Tomatoes are one of the most popular vegetable crops, which are successfully grown in greenhouses and in the open field. Most of the common varieties of tomatoes today are thermophilic, so they are recommended to be grown in greenhouses. In this article we will tell you how to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Choosing the right variety
First of all, the gardener will need to decide on the variety of tomatoes that he will plant in the greenhouse. These tomatoes must be different. long term of fructification, short terms of ripening and resistance to various infections. Remember that there are both universal varieties and varieties of tomatoes, which are intended more for fresh consumption or for pickling and other processing.
We can recommend you to choose for planting in greenhouses the following varieties of tomatoes:
Such varieties of tomatoes differ in the average size of the bushes, they are resistant to infections, different yields and have excellent gastronomic properties.
Council Choosing varieties for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, you can plant different varieties of tomatoes in the greenhouse. After completing several improvised beds inside the greenhouse, you can get an excellent crop of tomatoes, which will differ in their taste.
Selection and preparation of the greenhouse
Let's talk in more detail about how to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse. If in the recent past, constructions made of polyethylene and glass were the most popular, today, in gardens, constructions made of polycarbonate are increasingly common. This material has excellent strength, durability, light weight and affordable price. The optical properties of polycarbonate are such that the vegetables and fruits growing in the greenhouse get the amount of sunlight they need, which is one of the conditions for active growth and excellent fruiting.
Run such a greenhouse from polycarbonate, you can independently or buy ready-made options in specialized gardening shops, which will only need to be simply assembled on the plot. We can recommend you to buy ready-made polycarbonate greenhouses, which will simultaneously have an affordable price, and thanks to the choice on the market, every gardener will be able to choose an option that fully meets his requirements.
Preparing a greenhouse for planting seedlings is not difficult. First of all, it must be installed on the plot. Further the following works are performed:
- Preparation of a greenhouse begins approximately 10 days before the date of planting tomatoes.
- Check the integrity of the glazing, the performance of doors and air vents.
- They dig up the earth to a depth of 10 centimeters.
- If necessary, the soil is disinfected, for which it is shed with a light solution of copper sulfate.
- Humus is introduced into the soil at the rate of 10 kilograms of organic matter per square meter. Also, one square glass of wood ash should be added to the square of the greenhouse area.
- Form beds of width from 60 to 90 centimeters. Between the beds should leave a passage, the width of which is not less than 60 centimeters.
- Beds should be covered with plastic black film, which is removed immediately before planting seedlings.
We plant and grow seedlings
Most gardeners, regardless of whether the planned subsequent planting of tomatoes in the greenhouse or in the open ground, previously in home conditions are grown tomato seedlings. Planting a tomato in the greenhouse and growing seedlings is not particularly difficult. Planting seedlings should be in plastic or wooden containers and fertile soil, which is prepared from sod land with the addition of humus.
It is necessary to plant seedlings in early March, approximately 50 days before planting in a greenhouse at a permanent place. Plant seeds in rows and deepen them by 1-2 centimeters. After 4-5 days, the first shoots appear, which later will need to be dived and transplanted into a separate pot.
Picking and transplanting seedlings into individual containers is usually carried out on day 10 after the emergence of shoots. In the pots you need to fill the same characteristics of the land that was used for planting seedlings. Do not forget about the need for picks, for which part of the main root is clamped to one third of the length.
Subsequent care of seedlings is not particularly difficult. It is necessary to water it once a few days and spray it with a spray bottle, once every 2-3 weeks feed it with nitrogenous fertilizers or a light solution of a mullein and turn the cups with seedlings every day to different sides to sunlight.
Approximately 10 days before disembarkation seedlings in a permanent place begin hardening seedlings. To do this, it is carried out for several hours on the glazed balcony. Such hardening will allow to accustom plants to fresh air and low temperatures.
We plant seedlings in the greenhouse
As soon as the seedlings have five or six full-fledged leaves, tomato seedlings can be planted in the greenhouse. Do not give seedlings grow into pots, as the root system is injured later on in transplantation and the plants are ill for a long time.
The scheme of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse will largely depend on the variety selected by the gardener. Indeterminate tall varieties can reach a height of one meter and a diameter of 40-60 centimeters. Accordingly, it is necessary to plant such seedlings at least one meter away from each other. But when planting saplings of compact and medium-sized varieties, the distance between plants in the row will be about 50 centimeters, and the row spacing - about 80 centimeters.
Potted seedlings must be planted in the greenhouse in the wells strictly vertically. To do this, make small-sized holes, which will be free to enter a pot of seedlings. A small amount of water or a solution based on a mullein is poured into the well. Carefully take out the plant with the root with a lump of earth, place the seedlings in the hole and carefully sprinkle it with earth.
Important. Planting seedlings and subsequently watering Tomatoes in the greenhouse should use only warm settled water.
Overgrown seedlings can be planted under a small slope, and subsequently control the size of such overgrown seedlings, if necessary, performing their regular pruning. Remember also that the planting of tomatoes in the greenhouse with large-sized seedlings is carried out to a great depth, which will allow in the future to ensure high-quality fruit bearing of tomatoes and excellent taste qualities of the grown crop.
How to care for tomato seedlings in a greenhouse
Planting care does not present any particular difficulty. At the same time, it is precisely on the provision of the corresponding conditions to the growing tomatoes that their yield and taste of grown vegetables will depend. We offer you quite simple and effective recommendations for the care of seedlings.
- The first dressing tomatoes in the greenhouse perform two weeks after planting seedlings. For such feeding you will need nitroammofosk and light solution of mullein. After the first fertilization, the second fertilizing is performed in a week using nitroammofoski and potassium sulfate. Subsequent fertilization is performed depending on the state of the plants, and humus or nitrogen-containing mineral compounds can be used as a fertilizer.
- The gardener will need to ensure timely and proper watering. Tomatoes are a moisture-loving crop, but at the same time it does not tolerate stagnant water, which leads to the rapid decay of the roots. Watering beds is recommended every 5 days, with the first watering after planting seedlings performed after 10 days. The irrigation of the beds during the flowering of tomatoes in the greenhouse is performed at the rate of 4 liters of water per square meter. Subsequently, already with the fruiting of tomatoes, about 8-10 liters of water is spent per square meter of bed.
- Experienced gardeners recommend installing a plastic barrel with water in the greenhouse, which will keep the moisture level at an optimal level. Do not forget also about the need for regular airing of the greenhouse, for which every few days the vents open for 2-3 hours, which will allow you to update the air in the room.
- When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, keep the temperature at a constant level. In summer, the temperature during the day should not rise above 30 degrees, and at night the minimum allowable temperature is 18 degrees. Certain difficulties are the cooling of the greenhouse in the summer heat, when the temperature can increase to 35 degrees and more without ventilation. In this case, it is recommended to leave the greenhouse doors open during the day, which will prevent such unwanted greenhouse heating.
Planting a tomato in a polycarbonate greenhouse is easy. A gardener will only need to properly prepare the land by growing strong and viable seedlings. In the following, competently By planting seedlings in a greenhouse and providing plants with appropriate care, the summer resident will be able to get an excellent harvest. In this article, we told you how to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse. Such a method of growing tomatoes is not difficult, so we can recommend it to all novice gardeners.
When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse
Each gardener wants to see the results of his efforts as soon as possible, that is, to get the harvest from the planted plants as quickly as possible. When choosing the date of planting, tomato seedlings should not be rushed - the soil in the greenhouse at a depth of 15 cm should warm up to +14 0 C. Polycarbonate greenhouses, due to the integrity of the structure, warm up faster than, for example, film.
It is possible to single out the general terms of planting tomatoes in unheated polycarbonate greenhouses, depending on the growing region:
- In mid-to-late April in areas with a warm favorable climate,
- In late April - early May in the Middle Band,
- In the beginning - the middle of May in the Urals,
- In the middle - the end of May in Siberia.
Planting tomatoes in heated greenhouses takes place 2 ... 3 weeks earlier than in unheated ones.
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse
To place tomato seedlings in a greenhouse is a simple matter, but you need to approach it wisely. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the height of the bushes already in adulthood. So, for example, for better illumination and ventilation within the greenhouse, low-growing varieties (determinants) should be planted at the edges of the greenhouse, and indeterminate giants in the middle.
At what distance to plant seedlings
In order for neighboring bushes to prevent each other from growing, it is important to maintain certain distances when they are planted. Depending on the selected varieties and characteristics of tomatoes, they may be as follows:
- 25 cm between adjacent specimens and 50 cm aisle for low-growing varieties and shrubs grown in one stem,
- 40 ... 50 cm between seedlings of early varieties and sprawling low-growing,
- 60 cm between bushes and 80 cm between rows for indeterminants.
How many pieces are in the greenhouse
The exact number of seedlings that will grow in the greenhouse depends on its size, the number of broken beds and the chosen planting pattern. Even with the most scrupulous calculations, one should always acquire (grow) more seedlings. When transporting from home to the site or when planting, some of them may break. Therefore, in order to avoid open holes in the greenhouse, you need to have a small stock of plants.
You can consider an example for calculating the number of tomato roots in a polycarbonate greenhouse with dimensions of 3 × 6 m with three beds and two passes between them. The approximate calculation is made as follows: the length of the greenhouse in cm should be divided by the distance between the adjacent seedlings in cm. That is, for each of the two extreme beds the number of roots is 600: 40 = 15 pieces on one side.
On the garden in a staggered order, 2 rows of undersized or standard varieties are placed, therefore about 60 pieces of tomatoes will be planted on the two extreme ridges. For a central bed with indeterminants, the distance between adjacent specimens is 60 cm. Thus, 600: 60 = 10 pieces in the same row, and 20 pieces in the whole bed.
Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse involves several steps, which are listed below.
Preparation of ridges for planting
It is better to arrange the beds in the direction from east to west, this will provide good illumination inside the whole greenhouse. The recommended height is 30 ... 40 cm from the level of the tracks. But their width depends on the size of the greenhouse and the chosen planting scheme for tomatoes.
In accordance with the planting scheme, it is necessary to dig out the planting holes using a small garden shovel. Their depth is about 15 cm. In order for the wells to be at the same distance from each other, you can use a bar, and for the evenness of the row, use a stretched cord on the pegs.
Before planting tomatoes, each well must be plentifully shed. This way some gardeners call planting "in the mud."
It is necessary to place the seedlings in the prepared seats, fill the cavities with earth and slightly compact the soil around the bushes. It would seem nothing special. However, there are several nuances that should be paid attention to:
- To separate the seedlings from the tank should be very carefully, trying not to break the stem and leaves and do not break the earthy clod. To do this, you need to turn the pot and, holding the sapling with your second hand, flow along the bottom.
- You can deepen the seedlings in the holes, leaving at least 3 cm between the ground and the lower leaves. This depth allows you to get bushes with a powerful root system, but their growth stops for several weeks.
- When filling the hole with earth, it is important not to leave air cavities. Therefore, you need to gently use your fingers to compact the ground around the roots, gradually pouring it.
- Already planted bushes can be shed again with warm water.
The technology of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse is simple, but requires special care and attention from the gardener. Saplings adapt to new conditions more quickly if planted in cloudy weather.
After planting seedlings on the beds, they need to provide a certain care, which comes down to the following operations.
After planting for two weeks, tomatoes do not need to be watered. The first watering after this time has to be quite abundant - not less than 5 liters per m 2. Until the first green tomatoes appear, watering remains infrequent (once a week), but abundant. Then the amount of water under the bush becomes less, and the frequency of watering increases to two times a week.
Water must be warm. Cold water delivered under the roots of tomatoes directly from the well, provokes the appearance and development of fungal diseases in the greenhouse. Therefore, for watering is usually used water from the tank, in which it is pre-heated in the sun.
Tomatoes react negatively to the ingress of water to the leaves and stems, so watering at the root is recommended. For large greenhouses, you can use the drip irrigation system, which will allow the gardener to save significant time and effort. In such a system there is one nuance: the source of water must provide pressure. If there is no pump, then the water tank should be on high ground.
Before planting plants in a greenhouse, you need to stretch a solid wire at a height of 1.7 ... 2 m. This will allow you to tie up the seedlings and prevent them from falling under the weight of their own fruits.
The operation of the garter spend 1.5 weeks after transplanting tomatoes. Here you will need high-quality cord or twine made from natural materials.
The stem of each tomato is tied under the lower leaves, and the loop cannot be tightly tightened, as it will damage it during the growth of the seedling. The free end of the twine is tied to the trellis.
Since the design of the polycarbonate greenhouse is very unstable, a foundation is laid for it in most cases. In this regard, the soil in it is depleted - the amount of land is small, and the seedlings quickly suck out all the useful substances and minerals from it. Therefore, the right balanced feeding of tomatoes in such a greenhouse is very important for their growth and yield.
- The first of them is carried out three weeks after landing. The main components in this period are nitrogen and potassium. Ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate can be diluted in a bucket of water and shed the growing tomatoes with this solution. Similar feeding should be repeated at intervals of 2 ... 3 weeks before the onset of fruiting.
- When green tomatoes appear on the bushes, it is necessary to minimize nitrogen fertilization and increase the potash content. During fruiting, it is recommended to use complex water-soluble supplements containing calcium, manganese and other trace elements.
- Во время цветения рекомендуется опрыскать желтые цветки раствором препарата «Завязь». Данная подкормка поможет цветочкам завязать плоды.
Формировка куста помидора происходит поэтапно и включает в себя следующие шаги:
- выбор количества главных стеблей. Их может быть не более трех. Чаще всего высокие томаты выращивают в 2 стебля, а количество кистей не превышает 8,
- timely pasynkovanie. Paceniks are extra branches that appear at the nodes between the stem and the leaves. They need to be manually pushed out every 2 weeks, because they take a huge amount of nutrients from the bush, and make the plantings into a dense forest, the depth of which does not receive sunlight,
- limiting the point of growth. When a tomato has reached a certain height, for example, 2 m, then its tip must be pinched. Plant growth will stop, and all forces will be directed to the formation of fruits,
- leaf removal. For better illumination of plants, it is recommended to trim the lower leaves, as well as damaged and dried ones. Some gardeners remove virtually all green mass, claiming that yields will increase. However, the traditional method of pruning is considered partial thinning of the leaves from below.
Frequent gardener mistakes
When planting and caring for seedlings, newly minted gardeners may make seemingly minor mistakes that can result in large losses in tomato crop in the greenhouse. Here are some of them:
- Failure of crop rotation. If the soil in the greenhouse is not replaced annually, then the rules of crop rotation must be observed. In order to plant the tomatoes at the same place every year, after harvesting the greenhouse, you can sow the grass-siderat (mustard, phacelia, etc.). It will restore the mineral balance in the soil in a short time.
- Inclined landing. To plant seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse should be strictly vertically. With an oblique planting part of the stem will be in the soil and will begin to take new roots. The growth of the bush will stop for the period of building up additional roots, therefore the terms of maturing of the fruits will come later.
- Thickened landing. The desire to fit as many tomato bushes in a greenhouse as possible is driven by many inexperienced gardeners — either it is a pity to throw out seedlings, or I want to get as many fruits as possible. The thickening of the plant will have a very negative impact on yield.
- High humidity. Airing the greenhouse should be carried out as often as possible, if the weather permits. When too high humidity inside it creates a favorable environment for the emergence and development of various diseases and pests. The design of the greenhouse should include air vents for ventilation.
- Overfeeding You need to feed your green pets wisely: an overabundance in the soil of a substance can negatively affect their condition. For example, frequent fertilizing with nitrogen provokes an active increase in green mass, and, at first glance, healthy and well-growing seedlings may not produce fruit at all.
- Neglect of weeding. Constant weeding is an integral part of the care of greenhouse tomatoes. Weeds not only take nutrients from the soil, but also contribute to the prosperity of diseases and pests on the greenhouse.
Planting a tomato in the greenhouse. Detailed description: video
The secret of tomato yield lies not only in the selection of varieties and the cultivation of seedlings, but also in the proper planting and careful care of the bushes. The path to obtaining the desired results is not easy, but for all the efforts and efforts of the tomato seedlings will certainly reward the gardener with high-quality tasty fruits.
Greenhouse and soil preparation
For tomatoes of any variety or hybrid, sandy or loamy soil, loose, breathable, with good moisture capacity is best suited. Previously, it should not grow tomatoes or other solanaceous. In the fall, it is necessary to collect and remove all plant residues from the previous crop from the greenhouse, dig up the soil in it, and then add humus to the soil (about 5 kg per 1 sq. M) and 1 tbsp. ash on the same area. It is not recommended to make fresh manure: the tomato leaves will grow from it, there will be little ovaries, and, accordingly, fruits.
You can additionally make sand, peat and sawdust - on loam you need to take all the components of 0.5-1 bucket per 1 square. m, and on the peat bog replaced with turf ground. Mix everything with the soil. Then you need to water the entire area of the greenhouse, which is diverted under the tomatoes. Other fertilizers in the autumn preparation of a polycarbonate greenhouse in the soil do not need to make. If the soil is acidic, it is lime, adding lime or dolomite flour to it. How much these fertilizers will need can be found out by analyzing the soil acidity. The most accurate can be obtained in the laboratory; in the household, litmus paper can be used. On this preparation of the soil in the fall in the greenhouse ends.
To prepare the greenhouse for planting tomatoes in the spring, it is necessary to dig up the soil again, sanitize it with copper sulphate (for which, dissolve 1 tablespoon of powder in a bucket of hot water) or potassium permanganate solution. The greenhouse should be processed approximately 1 week before the planned planting of tomato seedlings. Before planting tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, the soil should be fertilized with phosphate-potassium fertilizers - superphosphate and potassium sulphide (50 and 20 g per sq. M).
If tomatoes are planted on greenhouse beds after cucumbers, which is often the case, then when preparing the soil, it is necessary to remove and remove its top layer 10 cm thick and replace it with a new soil that is free from infections. This must be done because both cultures suffer from the same disease - anthracnose or root rot. After replacing the soil, it is recommended to shed it with a disinfectant solution of blue vitriol or potassium permanganate for reliability.
Terms of planting seedlings
When it is already possible to plant seedlings tomato under the shelter, depends on the climatic conditions of the area. But, as a rule, in the regions of the Russian Central Belt and in the suburbs, in unheated greenhouses, tomatoes are planted in mid-May, when you can definitely not be afraid that the frosts will return and destroy the plants.
You can move tomatoes to the greenhouse in the Urals and the northern regions a little later, around the end of May. But these are only approximate dates, in fact, the timing of planting tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse depends mainly on the temperature of the soil (at least 15 ° C) and air (at least 20 ° C), which should be oriented. The height of the seedling still matters: if it begins to outgrow, then it should be planted on the beds as early as possible.
Those gardeners who believe in the influence of the phases of the Moon on the development of cultivated plants can try to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate according to the lunar calendar. To plant tomato seedlings in warmer regions can be April 8, 12, 13, 22, 26, 27 and 28, and in colder regions - May 9, 15, 19, 24,25. It is not recommended to work with tomato plants in New Moon and Full Moon, because during these periods tomato plants receive a program for the growth of the underground part, that is, the roots, but not the above-ground part (stalks, leaves and fruits).
Scheme planting tomato in the greenhouse
To the question about the scheme of planting a tomato in a greenhouse, you can answer this way: for each variety of this crop there is its own variant, for example, you can use such convenient and productive schemes:
- For early undersized tomato varieties, which lead to 2-3 stalks, the best landing option is in a checkerboard pattern with preserving the distance between tomatoes in a row of 40 cm, between tomato rows - 50 cm.
- For stem and determinant varieties that lead to 1 stalk, the landing pattern should be different - 25 cm by 50 cm, that is, by 1 square meter. m greenhouse area can accommodate up to 10 tomato bushes.
- For tall, indeterminate tomato varieties, a pattern can be applied when plants in a polycarbonate greenhouse are planted in 2 rows in a checkerboard pattern. At the same time, the aisle leaves 80 cm, the distance between tomato plants is 50-60 cm with the method of growing tomatoes in 1 stem and 70 cm - when maintaining tomato plants in 2 stems.
You can also use the combined planting of short-growing early-ripening varieties and tall tomatoes. For example, in a standard greenhouse, in which there are 2 wide beds and a small passage between them, it is possible to plant tomato seedlings in 2 rows. The walls of the greenhouse will be the first row, which will be low early tomatoes. They need to be planted at a distance of approximately 40 cm and form only in 1 stem. They are located near the walls in order to receive as much light as possible.
The aisle will have a second row, in which tall tomatoes should be planted at a distance of 60 cm and also lead them to 1 stalk. Between these rows, tomatoes of standard superdeterminant varieties need to be planted at a distance of approximately 25 cm. If, with this form of planting, all plants lead to 1 stalk, then an ultra early harvest will be obtained, but there will be relatively few tomatoes. If they are formed in 2-3 stalks, then there will be more tomatoes, but they will sing later. When using such a scheme in the greenhouse 6x3 m, 35-40 early ripening, 30 determinant and 15 indeterminant tomatoes can be placed simultaneously.
Not overgrown seedlings
To plant in a polycarbonate greenhouse, tomato plants that are about 1.5 months old are excellent. They should be strong, with thick stems and with 8-12 true dark green leaves, well developed roots. The height of tomato plants should be about 30-35 cm, not more.
The sequence of actions when planting normal, not overgrown, tomato seedlings:
- To make the process of extracting tomatoes from planting tanks easier, the plants should be watered shortly before planting.
- Under the seedlings prepare the wells, which are arranged according to the chosen scheme, depending on the type of tomato (determinant or indeterminant).
- When planting, fertilizers (mineral or organic) are not applied if they were added during soil preparation.
- Each well is watered well, and then planted in it one tomato strictly vertically.
- Planting tomatoes should be done carefully, so as not to destroy the clod of earth in which the roots are and not accidentally break the stem.
- Each tomato plant is planted in prepared wells and buried 3 cm above the earthy coma. After some time, additional roots will grow on the part of the stalks under the ground, which will only increase the nutritional capacity of the tomatoes.
- Planting density of tomato seedlings is maintained such as is required for the selected variety.
- After placing all the plants in the holes, the seedlings are sprinkled with earth, which is compacted slightly so that the roots of the seedlings better come into contact with the soil.
- For the first couple of days they pritenyut, so they do not suffer from the sun. Then the material used for shading is removed.
After a week or two after planting the seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse, the ground around them must be mulched with straw or hay with a small layer of about 3-5 cm so that the moisture is retained in the soil for as long as possible and less evaporated. This allows you to reduce the frequency of irrigation and thus reduce the humidity of the air inside the polycarbonate greenhouse. This will help to avoid the risk of late blight, which appears especially on plants in conditions of high humidity and sudden temperature changes.
Stretched or overgrown seedlings
Planted stretched or overgrown tomato plants as follows:
- On greenhouse beds make a groove with a depth of about 5-7 cm along the entire length.
- Distribute seedlings reclining on the garden to outline its location.
- If the tomatoes were grown in a pot, then the earthen clod is quite voluminous and in order not to squeeze the stem at the base of the seedlings, an additional groove is made in the groove to fit the clod of earth with the roots.
- Conduct watering warm water separated from chlorine at the rate of 3-4 liters per 1 plant.
- When water is absorbed into an additional depression, an earthy clod with roots is placed in it, the plant is placed lying at an angle of about 30 °.
- That part of the stem, on which the leaves were cut off, is covered with soil.
- Immediately tying up the tomato is not necessary, since it is possible to break the stem, he himself will gradually strive upwards.
Thus, it is possible to plant even very long tomatoes that have had time to outgrow or stretch.
When planting overgrown tomato seedlings monitor compliance with the scheme and density of placement of plants. After all the tomatoes are rooted, the soil around them is mulched.
Caring for tomatoes after planting in the greenhouse
The first watering is carried out on the day of landing in the greenhouse. The second time to water the tomatoes after planting need after 1-1.5 weeks. In the future, watering should be abundant, but not frequent. If you often water the tomatoes, this will entail an increase in humidity, and with it the possibility of infection by fungi. Therefore, it is necessary all the time to monitor your plants and time to notice the first signs of a disease beginning to develop.
As soon as tomatoes have symptoms of fungal infections, watering should stop and immediately take measures to rescue the affected plants: remove those badly affected, and treat all the rest with fungicides. In this case, you may need funds against fungal infections of plants Fundazol, Maxim, Skor.
It is also impossible to overdry land under tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse - in dry soil they grow poorly, slow down the development, become sluggish. After each irrigation, the greenhouse is ventilated. To do this, it must be equipped with ventilation windows, which should be opened after each irrigation to remove excess moisture.
Young tomatoes are fed at the same time as the second irrigation, that is, 2-3 weeks after the seedlings are planted in a polycarbonate greenhouse. At this moment, ready-made complex mineral fertilizers like Agricola, Kemira, etc., will fit very well. Tomatoes can be fed simply with nitrogenous fertilizers of organic or mineral nature, such as saltpeter or slurry.
For tall tomatoes grown in the greenhouse, you will need to put support for subsequent garters. This will need to be done no later than 2 weeks after the day of planting, otherwise the bushes may break under their own weight. For low-growing tomatoes, support is not required: they branch well, that is, grow in width and not in height.
When the first stepchildren appear on the tomato bushes, they will need to be removed, but only if the tomatoes are supposed to be grown in one stem. If tomatoes are planned to form in 2-3 stems, then 1 stepchild under the flower brush and 2 above it is left, the rest are cut off.
What is the beginning of the birth of a tomato?
The primary stage of tomato cultivation is the preparation of a polycarbonate greenhouse for planting a tomato, purchasing seeds of the desired variety and sprouting seedlings. It is impossible to acquire a ton of juicy fruits just by throwing seeds into freshly dug earth. Everything is not so simple, because germination of seeds is the very beginning, and you will have to work a lot to get a harvest. This article is designed to help deal with the question of how to plant tomatoes on their own.
How to prepare a house for the growth of a tomato?
Preparing a greenhouse should start with an elementary cleaning. Surely after the winter there was a lot of trash, debris, dust and cobwebs. So wet cleaning just does not hurt. After washing, open the windows and thoroughly dry the greenhouse. And do not underestimate the conduct of disinfection, it is worth it, for example, using a sulfur checker or bleach.
We germinate tomato seeds
The germination of seeds is a significant and serious step, in this phase the most important processes of plant development take place. Strong, healthy seedlings - this is the basic condition for a good "tomato harvest", so you should be quite picky and scrupulous to watch the sprouts.
Seeds are sown in wooden boxes with a special mixture of soil and various minerals (sand, humus, earth, superphosphate), for convenience, this mixture can be bought ready-made. Special feeding for seedlings for this period is not required. Do not forget that the boxes with the future juicy tomatoes should be in a fairly warm, bright room.
At what temperature will the bushes be comfortable? For sprouting seedlings 18 ° C in the afternoon will be quite enough. At night - at least 15 °. Often it is not necessary to water future tomatoes, rather carefully watering at the root at the stage when the first stalks appear, then in a couple of weeks. The last irrigation needs to be carried out before transplanting the seedlings into the greenhouse.
After 35 days, the seedlings will begin to grow actively, at this time the boxes should be turned around, showing the sun all sides of the plant, it is necessary for its uniform germination.
Teach tomatoes to the whims of nature or hardening seedlings
A significant step in the cultivation of tomato seedlings is its hardening. Seeds germinated to sprouts in warmth and comfort gradually “accustom” to other, more capricious weather surprises. What is needed for this? Yes, everything is elementary, just in the room where future tomatoes sprout, you need to slightly open the window, (but carefully, watching the jumps on the thermometer, because the cold can cause harm). Do not forget that well-hardened germinated seeds should acquire a blue-violet hue.
Ростки томата подросли и закалены, но вот тут возникает дилемма: когда высаживать помидоры в теплицу из поликарбоната: подождать тепла, либо сразу по готовности пророщенных семян? Конечно же, в теплице рассаде будет комфортно, однако температурный режим должен держаться под контролем. Необходимо также ориентироваться на то, какие размеры приобрели ростки будущего помидорного куста, если их высота достигает 20-25 см, объём стебля — 5-7 мм, а проросших листочков от 5 до 8 штук, это свидетельствует о готовности к посадке.
Итак, первичная ступень выращивания помидор благополучно завершена. Strong, transplanting seedlings sprouted. At the next stage, we will clarify when to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse and exactly how to do it.
The second stage of planting tomato
The second step is planting tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, which is the basic and most significant process in growing crops.
There are many opinions about which month to do this work. However, there is no exact answer when planting tomatoes in a greenhouse. Here one should take a closer look at the weather conditions, and how ready the tomato sprouts are for the further stage of their growth. The best solution would be to plant tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse around mid or late March.
Before you figure out how to plant tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you need to arm yourself with some knowledge:
- The largest and best-quality tomato sprouts are selected, they are examined, peeled off unsuitable sluggish leaves.
- Before planting seedlings make sure that the soil is heated to at least 12 ° C.
- It should not be planted too deep, the leaves should not be in the ground.
- Careful with fertilizers, because it is necessary to grow high-quality tomatoes, and not a huge overgrown tops.
Features and landing patterns
General features of growing tomatoes were noted above. The time has come to sort out directly how to plant tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, so that the result of labor will delight you with high yields?
At what distance to plant tomatoes? The characteristics of planting a juicy vegetable depend on the size of the “tomato house” allocated for planting. Ideally, the beds are made along the greenhouse so that between them is a small passage. After all, it is necessary to leave free space for convenient movement between tomato bushes. So do not thicken, divide the area evenly, so that the distance between the tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse is sufficient to control their growth, and also to let the tomato bushes grow without interfering with each other.
Let's now take a look at what kind of planting a tomato in a polycarbonate greenhouse is more acceptable. Short-growing varieties, which in the process of growth may have two or even three stalks, are planted in the order of chess. Do not forget to retreat about 60 cm between rows of such seedlings, and between bushes up to 40 cm. Single stem tomatoes can be planted thicker, leaving a gap of 25 cm. Tall varieties of this vegetable crop need the most space for a “settlement” in the garden, such bushes are planted already 70 cm between each other.
Do not forget to care for plants
Knowing how and when to plant tomatoes is only half the battle. Changing weather, insects, various diseases - all this can prevent the "tomato bush" to produce a good harvest in the future, but if you regularly take care of the seedlings, these troubles can be avoided. Regular care for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse will help them to survive in difficult environmental conditions. It is worth trying a little, and after a couple of months, the grown fruits will delight with a large crop and excellent taste. Definitely such a difficult matter, as growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, takes a lot of strength and energy.
Do not forget to water the tomatoes
Watering is probably the most common and well-known rule for everyone who has ever encountered the cultivation of any plants. However, there are several features of how to “water” tomato bushes. After planting, irrigation is strictly prohibited, otherwise you can simply “wash” or damage the seedless sprout from the ground. You must wait at least 10 days. Watering the roots, watching so that the leaves on the bush are not wet, it is best to carry out this procedure in the evening, in cool, but not cold weather.
Now let's talk about feeding
Tomatoes need not only water, for a good ripening they need many different elements (for example, molybdenum, boron, iron, zinc, manganese, honey). In order not to delve into the complex chemical calculations and preparations, you can simply buy ready-made mixture for feeding tomatoes. After 15 days after the planting of tomato sprouts, they are already beginning to be slowly fed.
The main feed should be carried out when the leaves start to grow actively and the stem grows stronger. In this phase of its growth, the plant requires potassium, so it is best to fertilize the bushes with a mixture of potassium sulfate and water. In this solution, you can add a special "dressing from the store." Fertilize tomatoes need once a week.
Tomato garter in polycarbonate greenhouse
The garter of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse is important; it is this one that helps the tomato sprout not to break on the very first day of its new “transplanted” life. Let's take a closer look at how to tie up tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, so as not to harm their growth in the future. It is possible to carry out a garter already 3-4 days later after landing of sprouts. This procedure is most often required for tall varieties, the tied tomato bush will not break, water will not get to the fruit when watering, and this, in turn, will prevent their rotting. The main condition of the procedure is accuracy, because the stem of a tomato bush is very fragile. It is necessary to choose soft matter for the garter, so as not to pass it on during the procedure.
Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse: video
After planting the tomatoes need to provide good care. All activities should be carried out on time, as a delay can lead to death or illness of landings.
For a better rooting tomato, after planting, they do not water 6-8 days. By the time of watering, the plants will start new roots and grow.
Watering tomatoes should be plentiful and regular: in May, 1-2 times a week, in June, 2-3 times.
When the weather is hot during the fruit ovary, watering is done daily. Water should not fall on the leaves and stems, it leads to the development of disease. Water needs to be taken as separated, not cold.
During and after irrigation the greenhouse is aired. With the onset of heat, the vents and doors open fully. Humidity in the greenhouse should not rise above 70%. With a higher humidity in tomatoes, the pollination and ovary of the fruit worsens, and diseases develop. The air temperature in hot weather should be 24-27 degrees, in cloudy weather 18-21, at night 16-17 degrees.
After watering, soil is loosened and weeds are removed.
For 7 days after planting the seedlings of tomatoes, along the rows at a height of 2 meters, trellis to tighten the bushes is stretched. Twine is tied under a 1-2 sheet. As the plants grow, the string is twisted around the stem. It should not be strongly stretched, as this leads to the chafing of the skin of the tomatoes or even breakage of the stems. The plants weaken and start to hurt.
Tying tomatoes in greenhouse: video
Fertilizers need 4-5 times during the season. The first feeding is carried out in 2-3 weeks after planting, the next - before the start of flowering, fruit ovary and pouring fruit. Fertilizers are applied approximately every 2-3 weeks. Organics alternate with mineral supplements.
As organics, infusions of mullein, chicken manure, or nettle infusion are used.
The first feeding is made in 2-3 weeks after transplanting tomatoes. 50 grams of Agricola Vegeta and 25 grams of nitrophoska are diluted in a bucket of water. On a plant the liter of ready top dressing is spent.
The second feeding is made in 1.5-2 weeks. In a bucket of water, 50 grams of Effekton-O and 25 grams of Agricola are diluted. Everything is stirred. 5 liters of solution are spent per square meter.
Instead of this feeding you can take an infusion of mullein or chicken droppings, diluted in water 1:10.
The third feeding is carried out in 2 weeks. 25 grams of superphosphate and 50 grams of Agricola Forward are diluted in a bucket of water.
The fourth feeding is made in 2 weeks. In a bucket of water, 25 grams of superphosphate and 25 grams of potassium sulfate or 50 grams of Agricola are diluted. 3-4 liters of well-mixed solution is enough for 1 square meter of beds.
The fifth feeding of tomatoes is carried out in 2 weeks. In a bucket of water, 50 grams of Effectan-O are diluted. 5 liters of solution is enough for 1 square meter of landings.
When to plant? Optimum landing times
In a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, the harvest of tomatoes can be obtained much earlier than in a film greenhouse, not to mention open ground. But only if you comply with all agrotechnical requirements of cultivation, and in the first place - to adhere to the optimal terms for planting.
When growing tomatoes in greenhouses of various designs, you need to adhere to the following planting dates:
- in an unheated film greenhouse with one film layer - in the second half of May,
- in the warmed film greenhouse with a double film layer - after May 5,
- in an unheated polycarbonate greenhouse - in the last decade of April.
These terms are only indicative, and specific dates depend on the region of cultivation. For the southern regions, they can be shifted 1-2 weeks earlier, and for the north - 1.5-2 weeks later.
In addition, in the case of an unheated polycarbonate greenhouse, it is necessary to take into account the degree of soil freezing. In severe winters without additional shelter in such greenhouses, the soil freezes through much more than even in film greenhouses.
There is a simple explanation for this: the film is usually removed for the winter, and a blanket of snow covers the ground. The snow does not fall inside the polycarbonate greenhouse, but frost penetrates, so the soil freezes more strongly. But this is easily avoided if the ground inside the greenhouse is covered with a thick layer of straw or hay.
In a heated polycarbonate greenhouse, tomatoes can be grown year round. But it is believed that the best yields are those gardeners who do not violate the biological cycle of plant development, planting them in the spring.
Unlike an open garden, in a polycarbonate greenhouse, plants begin their life cycle under conditions of relatively high temperature and humidity. In addition, the space in the greenhouse is limited by its size, so it is impossible to establish high-quality crop rotation in such conditions.
Plants have to be planted for several years either at the same place, or in the neighborhood of it. This circumstance requires the obligatory observance of certain “safety rules” in relation to the soil.
In the spring, 15-20 days before planting tomatoes, you need to remove the top 10-12 cm of soil from a tomato bed in a greenhouse and replace it with a new soil substrate. For a greater guarantee, the bed should be disinfected with a solution of blue vitriol (1 tbsp of the preparation per 10 l of water), and after the disinfection is completed, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse.
Then, 7–10 days before planting, the prepared bed should be dug up, buried in the soil with humus. It is impossible to fertilize a tomato bed with fresh manure in a greenhouse, otherwise the plants will "heal" and you will not get a good harvest from them.
For growing in a greenhouse, it is better to choose tall (indeterminant) varieties. Due to the great strength of growth, they are able to form the fruit for 1.5-2 months, so the yield is much higher than the low-growing ones.
It makes sense to grow undersized early-maturing varieties directly near the walls of the greenhouse, where the tall ones have no place to “overclock”. Subsequently, after harvesting, this space can be used for the cultivation of radish and various greenery.
If you have to make a choice between a variety and a hybrid, in a greenhouse it is better to give preference to a hybrid - it has better immunity to diseases than the variety, and the yield is much higher.
Also, when choosing, it is necessary to pay attention to whether the variety of your choice is recommended for growing in conditions of closed ground. If a variety or hybrid can be grown only in open ground, then in greenhouse conditions it will be of little use.
General landing rules
Regardless of the variety selected, there are several general rules for planting tomato bushes in a greenhouse:
- As in the open garden, it is better to plant the seedlings on an overcast day - this way it will take root more easily in a new place. If you have to do it under the sun, then it is better to perform the landing before sunset. This time gives two advantages at once: the soil warms up well during the day, and the relatively low night temperature will give the planted plants time to get used to the new conditions a little, to acclimatize.
- When planting, the root system of plants must be completely covered with earth. Before planting, the seedbed leaves are carefully removed from the plants. Yellowed leaves also need to be removed, so that along with the seedlings do not put on the garden any infection. After the plant, the soil around each plant is compacted, and the resulting shallow holes are filled with fresh earth. Planted plants for preventive purposes are treated with preparations from phytophtoras.
- Having finished planting, plants need to be plentifully watered at the root - from 1 to 1.5 liters of water for each plant. Moisture plants should be enough for a whole week, because more watering all this time should not be. And in the future with watering in the greenhouse it is better not to abuse it: they should not be frequent, but abundant. In contrast to open ground, it is better to water plants in the greenhouse in the morning.
Create optimal conditions
It is not enough in time and to plant the seedlings correctly - it is also necessary to provide it with optimal conditions for growth and development. For this there are general requirements for the arrangement of greenhouses, incl. and polycarbonate.
First of all, the greenhouse needs to be built in a place well-lit by the sun. The lack of sunlight will inevitably lead to the fact that the plants will grow weakened and will not give a good harvest. Also, although this refers to a greenhouse made of polycarbonate to a lesser extent than a film one, it is better to be safe and choose a place protected from drafts and the north wind.
When building a greenhouse, it is necessary to solve the issue of ventilation of the room.
To do this, it is necessary to provide opening windows in the construction, and in the greenhouse made of polycarbonate, taking into account the heat preservation properties of this material, it is desirable to additionally provide for the possibility of opening one of the walls. This will allow, if necessary, quickly and accurately ventilate the greenhouse.
Also, it is necessary to provide high quality watering and illumination of plants grown in the greenhouse. For the backlight is usually used fluorescent fluorescent lamps, connecting them to the network if necessary.
To organize watering inside the greenhouse it is better to install a water tank, and in advance, 2-3 days before watering, fill it. This will allow the plants to be watered with separated water at room temperature. Use cold water for irrigation in the greenhouse is absolutely impossible.
Planting schemes seedlings
Planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse has significant differences from planting in open ground. And the most important of these differences is the limited space of the greenhouse, in which the price of each piece of land is very high.
Therefore, tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate should be planted according to a specific algorithm, based on the biological characteristics of the cultivated varieties. When grown in one greenhouse and stunted, and tall varieties of tomatoes stunted planted under the walls, and tall - closer to the center of the greenhouse, where they will have more room to grow.
Seedlings in the greenhouse should be planted only after the soil temperature warms up to 15 °. The optimum height for transplanting is 25-30 cm of tomato seedlings. When transplanting, the root system of the plants must be very carefully handled: the less it is injured during transplantation, the easier and faster the plant will take root in the new place.
To prevent injury to the roots, the seedlings are watered abundantly within 24 hours before planting. When planting, add 1 tsp of superphosphate to each well or 1 tbsp. spoon wood ash.
If during transplantation you do not soak the roots of plants in a growth stimulator, then it is better to plant the plants together with the earthy clod - this also protects the root system from injuries and contributes to a better survival of the plants.
Seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse are planted directly, necessarily observing the optimal distance between adjacent plants. Low-growing varieties of tomatoes are usually planted thicker, tall - less. Information about the variety and recommendations for planting manufacturers usually put on the packaging of seeds - be sure to read them before planting.
There are several planting schemes for tomatoes in the greenhouse, but in any of them the minimum distance between adjacent bushes should not be less than 30 cm, otherwise the plants simply do not have enough nutrients for their growth and development. The maximum distance should not be made more than 80 cm, otherwise it will be unprofitable to grow tomatoes.
In a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, two tomato transplanting schemes are used: two-row tape and chess. When a two-row ribbon planting scheme, bushes of tomatoes are planted in pairs in rows, at a distance of 30-35 cm in a row and 60-70 cm between the paired rows.
Two paired rows form a ribbon, the length of which can vary arbitrarily, albeit for the entire working length of the greenhouse. The passage between adjacent ribbons is left at 90-100 cm.
При шахматной схеме рассаду высаживают тоже лентами в 2 ряда, но лунки в смежных рядах ленты делают сдвинутыми в отношении друг друга. При использовании этой схемы для выращивания низкорослых сортов томатов расстояние между кустами в ряду — 40-50 см, расстояние между рядами — 50-60 см.
Первая лунка во втором ряду визуально (если посмотреть на ленту сбоку) находится посредине между первой и второй лункой первого ряда. При выращивании высокорослых томатов расстояние оставляют чуть шире: между кустами в ряду — 60 см, а между рядами — 75-80 см. The distance between the ribbons in both cases is left at 90-100 cm.
Care for transplanted seedlings
It is both easier and more difficult to care for plants in greenhouse conditions than in open ground.
It is easier - because the tomatoes in the greenhouse are reliably protected from weather disturbances: heavy rain, hail, squally wind, sudden temperature fluctuations, etc.
And it is more difficult - because you have to work indoors, in conditions of high temperature and high humidity.
A high yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse is impossible without timely:
- prevention of the appearance of diseases and pests on plants.
As in the open field, in the greenhouse, you also need to regularly loosen the soil and remove the extra stepchildren.
Features of watering in the greenhouse
The soil in the greenhouse dries slower than outdoors. This is facilitated by a stable temperature and humidity. Therefore, less water is needed in the greenhouse, and there is no specific schedule. On average, it turns out that it is necessary to water tomato beds with an interval of 5-6 days.
It is necessary to make the decision on carrying out watering, proceeding from a condition of soil. When it starts to dry out, it is necessary to water it, but as long as there is enough moisture in the soil, watering is not required - in greenhouse conditions, water stagnation at the roots for tomatoes is as destructive as overdriedness of the soil.
If you have installed a capacious water tank in the greenhouse, then the most effective way to get high yields of vegetables, without particularly bothering with watering, is to organize drip irrigation in the greenhouse.
If you water the plants manually, then periodically you will have to loosen the soil, because after carrying out 2-3 irrigations, it “clogs up”, becomes dense and does not allow water and air to pass to the plant roots.
Top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Since, when planting seedlings in a greenhouse, mineral or organic fertilizers are usually added to each well, the first 2-3 weeks after transplanting plants do not need additional feeding. The first feeding is carried out 15-20 days after transplanting. In 10 liters of water, 25 g of nitrogen, 40 g of phosphate and 15 g of potash fertilizer are diluted. The prepared solution is enough for feeding 10 bushes - about 1 liter of solution for each bush.
The second time the plants are fed during mass flowering. For this feeding, it is better to use organic fertilizers: a solution of mullein (1:10) or chicken manure (1:20) with the addition of 1 cup of wood ash or 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium sulfate. 10 l of this solution is enough to feed 7-10 bushes of tomatoes.
The third feeding is carried out during the formation of ovaries. To carry it out, 2 liters of wood ash and 10 g of boric acid are dissolved in 10 liters of heated water and allowed to stand for a day, after which the plants are fed - 1 l of solution for each bush.
Some gardeners spend 4 more feeds - during active fruiting. To prepare the working solution in 10 liters of water dissolve 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate and 1 tbsp. a meadow of liquid sodium humate. According to them, such dressing contributes to the speedy ripening of fruits and improves their taste.
Solving the issue of feeding, you need to remember that when grown in a greenhouse, tomatoes are better to underfeed a little, than to overfeed. The final decision on fertilizing needs to be made taking into account several factors: tomato precursors and fertilizers applied under them, the current state of the plants, etc.
Pollination of plants
While growing tomatoes in open ground, this problem does not arise: plants are pollinated with the help of wind and insects. In the conditions of the greenhouse, where neither wind nor insects are present, it is necessary to help the plants to pollinate.
The easiest way to use the fan, which will "drive" the air, picking up pollen and transferring it to neighboring plants. The fan does not have to be powerful: you can walk along the ribbon with growing plants with a small domestic fan, the main thing is that the length of the electric cable is enough for this. If there is no fan, then it is possible to carry out artificial pollination by gently shaking flowering tomato stems.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse are in one, two, a maximum of three stems, ruthlessly removing all the extra stepchildren. If this is not done, in a short time the tomato garden in the greenhouse will turn into impassable jungle, between which there will be very few fruits. Pasynki is better to remove, while they are small - 3-5 cm in length, then the plants will more easily transfer this procedure.
To get a high yield of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is not enough just to plant healthy seedlings in it. Only correct, scrupulous care, with the observance of all elements of agricultural cultivation, will be the foundation of a truly rich harvest.
How to prepare a polycarbonate greenhouse for planting tomatoes
Many gardeners prefer polycarbonate greenhouses, as they allow you to create the best conditions for plants. Preparing a greenhouse with a coating of polycarbonate is not much easier than a similar film variant. The fact is that polycarbonate greenhouses are one-piece complexes that have built-in ventilation and ventilation windows.
As part of preparing the greenhouse, the transparent polycarbonate walls should be thoroughly washed with water with the addition of antiseptic detergents. This will allow pathogenic spores of fungi and other organisms to be removed from the walls, which can later cause various diseases of tomatoes.
One of the most crucial moments of preparing a greenhouse for planting seedlings is the formation of the correct soil mixture. For tomatoes, it is very important that the soil be well hydrated and full of substances necessary for normal growth and development of plants. One of the advantages of the polycarbonate greenhouse complex is the ability to independently create the optimal soil mixture.
The best for growing tomatoes is sandy soil, but if desired, other types of soil can be made more suitable for this plant. Depending on the type of soil available on the site, which will be taken as a basis, it is necessary to contribute 1 m 2:
- in clay soils - 1 bucket of humus and peat,
- peat soils - 1 bucket of shavings, sod soil, humus and about half a bucket of coarse sand,
- in black soil - 1 bucket of humus, as well as ½ bucket of coarse sand
Improving the composition of the soil for further planting of tomatoes is not all that is needed to obtain a high-quality crop. It is very important during the preparation of the soil mixture to immediately add the required amount of fertilizer to create the optimal nutrient medium for the plants. Mineral fertilizers need to be added to the soil mixture very carefully, because their excess can cause the development of some diseases. Many agricultural technicians recommend adding approximately 3 tsp to the soil mixture as part of preparing it for planting tomatoes per square meter. ammonium nitrate and about 3 tbsp. l superphosphate. In addition, wood ash should be added to the soil, which is very rich in the elements necessary for tomatoes at all stages of their growth and development.
Seeding technology for growing seedlings
The possibility of growing seedlings in a greenhouse depends on the presence of additional heating in it, as well as on the climatic conditions in a particular area. Usually growing seedlings from seeds for a polycarbonate greenhouse begins at the end of February, and the soil mixture for this can be used the one that was prepared for the greenhouse. It is very difficult to select the best varieties of tomatoes for the greenhouse, as currently their number is huge.
Selecting the best varieties of tomato seeds, you need to pay attention to many aspects, including the existing climatic conditions, the size of the fruit, the height of the bushes of adult plants, etc.
Planting seeds directly into the soil in a greenhouse that does not have additional heating can lead to late shoots, which is not very convenient. It is best to collect the soil mixture in small cups or pots, and then place them on a warm balcony or on a heated veranda.
Planting of seeds is carried out in soil heated to at least 17 ° C, generously watered with water. To deepen the seeds of tomatoes for growing seedlings is to a depth of no more than 1 cm. In some videos, planting seeds to produce tomato seedlings is done in a snail, but this method often allows getting quite late shoots, and in addition, there is a high risk of damage to the roots when transplanting plants.
As a rule, during the first 3 weeks the seeds only hatch, but at the same time the active phase of the seedling development is not observed. At this time, it is necessary to irrigate the soil from time to time to keep it moist. If the seeds were planted correctly and there is enough light for the first shoots, then in the next 2-3 weeks an increase in the growth and development rate of the plants is observed.
Around the end of April - the beginning of May, the seedlings, with the right care, reach about 25–30 cm in height and have a rather thick stem and a formed leaf crown. At this time, the seedlings are ready for transplanting into the greenhouse.
Planting seedlings and care for her
Growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse actually begins with transplanting. Tomatoes should be planted after the air in the greenhouse complex starts to warm up to 15 ° C and higher, since this is enough to prevent the plants from suffering if spring night frosts take place.
Despite the fact that any gardener can independently determine how to plant tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is still better to make the beds so that they stretch from south to north, since in this case the tomatoes will be given the best conditions in terms of lighting. The row spacing of the beds for tomatoes should be at least 1 m. Considering that most gardeners prefer inderminant varieties of tall tomatoes, which bear fruit throughout the summer season, you need to take care of arranging supports for plant garters, and taking into account the fact that some varieties of tomatoes reach more than 2.5 m in length.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, seedlings should be planted on a warm, cloudy day at a permanent place to put a minimum of stress on it. Seedlings of tall varieties should be planted at a distance of at least 70 cm from each other, so that the plants do not compete with each other. After planting seedlings will be made, you need to water the plant.
Caring for tomatoes in the next 2 weeks does not imply any special events.
It is very important to monitor soil moisture and temperature in the greenhouse. At the end of the first two weeks of adapting the seedlings to a new place, the first addition of nitrogen and potash fertilizers is carried out, and mixtures specially intended for tomatoes can be used. The second top dressing when growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse takes about 15-20 days. The best periods for easing are in the early morning and late evening.