middle belt, Ural, Siberia). Medium and late squash will also be able to grow, but through seedlings or under temporary shelter (spring and autumn). In the south of Russia, seeds of different ripening terms can be sown immediately in open ground.
Zucchini are heat-loving plants, they cease to grow at + 10⁰C, and at 0⁰C they die.
The plant of this culture is powerful, takes a lot of space in the garden. If you sow dry seeds, and even poor germination, then some or all of the seeds will not sprout, you will have a lot of empty land. Shoots of re-sowing in the middle lane and in the north will not have time to give a good harvest. To avoid such trouble, always zucchini seeds soak and germinate. Then you will be sure that the plants are alive and will definitely appear on the bed given to them..
Sprout the seeds of zucchini before sowing, otherwise there is a risk not to get seedlings
Squashes in open ground can be planted in two terms:
- When the threat of frost has passed.
- 2-3 weeks before the end of spring frosts for temporary shelters. Now actively use plastic bottles. Cut off the bottom and close each well with the top of the cork. For zucchini need big bottles, at least 5 liters.
To germinate, wrap the seeds in wet gauze or filter paper and place them in a warm place of the apartment, but not where the temperature is + 30C, and not on the battery. Experienced gardeners every day expand the seeds, check and cover again, if necessary, moisturize. They do it not out of curiosity, but for airing.
Zucchini seeds germinate on average 4–7 days. If you decide to sow in the open ground with a temporary shelter, then be sure to temper your zucchini. When the seeds swell and hatch, place them in the refrigerator (on the shelf or in the door pocket) for 1-2 days. After that, you can start sowing.
Site selection and soil preparation
Squashes have a high and thick tops, so choose a place that is sunny, dry and elevated, that is, without stagnation of rain and irrigation water. Otherwise, the fruits in the shade of their own foliage, and even in constant dampness will rot. This vegetable is often grown on compost heaps and warm beds.
Also consider the neighborhood: zucchini should not shade near growing crops, plant them on the north side of less tall plants and from the south - from shrubs, trees, buildings and fences.
The best predecessors for zucchini: peas, beans, beans, onions, garlic, early and cauliflower.
Zucchini shrubs are better to plant on the sunny side of the fence, they are so beautiful that you can make a whole composition of plants with different foliage
Add to the soil for 1 m² if it:
- clay and loamy - a bucket of humus and peat (sawdust),
- sandy and sandy - on a bucket of sod land and humus or compost.
- Chernozem - a bucket of sawdust.
In addition, regardless of the type of soil per 1 m² scatter 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and a glass of ash. In a sour soil make a glass of dolomite flour. You can dig on the bayonet of the shovel or simply plow the upper layer with a flat-cutter, chopper, rake, mixing the earth with fertilizers.
Stages planting squash in open ground
- Planting pattern: in the row and between the rows of 50–70 cm. Usually there are enough courgettes planted in one row. When planting in two rows, arrange the bushes in a staggered manner. If you decide to sow several rows, then after every two leave a distance of 1.5 m.
- Make holes 5–7 cm deep, water them and spread out the germinated seeds. Even nibbled zucchini seeds can not ascend, so put two in each well. You can arrange them away from each other. If both ascend, one can be dug up and transplanted to another place, for example, where the squash did not ascend.
- Cover the wells with soil and grumble. If the threat of frost has not yet passed, cover the holes with the halves of plastic bottles.
Squashes planted under the upper halves of 5-liter bottles
Shelter foil or plastic bottles on hot days is just as dangerous as frost at night. Squashes can be cooked. Therefore, when it is warm, twist the corks for ventilation from the bottles, bend the edges of the film.
There are many other ways to plant zucchini. Some gardeners, all germinated seeds, are first sown in one hole and covered with a film, and then seedlings are planted in the phase of one true leaf. This option resembles rassadny, but is implemented in the garden, and not on the windowsill.
Video: sowing zucchini on a bed for plastic bottles
The easiest option came up with lazy or always busy gardeners. When at the end of spring you have left free land, it’s already too lazy to dig up, or just make round holes with a diameter of 50–70 cm among the grass, add half a glass of compost or humus and half a cup of ash into them. If there is no humus, use any complex fertilizer for pumpkin. Sow zucchini in such mini-beds of 1-2 seeds. The grass can simply be cut down or ripped off so that it does not oppress young shoots. When the squash will get stronger, they themselves will drown the weeds with their power.
To make your squash grow well and give a rich harvest, you should follow the rules of watering and plant nutrition.
Before the emergence of shoots and throughout the entire cultivation, it is important to prevent the soil from drying out and the formation of a thick, air-tight crust on it. Therefore, keep the soil under the loose mulch. As the zucchini grows, increase its layer thickness from 1 to 5 cm. To understand whether it’s time to water, rake the mulch: the ground is dry - water it. Under the young plants, pour out so much that the earth is soaked by 20–30 cm. The rate for one fruiting shrub is 2–3 buckets of water heated to the sun. It is impossible to water with cold water and on the leaves (sprinkling). The fruits because of the thick shade inside the bush and without it are prone to rotting.
Zucchini was damp and rotten
Early zucchini with a short period of fruiting is not necessary to feed. Enough of that fertilizer that made when planting. Medium and late varieties, in which the period before entry into fruiting is more extended (50 days or more), can be fed in the growth phase of 3-4 leaves or before flowering. If zucchini grow slowly, and you do not fertilize the soil during planting, then fertilizing is required. Suitable infusions: mullein (1:10) or weeds (1: 5). Be sure to add 0.5 liters of ash in a bucket of infusion.
Recently, foliar dressings are very popular, because they act faster than root ones. In order to invigorate the plant, use Agricola for pumpkin crops or urea (10 g per bucket of water).
Forming a bush
Most gardeners grow bush squash, which do not need pinching. They have no shoots, but there are a lot of huge leaves. During the flowering period of each zucchini, tear off 2-3 leaves, covering the buds. When the fruit is fastened, remove 3–4 leaves each, which touch the ground, can rot, and also interfere with the ventilation from the bottom. Repeat this thinning as the bushes grow.. Be careful: the stems and foliage zucchini prickly.
Fruits are collected overgrown, then zucchini will have the strength to engage and grow new ones.
If you have grown zucchini with creeping stem, pinch his crown during budding. The harvest on the side shoots will be richer. Although many gardeners do not pinch zucchini pinch and still get a good harvest.
Zucchini harder to choose than to grow. This plant very quickly grows a bush, forms and gives fruits. When growing, only a couple of difficulties can arise: long shoots appear or do not appear at all and the fruits rot. The first is solved by germination and sowing two seeds in a well. The second - the choice of ventilated solar space and soil content under the mulch.
Zucchini is represented by two species - zucchini and white-fruited, which in turn are classified on the basis of different parameters:
- in the form of the bush - bush and half-bush,
- the shape of the fruit - oblong and round,
- maturity - early, mid-season, late-ripening.
A lot of breeders, both domestic and foreign agro-industrial complex, are working on breeding new varieties and hybrids.
Among the most famous, the following are particularly popular:
- Aeronaut - spray zucchini, which stands out in a compact size. A plant with a few lashes demonstrates high yields. Cylindrical fruits of dark green color with light specks have a creamy little sweet pulp, which is covered with a thin peel. Variety suitable for conservation.
- White - early ripening variety, which ripens in 40 days. White fruits of an oval form with juicy pulp are suitable for long storage.
- Black handsome - a variety with high yields, obliged by its name to dark green, close to black, the color of the fruit with white flesh. Vegetables are used for food and preparations for the winter season.
- Yellow fruit - spray zucchini of early ripening time, distinguished by a high content of carotene in slightly ribbed fruits of a cylindrical shape of yellow color. Excellent vegetable to create dishes from the children's diet.
- Kavili - a very early hybrid, demonstrating high productivity and a long period of fruiting, at which direct green fruits with a white flesh delicate taste develop. The hybrid is resistant to powdery mildew.
In order to obtain annual high rates at harvest, when cultivating zucchini in open ground, it is necessary to take into account a number of requirements:
- correct selection of varieties and hybrids, depending on the climatic characteristics of the region and the purpose of the vegetable,
- competent choice of place, taking into account the lighting and composition of the soil,
- crop rotation,
- organization of necessary care, including the timeliness of treatments against pests and diseases.
To grow seedlings, you must follow the instructions:
- A month before the planned date of planting seedlings on garden beds, the seeds are dipped for two days in an aqueous solution of ash, prepared at the rate of 1 tablespoon of the product per 1 liter of water.
- At this time, a light substrate with weakly alkaline reaction from peat, humus, sod land and sawdust is prepared in a ratio of 4: 2: 2: 1.
- The soil mixture is decomposed in peat pots with a diameter of up to 10 cm and watered with a weak pink manganese solution.
- Seeds are sunk into the substrate 2 cm and covered with glass.
- After the sprouts appear, the glass is removed, and the seedlings are moved to a cooler room with diffused light.
- After a weekly interval, the temperature regime is restored at the same level and is 20-22 ° C.
- Before planting in the garden, seedlings are watered with filtered water as the need arises.
Important! The method of sowing through seedlings is not suitable for those gardeners whose goal is to store fresh vegetables.
Soil and site requirements
Для выращивания кабачков подбирается территория, расположенная на солнце и защищённая от ветра, с низким уровнем залегания грунтовых вод. Культура является очень требовательной к составу почв, отдавая предпочтение плодородному грунту со слабокислой реакцией и рыхлой структурой.
Plot for squash is prepared as follows:
- Since autumn, the removal of remnants of vegetation.
- The soil is dug up to a depth of 25 cm and enriched with nutrients with a spread rate of 5 kg of compost, 20 g of potassium sulfate, 30 g of superphosphate per 1 m².
- With the arrival of spring, the soil at the site is loosened, with 15 g of ammonium nitrate per square meter being applied.
After which you can land?
Optimal vegetable predecessors are solanaceous (tomatoes, potatoes), cruciferous (cabbage, radishes), small seeds (dill, carrots) and legumes. If pumpkin plants (cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini) were cultivated at the site last season, then planting should be carried out only after a three-year interval in order to avoid a high probability of plant damage by specialized harmful organisms.
Planting of seedlings is carried out in cloudy weather according to the following algorithm:
- Planting pits are dug in a prepared area according to the 50 x 70 cm scheme, where 50 cm is the interval between specimens and 70 cm is the aisle.
- A small amount of ash with humus is placed in the recesses.
- The seedling plunges into the pit until the cotyledon leaves, after which the earth is filled, compacted and watered.
During the growth of zucchini, a three-fold feeding is carried out, which gives the plant the necessary macro- and microelements for good fruiting:
- During the period of active growth of green mass, the first feeding is carried out, which consists of 400 g of mullein and 20 g of nitroammophos, diluted in a bucket of water, with a rate of application of 1 liter of solution per bush.
- With the onset of flowering, 40 g of wood ash and 50 g of superphosphate are added, diluted in 10 liters of water with the same application rate.
- During the period of ripening, the third dressing is carried out in the form of a slurry solution with the addition of 50 g of double superphosphate and 150 g of wood ash.
Loosening and mulching
The next day after watering, loosening is carried out to provide the zucchini with a deep root system with the necessary aeration and water permeability. To reduce the time and effort on the constant loosening, you can mulch pristvolny circles.
In pumpkin representatives, the central stem is removed at the beginning of the budding stage when it reaches 1.2 m. For bush forms of zucchini, nipping is not done.
As preventive measures to prevent the development of diseases and colonization of culture by pests, preventive treatment of squash with tank mixture, which consists of a copper-containing fungicide and an insecticidal drug, is carried out. Sprayed plants 10 days after planting in open ground.
Despite the preventive measures in zucchini, manifestations of such diseases can be observed:
- Fungal diseases (powdery mildew, root, gray and top rot, anthracnose) - in case of development of the diseases, a two-stage spraying of the culture with fungicides should be immediately organized with an interval of 10-14 days. Vertex rot affects mostly young shoots.
- Bacterial diseases (bacteriosis) - with signs of the disease, plants are treated with copper-containing preparations.
Cultures are often attacked by pests such as aphid, whitefly and slugs. For effective control of the first two insect species, chemical insecticide formulations are used. However, in the case of gastropod pests, the result shows only a mechanical method.
Squashes, like pumpkins, can be stored for a long period, if you observe the following rules:
- The cut is made by shears in such a way that the long stalk remains.
- Selected fruits are placed in a dry, cool room, where it is possible to provide free air circulation.
So, it is easy to grow a low-calorie and nutritious vegetable that is suitable for cooking and preserving, given the characteristics of the culture, and to observe the complexity of care.
Zucchini (diminutive from the word "tavern" of Ukrainian origin, which means "pumpkin") - herbaceous annual plantwhich has fairly well developed roots, reaching 1.5 m in diameter. The central root of this root system can penetrate to a depth of 1.5 to 1.7 m, although most of the roots are not so deep — no deeper than 40 cm.
On the stems are five-lobed large leaves that are mounted on slightly pubescent petioles and form powerful bushes with a large number of both female and male flowers.
Vegetation period zucchini short enoughbut the plant maintains high yields. Fruits can be of almost any shade of green color, have an elongated, rounded and curved shape. In most cases, it is white, striped and yellow fruits that ripen in large quantities and rather quickly. At one site can not be planted several different varieties of this culture, because zucchini are cross-pollinated plants.
How to grow zucchini seedlings
If you want to get zucchini as soon as possible you will have to use seedling seed propagation method. Pre-sowing seed treatment should be done in the same way as when sowing the plant immediately in open ground. Most importantly, make sure that the material for growing seedlings is properly swollen and tiny sprouts appear on the seeds.
Quality zucchini care is to choose the right soil. Soils with a weak alkaline or neutral reaction, which consist of:
- 50% peat land,
- 20% of humus,
- 20% turf land,
- 10% of sawdust
If it is necessary to lower the acidity of the substrate, chalk or ash should be added to it. In stores you can buy ready-made mixture, which is called "Exo" - perfect for growing seedlings of zucchini.
The soil mixture is decomposed in pots with peat, the diameter of which is 8−10 cm. After which it must be disinfected by spilling with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or hot water. After that, the seeds are laid out in pots, buried about 2 cm into the soil, and the containers are covered with glass or transparent film. Planted zucchini seedlings for 3-4 weeks before planting in open ground.
Proper care for seedlings is in maintaining the air temperature in the range of 20−22 ° C, and after the first shoots appear, it is necessary to remove the cover from the tanks and transfer the seedlings to diffused bright light, but to a cooler place (a glazed loggia or balcony is perfect). Air temperature is very important in the care of any plant. In the daytime, it should be 15−18 ° C, and at night fall not lower than 13−15 ° C.
After about a week, you will need to restore the previous temperature, which is 20−22 ° C. This is done so that the young seedlings are not too stretched out, therefore there should be a lot of light in the room where the zucchini are grown.
Watering the seedlings as needed. For this, distilled water is used (filtered water can be used) at room temperature. It is very important to prevent the drying of the upper soil layers.
This item assumes at least two main feeding both organic and mineral fertilizers. Ten days or a week after the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to fertilize the squash with the help of a mullein solution (1:10). It is very important to pour about 50 grams of fertilizer under each bush.
You can also feed the seedlings with mineral composition. To do this, a liter of water dissolves 5−7 grams of superphosphate and 2−3 grams of urea. Such a composition is consumed about half a cup for each plant.
Next seedling feed held in about a week. To this end, one teaspoon of nitrophosphate is dissolved in a liter of water. The plant is fed at the rate of: 1 cup of fertilizer per 1 seedling. It is strictly impossible to use compounds containing chlorine for fertilizing zucchini!
To the readers question about how to dive zucchini, we answer: no way. This culture belongs to the category of those plants that are very poorly tolerated pick, which is why it is best to immediately sow them in separate containers. If there are two or three shoots in the pots, it is necessary to leave one copy in each container, and the rest should be transplanted into other pots. If you want, then this process can be considered as a picking.
Planting in open ground
It is necessary to carry out planting zucchini in open ground about a month later after the first shoots appeared. This happens, as a rule, at the beginning of June or at the end of May, when the threat of unexpected night frosts is completely bypassed.
A place for zucchini must be chosen solar on the south-west or south side, which is well protected from the sun, with low groundwater, with weak alkaline or neutral ground reaction. It is not recommended to choose areas where pumpkin plants were the precursors: pumpkin, squash, cucumber, all kinds of zucchini, etc. In such places zucchini can not be grown from three to four years, otherwise the risk of plant diseases typical diseases for pumpkin will be very high.
The best predecessors for any sort of zucchini are considered: siderata, potatoes, carrots, radishes, garlic, onions, cabbage, lettuce, parsley, tomatoes, peas. Since autumn, after the disposal of predecessors, the site is dredged about 30 cm in depth, at the same time adding 5 kg of organic matter (humus or compost), 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate to each square meter of land. It is best to loosen the soil on the site in the spring to about 10 cm in depth. It is recommended that 15 grams of ammonium acid be applied to one square meter, after which the surface should be properly leveled.
How to carry out planting
The holes for seedlings must be made at such a distance that each square meter of the plot includes not more than three plants, the distance between adjacent plants should remain in the range of 1-1.5 meters. Before planting a small amount of humus and ashes are placed in each well, mixing the fertilizer with the soil, then young plants are planted along with an earthy clod from a cup, deepening seedlings on the seed-colored leaves. After that, add the soil to the hole, thoroughly tamp it and pour it.
Planting seedlings of zucchini in the open field is necessary in cloudy, warm weather. If there are fears that cold might come back at night, then better reinsure yourself and cover each of the young plants with a plastic bottle or place metal arcs in the area and cover the seedlings with polyethylene over the arcs. Loosening of the soil at the site is carried out the next day after the seedlings were planted.
The main varieties and varieties of zucchini: a detailed description
Zucchini - herbaceous plant, flowering only one year. It has an excellent root system, reaching one and a half meters in diameter. Despite such a massive base, most of the roots are located at a depth of only half a meter. This is a large shrub with powerful five-lobed leaves.
Zucchini - fast-growing high-yielding plant with fruits of green and yellow shades. Since the culture has the ability to cross-pollinate, then several cultivars should not be grown in one area at a time.
Zucchini can be divided into two main types: zucchini and ordinary (white-fruited) zucchini. In the first case, the plant has dissected leaves, sometimes with white spots, novice gardeners taken (erroneously) for the disease - powdery mildew.
Depending on the shape of the bush zucchini can be bush and semi-duste (with a short whip). Depending on the shape of the fruit - round and oblong. According to the duration of fruit ripening, the vegetable is divided into three types: early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening.
Consider the most common varieties of zucchini:
- Aeronaut. This sort of zucchini grows up in rather small bushes with smooth, thin-skinned fruits and tender, slightly sweet pulp. Gives a rich harvest, simple enough to grow.
- Yellowy. This early ripe zucchini produces cylindrical fruits with a high content of carotene in its composition, which makes it an ideal product for baby or dietary food.
- Helena. The perfect variety ripens early. Gives smooth-edged fruits of gold color with delicate yellow flesh. Perfectly is suitable not only for preparation of various dishes, but also for conservation.
- Negro Early ripe variety, generous to the harvest of fruits almost black with greenish tender flesh. Resistant to some diseases, such as mealy dew.
- Spaghetti. A very unusual sort of zucchini, which, when boiled for half an hour as a whole, transforms into a mass of flagella, visually similar to spaghetti.
- Quand Shrub and half-shrub mid-season zucchini with pale yellow fruits. Resistant to certain types of diseases and rot.
In addition to the main varieties of zucchini hybrids were bred. Their advantage over domestic varieties in fine-grain and a small cell with seeds. In addition, the fruits of foreign hybrids can stay longer in the garden, not overripe. But if you want to use zucchini not only in freshly prepared form, but also in canned, then you should give preference to domestic varieties. Read about canning zucchini here.
To plant a plant in this way, you will need zucchini seeds. Before planting, the seeds are prepared accordingly: soak them in warm water from 1 tbsp. spoon solution of ash / potassium humate. Then the seeds need to be wrapped in a damp cloth and hold them in this form for several days at 23-25 degrees.
The most proven and reliable method of preparing seeds before planting is as follows: the seeds are alternately placed first in the refrigerator for 12-14 hours, then left in the room for about ten hours at an air temperature of about 22 degrees.
We prepare the soil long before planting in open ground - in the fall. The earth is dug up and then fertilized using compost (about 10 kg), superphosphate (10-15 grams) and a handful of wood ash. All figures are based on one square meter.
By the spring (the last decade of May), the ground must be carefully leveled and the wells should be prepared with a depth of about 10-12 cm (the distance between them should be such that it should be no more than three per square meter). We put a small handful of humus and ash in each hole, mix it with the ground, slightly moisten it and then lay the seeds - 2-3 pieces in each well five to seven centimeters deep (if the soil is light enough). Top seeds fall asleep layer of earth.
Council If several seeds germinate in a well, it is necessary to leave only one, remove all the rest from the well.
With the help of the seedling method, zucchini can be grown much faster compared to seed. But one thing should be considered: zucchini grown in this way will not be stored for a long time.
First, seed treatment is carried out (in the manner described in the first embodiment) - zucchini seeds should swell slightly. The soil for planting by the seedling method should be saturated with peat by 50%, by 20% - with humus, with the same amount of sod and 10% of sawdust. If the soil is too saturated with acids, then you can add some chalk / ash.
Small parts of the soil is decomposed into peat pots and disinfected by either hot water or a solution of potassium permanganate. After that, you can lay the seeds in the soil to a depth of about 2 cm. Above the seed pots, you must cover them with something: cellophane, glass, etc.
After the seeds germinate, you can open the pots and move them for a week in a cool room (15-17 degrees) with enough daylight. Then return back to the warm room. These actions will prevent strong sprouting.
Periodically sprouts need to be watered with a small amount of distilled water. At least once every ten days the soil with seedlings needs to be “fed up” a little. The first time use a solution of mullein (about 50 g for each pot with seedlings) or some mineral composition.
Approximately 25-30 days (by the end of spring) after the appearance of the first shoots, it is possible to plant the seedlings in open ground. The conditions are the same as when planting seeds - a sufficient distance between rows and no more than 3 plants per square meter. We also do not forget to fertilize the soil. By the next day, the soil should be slightly loosened.
In order for the zucchini to grow into a strong plant and give a rich harvest, it is necessary to carry out a number of standard procedures, such as loosening and weeding the soil, watering the plant and fighting diseases and pests.
In order for the multiplication of the vegetable to occur according to the provisional norms, it is necessary to periodically weed the beds. For the first time this is done after 7 days, after landing is carried out. When the seeds / seedlings germinate in such a way that several young leaves are formed on the sprouts, it is possible to produce hilling zucchini.
Чтобы боковые побеги росли активнее, можно прищипнуть главный стебель. Когда начнется размножение боковых корней и листья потихоньку будут смыкаться, почву можно еще раз хорошенько взрыхлить и прополоть.
Полив кабачков лучше осуществлять после заката прогретой солнцем водой. In hot weather, watering should be everyday, and when the leaves close and cover the ground, the soil can be wetted less often - a couple of times a week.
Fertilizer and zucchini feeding
In order for the zucchini to give a good harvest, it is necessary (if necessary) to help it pollinate. For this, pollen from a male flower is transferred to the female pistil (corresponding photos with a detailed description of the process can be found on the Internet). You can also use "heavy artillery" - pollinating insects. To lure them, spray the plants with honey / sugar water every day.
Zucchini is very fond of organic fertilizer, so do not regret this good. You can make a great herbal infusion for young seedlings. To do this, weeds remaining after weeding, fold into a barrel and cover with water (be sure to stir the infusion periodically). After a week of infusion, the fertilizer can be drained, mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 8 and poured over the soil. This should be done very carefully so as not to catch the shoots.
Secondary feeding must be carried out in a week (the same infusion). The third time is when the first ovaries appear. Be sure to add double superphosphate (1 tbsp.) And 250 g of wood ash to the fertilizer.
Council Before each plant feeding it is desirable to carry out its watering.
Fighting pests and diseases
Even with excellent care, zucchini sometimes suffer from diseases. Most often, this representative of the squash family affects several pests and diseases, such as slugs, whiteflies, melon aphid, powdery mildew, etc.
The whitefly is a very big problem for gardeners who grow zucchini. The main sign of their presence is white sticky discharge formed on the leaves from the bottom. This provokes the development of sooty fungi, which eventually destroy the leaves of the plant. The easiest way to get rid of the pest is to wash the leaves with water. If this does not help, then use a special insecticide.
Slugs need to be collected manually. If their number is too large, you can make a kind of bait - pour dark beer into small jars and place it on the site. Slugs will respond and "run away".
Aphid takes the sap from the plant, thereby damaging all its parts. An excellent method of dealing with it is treating the plant with a solution of soap (300 g per bucket of water).
Mealy dew damages squash leaves with a loose patina. They wither over time, and the fruits simply stop growing. At the first signs of this disease, the plant is treated with a 10% solution of fungicides.
The combination of zucchini with other plants
In no case can not be planted squash in the soil, which was previously planted by representatives of the pumpkin family (cucumber, all varieties of zucchini, pumpkin, etc.). Tomatoes, parsley, carrots, potatoes, onions, etc. can be excellent predecessors for the zucchini. The zucchini is perfectly combined with fruit and vegetable crops such as onions, beets, corn and tomatoes.
A couple of months after planting zucchini (in late summer - early autumn), you can collect the first fruits of their labor. In general, it is not worthwhile to hold ripe squash in the beds for a long time: the faster the ripe fruits are cut, the faster the new ones will grow.
We have reviewed in detail the process of planting and growing zucchini. With proper care, you are more likely to get a quality product that you will enjoy for a long time.