Growing eggplant: care when planting in open ground


In the wild, the vegetable grew many centuries ago, but appeared in Russia only in the 17-18 centuries. The usefulness of eggplant was not immediately appreciated, but wariness soon gave way to great popularity. And the ability of the product to reduce cholesterol, improve heart function and regulate the water balance in the body has played a significant role in this. For successful cultivation in the open field, you must follow the rules of care - you need to love and care for the eggplant, grow seedlings under the necessary conditions, add dressing or cover with frost.

Where can I grow eggplants in the open field

The cultivation conditions for eggplants are somewhat different from the cultivation of other vegetable crops. The main differences are as follows:

  • yield is provided only on fertile soils with a light structure,
  • even short frosts are excluded after landing,
  • the temperature minimum at which the plant slows down development is +20 degrees,
  • the length of daylight should be within 12 hours,
  • reaction to the lack of moisture - dropping the buds and ovaries.

Growing in Siberia

It is unlikely that it would be possible to grow in open ground in Siberia ordinary varieties that were cultivated exclusively in the southern countries.

Thanks to many years of work, breeders managed to produce quite a lot of hybrids that differ cold resistance and short aging times and they can be grown not only in the Kuban.

Popular varieties include Matrosik, the Nutcracker, the Violet Miracle, Robin Hood.

In the presence of strict conditions, getting a harvest of blue ones in the Urals is considered a great success. For planting selected varieties with maturity no more than 95 days. But even this factor does not guarantee success, because the whole thing is in agricultural technology. It should be aimed at accelerating growth.

Popular varieties are: Clorinda, Helios, Epic.

In the Moscow region

With the right selection of varieties and hybrids, you can plant eggplant in the suburbs and in the suburbs. Many summer residents of the Moscow Region have already managed to verify this.

Planting is done using the rassadny method in mid or late Maywhen the threat of night frosts, which may be in the spring, has passed. Among the popular varieties: Marathon runner, Kashalot, Balagur, Alekseevsky.

Terms for planting eggplant in open ground

Given the climatic features of our country, the cultivation of eggplants in open beds is carried out by seedling. Seeds need to be planted in boxes or containers. in late March. By the time the seedlings are transferred to the open ground, 3-5 leaves will be formed, the stem and the root system will be strengthened.

Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground can be planned in the second half of may. Works can be carried out only in case of establishment of night temperature. not below 15 degrees.

Experienced gardeners are not advised to hurry with the planting of seedlings, since at low temperatures it will not develop anyway, and it will completely die at frost. But while perederzhivat seedlings in a greenhouse or other room is also dangerous.

Transplant need to perform before budding. If the young shoots have already formed the ovary, the culture will be more difficult to adapt to new conditions, it will become vulnerable to any diseases.

Transplantation of seedlings to the ground must be done before the budding period.

The right choice of seeds and seedlings

Seeds before planting go through the preparatory process:

  • disinfection (soaking for 25 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, followed by rinsing),
  • processing nutrients to stimulate growth (planting material is immersed for a day in a solution that is prepared from 1 liter of water 25-28 degrees and 1 tsp. nitrophoska),
  • germination (seed moistening and keeping 1-2 days in a humid environment at a temperature of 30 degrees).

Pre-preparation may include hardening of seeds. To do this, they are placed for 2 days in a refrigerator (vegetable compartment), then kept for a day at 18 degrees, and then returned to cold place for 2 days.

After reaching young shoots of a height of 10 cm and the formation of 5-7 leaves, it is planned to transplant into open ground. 10-14 days before this, the seedlings are hardened, that is, they are daily taken out into the open air (without direct sunlight and drafts) for several hours to adapt.

Soil preparation before planting in the hole

Place under the bed is selected well litIdeally, it will be protected from winds by neighboring artisanal plants.

Negatively predecessors such as: potatoes, peppers, physalis, tomatoes affect the growing season of eggplants. It is better to choose the area on which were grown: cabbage, cucumber, onions, perennial herbs.

Eggplants respond well to the fertile soil of light structure and neutral environment. If soil acidification is present, it is necessary to enter it before planting. dolomite flour or ground lime.

Fertilizers are used as organic (rotted manure 3-4 kg per 1m2), and complex mineral substances (70 grams. Superphosphate, 50 grams. Potassium sulfate, 25 grams. Ammonium nitrate). Overdoing with nitrogen nutrition is not worth it, you can provoke the growth of foliage instead of forming ovaries.

The root system of culture grows in loose soil. If necessary, land relief is done on the beds by entering into it. peat, humus, river sand. All components or one of them are thoroughly mixed with the excavated soil and are well loosened with a rake.

Planted seedlings in the evening or in cloudy weather. The wells are arranged according to the following scheme:

  • interval between plants in a row - 25-30 cm early varieties 35-40 cm middle and late varieties
  • interrow - 55-70 cm.

Growing Eggplant

For proper cultivation of eggplant and obtaining high yields, you must follow the sequence of work. To get beautiful and healthy vegetables should be done in six simple steps:

  • Prepare the beds. Experienced growers choose the site and prepare the soil in the autumn. The soil, depending on the area of ​​residence, is different, and therefore it is necessary to apply the necessary fertilizers in advance in order to plant seedlings in the spring, suitable for growing this crop.
  • Prepare containers and soil for growing seedlings. Soil mixture can be prepared by yourself or buy ready-made in a specialized store. Peat cups can be considered the best container for growing this crop. They represent an individual capacity for each seedling and easily dissolve in the soil after planting seedlings in the ground. Thus, the plant is not injured in the process of transfer to the ground.
  • Sow seeds. For better germination, seeds can be decomposed into cotton discs and placed in warm water for a day.
  • Carry out proper care of the seedlings. It consists mainly in proper watering, weeding, timely fertilization, picking and maintaining sufficient light.
  • To plant seedlings in the ground. Seedlings are planted on the beds in a staggered manner or belt method.

Planting eggplant seedlings

Any cultivation of vegetables begins with sowing seeds for seedlings. Some growers grow eggplants, sowing seeds immediately in the greenhouse or open ground, but the most preferred method is growing seedlings.

Seeds should be sown in specially prepared soil from a mixture of turf, peat, wood ash and humus. When growing these vegetables, soil fertility is one of the most significant indicators. To avoid the incidence of plants, seed material is hardened and treated with special means.

For disinfection of seeds, a solution of potassium permanganate is used, where seeds are dropped for half an hour. The same solution must be shed and the land before sowing.

Processed and hardened seeds sown in separate boxes or cups. In cups it is necessary to make drainage holes so that excess water after watering can go outside.

When planting, the seeds are deepened into the soil by about two centimeters, watered and covered with foil. This method of planting allows you to maintain the required soil moisture, creating a greenhouse effect and creates a constant temperature. In the first week and a half, the seeds do not need light and air. The temperature in the room should not fall below 20 degrees.

How to grow seedlings

For the proper growth of this culture it is necessary to ensure:

  • Regular watering.
  • Feeding.
  • Lighting seedlings.
  • Temperature mode.

It is better to water young saplings by spraying, wetting the ground around the plants. Spraying is carried out carefully so that water does not fall on the leaves and they do not get burned. When watering from the tank, watering is performed along the edge of the cup in order not to wash out the soil and not to wash the plant out of the ground.

Young saplings of this culture need to stay in the light for about 13 hours. If young plants do not have enough daylight, then you can use ordinary lamps to illuminate the room, so as not to disturb the growth of seedlings.

In order to enhance the growth of seedlings, it is possible to feed not more than two times during the cultivation.. To do this, use a mixture organic and mineral fertilizers.

Beginner vegetable growers should remember that:

  • When the air temperature drops below 20 degrees, eggplant can stop pollination or stop the growth and ripening of fruits. When frost occurs, it is necessary to delay the planting, their vegetables usually do not survive.
  • For a good harvest should be planted vegetables in a pre-prepared soil.
  • To obtain a rich harvest should maintain the necessary moisture. During a shortage of water for a long time, the flower stalks may fall off, and in the case of the formation of fruits, they can be deformed during growth.

Planting eggplant in open ground

Planting date of seedlings depends on the selected variety. By the end of May, early ripening varieties can be planted. In mid-June, mid-ripening and late varieties of this crop are planted.

Determining the readiness of seedlings for transfer to the ground is quite simple. By this time, the bushes should grow to a height of 20 centimeters and have at least five strong developed leaves. Young bushes are subjected to pre-hardening. To this end, seedlings endure on the air for several hours in the afternoon about two weeks.

In order not to destroy all the seedlings, you should monitor the weather: if frost is expected, then it is better to postpone landing in the ground. To get healthy and strong plants from a seedling with a bountiful harvest, you should choose a warm, sunny place for planting and observe the need for moisture.

Outdoor cultivation

Seedlings transferred to the ground seventy days after sowing. It is at this time that they will have a great transplant. Transplant can be postponed just because of the cold weather and possible frosts. Usually the most favorable period for planting seedlings is the end of May and the beginning of June.

You can add humus to the soil, which will maintain the temperature during its decomposition when planting seedlings in the greenhouse. When planting seedlings in the ground care is reduced to the construction of shelters of film or paper for each bush. This will protect young plants from frost and help them to quickly adapt to new conditions.

Dig holes for seedlings should be at a distance of forty centimeters from each other, so that the bushes got enough space in the process of growth. The distance between the rows of eggplant bushes should be at least sixty centimeters. Only observance of such proportions will allow to receive well-developed bushes and good harvest.

Before planting in the ground, it is necessary to add about one hundred grams of humus to each well, wood ash near a tablespoon, and spill the wells with a solution of potassium permanganate. Seedlings are transferred to the wells along with an earthy clod, so as not to damage the root system. The seedling is lowered no deeper than 15 centimeters per well and sprinkled with earth. Seedlings on top sprinkled with dry soil.

Young vegetable growers should be aware that eggplants are not planted on the beds after tomatoes, potatoes or sweet peppers. But you can plant seedlings on the beds after beans, onions, cucumbers or cabbage. It is also not recommended to plant this crop two years in a row in one place. Choose a bed for planting It should be in a sunny, windproof place.

In order to save space on the plot, you can grow this crop together with potatoes, beans or peas.

Care culture

Enhanced eggplant care is needed only in the process of growth. Cultivation of this crop in some regions of our country is encountered with some difficulties arising among vegetable growers.

But in most cases, growing eggplants in the ground comes down to simple care, including:

  • Deep soil loosening, at least five times per season. After this procedure, the bushes must spud - this will allow to get a bountiful harvest.
  • Weeding. This method of care allows not only to remove weeds in time, but also to resist the reproduction of pests.
  • Watering. After planting seedlings, eggplants need water every three days. In the process of further growth, it is enough to water the plants every seven days. On one square meter of landings take about 12 liters of water.
  • Processing plants and soil fungicidal preparations. This is done in order to destroy fungal microflora. During the growing period, eggplants are fertilized about five times. When growing eggplant in the ground for the first time fertilized three weeks after planting. In the process of fertilizers alternate mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizers.

Timely treatment with the solutions and weeding of the beds make it possible to avoid damage to plants by pests such as spider mites, melons aphids, and medvedka.

As an additional care during the season, fertilizing with organic, phosphate and potash fertilizers is used up to four times per season. For this purpose, you can apply infusions of yeast, nettle, peel from onions or wood ash. These infusions are rich in vitamins and micronutrients, which has a beneficial effect on the growth and ripening of fruits. It is recommended to grow eggplants using these fertilizers, as many of them have a positive effect on the taste of the vegetable.

Sowing eggplant seeds

The most thermophilic vegetable of the family Solanaceae - eggplant, it does not tolerate frost, so it is mainly grown through seedlings. Fruit ripening occurs 100 days after the first shoots.

Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out during the month of March, starting with the first numbers. The sowing dates are calculated as follows: when transplanting seedlings into the ground, the ground should warm up to +18 degrees, and the seedlings should already be 55-75 days old by this time.

The soil for sowing eggplant seeds should be loose, contain sand and clay. In the spring, you can add humus to the ground.

Seeds are preliminarily heat treated in water heated to 50 degrees for 20 minutes and immediately cooled in cold water, and then must be processed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (if the seeds are not purchased) for 30 minutes. You can sprout seeds before sowing in wet gauze, so shoots appear faster.

You need to plant seeds in prepared individual pots or plastic cups with primer. Seeds are buried 1 cm in the ground, compact the soil, and cover with a film.

Growing seedlings

Eggplant seeds germinate at a temperature of 25-26 degrees for 10-15 days. At emergence of shoots remove a film from pots, and increase illumination for seedlings, air temperature can be lowered over time to 16-20 degrees (so the eggplant seedlings will not stretch, the root system will be better developed).

Eggplants do not tolerate drafts and sudden changes in temperature, they can get sick. Seedlings require regular watering, periodically feeding.

By reducing irrigation, providing sufficient illumination and a cool place to accommodate the seedlings - the sprouts will not stretch, growth will slow down a bit, the plants will be green, strong and healthy.

Eggplant dive

If, however, it was not possible to sow the seeds in separate cups, the grown eggplant seedlings swoop down. Eggplants do not tolerate a dive, so try not to damage the plants when transplanting.

Eggplants are watered the day before the picking, then carefully removed from the total container and transferred to individual pots.

Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground

When the open ground warms up fairly well (+18 degrees), eggplant seedlings are planted. This happens around the end of May - the beginning of June. Seedlings should have 5 leaves and a root up to 10 cm long (sprout age 2-2.5 months).

Eggplant planting should be sunny and protected from the wind. The best predecessors in the eggplant sector are cucumber, cabbage, carrots, garlic, onions, and peas.

Transplant seedlings carried out in the afternoon.

Перед посадкой в грунт рассаду необходимо полить теплой отстояной водой.

Расстояние между растениями не менее 40 см, а между рядами 60 см.

Рассаду высаживают следующим образом:

-- выкапывается ямка по размеру
-- ямку заливают теплой отстояной водой
- the seedling sits in the hole and sprinkled with earth to the level of the surface
- Mulch a layer of peat land.

The first 2 weeks after landing follow the ground to remain all the time wet.

Attention! Do not forget the main rule when growing seedlings - it is better not to grow than to re-grow.

Eggplant Care

Eggplants have a fragile and delicate root system, so instead of constant weeding, cover the beds with non-woven material or dry grass.

During the flowering of flowers, eggplants are sprayed with sweet water for better pollination. Do not use chemicals at this time.

High varieties of eggplants must be tied to supports.

When to water eggplants

During the period of the mass formation of fruits, eggplants need abundant watering. Watered with warm separated water with a temperature of 25-30 degrees in the evening. Water only under the root without falling into the casting. The next day after watering, remove the weeds and carefully loosen the soil around the plants and between the rows.

Form an eggplant bush

A month after flowering on the bushes fruits are formed.

To obtain a high yield of eggplants, it is necessary to carry out the pasynkovanie bushes. Break the stepsons regularly, thereby forming a bush.

A well-developed shrub should have 3 side shoots and no more than 10 ovaries.

The formation of short-growing varieties does not require much effort, remove unnecessary ovaries, which do not have time to ripen before cold weather.

The formation of tall varieties may be different:

- bush in one stem, for tall varieties growing in a mini greenhouse, or weak plants, not able to keep all their fruits. Keep the strongest stalk tied to a support
- For medium-high plants form a bush with two shoots. Extra stepchildren are removed, there are 2 strong escape for growing fruits
- with an insufficient amount of seedlings, 3 main stems are left. This method is suitable for growing at a large distance between the bushes.

Shoots without ovaries should be removed. So the bush will look naked, the sun's rays fall well on the fruit.

Plant growth is stopped by pinching the top, so the crop begins to ripen faster.

When the air temperature is high, the flowers fall off, the ovaries are not formed correctly, the fruit is with a taste of bitterness.

Feeding eggplant in open ground

During the growing season, eggplants need three single feedings: a mixture of mineral fertilizers (10 g of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate, and 3 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m 2 plot area) and manure mixtures.

The first feeding eggplant is carried out 10 days after transplanting into the ground.

The second feeding occurs 20 days after transplantation, the third after the appearance of the fruit.

After feeding do not forget to water the area.

Eggplant pests and diseases

Eggplants are subject to pest invasion when grown in open ground. Pests cause damage to plants - it is aphid, slugs, bears, thrips. It is necessary to treat the plant with phyto-farm. They love eggplants and Colorado beetles.

Eggplants are subject to various fungal and bacterial diseases. They are affected by gray rot, stolbur, mosaic, late blight.

Spray the plants with Phytosporine (harmless to humans and animals) 3-4 times per season to prevent disease.

Harvesting and storage of eggplants

The first ripe fruits can be seen in July.

Harvesting begins on the basis of such signs:

- the flesh is elastic, saturated with juice,
- seeds in the fruit are bright,
- fruit length 10 cm and above,
- different varieties have their own color of fruit (from white to purple),
- the surface becomes glossy, glitters.

Collect the eggplants in time not allowing the fruits to ripen (color dark brown, hard, not tasty fruit) every week.

Eggplants are cut from the bushes with shears or carefully pulled off with their hands together with a part of the stem.

Eggplants are not stored for a long time, so you should preserve them in the form of caviar, pickle, dry, cut into pieces.

To preserve the fruits for about a month, it is worth placing the eggplants in a dark room with a temperature not higher than 10 degrees and high humidity.

Good eggplants are stored in the refrigerator. Due to the high taste qualities, eggplants are grown all over the world, they are widely used in the preparation of various dishes, canning.

Observing the technology of growing eggplants you can achieve high yields of beautiful and healthy vegetables.

What is useful eggplant?

Eggplants contain vitamins of group B, vitamin PP, ascorbic acid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium. Minor quantities contain manganese, copper, aluminum, zinc, cobalt.

Eggplants, thanks to their pectin and targonic acids, potassium salts, contribute to the removal of cholesterol from the blood, as well as the cure of atherosclerosis. Contribute to the normalization of the liver. In terms of their calcium content, they are superior to pumpkin, carrot, onion, pepper, melon. They have a mild diuretic effect.

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Basic requirements for soil for growing eggplant

Eggplants love fertile soil. Therefore, when digging the soil in it add organic and mineral fertilizers. If the soil is fertile by itself, then only humus and mineral fertilizers are added to it. Eggplants grow well on light soil. On heavy soils compact bushes are formed, and this is not always good for the plant.

Eggplant has a very powerful root system. It is during fertilizer application that the emphasis is on potassium. With a weak development of the stems of the plant, it is necessary to increase the proportion of nitrogen twice. The rate of soil acidity is 6.5-7.2. from a lack of magnesium in the soil, the plant can develop poorly, so you need to monitor its presence in it.

Eggplant. Growing from seed

Eggplants tolerate transplantation rather poorly, as this process suffers from its root system. It is recommended to grow seedlings directly in peat pots, not subjecting them to pickling. If you still have to dive plant, then this should be done with utmost caution.

Planting seedlings eggplant in open ground

Before planting seedlings in open ground, the plot is first marked and made holes (planting grooves). At the same time, the distance between rows should be 45-50 cm, between plants directly in the row - 25-30 cm. Water from one to three liters should be poured into the prepared wells. In the moistened well immediately planted seedlings. Then the wells are covered with dry earth. This contributes to good rooting of seedlings, as well as its survival. Watering seedlings should be carried out every two to three days.

Watering eggplant

Watering the plants is best done regularly, since eggplant is a moisture-loving crop. The lack of moisture leads to the fall of the fruits and flowers of the plant, as well as to stop the development. Water eggplant should be warm water. Water temperature should be at least 20 degrees. After planting seedlings in the ground, eggplant is first watered on the fifth day. After watering is carried out once a week. If the weather is hot and dry, watering should be made more frequent. Water the plant under the root so that the stems and leaves remain dry.

Processing eggplant

Processing culture involves loosening between rows and weed control. Eggplant - thermophilic culture. Therefore, during the growing season it is necessary to carry out the frequent cultivation of row spacing. It promotes good soil warming. The process of loosening between rows for the season is repeated 4-5 times. The nature of the soil as well as weather conditions can affect the frequency of tillage. The first loosening of inter-rows should be carried out to a depth of 8-10 cm, subsequently - 10-12 cm. The quality of the soil affects the depth of loosening. In wet and dense soil, the first loosening is carried out to a depth of six to eight cm on the third day after planting, later on by 8-12 cm.

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general description

Eggplant grass can reach from 40 to 150 cm in height. Large oval leaves, rough to the touch, can be green or purple. Violet flowers are single or collected in a brush of 2–7 pieces, their diameter is 2.5–5 cm. The plant can produce up to 15 fruits.

The fruit itself is a large cylindrical berry pear-shaped or rounded, weighing up to 1 kg. Color can vary from violet to black. Decorative varieties are red, white. The surface of the eggplant is glossy, less often - matte. Gather the fruit slightly unripe, as fully ripe eggplants are rough and tasteless. Eggplant is a perennial plant by nature, but in temperate climates it is cultivated in a seedling manner as an annual.

Selection of beds

Before you start growing eggplants in the open field, you should choose the right bed.

Blue - heat-loving culture, so the place for their landing should be well lit and protected from strong winds. Eggplants do not tolerate heat: if the temperature under the scorching sun is more than 28 ° C, then you can forget about the long-awaited fruits.

The soil for blue should be fertile and retain moisture well.

Landing technology

Before you grow eggplants in the open field, you need to start growing seedlings. First you need to choose the right planting material. If the seeds were harvested on their own, then you need to be sure that they were properly stored, and if they were bought, you need to look at the expiration date, which is always indicated on the package. Seeds retain their vitality for about 3-4 years, so those who have lain longer than this period, are unlikely to give a good result.

The beginning of February is considered to be the most suitable time for planting seeds. This is due to the fact that the bush will begin to bear fruit only in 3.5–4 months. During this time, he must grow out of a small seed and become a full-fledged plant.

How to prepare seeds

Seeds must be checked for germination: they are soaked in water for a day and then laid out on a soft, wet surface. Seeds that begin to nod after 2-3 days are suitable for planting. It is advisable to wash the seeds in hot water in order to wash off the essential oil from their surface, which prevents germination. You also need to sort, removing small and deformed. Disinfect seeds with a strong solution of potassium permanganate by lowering seeds into it for 15–20 minutes. Thanks to this method there will be no infections and you will get strong, healthy seedlings. You can also treat the seeds with a growth promoter (for example, with sodium humate, wood ash, or “Ideal” fertilizer). Prepared seeds can be planted.

Sowing seedlings

Soil need to pick fertile and loose. The best composition - humus, sod land and sand, but you can also use a ready-made substrate for vegetable seedlings, bought in a special store. Tanks should be shallow and wide. Seeds are sown to a depth of 5 mm, maintaining a distance of approximately 2 cm between them. Then they are immediately sprinkled with warm, boiled or boiled water. In the future, they need to be watered regularly, maintaining a constant soil moisture.

Care rules

Seed containers should be placed in the shade, where the air temperature is about 22-25 ° C. We must not forget that the plant is thermophilic, so the temperature should not be below 15 ° C, as this leads to a lag in development. After 10–14 days, green shoots will start growing. Capacities need to be moved to a place with diffused light.

Quality lighting throughout the daylight is necessary for seedlings. If the desired level of light is not available, you can use artificial lighting. Seedlings require regular fertilizing. For this, a tablespoon of calcium nitrate is diluted with 10 liters of water and, combined with irrigation, fertilize the seedlings approximately once a week.

For more successful germination of seeds, you can cover them with a film until the emergence of seedlings, thereby creating greenhouse conditions. A month later, the sprouts should already have the first leaves, they can be transplanted into separate containers. Two months later, grow small bushes, which should be transplanted into the ground.

Planting seedlings in open ground

Eggplant planted in open ground in early June. At this time, weather suitable for saplings is established. At the selected site, dig holes to the depth of the spade bayonet, keeping a distance of 40 cm, between rows — about 60 cm. Then pour a large volume of water into each well so that it is three-quarters full. Now you can plant seedlings in a well-soaked ground, slightly compacting the ground around each seedling. To grow quality eggplants, after planting seedlings in the ground you need to follow the rules for their care.

Basic rules for watering plants

Eggplants are moody plants and require regular watering every 7–8 days. You can not use cold water from the well, as plants because of this can hurt and die. Water should stand in the sun for about a day - this temperature is optimal for irrigation. About 15 liters of water should be used for each square meter.

Soil maintenance and hilling

During the season it is necessary to handle inter-row space several times - to loosen and weed. Loosening should be carried out at a distance of 10 cm from the eggplants themselves, so as not to damage the roots. The depth of soil loosening should first be about 10 cm, and then - 12 cm. With this method, the soil warms up well, and the air goes to the roots. Four times per season, eggplants need to be spudded a little, due to which side roots will develop.

Plant nutrition

Even if the land is fertile, it is still necessary to feed eggplants. Over the entire growing season, this is done three times.

  1. Two weeks after the seedlings are planted in the ground, they are fertilized. To do this, use a mullein infusion or bird droppings and a solution of mineral fertilizers (50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of urea diluted in 10 liters of water).
  2. Next time fertilized in a month. Use the same mineral fertilizers, doubled.
  3. The third time is fed at the beginning of the fruiting period. First, the bush is poured abundantly with clean water, and then the solution is poured (70 g of urea, 80 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride are diluted in 10 liters of water). Fertilizer should be poured strictly at the root, so that it does not fall on the leaves and shoots.
We need to look at the appearance of the bush. If the leaves are rotten, and the shoots are weak, this means that there is not enough nitrogen, if the green mass is too abundant, there is a deficit of potassium.

Disease and pest treatment

The most important enemy of the blue is the Colorado potato beetle. Its larvae very quickly eat up all the green parts of the plant. It is also dangerous and spider mite, which multiplies due to the heat and low humidity. Bluefly pests include whitefly, polar bear, aphid. Slugs that gnaw shoots and leaves can also cause great harm. To protect the eggplant from parasites, the beds should be treated with insecticides, and sprinkled ashes and slaked lime in between rows. Colorado beetles and slugs need to be assembled by hand.

When to start and how to harvest

Approximately a month after the blue ones began to blossom, you can find the first ripe fruits. With the help of a garden pruner, they are cut together with the stem. Harvest must be collected before the onset of cold weather. If frosts begin, and some fruits are not yet ripe, you can carefully dig up the plant and transplant it into the greenhouse. Store ripe eggplants for a month in a cool place.

Grow eggplants - not an easy job but if you comply with all the norms of agricultural technology, then planting blue ones will not cause you any trouble and will please you with a good harvest.

Features of growing eggplant

Like any other vegetable crop, eggplants require certain conditions for growth and development.

The ambient temperature should not fall below +18 degrees.

  • The ambient temperature should not fall below +18 degrees during the growing season of the crop. Otherwise, growth stops.
  • Return frosts, significant cold spells can destroy the entire crop. In particular, they are dangerous for young seedlings, as they are the weakest and subject to any changes in the weather.
  • Light day should fluctuate within 8-12 hours. Southern varieties of light need more, because they are bred in the middle and northern regions. It is very important to control this moment, and here it is worth noting that it is the greenhouse cultivation of eggplants that simplifies the process, since it is easy to install artificial lighting in greenhouses.
  • A culture grows on any land, but the greatest harvests are always collected exclusively from plants grown on fertile and light soil.

Compliance with all these conditions, or at least most of them, can provide a gardener with maximum yield.

Where to plant eggplants?

The first thing you need to decide when growing eggplant - a place. Usually gardeners do the site planning even in winter, just scribbling on a piece of paper - this autumn simplifies the task. Баклажанам необходимо светлое и защищенное от сквозняков место, если сажаются они в открытый грунт. Для посадки в теплицу нужна просто хорошая почва.

Для посадки в теплицу нужна просто хорошая почва

Как было указано выше, баклажаны любят легкую землю, так что на суглинке и супесчаном грунте они будут произрастать без проблем. Во всех остальных случаях нужно использовать хитрые приемы.

  • If the ground is heavy, it should be diluted with humus, river sand, peat. These substances loosen the soil.
  • Sod and humus are usually added to peat land in equal proportions.
  • The sandy ground is light, but not nutritious, so eggplant is not suitable. Improving its quality indicators can add peat, sawdust and clay earth.

Fertilizer in the ground for planting eggplant must be made very carefully. Fresh manure is allowed only for autumn plowing. In the spring you can take humus or mineral tuki.

Since this crop is usually grown by the seedling method even in hot regions, it is necessary to fertilize the soil in the fall, so that during the winter it will be well frozen and mixed with fertilizers. Drip on 30 cm deep, in addition to the manure, you can add superphosphate or potassium sulphate in the granules.

Cultivation of eggplants can be carried out near a tomato, sweet and bitter pepper, but after all these crops, as well as potatoes, they are not planted. But after carrots, onions, early cabbage, peas, watermelons, they grow well.

When to plant eggplants?

The term of planting eggplant is largely dependent on the place, climate, variety.

Seed dates

  • In non-heated greenhouses, the term may fall in early May.
  • In heated greenhouses, planting is carried out already in mid-April.
  • It is worth planting in open soil in early May only in hot regions or under film.
  • Closer to the beginning of summer, without fear and without shelter construction, plant eggplants in any climatic region and in any area (greenhouse, open ground). The temperature at this time for them is more than acceptable.
  • If a gardener sows seeds in the ground, then this should be done when the topsoil warms to 15 degrees above zero.

How to prepare eggplant seedlings?

Growing eggplants in the open field, and sometimes in the greenhouse, usually begins with the harvesting of seedlings. It is prepared from the beginning of spring. It is not difficult to do it, but you need to carefully treat the sprouts, monitor their condition, so that if something happens, you can correct the situation in time.

Growing eggplant in the open field begins with the harvesting of seedlings

  1. The first thing you need to prepare seedlings - the soil. This can be a store-bought seedling mixture or specially prepared ground - humus, sand and turf in a ratio of 3: 1: 5. You can also add mineral fertilizers (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen).
  2. Before sowing, seeds are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes, and then kept in hot water (+50 degrees) for twenty minutes. After such hardening, they are placed on cotton fabric, wrapped and watered with warm water. After that, put a rag on a saucer, cover with foil and put in a warm place. After 1-2 days, the seeds will hatch, and they can be sown.
  3. Planting material is sown in single file, but not very thick. Between the rows keep a distance of 5-10 cm.
  4. When the seeds are sown, the box is covered with a film and placed in a room with a temperature of +25 degrees.
  5. When seedlings emerge, they are rearranged to a warm window-sill and the temperature is reduced to +15 in the daytime and to +13 at night for 5-7 days and then raised again to + 18 ... + 25 degrees. It is at this temperature that eggplant seedlings should be grown before transplanting into open ground.
  6. Top dressing bring 2 times. The first time a solution of superphosphate, urea and potassium salt is added (but the solution must be very weak) after the appearance of 2 leaflets. The second time feeding sprouts 2 weeks after the first feeding with the same means.
  7. 14 days before planting seedlings in open soil or greenhouse, the planted land is hardened. They need to be taken out on the balcony, the street during the day, and left the window leaf at night.

Transplantation to a permanent place is made only when the shoots will have 5 true leaves, and when they reach 10 cm in height. However, if the threat of recurrent frosts has not passed, it is worth delaying the landing before the onset of warm days.

Preparing the beds for planting eggplant

The land for growing eggplants is usually fertilized in the fall, as mentioned above, but if for some reason it was not possible to do this, the procedure is postponed to spring. 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings, they dig up the earth, adding urea, superphosphate and humus to it. The quantity depends on the quality and type of soil. Usually all the necessary proportions are indicated on the fertilizer packages.

After digging, the ground needs to be loosened, leveled, and smashed all the big bumps. This is done about 1 week before planting the culture or 2-3 days (as far as time permits).

The beds are made 30 cm high and up to 1 meter wide. Between them there should be about 30-40 cm of free space.

The beds are made 30 cm high and up to 1 meter wide. Between them there should be about 30-40 cm of free space. Thanks to such a height, the roots of the seedlings will not freeze, and the culture can develop faster. The length of the beds is allowed any - it all depends on the preferences, the needs of the gardener and the size of the site itself.

After determining the boundaries, it is necessary to level the ground once again and pour abundant fertilizer “Effecton” on it. Instead, you can use a hot solution of mullein. However, if the soil was fertilized in spring, you should not use fertilizer, because the soil will be fertile without that.

The day before the transplant procedure, the seedlings are watered as best as possible with water. Also, watering is done right before taking the sprouts out of the container (this simplifies the procedure).

Planting eggplant in open ground

The day before the transplant procedure, the seedlings are watered as best as possible.

Growing eggplant in open ground or greenhouses is carried out in the pits. In the garden pits are made with a gap of 40-50 cm. The smaller the bush is, the less distance can be made. Each hole is watered with water and in this dirt you need to plant one germ. After planting, the earth is compacted, you can immediately lay a layer of mulch (peat, chopped straw) around the seedlings.

If the gardener uses the seed method of growing eggplants, then this can be done by the lower case method and then thinned seedlings. The second option is to plant the planting material immediately at a distance of 10-20 cm and after the sprouts appear and grow, plant them 40-50 cm. Only this way you can ensure a good filling of the area set aside for culture, because many seeds will not germinate, and some germinated can wither.

How to care for eggplant?

Growing eggplants involves constant care for them. Otherwise, plants sensitive to changes in climate and conditions will wither away, and the farmers will not harvest.

  • If eggplants grow in the open field, it is worthwhile for the first time to stretch a transparent film over them or white agrofibre on wire arcs. Such a shelter is harvested around mid-June, but throughout the summer one should watch the weather and, with a significant cold snap, construct a shelter for eggplants again, even if the fruits already ripen on them.
  • To sprouts grow faster, they are often loosened. It is loosening that promotes rapid growth of eggplant in the first 14 days after planting in a permanent place. Loosening is carried out all summer, about once a week.

Growing eggplants means taking care of them.

  • Watering begins 2 weeks after transplanting into a greenhouse or open ground. After the plants have taken root, they need to be watered so that the ground is a little wet all the time. The lack of moisture can lead to the deformity of the fruit and premature wilting of plants, and, that is, a reduction in yield.
  • The first feeding is done 7-10 days after planting the seedlings. Instead of watering at this time, spraying is carried out in the evening. Urea can be added to this water, it will feed weakened sprouts. The second time fertilizing when growing eggplants do 20 days after the first, mineral fertilizers or a solution of manure (bird droppings). The third dressing comes at the beginning of fruiting, and for this you can use the same solution of bird droppings, manure or complex mineral fertilizers.
  • An important point of care is the removal of weeds, since it is through them that diseases and pests are most often transmitted to cultivated plants.
  • An additional point of care, but not the main (it can and not hold), is hilling. Thanks to hilling, eggplants develop adventitious roots from an early age, and the crop rises 1.5-2 times.

When to harvest?

Harvesting ripe fruits can be done 30 days after flowering.

Proper cultivation of eggplants in the open field or greenhouse can provide a gardener a great harvest. Harvesting ripe fruit can be done 30 days after flowering. By this time they should reach impressive sizes, become glossy, acquire the color of the rind natural for one sort or another.

If eggplants overripe, they will get a different color and their taste will deteriorate significantly. It will become more bitter, and the skin will be very rough. Eggplants are harvested by simply cutting them with a knife or shears together with the stem, although they are often simply torn off - they usually break well, like sweet peppers.