Brugmansia belongs to the genus Datura. Depending on the species, it can grow as a shrub, and maybe as a tall tree, so most often it is grown in fairly large pots. Why in a pot, and not in open ground?
The thing is that this plant does not tolerate cold, so in winter it can freeze and disappear. As for the flowers, they can reach 50 cm in length, having the shape of a bell dropped down with ragged edges diverging to the sides. It has an alluring scent. With all this, do not forget that the seeds and flowers are poisonous.
Brugmansia species and varieties
Fragrant brugmansia grows very quickly and branches well. Inflorescences are white with greenish streaks, and pink in buds.
Brugmansia golden or yellowreaches 6 meters high. It has yellow, bell-shaped, wide open inflorescences. The leaves are large, soft and slightly dipped.
Brugmansia snow white grows in the form of a small tree with low growing shoots. It has velvety, oval leaves. The flowers are white (sometimes yellow and apricot shades).
Brugmansia blood red very tall tree, in nature capable of reaching 12 meters. It has very expressive orange flowers with yellowish streaks and red edging. This type of Brugmans is more resistant to winter, but, nevertheless, it is also better for her to winter indoors (especially for young ones who have yet to get stronger).
Variegated brugmansia (multicolored) This species differs from others in the largest cream flowers, which in some cases can reach up to half a meter. The shape, like the others, is tubularly bell-shaped.
Brugmansia tree the most famous species, has many varieties derived from it. In nature, it grows like a 4-5 meter tree, although there are small specimens (up to 1.5-2 meters). Among them there are varieties with double or tiered flowers of different colors.
Brugmansia outdoor planting and care
In the summer, Brugmansia can be planted in open ground, but closer to frost, it will have to be dug again and put into the room.
Choosing the optimal place for the healthy growth of the flower will be the key to long and beautiful flowering and abundant growth. After Brugmansia has been indoors for a long time, she will need time to adapt.
In the first few days of being on the street, it is necessary to choose a shady place, after which you can place it in well-lit (with the possibility of shading from the scorching sun), but not windy zones of the garden, park, terrace and so on.
Watering is an important part of plant care. In the summer watering should be daily, and on hot days, and twice. Exceptions are days when it rains. In general, make sure that the soil in the pot does not dry out.
In addition to watering, spraying is also important. But do not allow moisture to open buds.
For abundant and long flowering do not forget about fertilizer. Top dressing is added to water during watering, no more than 1-2 times a week, from the end of spring to the end of summer. During the flowering period will be useful components of potassium and phosphorus.
The composition of the soil under brugmansii in pots
The soil for planting should be light and fertile: loam, compost or humus and peat (1: 1: 2). Before transplanting, primer is poured with water with a light solution of potassium permanganate. Not forgetting the drainage layer at the bottom of the pot.
Replant a young plant is necessary annually. Changing the pot to a more spacious (2-3 cm more). When choosing a material, preference is given to plastic (with drainage holes in the bottom) rather than clay. Pots should not be small, since the earth there dries out much faster, which is fraught with wilting leaves.
Leaving in the winter implies warming, since the brungmancia is afraid of frost, it is brought into the room. In this case, it can continue its flowering. The dormant period of this species is not explicitly expressed, therefore, if the conditions of detention are comfortable, then the bloom will probably last the whole winter. For example, you will need additional lighting, as it gets dark earlier in the winter.
Irrigation mode can be maintained if you maintain a comfortable temperature in the room. If the room temperature is low (5-10 ° C), then watering should be reduced. If the lighting is sluggish, then most likely, in this case, the leaves will fall off, but closer to spring, new buds will begin to appear and additional lighting will be required.
Brugmansia seed growing
Not the most reliable method of reproduction, since there is no certainty that a plant grown from seeds will be of the same variety (heredity is not preserved). But still this method is the place to be.
Sowing is carried out in the period from January to March, in a light substrate, from above the seeds are sprinkled with the same composition of soil 1-2 cm thick, moistened and covered with glass or film. Control the temperature in the range of 20-25 ° C, in bright but diffused light.
After two weeks, you can observe the first shoots, after which the glass (film) is removed. It is necessary to ensure sufficient humidity of seedlings (spray 2-3 times a day), while avoiding over-wetting of the soil. Only when the leaves appear 4-5 leaves, you can begin transplanting in a separate pot.
But still this is not the final “place of residence” of the flower. Only when the roots completely fill the entire pot (evidence of reliable rooting), can it be transplanted into a permanent pot.
Reproduction Brugmansii cuttings
Propagation by cuttings - the most reliable and common method of reproduction. To do this, at the end of spring (early summer), take fresh shoots with apical buds, and cut off a length of 20-25 cm (lower leaves removed).
They put in the water, after adding activated carbon, the leaves are sprayed so as not to fade, cover with a plastic bottle or a jar and remove to a bright warm (not lower than 20 ° C) place.
When the roots become about 5 cm, cuttings can be safely transplanted into the hills with the prepared substrate: peat, perlite, sand (2: 1: 1). After 2-3 weeks rooting will occur and the plant can be transferred to a permanent pot.
Diseases and pests of Brugmans
- Whitefly, spider mite, gray rot the cause of the appearance may be the stress of a sudden change in the mode of care and maintenance. For example, only a purchased plant should not be immediately replanted, even if you have a more beautiful pot that fits into the overall interior. Not earlier than in two weeks, such manipulations can be carried out. Treatment: Topaz will help get rid of gray rot, Actellic will help get rid of the whitefly, and Fitoverm or Agravertin will remove ticks.
- Young leaves turn yellow and fall off - nitrogen starvation. Add fertilizer to the soil.
- On the leaves appear all sorts of spots, stripes, light areas, edges are deformed, begin to twist, the plant growth stops - viral damage. From such a plant is better to get rid of, until it infected the neighbors.
The most popular species for landing
The most common species for planting brugmansii are as follows:
- Scented or fragrant. This species is a tree plant, which can reach a height of 5 m. Brazil is considered the homeland of this species. The leaves of the plant are pale green, fragrant. Brugmansia flowers in diameter reach 15 cm in length and grow up to 30 cm. Indoors, the plant can bloom almost all year round.
- Golden. This species is characterized by the presence of white or apricot flowers, as well as large leaves, which can be up to 50 cm in length. With the setting of the sun, these plants produce a very pleasant aroma.
- Snow white. This species is often called woody brugmancia, white dope or white angel pipes. Plants in height can reach 3 m. The length of flowers reaches up to 25 cm. Flowers are usually white. In culture, this species is rare, it is mainly grown hybrids.
- Bloody. In the people, this species is often called the scarlet trumpets of an angel. The plant has very bright flowers, which can be not only red, but yellow or orange. Their length ranges from 20 to 25 cm. The fragrance of flowers is very pleasant, not suffocating. It is also worth noting that this species is the most frost-resistant among all Brugmans.
- Multicolored. This plant is a shrub whose height is from 2 to 4 m. Large flowers are formed on the shrub from 30 to 50 cm in length. As a rule, the flowers are white, so this species is often confused with the Brugmancia tree. However, the older the plants become, the more pronounced the shade of the flowers changes to apricot or peach. With the arrival of the evening flowers emit a pleasant aroma.
Growing Brugmansia, home care
This shrub is pretty heat-loving planttherefore, in open ground, Brugmans is grown only on the territory of warm regions. For growing Brugmansia in a cold region, a container is needed so that it can be brought into a warm room for the winter period.. Growing this plant also requires good lighting and no wind.. At the same time, Brugmancia tolerates summer fluctuations in air temperature throughout the day quite easily.
The branches of the plant are very fragile, so during the flowering period they need to provide additional support.
Growing Brugmansia also means providing the plant with a rich and nutritious soil. If you decide to use peat soil for planting in open ground, then clay soil must be added to it without fail. Watering should be done on a daily basis, as the powerful root system of the plant, fleshy large stems and lots of leaves need enough moisture.
It is also worth paying attention to the fact that the leaves of the shrub evaporate moisture from the entire surface, therefore, if the humidity of the air is less than 55%, the leaves need additional spraying. A couple of times a month it is recommended that Brugmancia be watered with a solution of complex mineral fertilizers with a slight addition of ash, and during the flowering period it is necessary to increase the dose of potassium and phosphorus.
Pruning shrubs at home
Growing Brugmansia also implies regular pruning. Pruning should be carried out according to the following rules:
- Brugmancia should be cut off in early spring, before the start of a new plant growth,
- At the same time, the shrub does not have to be cut very hard, as this may interfere with the abundant flowering of Brugmansia. Branches after pruning can be used as cuttings for reproduction. During pruning, it is necessary to remove damaged, diseased branches, as well as branches that thicken the crown. The remaining branches are shortened by only one third during pruning,
- During pruning, you must also leave a Y-shaped branching. If you leave straight branches, without branching, the shrub will grow, and the flowers will not form,
- The first pruning of Brugmansia should be carried out the next year after the beginning of flowering,
- During this procedure, it is also necessary to take into account that the main number of flowers is formed on the side branches that grow almost horizontally.
Reproduction by cuttings
This breeding method is recommended for use in the spring, as it is in the spring that Brugmansia is actively growing and the cuttings root well.
For grafting, you need to choose a healthy cutting that has at least one node. After that, all large leaves are removed from the cutting, or cut off in half, so that the cutting directs all its strength to the formation of new roots. At the same time, the end of the cutting is lowered into the growth stimulator, after which it is placed in water, which must be changed periodically. After a maximum of two weeks, new roots begin to appear on the cuttings. After this, cuttings with growing roots must be placed in a substrate consisting of peat, perlite, and so on.
If you notice that the cuttings do not form roots and begin to rot, then it is necessary to cut off the rotting part of the cutting, and place it immediately in the substrate. Good results can be achieved with rooting cuttings in pure pearlite. Substrate for grafting should not be wet, but wet. A pot with a handle should be put in a greenhouse, and on top it is recommended to put a plastic bag on it. The best place is a penumbra. When you notice that the roots began to strengthen, the plants must be accustomed to the sun, and the package can be removed. It is possible to transplant a young plant to a permanent place only one month after rooting.
Reproduction by layering
If you want to get low, ready to bloom plants, then for reproduction recommended use.
For this, it is necessary to choose the shoots of last year in spring or June, the diameter of which is about 2 cm in the upper part of the crown. On the shoots it is necessary to make a transverse Y-shaped incision, the depth of which will be approximately one-fourth the thickness of the shoot. The incision must be powdered with a root stimulator, and after that it turns into wet moss with sphagnum. On top of the incision is shrouded in a plastic bag, which is secured with elastic bands. The moisture content of sphagnum is recommended to maintain with a syringe with water. The first roots on the shoots appear after 1-2 months.
After this, the shoot must be cut, freeing it from large leaves and inflorescences. Next, the winding is removed and the moss is carefully removed without damaging the roots. Planted escape into shady places. While the new plant is gaining strength, the escape must be constantly sprayed.
Before sowing Brugmancia, seeds should be soaked in a growth stimulant solution for a couple of days. After that, the seeds are sunk into light soil for a maximum of 1 cm. Crops are moistened, and the soil is heated with a plastic bag, the container with seedlings must be placed in a bright room. As a rule, the first shoots appear within 3 weeks after sowing. Shoots need to be sprayed with warm water a couple of times a day.
When the fifth true leaf appears on the plants, it can be transplanted into a separate container. When the root system of young plants will be wrapped in an earthy clod, they can be planted in a permanent place in the open ground. From the second month of life, young Brugmans should be fertilized with nitrogen, and after another four months it is necessary to switch to complex fertilizers. The first flowering during seed multiplication usually occurs in the second or third year.
Winter care for Brugmans
If you live in a region in which the air temperature falls below 5 degrees above zero in winter, it is recommended to move Brugmansiya to a warm room for the winter, as the shrub is not intended for growing in the middle lane.
As such a room you can use an apartment, a veranda or a greenhouse. Watering Brugmansia in winter is less intense than in the main season. If the room is very dry air, the shrub must be sprayed. In addition, the room must be regularly ventilated. It is worth noting that Brugmansia does not bloom in winter. The higher the air temperature in the room, the more intense the lighting should be.
In winter, these shrubs can partially shed their leaves. If the temperature in the room drops to 12 degrees, the plants can go to a state of rest, and there is not much light required. At the end of the winter period, when the buds on the plant begin to swell, it must be transferred to a brighter room, as this may affect its further flowering.
Possible pests and diseases
If the bushes began to fall buds, stretch shoots, turn pale leaf color, it means that the plant needs additional lighting. In addition, the buds of the plant may fall due to a sharp change in the conditions of detention or with excessive or insufficient moisture.
If the age is more than 3 years, and it has never bloomed yet, it is possible that there is a large amount of nitrogen in top dressings and fertilizers, which, as a rule, leads to foliage growth.
As for pests, the plants are most often exposed. spider mite attack. Most often, these pests attack plants with rare spraying. Therefore, spraying Brugmancia should be strong and abundant. Spider mite settles on the back of the leaf of the plant.
In addition, such pests can attack Brugmansia, like a caterpillar, aphid and slugs. If you notice these pests on your shrub, then you should begin processing the plant with special preparations a couple of times a week.
Brugmansia refers to poisonous plants. In some countries, it is even forbidden to plant Brugmans in public places. Absolutely on all parts of Brugmansia, especially in the seeds, there are psychotropic and toxic substances.. These substances usually cause hallucinations in humans. As for the fragrance of flowers, it can cause headaches. Конечно, ни один адекватный человек не станет жевать это растение, но стоит быть предельно осторожным, если у вас дома имеются маленькие дети. Именно по этой причине перед тем как завести и начать выращивать бругмансию у себя дома, необходимо несколько раз хорошо подумать.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that such a shrub as Brugmansia does not require any special care and rules of cultivation. This is especially true of those people who live in the southern regions. At the same time, it is worthwhile to protect small children from this plant, since it is poisonous.
Planting Brugmansia and care for her
Whether it is a sapling or adult brugmansia, the plant, which will have to get to the flower bed in the spring, was previously in a state of relative rest.
With the advent of heat from the decorative perennial, the growing season is activated. This means that the Brugmansia tree can be prepared on the garden:
- If the plant was in the winter in a heated room, it needs hardening. To do this, Brugmans is gradually accustomed to fresh air, day after day by prolonging the “procedure”.
- When the wintering of Brugmansia is organized in a cool basement or other room at a temperature of about +8 ° C, the plant must be brought to light, where its development will resume quickly.
Brugmansia is a fast-growing one, so already from April, while the tree is in the tub, it is started to be fed with a mixture with a predominance of nitrogen. This stimulates the growth of new shoots and foliage.
And when to plant Brugmans in open ground? You can do it only when the danger of returning cold is completely passed. In central Russia, this time does not come before mid-May or in June.
There are two options for planting Brugmansia to choose a summer resident:
- in the open ground, in the fall to extract the plant again and mark it in the tub together with the earthy ball,
- in a large container so that the tree grows like a tub culture.
Both this and the other have advantages and weaknesses. From the ground a large plant is difficult to extract without damaging the root system and drooping shoots with flowers. And in a tub, Brugmansia needs more frequent watering and frequent feeding. In addition, the roots of a flowering tree grow, and he will soon need to transplant into a container even more.
The selection of the most short-growing varieties will help save forces and maintain the decorative effect of Brugmansia longer. They are as beautiful as trees up to 3 meters high, but are more compact and need less pruning.
In order to care for Brugmancia after planting in open ground was not burdensome and effective, a sunny area with a good protection from the wind is being sought for the plant. This will help create the most appropriate microclimate for a tropical guest and provide her with conditions for continuous flowering.
Equally important is the selection of suitable soil. For the growth and formation of many large flowers, the plant requires a nutrient substrate with the inclusion of:
- 1 part loam,
- 2 pieces of lowland peat,
- 1 part well rotted and cleaned from coarse inclusions of humus.
The soil mixture before planting in the pot should be disinfected by calcining in the oven or spilling a thick pink solution of potassium permanganate. It should be borne in mind that for Brugmansiya will need a volume pot of 10-30 liters, depending on the size of the root system.
If you have to take care of Brugmancia in the open field, before planting, as in the photo, the soil selected from the pit is also enriched with humus and peat is added to the baking powder, and, if necessary, sand.
Care for brugmancia after planting in open ground
The main conditions for the beauty and long flowering of Brugmansia are:
- availability of food for a powerful fast-growing plant,
- water abundance
- warm weather, where temperatures above +23 ° C prevail,
- lack of gusty cold wind,
- protection from diseases and pests.
If nothing interferes with the cultivation of Brugmancia, care for it consists in regular abundant watering and fertilizing.
The plant of tropical forests sharply reacts to the dryness of the soil and air, so in hot weather Brugmans can be watered several times a day. But the tree should be sprayed carefully, otherwise the water will damage the look of gorgeous flowers.
In cloudy and rainy weather, the irrigation schedule is adjusted so as not to cause abscission of foliage and flower buds. A potted Brugmansia taken to the garden can suffer from overheating of the soil. To avoid this, it is better to prikopat container or use tubs of their porous clay is not dark colors.
When the plant has increased the crown, it should be pushed to bloom. Feeding with a high content of phosphorus and potassium will help to do this. However, we must not forget about nitrogen and trace elements. They support growth and ensure the brightness of greenery and flowers, bluebells. Feedings are carried out regularly, from the moment of landing in open ground and until September, alternating between mineral mixtures and organic matter.
The signal by which the florist will determine the need for a Brugmansia tree in fertilizers will be:
- reducing the size of the sheet plates,
- yellowness or paleness of leaves,
- less than before, the number of buds.
Like all plants of the Solanaceae family, oblong fruits are formed at the site of the withering flowers of Brugmancia. If they are not removed, the ovary will take a lot of power, the tree will dramatically slow down the rate of bud formation.
Low temperatures are dangerous for thermophilic Brugmancia, therefore, without waiting for frosts, it is removed from the ground and transferred into the room. Wintering Brugmansia passes:
- at an air temperature of 5–8 ° C in a dark, even basement room,
- in a room with air warmed to 10 ° C, but when illuminated and watered.
In the first case, the plant must be prepared for a change in habitat conditions, gradually reducing the intensity of irrigation.
Until the second decade of March, that is, before planting and caring for Brugmancia in the open field, the plant is pruned. Such an operation will make the crown more compact, and flowering, passing on the young shoots, will provide pomp and duration.
Brugmansia inherited the “habits” of garden solanaceae well known to summer residents: peppers and eggplants. It does not form buds until branching appears on the stem.
Therefore, during pruning such “forks”, as well as small side shoots in the upper part of the crown, are sure to be left. Damaged or overly lengthened branches should be removed or shortened. If the Brugmancia on a plot is grown from a stem cutting without an upper point of growth, such a plant can be cut off a year after the first flowering, that is, at the age of 2–4 years.
Brugmansia reproduction and care for young plants
Brugmansia is propagated by seeds and vegetative methods, more often with the help of grafting. Self-production of seeds does not guarantee the preservation of the characteristics of the parent plant.
But such a seed easily pecks up and sprouts within 7–10 days after planting. The older the seeds, the longer it takes to germinate.
Sowing in light nutrient soil is carried out from January. Until sprouts appear above the soil, the container is kept in a greenhouse at a temperature of 20–25 ° C. At the time of mass sprouting, the plants provide illumination and increased air humidity. Soil is regularly moistened, not allowing it to dry.
Dive seedlings of Brugmans can be at the stage of 4 true leaves. Plants are not afraid of penetration and form adnexal roots well, quickly weaving around the “trusted” them the amount of soil. When this happens, the seedling is transferred to a larger pot. First, nitrogen and then complex supplements help to stimulate and support growth.
Cutting is the easiest and most common way for Brugmansia to propagate when caring for it in the home and in the open field. Fully or half-woody shoots with 2-3 interstices 15 to 20 cm long are suitable for rooting. You can get suitable planting material from the spring when pruning is carried out until the very autumn.
For the earliest possible appearance of the roots, cuttings with removed leaf plates are treated with a stimulating composition, and then they are added dropwise to a light sand-peat mixture or are dipped in water. In terms of the greenhouse for rooting, it may take up to three months, then the cuttings are transplanted into separate pots. Seedlings can be transferred to a permanent place when dormant buds in the sinuses wake up and grow. When caring for brugmancia after planting in open ground, it is necessary to take into account that young specimens are sharper than adults react to changes in temperature and humidity, as well as are more often attacked by pests.
Differences from Datur
Brugmancia strongly resembles another well-known plant - datur. And although both of them belong to the same family and are slightly alike in their appearance and qualities (poisonous), they are fundamentally different from each other when examined in detail.
As can be seen from the table, by all indications, these flowers are close relatives. In addition, both love frequent watering and moist soil with regular dressings.
Sowing seeds and growing seedlings
Brugmancia is propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering. When growing from seeds, hybrid varieties do not convey their peculiarities, and such a plant will bloom only in a year. Sowing is carried out from the end of January to the last days of March.
Seed germination is unpredictable. Sprout can slip through the week and a half, a month or not appear at all.
Before planting, preparation of the material is necessary - scarification (mild breaking of the shell) or soaking for 24 hours in a growth stimulator. After processing, the seeds are deepened into the soil up to 1 cm, moistened and covered with a film on top. Put the containers in a warm place (22 ° C). The film is removed when the first shoots appear, after about 2 weeks. To maintain humidity they are sprayed daily. Seated in separate containers after the appearance of 5 sheets. Young Brugmansia is first fed with nitrogen, and later (for the 5th month) - with complex fertilizers.
Planting cuttings and layering
More reliable and faster way - reproduction by cuttings. It is preferable to perform the landing in the last week of May - early June or in the fall before frosts. The one-year lignified shoot with a apical bud is cut by 25 cm, the lower leaves are removed and put in water with activated charcoal dissolved in it. They create a microclimate for the cutting, covering the container with a plastic transparent bottle, and put it in a warm place with a temperature of about 20 ° C. Prepare the soil for the future of the flower in the ratio: 50% peat, 25% perlite and 25% sand. Plants are planted in pots when white dots appear on the trunk (callus).
A month after rooting, the plant is planted in open ground. Unusual reproduction Brugmansia air layering. A one-year lignified shoot with a diameter of 2 cm is used for this. A transverse Y-shaped incision with a depth of of diameter is made on it and treated with a stimulator to form roots. The next step is to wrap the incision with a wet sphagnum, on top of which a plastic bag is fixed. All the time (1.5-2 months), until the roots appear, sphagnum moisturize. Then the shoot is cut, some of the leaves and inflorescences are removed and the moss and cellophane are removed. Planted escape into a shaded place and sprayed daily. Brugmansia exudes a strong odor that can cause hallucinations in humans. Placing a flower in the bedroom and nursery is not recommended.
Brugmansia belongs to the heat-loving plants and in the Moscow region can be grown at home, and in the summer for a while to land in open ground. It blooms from mid-July until late autumn. In Siberia in the summer there are unpredictable frosts that will ruin the plant when planted in open ground, so in this area only greenhouses and other rooms are decorated with brugmansia. Caring for a plant in all regions is not much different from each other:
- Regular watering due to climate and spraying (on hot days).
- Top dressing by mineral fertilizers.
- Garter heavy branches (if necessary).
- Disease treatment.
- Pest control.
In the first year of life, fragrant brugmansia at home, as the roots grow, dive into pots that are large in size. Subsequently, the plant is transplanted every year in the spring with the beginning of growth or renewing a part of the old earth. When transplanting old, too long roots are cut. The flower is returned to the pot or tub, falling asleep with fresh soil. For the first watering add growth stimulants - "Kornevin" or others.
Frequency and volume of watering
With many large leaves that actively evaporate moisture, Brugmansia needs to be watered daily. On hot days, additional spraying on the leaf does not hurt, preferably in the morning or evening hours. This refers to open-field Brugmansia. At home, the main thing - to prevent stagnation of water in the pan. In winter, watering in a cool room is reduced, but make sure that the soil does not dry out.
There is an opinion that it is impossible to overdo the Brugmansia. For active budding it needs daily feeding with mixtures for flowering plants containing potassium and phosphorus. Twice a month during the period of growth, they watered with complex fertilizer with added ash.
How to deal with pests and diseases
Aphids and thrips will destroy a healthy plant, so you need to destroy them when you first appear. For aphids, Brugmancia is treated with special preparations, for example, on the basis of pyrethrins, which damage the nervous system of insects. But before you start fighting with thrips with insecticide, try to rinse the flower under the shower, then treat with drugs such as “Fitoverm” (2 ml / 200 ml of water) or “Vertimek” (2.5 ml / 10 l of water). Cover with a transparent plastic bag and leave for a day. Then remove the top layer of soil and clean the place where the plant stood. You can use folk remedies, such as garlic brew. Chopped garlic (5 cloves) insist day in 0.5 liters of water, add 1 tsp. liquid soap and 2 tsp. var. oils. Bred 2 tbsp. l solution in 1 liter of water and sprayed the plant, trying to process and the inner surface of the leaves. Keep the composition tightly closed.
To prevent spider mite damage, it is necessary to constantly spray the plant in hot weather. If insects appear in small quantities, they can be removed mechanically by spraying with a solution of laundry soap. In case of a strong injury, insecticides are used, for example, “Akarin”, which is diluted in proportion: 2 ml per 1 l of water. This drug does not harm the environment. In case of insufficient lighting and watering or excessive moisture in Brugmancia, buds and leaves may fall off. If within 4-5 years it has not bloomed, then the soil is oversaturated with nitrogen. In this case, the green mass increases, the plant "zhiruet". Knowing how to feed a flower in different life cycles, one can prevent many diseases. The disease gray mold affects Brugmancia with excessive moisture. For the improvement of the flower stop its watering for a week, the diseased parts are removed and treated the remaining branches with a solution of "Topaz".
Preparing for the winter and rest period
In the middle lane, Siberia, when the temperature drops to 7 ° C, the Brugmancia is dug out of the open ground and transferred into the room for the winter. Install it into a prepared container and compact the ground. To simplify the resettlement, Brugmancia is planted in open ground immediately in a large container with openings on the sides and at the bottom for the circulation of water and nutrients. In autumn, all that remains is to trim the grown roots and move the flower entirely for the winter. In this case, it will be less susceptible to stress.
There are several ways to save Brugmancia in winter:
- With preservation of flowering. The bush is placed in a warm bright place. Care continues, as in the summer, extending daylight with additional lighting in the evening.
- To give a little rest, Brugmans is placed in a cool place, watered less often, feeding is carried out 1 time per month.
- For wintering in complete peace, the flower is placed in a dark room with a temperature of 5-8 ° C, where the foliage will drop. In the spring, Brugmancia is placed on light and heat, and at 12-15 ° C the buds will start to awaken.
Proper planting Brugmansii and care in the open field will allow you to enjoy its flowering and unusual aroma. It is only necessary to remember that the plant is poisonous and requires compliance with safety.
Popular types and varieties in gardening
Brugmansia golden (Brugmansia aurea) - a tree that in nature can reach 6 meters, but in pots its growth is limited to 2 meters. Flowers in golden or cream shades.
Brugmansia snow white (Brugmansia candida) - grows up to 4.5 m in height. It is an interspecific hybrid with white, slightly pink or cream flowers, intensely fragrant in the evenings. Grades: “White Angel”, terry shape “Adretta”, mini bush “Wooly White”.
Fragrant Brugmansia (Brugmansia suaveolens). One of the most popular species, which attracts a variety of varietal forms, hybrids and intoxicating scent of flowers of yellow, pink, cream and white color. The most spectacular variety "Tricolor" with a unique combination of flowers of different color. Ambizu is a dwarf bush with yellow blooms, pink Brugmansia Aromagic pink.
On sale you can find many terry hybrids, for example, "Angels Innovation", "Angels Suprise", "Angels Sunexplosion", "Rosa Zauber", "Miss October", "Bolero", "ANGELS ENJOY", "Edna". The unique hybrid form of Brugmansia cubensis strikes with the unusual shape of a floral corolla.
There are also decorative leafy varieties of the Variegata group: “Maya”, “Snowbank”, “Sublime”, “Sunset”, “Apricot Queen”.
Выбор места для посадки бругмансии
Посадку бругмансии проводят в плодородный, богатый гумусом, водопроницаемый грунт, поэтому к субстрату целесообразно добавить две части крупнозернистого песка. Если растение выращивается в горшке, то на дне обязательно выкладывают дренажный слой из керамзита или мелкого щебня.
Place for growing choose a sunny or slightly shaded, protected from the wind. In full sun bloom will be abundant and long. At high temperatures it is useful to spray the crown with warm water.
The plant perfectly tolerates summer heat, provided regular watering, as the culture is very sensitive to lack of moisture. The soil should always be moderately wet, otherwise the tree may lose leaves and flower buds. This is especially true for potted crops, which in the heat requires daily watering. In cool weather between irrigations, the top layer of soil should dry out.
Top dressing and pruning
The tree grows quite actively, so weekly feeding is required during the season. Multicomponent fertilizers can be used for flowering plants. Good plant develops with the introduction of potassium phosphate fertilizers. Used 1 teaspoon per pot of 5-6 liters. Fertilizers are diluted in water and applied during irrigation. With a lack of nutrients, the tree sheds flower buds, and the leaves turn yellow. In early September, feeding stopped.
Culture responds well to pruning, which allows you to form a compact crown and control plant growth. Shorten shoots in the spring before growth. Flowers are formed on the apical Y-shaped shoots, so they can only shorten the tops of a length of 3-5 cm. Stimulates flowering removal of shoots that develop at the base of the central trunk.
Winter care for Brugmancia
The culture is sensitive to temperatures below 5 ̊C, so Brunmancia is brought into the room for the winter. In a warm room with bright sunlight or additional lighting during normal irrigation and fertilizing, the plant retains its foliage and continues to bloom for another 2-3 months, but this can weaken the tree, which needs a period of rest.
For recreation, culture needs cold conditions of 6–9 ° C, penumbra and limiting irrigation, but the earth must not dry out completely. In relation to illumination, the principle is as follows: the lower the indoor temperature, the lower the requirements for light.
In late March or early April, the plant is transferred to a warm and bright room, gradually increasing watering. After 2 weeks, begin to fertilize. The pot is moved to the open air when the night temperature is set above 9-10 ̊C.
Transplantation of pot culture is carried out in early spring, when the roots are completely covered with earthen clod.
The procedure is carried out by the method of transshipment. For the cultivation of the best mix of universal soil, peat, compost and sand, taken in equal proportions. At the bottom of the pot must be drainage holes and a layer of expanded clay. Put the plant in a pot and cover the empty spaces with the substrate, tamp and pour well.
Growing brugmansia from seed
Only Brugmanisa Arborea hybrids self-pollinate, the other forms for obtaining seeds require artificial pollination. Sowing is carried out in February or early March, pre-soaking for 24 hours in warm water. Sow in a wet sand-peat mixture to a depth of 0.5-1 cm and cover the container with film or glass.
With moderate substrate moisture and a temperature of 20-22 ̊C seedlings appear after 10-30 days. After the sprouts appear, the cover is removed, the container is moved to a place with bright diffused light, and plants and soil are sprayed daily with warm water. At stage 4-5 leaves, seedlings dive and transplanted into separate pots with nutritious soil.
Problems in the care of brugmansii in the open field
Plants can be attacked by spider mites and aphids. For the prevention of the culture twice a season is treated with special preparations.
Spider mite on leaves
A pale leaf plate with dark green blurred spots is a sign of tobacco mosaic virus.
Yellowing of leaves, leaf fall and flower buds are most often caused by nutritional deficiencies, excess nitrogen in the soil, improper irrigation, or various types of diseases.
High humidity of the air along with coolness or infection from other cultures often cause the development of fungal or bacterial diseases: anthracnose, powdery mildew, bacterial spotting, root rot.
Common types of shrubs
The most sought-after types of gardeners among Brugmans are:
- fragrant, originally from Brazil, blooming all year round with white or greenish gramophone with dimensions up to 30 cm,
- golden, which got its name for the bright yellow color of flowers and impressive half-meter-sized leaves,
- snow-white, on the basis of which the mass of hybrids is bred, with bright white flowers of size 25 cm,
- bloody, the name of which is justified by the shade of its inflorescences, although sometimes there are yellow shades, it has an attractive aroma, refers to frost-resistant varieties,
- multicolored, also justifies its name by its coloring, the peculiarity of which is that the young plant surprises with white flowers, later acquiring yellowish-red shades.
Brugmansia, planting and care for which pays for all the worries, will please the owners with its beauty and fragrance.
Brugmansia requirements for conditions
The problem is that the bush does not tolerate the cold at all. The plant is usually bred in open soil or in containers, and in winter it is transferred to domestic conditions. In the southern latitudes, for example, in the Crimea, this can not be done, the flower will calmly endure a warm winter without frost.
In the northern areas of the bush immediately planted in a separate container, so that in winter it was possible to transfer to the room. Troubles with relocation will be justified when gorgeous giant bells with an attractive smell blossom.
When choosing a place on the site for the summer landing of an exotic beauty, the location of the sun and shade should be taken into account: it should be in a diffused shadow and be protected from the wind. Thermophilic shrub prefers adequate lighting, but does not like drafts. The bright sun may not like the flowers, and in a dense shade will increase the mass of leaves.
The branches heavy from flowers need additional support. In summer, and especially on hot days, the bushes are recommended to be watered with heated water.
High spreading bushes with large elastic sheets, with impressive roots need a sufficient amount of moisture. In some cases, the flower is sprayed at sunset, preserving from moisture on the blossomed inflorescences.
When planning a place for planting Brugmans, one must take into account that the plant needs space: its crown is up to 2 m in diameter. Close proximity to other flowering bushes should also be avoided. In the container at the base of the royal gramophone you can plant a long-blooming begonia, also a great lover of water, which will be comfortable in the shade of a branchy shrub.
It is desirable that the soil on the site was fat, loamy. Brugmansiya should be fertilized regularly - at least twice a month, using liquid mineral supplements, adding wood ash, and during intensive flowering - with the addition of potassium and phosphorus.
In summer, the flowering shrub does not need pruning. But in the winter season the plant contained at home produces a lot of tender, impotent processes that must be removed in the spring. The best time for this is March. Moreover, it is necessary to cut off the excess shoots before the onset of fresh.
First, get rid of the dried and stunted twigs. Full-grown shoots are cut to a third, with their help, it will be possible to propagate the plant. With thinning should not overdo it, so as not to reduce the abundant flowering. The first time pruned branches a year after the first flowering. For a generous flowering you need to keep lateral processes horizontally, which usually have the most flowers.
Homemade content of Brugmansia
The onset of the first frost signals that it is time to remove the southern shrub from the open air. Winter care means protection from the cold, which is so afraid of exotic beauty. In the northern and middle regions of the winter, an exotic lover of heat is grown at home in special containers.
A large shrub with massive, fast-growing roots needs appropriate tanks. They should be roomy, fit large vases. Experienced growers prefer large stone tubs with holes in the bottom and expanded clay for drainage.
Since the root system does not tolerate overheating, ceramic vases without glaze or paint with an air-permeable coating will be an ideal option, although they are quite expensive and quite heavy. Light plastic tubs that do not heat in the sun can also be useful.
Brugmansia at home can prolong its flowering - the rest period of the plant has no clear boundaries, which is why it can bloom throughout the winter season if there are comfortable conditions.
True, additional lighting will be necessary due to the fact that it gets dark early in the winter. In a warm room, the order of moistening remains the same. If the temperature is slightly reduced, then watering should be less. The lack of light can lead to the fall of the leaves, which will begin to grow from fresh buds closer to spring.
Planting in open ground
The maintenance of a shrub at home is complicated by the fact that it grows rapidly and it has voluminous rhizomes that can break the pot. Grown up cuttings should be transplanted in open soil, so that they are provided with the necessary space and the necessary lighting.
The young bush initially vigorously increases the volume, it will not bloom yet. Brugmansia in the open field in a warm region can safely winter. In the low-temperature region in winter, the upper part of the plant freezes out, with warming of the rhizomes they quickly give shoots, but not always. Rhizomes, too, can freeze and die. That is why it is better not to take risks and on the eve of the cold weather to undertake a transplant of a bush into a pot.
In the warm season, caring for an exotic beauty is easy enough: the plant is discreet in its care requests. It does not require an intricate watering structure or special fertilizers, although it needs moisture and fertilizing. With proper care, Brugmansia will bring a lot of pleasure to its owner with beauty, grace and extraordinary fragrance.