Author: Lisyeva Lily November 20, 2015 Category: Garden Plants
Plant monarda (lat. monarda) It represents a genus of perennial and annual herbs of the family Spongy or Clear, including about 20 species from North America, where they grow in the territory from Canada to Mexico. Named the flower of the monard Carl Linnaeus in honor of Nicholas Monardes, a Spanish doctor and botanist, who published a book describing the plants of America in 1574. Monardes himself called the Monarda a soulmate virgin or Canadian origan. In Europe, the monard began to grow as an essential oil culture, and by the XIX century it became widely known throughout the world under the names of bergamot, lemon mint or American lemon balm.
Planting and care for the Monardo (briefly)
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in the snow in February or in the autumn, immediately after collecting the seeds.
- Bloom: from July until the end of September.
- Lighting: bright sun or partial shade.
- The soil: light lime soils.
- Watering: frequent, but moderate, in dry weather, daily and plentiful.
- Top dressing: from mid-May to the beginning of autumn once a fortnight with liquid mullein (1:10) or complex mineral fertilizers.
- Reproduction: grafting or dividing bushes that have reached the age of three or four. Seed method can be propagated only species monard.
- Pests: aphid or weevils.
- Diseases: powdery mildew, rust, tobacco mosaic virus.
Monard flower - description
So, monarda-bergamot is a perennial or annual rhizomatous plant with straight or branched stems up to one and a half meters tall, with oblong-lanceolate straight toothed and often fragrant leaves, as well as small, fragrant two-lipped flowers of white, purple, red, yellowish color , sometimes even speckled, gathered in dense capitate or racemose inflorescences up to 6-7 cm in diameter, which are most often located on the stem one above the other. The fruit of the Monarda is a nutlet, the seeds ripening in it, remain viable for three years. At one site Monarda grown 5-7 years. Monarda attracts not only the color of flowers, but also amazing aromas. It is used as a spice in cooking, added to tea, and it is good as a honey plant.
In the southern regions, seeds of the Monarda are sown directly into the ground on the nice days of February, where they undergo natural stratification for two cold months, as a result of which friendly strong shoots appear in April, which will only be left to thin out. If there is snow on the plot, remove it, cover the plot with a film so that the earth warms, then loosen the soil, add a little sand to the upper layer and, mixing the seeds with sand in a ratio of 1: 4, sow them. On top of the seeds are also slightly covered with sand. The seeding depth should be no more than 2.5 cm. It is possible to sow in the ground in the fall, immediately after collecting the seeds, and in the spring only pick out the seedlings, then after a year the grown and mature bushes will bloom. Monarda rises very slowly.
However, most often the Monarda is grown by seedlings. In order to get Monarda seedlings by spring, it is sown in January or February in boxes with soil for vegetable crops, sealing up the seeds by 2-2.5 cm, and placed in a greenhouse, maintaining the temperature under the film not lower than 20 ºC. Shoots appear after three weeks, and after three weeks the seedlings dive into containers according to the 3x3 or 4x4 scheme in order to increase the nutritional area for them.
When to plant a monard.
Planting and caring for the monard in the open field is not difficult. Monarda prefers to grow in a sunny place protected from the wind, although he feels good in partial shade. It is not picky against soils, but it grows best on light, calcareous soils, and in the damp and acidic soil the monard develops poorly. It is best to plant Monarda in the spring, but the plot for it is prepared in autumn: they dig up, clearing weeds, and adding 2-3 kg of peat, manure or compost, 20-30 g of potash salt, 40-50 g of superphosphate for each m² and 40 grams of lime. In the spring, before planting, 20-30 g of nitrogen fertilizer is applied for each m² in the soil.
How to plant a monard.
Two months after the emergence of seedlings, when they have three pairs of leaves, seedlings are planted on the prepared area at a distance of at least 60 cm from each other. Planting Monarda ends with abundant watering. Light spring frosts to -5 ºC seedlings tolerate painlessly. Monarda blooms from seed, usually only after a year, but with the seedling method, the most developed specimens may bloom in the current year.
How to care for the monard.
Marda needs frequent, but moderate watering, especially during hot seasons, otherwise there is a danger of plant disease with powdery mildew. In the peak of the heat may need daily watering. In addition, in the hot and dry summer, it is necessary to mulch the area with monard leaf humus or peat. Loosen the soil around the monarda bushes regularly and remove the weeds. Growing monarda also provides fertilizing plants granulated Kemira or Agricola every two weeks from mid-May to early autumn. Monarda reacts well to organic matter, for example, to mullein divorced in a ratio of 1:10. As a preventive measure, in the spring and in the fall they process the monarda with basezol and copper sulphate.
Since when cultivating monarda from seeds, varietal characteristics are not preserved, it is safest to propagate the varietal, and indeed the species monarda, by dividing three to four-year bushes. It is better to do this in April, when the soil warms up well, or in early autumn. They dig up the bush, clean the roots from the ground under a stream of water, divide it into approximately equal parts, cut the sections with crushed coal, and plant the desenka in the holes prepared in advance. Be prepared for the fact that you will often have to deal with transplanting with dividing a bush, because literally in two or three years you will grow up to one meter in diameter.
Propagated by monard and cuttings with a length of 8-10 cm, which are cut from the green shoots before flowering. The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, the upper ones are shortened by a third. Then the cuttings are planted in a box with wet coarse-grained river sand, covered with agryle and placed in a dark place. Rooting occurs usually within two to three weeks. In the second half of summer, cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Pests and diseases of the Monarda.
Monarda - a plant resistant to any trouble, but with chronic water shortage, it can get powdery mildew. To avoid this, strictly observe the irrigation regime and be sure to mulch the soil in the area so that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly from the soil. Sometimes a monarda is infected with a tobacco mosaic virus or rust, a weevil may settle on it, but a developed and well-groomed monard doesn’t suffer from anything, while the aroma of the monarda and the content of essential oils in its roots scares off pests.
How and when to collect seeds of Monarda.
Seeds of Monarda ripen in nuts in late August or early September. If you have a desire to do breeding work, you can collect them and immediately sow or grow seedlings that can be planted in the ground in spring. And you can save the seeds in order to sow in a year or two, since the term of germination of seeds of monarda with proper storage is three years. We remind that the varietal monarda seeds of parental properties are not preserved, only species plants are grown in a generative way.
Preparing monarda for winter.
If you do not need seeds of monarda, leave the fruit on the bushes - in the fall they will be very useful to hungry birds. The remains of annual species of Monarda utilized, and the site is prepared for the culture, which will be grown next year. Monarda is winter-hardy for many years, it can withstand temperatures down to -25 ºC, but if you are afraid that winter will be not only cold, but also snow-free, warm the area with a thick layer of mulch or throw a spruce.
Citrus Citrus (Monarda citriodora)
- the only annual plant in the genus height from 15 to 95 cm with lanceolate leaves and inflorescences from 5-7 verticils with small light or dark lilac flowers, the leaves, flowers and stems of which contain essential oil with the same components as in basil, lemon balm and mint, and it allows you to use lemon lemonade not only as a decorative, but also as a spice-flavored plant,
Monarda punctata (Monarda punctata),
or horse mint, grown for the most part not because of the flowers, but for the beautiful, bright, salmon-colored leaves that surround the inflorescences. The plant reaches a height of 80 cm.
Perennial monarda is represented in culture by such species:
Monarda double (Monarda didyma),
growing in the wild in the Great Lakes region. It is a herbaceous perennial, reaching a height of 80 cm, with a horizontal expanding rhizome and with tetrahedral leafy upright stems. The leaves are opposite, short-petiolate, oval, dentate, pointed at the end, pubescent, green, up to 12 cm long, with reddish stipules. The flowers are small, purple or lilac, collected in dense final capitated inflorescences up to 6 cm in diameter. Large bracts leaf-shaped almost the same shade as the flowers. In culture since 1656.
Monarda fistula, or tubular (Monarda fistulosa)
grows in nature in the forests of eastern North America, in Europe it is grown for the most part as a spicy aromatic plant. It is a perennial with numerous stems, reaching a height of 65 to 120 cm, with simple toothed leaves, pubescent with fine hairs. The flowers of Monarda Dudchaty purple, small, connected in false whorls surrounded by reddish stipules and collected in spherical capitate inflorescences. Each peduncle bears from five to nine inflorescences with a diameter of 5 to 7 cm. In culture, this species since 1637. There is a dwarf form of frivolous monarda Victoria, bred in Russia.
Monarda hybrid (Monarda x hybrida)
combines forms and varieties, bred in Germany, Great Britain and the United States with the participation of the double monard and the fancy monard. These are plants up to 100 cm tall with flowers of various colors, for example:
- – purple-purple: Blaustrumpf, Blue Stocking,
- – purple: Fishee, Zinta-Zinta, Pony,
- – purple: Sunset, Prairie Glow, Cardinal,
- – red: Petit Delight, Cambridge Scarlett, Balance, Adam, Squaw, Mahogeni,
- – pink: Creitley Pink, Croftway Pink, Rose Quinn,
- – whites: Snow Maiden, Snow White, Schneevitchen,
- – maroon: Prerienaht, Burgundy Moldova,
- – lavender: Elsise Levende.
Soropopulation Panorama is a plant with a variety of colored flowers - purple, white, burgundy, pink, scarlet and crimson.
Medicinal properties of Monarda.
In parts of the Monarda, the content of essential oils, vitamins C, B1 and B2 and other biologically active elements is very high, which allows it to be widely used in homeopathy. The most valuable product of Monarda is an essential oil with a bactericidal effect of a wide spectrum, as well as reproductive, anti-stress, anti-anemic and antioxidant properties. Regular consumption of oil allows the aorta to clear atherosclerotic plaques, treats radiation sickness, flu and the common cold, strengthens the immune system and supports the body after chemotherapy. Shows the use of Monarda with otitis, cystitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and digestive disorders. Monarda helps with oral diseases, headaches, relieves foot and nail fungus. The plant is also in demand in cosmetology - it is included in creams for mature skin and in preparations for the care of oily and acne prone skin.
Not only the essential oil of Monarda is popular, but also its leaves, which are added to tea, salads and soups. Cooked from the green of the Monarda side dishes for fish and vegetable dishes.
Monarda - contraindications.
Monarda - one of the most useful plants, but with excessive use, even it can be harmful to health. Monarda is not recommended for pregnant and lactating women, children under 5 years old, and not only internal use is undesirable, but also its use as a raw material for aroma lamps.
Description: varieties and varieties of Monarda
Mona rda is an annual or perennial, essential oil, fairly tall plant cultivated in open field. The height of the tetrahedral, pubescent stem reaches from 60 cm to 1 m. The upright stem reaches a height of 60 -90 cm.
Dense green leaves (often pubescent) along serrated edges. The leaves emit a strong aroma: lemon, bergamot, mint. Monarda blooms in the second half of summer with small flowers of different colors, collected in inflorescences. Most often, the flowers of the Monarda have a characteristic red color, but there are varieties with pink, white, purple flowers.
The plant belongs to the well-known family of Labia. The unpretentious monarda reaches pomp by the 5th year of life: then one bush is able to form over 100 peduncles. Monarda is a wonderful honey plant. Resistant to diseases, an unusual plant is used to decorate garden plots, more and more often the culture is used in the design of park areas in landscape design. The plant endures the harsh Russian winters, winters without shelter or with light shelter.
Widespread varieties of perennial monarda, cultivated for many years:
For the manufacture of spicy-flavoring seasonings, varieties of dwarf monarda are grown.
Rarely found in the gardens varieties of fragrant fragrant, medium, soft, pinpoint, Bradbury, red, scattered, comb.
Breeders bred a lot of hybrid varieties of plants with the participation of Monarda double. These cultivars are successfully grown in the open field without insulation during the winter period. The variety of colors of hybrid monarda allows you to use the plant in landscape design to create compositions of tall plants.
Cultivated on the territory of our country as annuals:
- M. citrus,
- Monarda'Lambada '(hybrid),
- Horse mint (scaly dot).
Planting a plant
Planting Monarda will not cause much difficulty, subject to several conditions.
A tall plant often breaks and loses its decorativeness with constant winds. It is required to choose a place protected from the wind for the culture, but with a sufficient amount of sunlight.
Although the plant requires a bright, sunny location, planting monarda in shady places is also possible. At the same time, the appearance of the plant, the decorativeness of the inflorescences and the duration of flowering periods will not suffer, the color of the petals in this case will be even richer.
Monarda plants are able to grow well in the open field on barren soils, however, when applied fertilizers, the plant reacts violent growth and lush flowering.
Tip: When planting Monarda should choose a plot with a neutral or alkaline soil. Planting plants in acidic soil, inhibits growth, reduces ornamental flowering. If the soil at the planting site is acidic, it is necessary to first carry out liming measures.
Preparing the soil for planting monarda: it is required to dig deep beds in the fall, to make rotted manure, peat, potash and phosphate fertilizers.
Monarda - a plant resistant, care for it does not make any difficulties. On hot summer days, the bushes of plants in open ground should be watered, but moderately, without overflowing. Do not allow strong drying of the soil: watering is required to be done regularly and in a timely manner. If these rules are not followed, the monard may be affected by fungal diseases, especially powdery mildew. Timely watering - guarantees the growth of culture and decorative flowering.
To maintain the decorative properties of planting Monarda on the site, you need to update the bushes at least once every 3-4 years, while you need to change their location in the territory.
Fertilizer and fertilizing monarda
Feeding the monarda is carried out during the growing season and flowering, as well as in the fall and spring, with the growth of new shoots and the transition of the plant to a dormant period.
Spring feeding is carried out by complex mineral fertilizer by adding it directly to the soil under the plants. After 2 weeks it is useful to repeat this procedure: a mineral fertilizer is applied at the rate of 40 g per 1 m 2.
Monarda fertilizer in the autumn period is reduced to plant nutrition with potash and phosphorus compounds of prolonged action. Dry granules are slightly buried in the ground, where the fertilizer slowly dissolves and goes to the roots of the plant with water. By spring, the fertilizer accumulates in the plant and stimulates wild flowering.
During the growing season, foliar feeding of flower bushes (spraying the foliage) with mineral fertilizers and trace elements is allowed. With a significant increase in temperature in the summer, in order to save the plant from stress, the green mass is treated with a solution of epin.
Монарда: посадка и уход в открытом грунте, соблюдение несложных правил агротехники по выращиванию растения- гарантия успешного роста цветочных кустов.
Размножение многолетника допускается производить двумя способами: вегетативным и семенным. With vegetative reproduction Monarda is produced by dividing the bush and segments of rhizomes.
The bush is dug out, cut into several parts with division of the root system. Slices powdered with ash, sprinkled with charcoal. Delenki are seated in pre-prepared pits with fertile soil. The reproduction of Monarda by dividing the bush allows you to quickly get young plants that retain all the characteristics of the variety. Young plants bloom in a year.
Reproduction of flower culture seeds shown if the pollination of plants was undertaken to obtain new hybrids. Seeds are sown in special containers, in the phase 4 sheets produce a pick. The temperature for germination of seedlings is + 20 ° C. Slow growth of seedlings in the first time will more than pay off when the plants gain strength. Planted in a permanent place young plants need to periodically weed and water. Seed propagation allows you to get new varieties with an interesting color of the petals. The minus of this method is that the monarda from seeds does not bloom in the 2nd year of development.
Diseases and pests
The main disease of the Monarda stems from the unfavorable conditions in which the plant is forced to be: with dry content, excessive watering and unsuitable fertilizers, the Monarda becomes ill with powdery mildew. Growing monarda requires compliance with the full range of activities for the care of the plant.
In addition to powdery mildew, all aboveground parts of a plant can be affected by fungal diseases. One of the causative agents of the disease is Puccinia rnenthae. For the treatment of this disease using copper-containing drugs. Diseases prevent compliance with the rules of agronomic plants.
Monarda: combination with other plants
Bushes monardy look great in flower beds in gardens and squares. Tall cultures adorn the green areas of cities. Unpretentious flower requires minimal care. Monarda forms interesting combinations with decorative leafy plants, conifers and letniki. It is necessary to follow when planting, so that a tall, dimensional plant does not shade its undersized neighbors.
Separate group plantings of the Monarda are very decorative, especially when selecting harmonious colors of the petals. Pick up a combination of contrasting tones or soft tonal transitions - it all depends on the ideas of the architect when designing the territories of park zones.
Monarda in landscape design
The plant is perfect for growing in flower beds, rabatkah, lawns. When planting a perennial miksbodera, monarda is ideal for decoration backgrounds. Grasses perfectly complement the spreading bushes of Monarda. In addition, next to the monard planted: rudbeckia, perennial phlox, bells, large daisy.
Separately planted Monarda bushes adorn lawns and ridges. For registration of fences and hedges suitable tall plant could not be perfect.
Photos of various plantings of the Monarda suggest new options for the use of this decent and resistant plant, emphasizing the decorative nature of the planting area.
Monarda flowers: varieties and varieties
- larda belongs to the family of labiaceae,
- a plant that can be both a grassy annual and a tall perennial,
- has a developed root system
- stems of monarda can be upright or branched, depending on the variety variety,
- the stems are slightly velvety and tetrahedral,
- the maximum height to which the monard can grow is 1.5 meters,
- its unusual additions to the name in the form of bergamot and mint, the monard received thanks to the aroma of the leaves, which emit some varieties of plants,
- the foliage of a plant most often has a bright green color,
- maximum hardwood mass perennial reaches at the age of five,
- the flowering period usually begins in the second half of summer. Flowering buds emit a pleasant, alluring fragrance,
- Monarda flowers pink, white, purple and even with purple tones, but the traditional is red,
- the flowers of the plant are large and sometimes reach a diameter of 7 centimeters,
- inflorescences most often capitate or racemes, usually located on the stem in the shape of a pyramid,
- due to its aromatic characteristics, the Monarda is an excellent honey plant,
- the fruit of the Monarda is considered to be a box in which the seeds ripen, their average germination rate is 3 years,
- without a transplant in one place, this plant can grow for 5-7 years,
- Monarda leaves are made into teas or used as a seasoning for salads.
Perennial cultivated over the years, was divided into varieties by type:
- pigeon double
- lemon citrus.
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Dwarf lilard is usually used in cooking as a spicy-flavoring spice.
Monarda red fragrant, medium, soft, Bradbury, are much less common.
However, the works of breeders were rewarded with the result and many varieties of variety appeared Monarda double. These hybrids are less whimsical, they grow well in the open field and do not require compulsory insulation in winter.
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A variety of shades of flowering monarda makes it attractive for use in landscape design to form compositions of high-growing, flowering plants. It is combined with all types of ornamental plants.
In Russia, it is usually grown as an annual plant:
- Hybrid Monarda (Lambada),
- Citrus leopard,
- Dot monarda (Horse mint).
Watering Monarda loves frequent, but moderate. It is especially necessary for her in the hot period.
Important! If moisture is not enough, the plant can become sick with powdery mildew.
Well maintains moisture in the soil at the peak of heat mulching with peat or hardwood humus.
It is also worth controlling the process of weed growth and regularly loosen the soil around the bushes.
For the prevention of disease, the plant should be treated in the spring and autumn with a solution of foundationol:
- 10 grams of fungicide,
- a bucket of water,
- 1% solution of blue vitriol.
Fertilizer and feed monardy
Monarda fertilizer should be carried out at all stages of plant growth and development, even during the preparation for the winter season.
The most effective method of feeding the Monarda is the root. Complex mineral fertilizers are added directly to the soil at the roots of the plant. To consolidate the result, feeding up should be repeated after 2 weeks.
Tip! Mineral fertilizer is applied at the rate of 40 g per 1 m 2. You can use nitroammofosku, drugs Kemira or Agricola.
Feed the plant in the fall should be a complex:
- potassium fertilizers (40 g potassium sulfate),
- phosphorus compounds (30 g of superphosphate).
Dry granules press a little into the soil, so that the fertilizer slowly dissolves and flows to the roots with water during irrigation.
Such feed can be considered prolonged action, because when watering the granules of fertilizer will slowly dissolve, thereby prolonging the period of feed.
Since the cultivation of Monarda from seed does not preserve its varietal characteristics, the best result of reproduction will be given by the division of a 3-4 year old bush. This procedure is best carried out in April, when the surface of the soil is already warm enough or in autumn, before it has cooled too much.
For this process:
- the plant is dug up
- under the pressure of water, they wash the root from the ground,
- the bush is divided into approximately equal parts,
- cuts or damaged areas are treated with crushed coal,
- divided parts of the bush are planted in the prepared holes.
Monarda grows quickly enough, so there is a chance that in a couple of years the procedure will have to be repeated, during which time the bush can grow up to 1 meter in diameter with proper care.
- Before flowering, green shoots are cut into cuttings of 8-10 cm.
- The lower leaves are removed, and those that are on top, cut by one third.
- Planted twigs are planted in boxes in wet coarse sand.
- Cover with agryl to create a kind of greenhouse and sent to a dark place for 2-3 weeks.
- During this period, as a rule, a new root system is formed.
- Cuttings with formed roots are planted in the ground, as a rule it occurs in the second half of summer.
Plant endurance allows its use in areas with any climate. Monarda is able to please connoisseurs of beauty not only with beautiful flowers, but also with the pleasant aroma that the plant emits.
Watch the video! Monarda: planting, growing and care
Varieties and types of monradi
Lemon citrus has a size of 70-90 cm, although rare specimens can reach 100 cm in height. Stem tetrahedral erect, has branching. The leaves of the plant are oval, elongated, with teeth. Flowers of a plant can have a various color palette: these are bright red flowers, and snow-white, and rich violet, and bright pink. The inflorescences have a diameter of 6-7 cm. They grow on the stem one by one.
Double herbaceous perennial plant that reaches a size of 0.7-1.5 m. The root has a long, horizontal. The stem is tetrahedral, straight, has small hairs. The leaves are pale green with pink veins, oblong, have large teeth. The flowers are collected in capitate inflorescence, have a purple or purple hue.
Monarda bergamot The plant belongs to the family of Labia. The plant has a strong root, and resistance to all diseases and pests. It is used as a seasoning for meat, salads. Also as a flavoring for making jam and many desserts.
Mularda hybrid This name binds all hybrids of varieties double and tubular. It is a perennial, having a height of up to 100 cm. The colors of flowers can be very diverse: from white to purple. Also, the size of flowers is different: from small ones, gathered in inflorescences, to large, single. Among the varieties of this hybrid there are a large number of sub-varieties that differ in the density of flowering, leaf shade, as well as flowers.
Monarda fistrous This plant is also a perennial. It belongs to the family of yasnotkovyh. It has a large number of branched stems, whose height reaches 60-120 cm. The leaves have teeth. The flowers are purple, have the form of small balls, the diameter of which is about 6 cm.
Monarda Cambridge Scarlet
The plant is a hybrid. Perennial, reaches the size of 80-100 cm. It has a long horizontal root, straight stem. The leaves are pale green, are located opposite each other, have short petioles. The flowers have a rich red color, collected in the capitate inflorescence. All parts of the plant have a lemon-mint tart flavor. The plant is used for medicinal purposes, and as a seasoning. The variety is resistant to cold, as well as to diseases and pests.
Monarda Beauty of Cobham herbaceous perennial that has unique flowers. It belongs to the family of labia. The height of the bush varies from 700-900 cm, some specimens can reach up to 120 cm. The leaves are oblong, with pointed tips. They have a green color and a pleasant aroma. On the stem are located opposite each other in pairs. Flowers are small, have a pleasant aroma, collected in capitate inflorescences.
Monarda Pink Lace compact plant with pink, rather large flowers, gathered in capitate inflorescences. The bush is short, only 40 cm tall. The plant is compact, suitable for growing in containers. All parts of the plant have a pleasant smell. Its leaves are used to make tea.
Monarda cardinal herbaceous perennial plant. The stems are four-sided, the height of the bush is up to 150 cm. The flower can be of different shades, but they are all collected in the capitate inflorescences.
Monarda citrodera This small plant, which reaches a size of 30-35 cm, has flowers collected in a dense sultan. It has a pronounced aroma of bergamot. Used for growing in flower beds. The leaves are used as a spice.
Multiyear if you look at the plant from afar, it may seem that there are huge spiders with shaggy paws sitting on the plant. Such a plant has flowers. All parts of the plant exude an unusual flavor, so they are used as a spice. In addition, the flower looks gorgeous in bouquets.
Perennial, which has a long root, the stalks of the plant are tetrahedral, reach a height of 150 cm. The flowers are white, gathered in dense, whorled inflorescences. Used for group plantings in flowerbeds, and also looks great in bouquets.
Monarda Panorama herbaceous perennial. The plant has the shape of a bush with numerous straight stems. Differs in long and plentiful flowering. Large capitate inflorescences have a much disheveled appearance. The colors are both pale pink and deep red. Gardeners appreciate the plant not only for its beauty, but also for its healing, as well as its taste qualities. It is used to make tea. On the flowerbed looks gorgeous in group plantings.
Monarda Gadanview Scarlet reaches a height of about 100 cm, the flowers have a red tone. Used to decorate flower beds in group plantings, looks great in bouquets.
Monarda Pink Suprim the plant has the shape of a bush with a straight stem, the height of which is 70-120 cm, the stem is tetrahedral, the leaves have a pleasant smell.
Monarda Mohawk it is a perennial herbaceous, with silvery-green leaves and two violet-purple flowers. The height of the bush is about 100 cm.
Monarda diana herbaceous perennial plant with a pleasant lemon scent. Forms bushes with a diameter up to 45 cm. Small purple flowers, gathered in whorled inflorescences. Their appearance resembles a candelabra. A distinctive feature of the hybrid is a long and abundant flowering.
Monarda Mahagoni belongs to the family of yasnotkovyh. The flowers have a pleasant color and attractive shape. The plant reaches a height of 110 cm. A distinctive feature of the hybrid is its powerful stem and small dark green leaves. The flowers are bright red, have a fairly strong aroma.
Monarda Fireball perennial pretty unpretentious plants. The flowers have a dense spherical shape and an unusual wine-red shade.
Monarda planting and care in the open field
This flower grows best in the sun, but can grow in partial shade. However, in this case, its bushes will be lower, and flowering - less abundant.
You must choose a place for planting, which will be well protected from the effects of winds, as the stems can bend and twist, having lost their beauty.
On hot days it is necessary to water the monarda moderately, in no case, not allowing the overmoistening of the soil. Also, the plant does not like and over-dried soil.
To prevent the appearance of powdery mildew, it is necessary to water the plant in dry weather. If the summer is hot and dry, it is recommended to mulch the soil with peat.
Garden Bergamot is one of the varieties of Monarda. Grown when planting and care without any troubles, subject to the rules of farming. All the necessary recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
Soil for Monarda
Monarda is not particularly demanding on soils, but still prefers light calcareous fertile soils. Feels not so good on heavy, acidic and marshy soils. Can grow on poor soils, provided continuous feeding.
Soil for future flower growth is prepared in the fall. They dig up the soil, remove weeds and add compost, manure or peat in the amount of 2-3 kilograms per 1 m 2, superphosphate - 50 grams and potash salt - 30 grams.
If the soil is acidic, then you need to add 40 grams of lime per square meter. In spring, the soil is enriched with nitrogen fertilizer. Plants are planted at a distance of 60-70 centimeters between rows to provide enough free space for nutrition and growth.
Fertilizer for Monarda
Plant nutrition is carried out during the period of active growth and flowering. Also, the monard needs additional feedings during the formation of new shoots and during the transition to a period of rest.
- In spring, the plant should be fed with a complex of mineral fertilizers. 12 days later, repeat the procedure.
- In the fall, the monarda is fed with potash and phosphate compounds.
- During active growth, foliar dressing is allowed. Spraying of leaves with mineral fertilizers and microelements is performed.
- At excessively high temperatures, the plant is treated with Epin's solution.
Duck seed growing
When growing Monarda from seed, they are sown in open ground in May at a depth of 1-2 centimeters. The consumption per square meter should not exceed 0.5 grams. In order to more evenly disperse the seeds, they are mixed with sand.
Seed germination temperature is 20 degrees. First shoots of monarda grow very slowly. It is necessary to weed them constantly, preventing them from being weeded off. Young plants are transplanted, first at a distance of 10 centimeters from each other, and then by 20. Grown from seeds, monarda does not bloom in the first year.
При желании, можно в марте высеять семена для получения рассады. Взошедшие монарды, спустя две недели пикируют по схеме 3×3 сантиметра. Высаживать в открытый грунт можно только поле того как минует угроза заморозков. The distance between the plants in the same row is 30 centimeters, and between the rows is 60 centimeters. Be sure to carry out watering during planting.
Monarda healing properties and contraindications
Essential oil of Monarda is very valuable in medicinal terms, especially when it comes to fiery Monardo, although official and traditional medicine successfully use almost all species and varieties of this plant.
Practically all its zones are endowed with healing qualities - flowers, foliage, shoots. These include strengthening the immune system, toning the central nervous system, helping to improve well-being with weakness and fatigue, relieving stress, getting rid of depression.
However, the substances that make up the oil (in particular, thymol) help the body to resist aging, increase the strength of the capillary walls, stimulate the diuretic device, and promote the expansion of coronary vessels and lower blood pressure.
For a long time, Monarda has been used as a fragrant and useful spice, which improves digestive function. In summer and autumn, when canning is done, her stalks are put in jars to prevent damage to the products they contain.
Lemon lemonade is an excellent salad dressing, but for the most part, it is used as a flavoring for tea, fruit drink or kvass in order to give the drinks a thin lemon-resinous aroma.
Growing conditions required by the monards
Monarda has earned her title as an unpretentious queen of the modern garden, mainly for her ability to quickly adapt to different light conditions without losing attractive and vivid flowering. And in the sunniest areas, and where penumbra reigns, this perennial develops equally quickly, pleases with bright cold color of dense foliage and medium-sized, but original fragrant whorls with a diameter of up to 8 cm from attracting insects flowers. Even in a fairly dense penumbra, the monard forms up to 100 inflorescences per season in adulthood. But at the same time in places where the plants will be lit less than 3-4 hours a day, planting a monard is not worth it: it is shade-tolerant, but not shade-loving.
Pay attention to the wind situation on the site. At the places sold by the wind, curtains fall apart at the Monarda, the shoots are bent, and the plant itself looks sloppy. For this perennial need warm protected sites with a maximum light draft.
Selection of soil for Monarda
The soil for the Monarda is also quite easy to pick up. It does not tolerate acidic soils, marshy, overly compacted, neglected areas. For the rest, any, even not too fertile garden land will suit for it. Typical for flower beds loam and sandstone - ideal for Monarda. Avoid excessively acidic soils and better land this beauty in a neutral or alkaline soil.
Monarda is usually grown, leaving wide aisles, but rather closely having the plants themselves. The optimal distance is about 30-40 cm in a row and up to 70 cm between the rows. When planting 1 bush to the neighboring plants leave 40-50 cm. Before planting seedlings or delenok monarda, it is necessary to improve the soil. Dig the soil deep and then scatter the ready substrate for flowering crops or organic fertilizer in the form of humus and compost in an amount of about 3 kg per square meter of soil over its surface. Too acidic soil must be lime, adding 40 g of lime per square meter. Soil re-dig or fertilize the fertilizer into the ground with a rake.
Monarda Cunepodia. © Fritz Flohr Reynolds
Level the soil thoroughly, make deep planting holes in it and pour each one in to soak it in water. Only after this, plant the plants in individual pits, keeping their usual level of penetration. Immediately after planting, the duo needs several supporting irrigations with an interval of 2-3 days.
Easy care for a fancy monard
Caring for a monard is no different from caring for other garden perennials of the so-called group of unpretentious generalists. In fact, it boils down to rare watering, fertilizing and pruning before hibernation.
Watering of this plant will be needed only when the drought coincides with the period of flowering monard in July and August. If the amount of natural precipitation is insufficient, all plants on flower beds and in decorative compositions suffer from a lack of moisture, then the monard will not give up on deep supporting irrigation. Saturate the soil with water to a depth of about 20-30 cm. Drought in the rest of the year the monard is not afraid, and during the flowering it will not die from it. But the beauty of inflorescences the absence of compensating irrigation will have an impact, and the absence of comfortable humidity will reduce the resistance of powdery mildew to the monard.
Monarda double. © Patrick Standish
In order for the monard to be pleased not only with the endurance and beauty of greenery, but also with bright flowering, starting from the second year of cultivation (and on poor soils from the first), two additional feeding is necessary for this crop:
- The first is carried out in early spring or a month after planting. For plants, you must make 1 tbsp. complex mineral fertilizer (preferably nitrophoska) or a portion of any fertilizer for flowering plants in 10 liters of water. This mixture is enough for 2 square meters of soil.
- The second feeding is carried out to improve plant aging and bookmark flower buds for the next year immediately after completion of flowering. For it use 1 tbsp of sulfate and potash fertilizers per 10 liters of water (it is best to use potassium sulfate and superphosphate).
Pruning monarda is reduced only to the cleaning of aboveground parts of plants before the arrival of winter. In late autumn, the entire above-ground part of the bush is cut into a stump. Cut off the shoots of Monarda must be removed from the site and immediately destroyed. In Monarda, seed ripening does not affect the duration of flowering, so it is not necessary to remove faded shoots on your own.
At one place monard can grow 5-6 years. Rejuvenation is traditionally carried out with signs of loss of decoration and baldness of the center of the curtain. But it is better not to wait for the dying of the bushes and the loss of their attractiveness, but to carry out a timely separation every 3-4 years. This will keep the monarda always attractive and floriferous.
Pests and diseases
Monarda belongs to the most sustainable garden plants. She is not afraid of any pests or diseases, and even with signs of the appearance of spots on the leaves, we are most likely talking about powdery powdery mildew, which only spoils the appearance, but will not cause any harm to the plant itself or to neighboring crops. Downy mildew in monarda is manifested only when excessive drying of the soil and prolonged drought, as well as with thickened plantings, when air circulation is difficult. Properly planting a monard and not forgetting about supporting watering in the summer, you actually guarantee the attractiveness of this plant.
Very rarely, a monarda can get infected with rust or tobacco mosaic in the vicinity of a diseased plant, but usually these diseases also spread to monardo only on ultralight soils.
In the roots of this plant, as well as in the green, contains a large amount of essential oils. They have a fungicidal effect on the soil, contribute to the healing of neighboring plants and act as a preventive measure against insect pests.
Open field maintenance
Persistent beauty is not capricious and does not take much time to maintain. Observing all the requirements, she will respond well to care.
On hot days, when precipitation has not been out for a long time, irrigation is more frequent. Overdrying is not allowed.. But the amount of water should be moderate. Pouring is strictly prohibited. This creates a favorable environment for powdery mildew and worms. The timely flow of fluid ensures growth and lush flowering. Special attention needs of the monard during flowering.
Mulching and loosening
They help keep the earth hydrated and improve the access of oxygen to the roots. Suitable for mulching will be humus or peat. Sawdust is not suitable. Harmful substances arising from their decomposition, adversely affect the root system. Do not forget about loosening. It is carried out every time after watering (the next day). At the same time, weeds are removed. It is important to take care not to damage the roots.
Spring "nutrition" includes complex mineral fertilizers that are applied to the root circle. Per 1 square meter take 40 grams of nutrients.
During the growing season, Kemira and Agricola are very popular in pellets. They are added every two weeks. Once the active awakening is complete, the mullein will not become superfluous. It is diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10.
Epine solution helps to preserve the health of the flora representative during the hot summer months. They are treated with leaves.
In the autumn, it is time for the phosphorus and potash menu. Dry granules do not dissolve in water immediately, but they are introduced into the ground to a depth of 0.5 cm. Gradually, with each irrigation, they nourish the roots. Cumulative effect persists until May and contributes to lush greenery.
If the seed harvest does not interest you, then the fruit can be left as feed for wild birds. Perennial before the first frost pruned, leaving only 10 cm. It is important to collect and throw away the fallen leaves in a timely manner. They can become the abode for insects, fungus and other organisms that can cause harm to wild bergamot. In November, mow the lawn and get rid of all fallen plant elements. If in your region in winter the thermometer drops below 25 degrees, it is recommended to take care of additional shelter for Indian nettle. It will help to save the beautiful woman from frosting spruce branches and preliminary mulching.
To illnesses and pests of the monard is steady. But if the conditions of detention are violated, a favorable environment is created for the appearance of such uninvited guests as fungus and powdery mildew. The main reasons for their attack are excessive or insufficient watering, improperly chosen fertilizers.
For the treatment of used drugs containing copper.
Landing Monarda in the ground
If certain rules are followed, even a novice gardener can handle the task. Before landing it is necessary to be guided by such criteria:
- location selection. It must be protected from wind and drafts. Otherwise, the stem may break. Preparation for planting begins in advance - in the fall. The earth is deeply dug up, cleared of weeds and fertilized with superphosphate, manure, potassium salt, peat. Avoid those parts of the garden where groundwater sources of moisture lie close to or that thawed water is collected during the thaw.
- lighting. It is better to give preference to well clarified places. And although a sufficient amount of sunlight is one of the basic requirements for the growth of a healthy and strong plant, it is also possible to plant in shady beds. Unusual territory does not affect the appearance or duration of flowering, but the leaves become a darker color, and the flowers become smaller.
- priming. Gold melissa grows fastest in light, nutritious soil, slightly acidic or neutral. Before starting the process, the earth is carefully loosened and a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer is applied.
- landing time. Planting is carried out in the middle of spring or early autumn. But the first option is preferred. In this case, the seedling will have time to get stronger before the cold. Landing in September is a real test for Indian nettle.
- landing hole size. It depends on the breeding method chosen: 2-3 cm deep furrows are suitable for seeds and seedlings. For seedlings, a hole is dug a little more than the root system itself.
- gap. Do not neglect the distance between the plants, consider their dimensions in the future. The optimal distance is 50-60 cm between the bushes of the Monarda.
- drainage. If the site is prone to flooding with thawed, or closely located groundwater, then drainage is indispensable. For this purpose, pebbles, fragments of bricks, sand are used. The thickness must be at least 5 cm.
- completion of landing. In the hole, the root system is gently straightened, a layer of earth is poured from above, and it is slightly crushed with the fingers. Then the remaining soil is filled up. At the end of the seedling must be watered.
Use in landscape design
Wild bergamot is often assigned the role of a soloist in single compositions. But they can easily be supplemented with diverse mixborders. Combine such compositions from plants differing in height, width and coloring.
In mixborder tall varieties occupy the position of the background. Bright flowers look great and in rabatkah, and as a decoration border.
Gold lemon balm adjoins well with:
It is difficult to imagine a beautiful background for Monarda without curly beans, pine needles, nasturtium, southern cereals, flowering perennials.
Species and varietal diversity
Today it is known about 20 variants of the Monarda, but not all of them are available for cultivation in the garden. The most popular "residents" of garden compositions:
- Lemon. Refers to annuals. It is grown both as decoration of a garden, and as spice. Different varieties grow from 15 to 100 cm in height.
- Dot. It owes its extraordinary appearance to pink leaves. The flowers are yellow with slight brown patches. Foliage is used in the production of tea, due to its incredible aroma.
- Double. The average height is 80 cm. Upright stem in the shape of a tetrahedron. Dark green favorably shade purple, red and pink flowers.
- Tubular. Under natural conditions it grows in northern America. Used as a spice. Its height is from 60 to 120 cm. Lilac flowers are collected in spherical inflorescences.
- Hybrid. Every year, breeders introduce gardeners with an impressive number of new varieties. These perennials were born in the process of crossing tubular and double species. Their height is about one meter.
Monarda varieties with photos and titles
Monard flower is a beautiful herbaceous annual or perennial plant. Monarda, or bergamot, belongs to the family Gubotsvetnye.
The leaves of the plant contain essential oils, so the monarda is still used as a spice. Since ancient times, bergamot was added to tea, it became more fragrant.
Bergamot is also known for its antipyretic properties.
Growing monard in the territory of North Ameria. There it is especially common, more often even as a weed. Bergamot came to us in the 16th century.
This amazing plant was discovered by the botanist Monardes, after whom they named this culture. Monardes himself called the plant Canadian oregano.
In our country, it is called American melissa, bergamot. You can often hear the name Oswego tea or lemon mint.
Nowadays monarda is used as a decorative flower. It became widespread in landscape design.
Bergamot is also added when making tea. This drink boosts immunity and improves health.
The plant is a shrub that grows up to 60-100 cm tall. Stems slightly pubescent. Monarda has a weighty rhizome.
Bergamot leaves are dark green in color, slightly toothed, oblong.
The aroma of the foliage is different: you can smell the smell of lemon, mint, melissa. During flowering small inflorescences are formed.
Flowers red, white, purple. Sometimes you can see the variegated colors of the inflorescences.
Bergamot fruit looks like a nut. The seeds are inside this fruit.
Perennial varieties of bergamot can grow in one place for 5 years. After that, experienced gardeners recommend rejuvenating pruning of shrubs.
At the moment, there are about 16-20 species of plants.
Only a few of them can be grown on their plots. In landscape design, they give preference to perennial shrubs.
Gardeners often choose monrada for growing because of its flavor. The leaves are brewed very tasty and fragrant tea. Of the annual species emit a plant - citrus monarda.
This shrub grows in height from 15 to 100 cm. The height of the plant depends on the particular variety.
The stems of the citarous monard are oblong, green.
Flowering begins in May and continues until July.
The inflorescence of bergamot is purple. During flowering a sweet smell is formed around the plant, it attracts a lot of insects.
The leaves are used in the preparation of many dishes. They resemble lemon to taste.
Types of perennial monarda
Pendant many years will be an excellent option for registration of the site. Its following kinds meet:
Monarda tubular - it is also called fistulous. Distributed in eastern North America.
Growing it involved in obtaining spicy greens.
Tubular species can grow up to 60-120 cm, depending on the variety.
The leaves of the plant are oblong, with jagged edges. Blooms lilac inflorescences.
Their shape is spherical, diameter - 7 cm. Tubular varieties are used in medicine, cosmetology and perfumery, as the plant contains essential oils.
Monarda hybrid - received a huge spread.
Существует большое количество разных сортов, отличающихся оттенком цветения, высотой кустарника, формой листьев.
Наибольшей популярностью пользуются сорта: Крофтей Панк, Скарлетт, Махагони, Кардинал, Блю Стокинг,
Монарда двойчатая – кустарник до 80 см высотой, распространен на территории Великих озер.
Very quickly and grows.
Stems in the form of erect, foliage dark green saturated color.
During flowering pink inflorescences are formed, lilac, white.
Seeds contain essential oils, due to which the shrub exudes a citrus scent.
Growing Monarda seed from seedlings
Reproduction of bergamot by sowing seeds is quite a long occupation.
Growing in a seedless way is even more difficult, since seed germination is bad.
That is why, when growing from seed, a seedling method is chosen.
Sowing start in late March or early April.
- Prepare containers that are filled with nutritious primer. It is purchased in the store or do it yourself. Mix garden soil with peat, sand.
- Tanks with the ground watered. If the soil mixture is prepared independently, it must be additionally shed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
- Next, make grooves with a depth of 1 cm.
- Seeds are placed along the furrows, sprinkled with earth on top.
- Cover with foil or glass.
- Clean in a warm place before germination.
Approximately in 5-10 days the first shoots should appear. The film at this stage can be removed and transferred to the containers with seedlings to a lighter place.
When 2 true leaves appear, decipher the seedlings in separate pots. Their diameter must be at least 10 cm.
With the seedling method, bergamot blooms 14 days earlier.
It is possible to plant seedlings in open ground in mid-May, if there are no night frosts.
Optimal conditions for planting Monarda in the ground
Grow a healthy flowering plant is easy. For this you need to provide it with the necessary conditions, including:
- Landing place - it is best to choose a sunny area, where the monarda will bloom longer and more abundant.
You can plant a plant and where half the day is dominated by the shadow.
It is best if there are no strong gusts of wind in this area, as they can damage the stems and leaves.
When choosing a place, it is also necessary to take into account that the monarda is growing quite widely.
That is why you need to navigate and leave at least 1-1.5 m per plant.
- The composition of the soil - the plant grows beautifully on any soil.
The only thing is not recommended to plant it in areas where the ground is too heavy. Shrub will develop poorly.
Best of all, if the soil is low acidity. With a very high acid content in the soil, lime or dolomite flour can be added.
- Humidity - on the site should not stagnate water, the soil should be constantly wet, but without stagnant water.
- Fertilizers - make them when digging the soil in the fall. You can use humus, peat, superphosphate, potassium salt. After that, everything is thoroughly gnawed.
How to propagate by dividing the bush
This method is considered the fastest and easiest.
For reproduction of bergamot by dividing the bush you need to carry out the following steps:
- The optimal time for this is immediately after the snow melts, approximately in April.
- For division choose bushes that have reached 3-4 years of age.
- First, carefully dig up the bush, trying not to damage the root system.
- After washed with water, the roots.
- The division is carried out with a sharp knife. Cut the rhizome into several parts.
- Sections are treated with charcoal. It is necessary that they heal faster.
- Next, put the individual parts in the prepared pits, sprinkled with earth, watered.
Delenki grow in about 3-4 years.
Reproduction by cuttings
Varietal bergamot bushes propagate by cuttings. For this you need:
- Before flowering, cut cuttings 8-10 cm long.
- Remove green leaves from them.
- Trim the top.
- Pour into a container (pot, jar or other container) water.
- Place the cuttings in a container for several days.
- Plant the seedlings in pots with soil.
- Cover with dark material and place in a dark place.
Rooting occurs within 2-3 weeks. Planted cuttings can be around July.
Possible diseases and pests
When growing monarda, gardeners rarely encounter a situation where the shrub starts to hurt or is attacked by pests.
The most common disease is powdery mildew.
When the plant becomes ill with them, white powder spots appear on the leaves. To avoid the appearance of powdery mildew, you need to follow all the rules of agricultural cultivation.
It is important to choose the distance between the bushes and regularly get rid of weeds. Fungicides treatment will help to cope with the disease.
How to collect seeds of Monarda
For further reproduction of bergamot using seeds, planting material is collected closer to the end of summer or early September.
Parental properties of varietal seeds do not save.
Collected planting material is dried and cleaned in containers for further storage.
The term germination of seeds is 3-4 years.
Preparing for the winter
As a rule, our country is distinguished by cold long winters.
That is why it is necessary to carefully prepare the shrub before the onset of cold weather. In winter, the above-ground part is cut off.
Top cover with spruce branches or dry leaves, peat. In this state, the monarda will spend the whole winter.
With the onset of spring, the shelter is removed.
If the winters in your region are warmer, the frosts do not fall below -25 ° C, you can not cover bergamot for the winter.