Tomatoes are very picky vegetables, especially if they are grown in greenhouses. In this case, in order to fully care for them, it is necessary to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse with mineral fertilizers. And here they will need both organic and complex. In order for you to do everything right, in this article we will answer such questions - what exactly tomatoes need, how to use it all correctly and what should be taken into account.
Necessary micro and macronutrients
In order for tomatoes to bear fruit well, they need to be nourished with various macro- and microelements. The most important are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. With a lack of the first, the development of the vegetative system slows down or stops altogether, the yield decreases, the leaves turn yellow and the roots weaken.
If the plant lacks phosphate fertilizers, then it does not tolerate cold and does not resist various pests. This is especially noticeable in the period of growing seedlings.
An important role is played by the deficiency of potassium, which occurs mainly during fruiting. Tomatoes need this element much less than others. It is necessary to improve the taste, strengthen the root system and stems, accelerate the formation of ovaries and leaves. Magnesium and zinc regulate photosynthesis, the formation of chlorophyll, and it depends on molybdenum and calcium whether the leaves curl and shrink.
Potassium deficiency in tomatoes is clearly visible on the leaves
You also need to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse with preparations with sulfur, iron and manganese, with insufficient intake of which the stems become thin and fragile, the leaves become stiff, begin to wilt and dry. Very often on the leaves you can find bright yellow streaks, which are somewhat reminiscent of a viral mosaic.
Under the conditions of closed ground, the need of tomatoes for chlorine and calcium increases by 2 times. These micro-and macronutrients intensively absorbed by the plant in low light and high humidity. In case of their deficiency, the leaves are characterized by a mosaic yellow-green color and the top of the plant is unnaturally bent, which may indicate the development of late blight.
Table of sources of micro-and macroelements
All the proposed fertilizers can be used both individually and in combination with each other. For convenience, ready-made inorganic compositions are sold - “Master”, “Nitroammofosk”, “Ammophos”, “Tseovit”, “Valagro Benefit”, “Kelik Kaliy” and many others. others
When to use - fertilizer application procedure
It is necessary to divide the work into 4 stages:
- Before planting it is watered abundantly in the soil and fertilized with a mixture of ash and manure. Then, when the earth dries out, it is well digged. A week later, the first dressing of tomatoes is carried out after planting in the greenhouse under the roots. At this time, you can use urea and ammonium nitrate. In a bucket of water is dissolved in 2 tsp. each component.
Ammonium nitrate is a mandatory component of foliar and root dressings
- The second time fertilizers are applied 2 weeks after the first feeding. Potassium sulfate diluted in 10 liters of water will be useful here. After another 5 days, the following composition should be poured under the roots:
- 15 liters of cooled boiling water,
- 2 tbsp. l superphosphate
- 2 tbsp. l wood ash.
- After the beginning of flowering, it is recommended to spray the bushes with this solution:
- 10 liters of water
- 2 tsp. sodium humate powder,
- 2 tbsp. l nitrofoski.
On 1 square. m will need approximately 5 liters of composition. Then a break is made until the time when the first fruits appear. At this point, you should use "green" organic - an infusion of herbs. To prepare it, comfrey comfrey, buttercup, dandelion or any other plants with a total weight of 1 kg pour boiling water and let them stand for 2-3 days. Every day, stir the mass, and when it ferments, strain it and pour the solution into the wells.
Herbal dressing for tomatoes - green organic
- After the start of fruiting, the introduction of mineral fertilizers under the roots remains relevant. You can see what exactly is suitable here in the table a little higher. To strengthen the plant and increase its resistance to diseases 2-3 times a month, it is useful to use iodine (40 drops) in combination with 1 liter of serum and 1 tsp. hydrogen peroxide. This composition and sprayed bushes.
How to conduct dressing
For irrigation of the soil during the growing season, ready-made preparations help well. One of these is “Fitosporin-M”, intended for disinfecting the soil. Such top dressing of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate and other materials prevents the development of powdery mildew, root rot, blackleg and other diseases. To this end, dilute 3 tsp in 10 l of water. powder, the resulting volume is enough to process an area of 50 square meters. m
In case of boron deficiency at any stage, spray the bushes with water (10 l), in which 2 g of boric acid are diluted. The same composition can wipe the leaves and water the soil, before that it is heated in the sun. Iodine is suitable for additional nutrition and protection from phytophthora, 10 drops of which are added to 10 liters of water.
Iodine is an excellent way to protect tomatoes from phytophthora
Iodine can also be applied as follows - hang bubbles with it over plants - the vapors of this drug destroy microbes in the greenhouse. In order not to suffer yourself, you can not be in this room for more than an hour in one visit.
During flowering, it is useful to spray the bushes with infusion of wood ash, it (250 g) is poured with hot water (3 liters) and left for a day. The next day, the precipitate is filtered off, and the resulting solution is diluted with water (1: 1). Enough 1-2 such procedures before fruiting.
For feeding on a sheet, the solution from:
- boric acid (5 g),
- zinc sulphate (3 g),
- copper sulfate (2 g).
It is used to wipe leaves with a cotton pad. The same composition is quite possible to spray the bushes. The number of such procedures should not exceed 1 time per month.
For the active development of shoots and leaves it is necessary to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse with urea, but it is possible only at the flowering stage. Shrubs are treated with a 0.5% solution (50 g of fertilizer per 10 l of water). This volume is enough for spraying 100 square meters. m planting tomatoes.
With a lack of calcium, calcium nitrate is useful, 7 g of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. The finished fertilizer can be used for wiping leaves or spraying tops until fruits appear, about 1 l is required per bush. 2-3 treatments are usually enough during the flowering period.
After transplanting, it is advisable to spray it with ammonium nitrate diluted with water at the rate of 40 g per 10 l. During the flowering phase, the concentration increases by 0.2%, and during the fruiting period it is already 0.9%. It is required to conduct 3 such procedures at a specified time, it is recommended to combine them with the introduction of chicken manure into the holes.
VIDEO: Simple and inexpensive recipes for feeding tomatoes
Both ready-made preparations and mineral fertilizers are suitable for this.
It is produced in a dry form and is relevant only in the first month after transplanting. Application rate - 25 g per square meter. m in the greenhouse. Pellets lay around the hole, sprinkled with earth and watered.
The drug (20 g) is dissolved in 10 l of water. To help him, it is enough to water the soil once a week. You can not combine this method with the use of organic!
It contains all existing micro and macro elements. For their absorption by the plant, it is necessary to water it with a solution of 20 g of product + 15 liters of water. The frequency of the procedure - no more than 1 time per week.
Consumption rates - 25 g per bucket of medium size water. This volume is enough to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse was carried out on 20 square meters. m landing area. It is carried out throughout the growing season with an interval of 10 days.
It is used in pure form for spraying and watering the soil. Boron, iron, molybdenum, manganese and other macro- and microelements are present in the composition, due to which plant growth is actively stimulated. It is not necessary to process it more than once a month.
The first watering is done with a 0.05% solution 15 days after transplanting, and the next two more, with an interval of 3 weeks. Here the concentration should be increased by 2 times.
Once a month of mineral fertilizers it is recommended to use a mullein, which (1 l) is diluted in water (10 l), interfere and poured under the roots of a bush. Water the land after that can be the next day. It also helps dry manure, it is evenly distributed in the beds and leave for decomposition.
To strengthen the root part, accelerate photosynthesis and improve the taste of fruits, you can combine several different fertilizers. Here are the best recipes:
- In the infusion of mullein (1 l) add nitrophoska (20 g).
- Combine 8 g of potassium sulfate, 15 g of superphosphate and 0.3 l of infusion of chicken manure.
- Mix 200 grams of wood ash, 0.7 liters of liquid mullein and 20 grams of superphosphate.
- In 1 liter of infusion of any herbs, add 5 g of copper sulfate and 250 ml of ash.
The prepared composition is poured directly under the roots of the plant with a ladle in the morning or evening. It is imperative that when the tomatoes are fed in a polycarbonate greenhouse or other material, the day is not very sunny, but rain is not expected. The number of procedures is no more than 2 per month.
The number of root additions can be increased up to 5 times in 2 months if the bush is affected by aphids and other pests.
Separate attention deserves feeding of tomatoes with yeast, which can be carried out not earlier than 10 days after transplantation of seedlings into the ground. To do this, follow this recipe - combine dry yeast (10 g), chicken manure (0.3 l), water (8 l) and sugar - 25 g. Since this composition cannot be used in its pure form, dilute it with 1 to 10 with water and using a watering can with a sieve, pour the fertilizer in a circle. It is a great growth stimulant! If necessary, repeat the procedure after 2 weeks. This time double the amount of chicken manure.
Top dressing from yeast and sugar for a tomato can be even more useful if you add ascorbic acid to the mixture - just 2 grams to the solution
And the last option - dropping dolomite flour near the bush. At 1 hectare with acidity less than 4.5%, 20 kg is enough. Fertilizer is distributed around the plant and immersed to a depth of about 5 cm. Consider that the more acidic the soil, the more it is needed.
Now you know how to properly feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse, what is needed for it and how to combine all this correctly. This procedure should be included in the care of greenhouse tomatoes, because, growing them in conditions of low light, high humidity, lower temperature, they need much more of your attention and care. Only in this way can you please yourself with a truly good and tasty harvest!
VIDEO: The secret of productive tomatoes
Top dressing after disembarkation
The first feeding of greenhouse tomatoes is carried out 10 days after planting - this period is necessary for the plants to become accustomed to new conditions. The main task of early fertilizers is to stimulate the development of vegetable crops and to strengthen the emerging root system. To do this, still weak tomatoes need to be fed with nitrogen-containing compounds:
- Based on mullein. Recipe: 1 liter mullein, 1 tbsp. superphosphate, 80 g of ash - 10 liters of water. First, all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed, and then they fertilize the soil directly under the tomatoes with a prepared solution: 0.5 liters of product per bush.
Important! Before feeding, the ground in the greenhouse must be watered so that the roots of the tomatoes do not get burned when they come into contact with the fertilizer.
- Based on green tea. Recipe: 5 kg of young green grass, 10 liters of mullein, 200 g of ash per 50 liters of water. First, the grass should be finely chopped and put in a barrel, then it should be added to mullein and ash - all components are filled with water and mixed. The barrel with the received contents is hermetically tightened with a film and left to infuse for two weeks on the sunny site. At the end of the designated period, add another 50 liters of water to the composition and begin root feeding: 2 liters of fertilizer per bush.
- Based on chicken manure. Recipe: 1 kg of fermented liquid manure (insisted for at least 7 days) - 10 liters of water. Chicken solution should be made under the very roots of tomatoes according to the scheme: 1 l of funds for 1 bush. It is desirable that the composition does not fall on the stem and leaflets of tomatoes.
After the first round of feeding, greenhouse plants should not be fertilized for 10 days, so as not to provoke an oversupply of nutrients.
Food during the flowering period
When tomatoes begin to bloom, their need for feeding changes somewhat - at this stage they do not need nitrogen, but phosphorus and calcium, as they provide abundant formation of ovaries. During the flowering period, tomato plants are recommended to be fed with such solutions:
- Based on yeast. Recipe: 10 g yeast, 2 tbsp. sugar, water. First, the yeast and sugar are mixed and infused for a couple of hours. Then the composition is diluted with warm water in compliance with the ratio of 1 to 10. The finished solution should be made under the roots of tomatoes at the stage of budding and disclosure of the first flowers.
- Based on milk. Recipe: 2 liters of milk, 30 drops of iodine - 8 liters of water. The solution is used for foliar feeding of plants - the bushes can be sprayed either in the morning or in the evening, but always in the absence of a bright sun.
- Based on superphosphate. Recipe: 4 tbsp. superphosphate - 2 liters of water. The powder is poured with well heated water and kept for at least 10-12 hours - the fertilizer must be completely dissolved. Then the finished composition is diluted with warm water in an approximate ratio of 1 to 10. Superphosphate solution is used for foliar spraying - they should be sprayed and flowers, and leaves, and ovaries of tomatoes. At the same time it is recommended to process plants only in the evening and only once during the flowering period of tomato bushes.
Top dressing during fruiting
Feeding tomatoes in the process of their fruiting is extremely important for three reasons: fertilizers contribute to the active ripening of fruits, significantly improve their taste and increase the volume of the crop. To achieve these goals, the following solutions are used:
- On the basis of nitrophoska. Recipe: 2 tbsp. nitrofoski, 2 tsp sodium humate (dry) - 20 liters of water. The ingredients are mixed and the resulting solution is poured at the very roots of the bushes in the proportion of 5 liters of fertilizer per 1 sq.m. ground.
- Based on superphosphate. Recipe: 1 tbsp. ln dry superphosphate powder, 1 tsp sodium humate (liquid concentration) - 5 liters of water. It is used in the same way as the previous solution, that is, it is placed under the root system of tomatoes: 5 liters per 1 square meter. land.
- Based on mineral fertilizers. Recipe: 1 l of manure, 1 tbsp. any mineral fertilizer of the complex group, 0.5 g of copper sulfate to 5 liters of water. The solution is made exclusively under the root of tomatoes according to the scheme: for a low-growing variety of tomatoes - 1.5 liters per 1 bush, for a tall one - 2-2.5 liters per 1 bush.
- Based on ash. Recipe: 50 g of ash - 2.5 liters of water. First, the ash is diluted in hot water and the resulting solution is allowed to infuse for 5 hours. Next, filter through fine gauze and re-diluted with warm water in an average ratio of 1: 3. The structure is intended for root top dressing of bushes of tomatoes.
Council It is possible to increase the effect of the ash-based fertilizer with the help of iodine - for this you need to add 5 drops of iodine to the solution obtained after the second dilution.
Thus, at each stage of development of tomatoes - after planting in the greenhouse, in the process of flowering and during the period of active fruiting - there are different feeding characteristics. Considering them and regularly providing the plants with essential minerals and trace elements, you can get a good reward for your work - a tasty, healthy and large crop of tomatoes.
Many gardeners and gardeners do not know that macronutrients are the usual NPK group, which includes nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. These elements are necessary for all plants in the garden, in the garden and, of course, in the greenhouse.
Therefore, let us now understand what each element is responsible for, and how it affects the growth and development of the plant.
This macro is needed by plants in order to form a green aboveground part. In this excess of nitrogen leads to the fact that the plant begins to form too many leaves, processes and lateral stems to the detriment of fruiting. The absence of nitrogen leads to the fact that the green part is formed dwarf, the leaves are small and have a nondescript appearance, as if the light does not fall on them.
The element is responsible for the formation of the root system and fruiting. A sufficient amount of phosphorus reduces the time of transition to the formation of fruits, thereby reducing the time from planting to harvest.
Overabundance of phosphorus leads to a lack of zinc, as it prevents the absorption of this trace element.
The most important food element, which is responsible for the resistance of the plant to adverse conditions, contributes to a better and faster maturation of products. It also increases the resistance to fungal diseases, which is very important in a greenhouse.
Эти макроэлементы являются основой минеральных удобрений для томатов в теплице, поэтому они не только взаимосвязаны между собой, но и отыгрывают основную роль в формировании полноценной надземной части и хороших вкусных плодов.
The absence or shortage of one of the elements entails a chain reaction, which ultimately leads to a decrease in yield.
Speaking about mineral fertilizers, we always imagine 3 main components on which growth and development depends, as well as yield. However, these processes are influenced by trace elements, as well as their number.
Of course, their role is not as important as macronutrients, but their absence will affect the general condition of the plant.
Necessary for the synthesis of enzymes, stimulates the development and formation of ovaries. It is also used to treat many diseases, so its introduction in the form of top dressing will help strengthen the immune system.
It plays a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis, so its absence causes the death of leaf plates, which are covered with dry spots.
Responsible for the biosynthesis of vitamins, is involved in metabolism.
The element increases the intensity of the formation of chlorophyll, therefore it is necessary in a small amount throughout the entire growth and development of the plant.
Controls the exchange of macronutrients. Stimulates the fixation of nitrogen in the air.
It is a material for the synthesis of amino acids and in the future - proteins. Plays an important role in the transport of substances inside the plant.
Although calcium is considered by many gardeners to be a trace element, diminishing its importance, its amount in the soil should be the same as the number of macronutrients. Calcium is responsible for plant nutrition, ensuring a normal metabolism.
Features of greenhouse soil
For a gardener who has planted crops in open ground for years, it will be difficult to adapt to the conditions of the greenhouse, as the covered ground requires not only more attention, but also great efforts and financial costs. Next, we will understand what should be the soil in the greenhouse. To begin with, the greenhouse soil requires regular replacement of the upper layer. This is necessary in order to remove pathogens, as well as pests that often winter in the substrate.
However, they can not leave the greenhouse, as it is a closed room. Replacing the soil is needed for the reason that it is exhausted.
If you want to get a good harvest every year, then you need to replace the soil every time with a new, quite fertile one.
Now for the parameters of the substrate. The depth of the humus layer should be at least 25 cm. The acidity of the soil, depending on the crop, should be within strict limits.
Also important is the volume of air. From this indicator depends on how well the roots will be aerated, that is, to breathe. This show should be equal to 20-30%. It is not always possible to start a large amount of chernozem, and for some crops such soil will be unacceptable, so consider the ideal soil mix for greenhouses, which includes leaf, sod, loamy (in small quantities), peat land, as well as soil from an open garden plot and humus .
Sand, sawdust or straw can be added to the composition - the main thing is that the soil should be loose, light and fertile.
What fertilizers do tomatoes need?
Regardless of how fertile the substrate fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse play an important role, so feeding must be carried out.
Speaking about what fertilizers tomatoes need, it is worth remembering what we wrote at the beginning of the article. Any plant needs both organic and mineral water, so, in fact, it will be necessary to feed everyone, but in different doses and quantities.
It is worth noting that the tomato "pulls out" more potassium and nitrogen from the soil, but a sufficient amount of phosphorus is needed to form large and tasty fruits.
This element is best made in the form of granular superphosphate, so that the maximum part of the element is available to the plant in the desired simple form.
Very much also depends on nitrogen and potassium, but these are the elements that, as mentioned above, are absorbed most quickly and best by the plant, so it’s certainly not worth over-saturating the soil with them, otherwise you will get “two-meter-long” bushes where tomatoes will ripen with cherry and will be a concentrate of nitrates.
In order for the plant to receive nitrogen in the most “comfortable” form, it is better to use ammonium nitrate or another ammonia variant. It turns out that before picking the plants into the greenhouse, we need to purchase the main macronutrients in the form described above, to purchase a small amount of organic matter, as well as several packages with trace elements that are used specifically for tomatoes.
Mineral or organic fertilizer?
Tomatoes should receive a variety of top dressing when grown in a greenhouse, therefore, it is difficult to say what is more important - organic matter or mineral water, but we will try to figure it out.
So, we found out that without mineral fertilizers, our tomatoes, even being high-yielding, will not make us happy because they simply will not get those elements that are necessary for growth.
To make it easier to understand, it is worth comparing plant nutrition with human nutrition. Although this is a fairly rough comparison, however, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can be compared with proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
In the process of feeding, we need these elements as well as the plants need an NPK complex.
If a person goes in for sports, he calculates the amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in order to gain an ideal mass, or vice versa - lose those extra pounds. To do this, in addition to the usual food, it consumes special additives, which, like mineral fertilizers, contain only some elements.
At the same time, a person cannot live only on artificial additives, and he still needs good nutrition, just like plants. Tomatoes will not grow only on mineral fertilizers, if they are planted in the sand.
Therefore, culture needs both “mineral water” and a sufficient amount of organic matter, the only question is when organic fertilizer should be applied.
If mineral water is brought in the right form during the growth process, then it immediately “supplies” all the necessary elements to the tomatoes that support growth and development, as well as affect the size of the berries. In this case, organic matter, embedded in the ground, will not give the tomatoes anything until it declines.
As a result, we can conclude that organic matter needs to be laid in the soil at least a quarter before the pickling of the seedlings is performed, so that the fertilizers can decompose into simpler elements available to the crop. It is important to remember that tomatoes do not like a large amount of organic matter. If the soil is heavily “oily” from an oversupply of humus or compost, then such a substrate will be less granular, heavier and, as a result, uncomfortable for tomato.
Top dressing scheme for closed ground
During the season you need to fertilize 3 times:
- The first fertilizer is applied 2 weeks after picking the seedlings for shelter. We need to dilute the following composition in 100 liters of water: 200 g of ammonium nitrate, 500 g of double superphosphate, 100 g of potassium chloride.
- The second dressing needs to be poured at the root at the time of formation of the ovaries. For the same 100 liters, we take 800 g of superphosphate and 300 g of potash nitrate.
- The third dressing is carried out during fruiting. At the same displacement we take 400 g of double superphosphate and 400 g of potash nitrate.
You can also use special complex fertilizers that are designed specifically for feeding tomatoes. Such complexes have a full-fledged balanced composition, which makes it possible to immediately apply all fertilizers, and not to mix, during which you can make a mistake.
Three feeding - this is the minimum from which you want to make a start when growing tomatoes in the greenhouse.
If you produce two or even one dressing, then the effectiveness of fertilizers will decrease significantly, because you, having supported the tomatoes at one stage and increased their needs, will leave them without “food” at other stages.
As a result, the plant will not be able to produce food of green mass and fruit ovaries, because of which it can get sick or give a poor harvest.
Fertilizers in the germination of seeds and growing seedlings
If you buy really high-quality seed, which belongs to productive varieties or hybrids, then you should not carry out any preparatory actions, as this will not do anything.
Firstly, the manufacturer has already carried out decontamination, therefore, it does not make sense to “bathe” the seeds in potassium permanganate, and secondly, the germinating seeds will germinate like this if there is a good substrate, regardless of whether you have first germinated them or not.
The first fertilizer we will make only after the pick. Prior to this, tomatoes will draw all the nutrients from the soil, so prepare a good peat-based substrate for plants.
It is better to use the shop ground, as the street option will in any case have to be steamed to kill all the bacteria and fungi.
15 days after the dive we make the first fertilizer. In order for the plants at the first stage not to experience a shortage of any substances, it is necessary to introduce complex fertilizer, which will include the main NPK complex, as well as all trace elements (the full list is set out below). In this case, be sure to pay attention to the form of microelements, since we need exactly the chelate, and not the sulfate form.
The second option is divided into such substances that are not available for young plants. As a result, the tomatoes will experience starvation, although there will be plenty of top dressing in the soil.
Next, follow the development of plants. If you notice that the tomatoes are stunted, or there is noticeable inhibition in development, then, not earlier than 10 days after the first one, carry out the second dressing.
You can make as a special complex mixture, and your version: 1 g of ammonium nitrate, 8 g of superphosphate and 3 g of potassium sulfate. This composition should be diluted in 1 liter of water. For each bush spend about 500 ml.
Fertilizers when planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse
A day before landing in the greenhouse in the wells you need to make a weak solution of manganese, as well as put a small amount of ash (about 100 g), finely crushed eggshell. Potassium permanganate will help to disinfect the soil, rid it of harmful bacteria and fungi. It is worth noting that we need ash from burnt straw or sunflower, as it is rich in potassium. Another option would be less useful for seedlings.
Please note that it is not possible to apply any mineral fertilizers directly into the hole, since you can seriously harm the root system of tomatoes if it comes into contact with concentrated fertilizer.
For this reason, do not add anything other than the mixtures listed above to the well. Also, do not put humus, and even more so - manure.
How to feed tomatoes after planting in the greenhouse
When planting in a greenhouse, plants in a stressful state should be watered with green infusion, which can be prepared without extra costs.
For the preparation of food, we need fresh chopped green nettle, plantain and other herbs that do not emit dangerous substances (ambrosia, hemlock and similar weeds can not be used). Next, the grass is mixed with wood ash and mullein, mixed well and left for 48 hours. After this, the infusion should be diluted with a large amount of water (at least 1 to 8) and shed every plant. Application rate - 2 l.
Next steps: tomatoes in bloom
We turn to feeding tomatoes in the greenhouse during flowering.
During flowering, our bushes have a serious lack of phosphorus and potassium, but nitrogen is not necessary for tomatoes at this time, so there is no question about any nitrogenous fertilizers.
It should be warned that during flowering to use urea solutions is prohibited, since it contains just a huge amount of nitrogen. Nitrogen during flowering will lead to inhibition of the process and further increase in green mass.
Below we look at nutritional yeast, which is a cheap growth promoter. So, it is the yeast top dressing that is best suited at the flowering stage.
Also excellent result gives treatment with boric acid, which not only activates flowering, but also prevents the shedding of peduncles. To prepare the solution you need to take 10 g of boric acid and dissolve in 10 liters of hot water.
Also, tomatoes after feeding in the greenhouse with boric acid are not affected by phytophthora, as boric acid is used to treat this disease.
You can use standard potash and phosphate fertilizers, which will give a good result.
Do not forget that the greenhouse is a closed room in which there are no drafts and wind, therefore pollination is very bad and slow.
In order to speed up the process and increase the number of ovaries, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse during flowering, and also gently shake the peduncles so that the pollen is picked up by the wind and transferred to other plants.
How to recognize the need for foliar feeding
Immediately it should be said that foliar feeding is good micronutrients, which are required for the plant in small quantities.
The microelements that we described at the beginning of the article are used, but constantly sprinkling all of the above is expensive and meaningless, since an overabundance will also cause problems for the culture.
The twisted tip of the shoots with a yellowed base and brown spots on the fruit are the result of a lack of boron.
The lack of this rather important element is strongly noticeable on the bushes of tomatoes. It all starts with the deformation of the tips of young leaves, after which the surface of the leaf plates begins to dry.
Old leaves grow in size and become darker. Top rot appears on the fruit, which is why they can not last long. With a serious lack of calcium, the growth of the plant is severely inhibited, and the tip begins to die off.
It should be noted that the lack is noticeable on young leaves, and only after that - on old ones.
It also manifests itself as an iron deficiency, however, in the event of a shortage of manganese, yellowing does not begin strictly at the base, but spreads randomly. Only a part of the sheet may turn yellow, while the veinlets will strongly contrast with the rest of the sheet. As you can see, the lack of each element is very pronounced both on the appearance of the bush, and on its growth and development.
Foliar fertilizers to compensate for the deficiency of nutrients
Consider feeding tomatoes in the greenhouse folk remedies.
In addition to factory mineral fertilizers, you can also use home-made fertilizers, which will help your tomatoes quickly gain the right weight and go to the fruit formation stage.
In this case, iodine will have two functions: to accelerate the ripening of fruits and protect tomatoes from late blight. It is best to feed at the time of ripening berries to speed up the process. For the preparation of top dressing, we need a pharmacy alcohol version of iodine. On 100 l of water we drip 40 drops, mix well and spray each bush using 2 l of solution.
It should be understood that fertilizing tomatoes in a greenhouse with iodine is made only at a certain stage and only once or twice, since the plant does not need a plant in large quantities.
Wood ashes contain the whole complex of useful microelements which are so necessary for tomatoes. In this case, the ash can be applied in a dry form or foliar treatment can be done by spraying.
To prepare an aqueous solution of 100 liters of water, you need to take 10 glasses of ash, mix thoroughly and spray the plants. Norm - 1.5-2 liters.
Feeding tomatoes in a greenhouse with ashes can be carried out at various stages of growth and development, however, immediately after pickling, use ash solution is not recommended.
Not all gardeners know why to use ordinary yeast for top dressing. The fact is that this product combines the action of the NPK group, as well as saturates the soil with beneficial microorganisms that strengthen the immunity of plants. По сути, дрожжи работают как дешёвый стимулятор роста.
Чтобы провести для помидор подкормку в теплице дрожжами, нужно приготовить правильный состав.
- Первый вариант. Небольшой пакетик смешивают с 2 ст. l сахара, после чего добавляют тёплую воду в таком количестве, чтобы смесь стала жидкой. Далее раствор добавляют в 10 л воды. Расходуется по 0,5 л на каждое растение.
- Второй вариант. We take a jar of 3 liters, two-thirds filled with black bread and fill to the top with water with dissolved yeast (100 g). We put the bank in a warm place for 3-4 days. After which the infusion is filtered and diluted in 10 liters of water. 500 ml is consumed for a young plant, 2 liters for an adult.
Now you know all about feeding tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or film. Use this information to grow a large number of tasty and healthy tomatoes.
Also remember that oversaturation of the earth with mineral fertilizers leads not only to an increase in yield, but also to a deterioration in taste, as well as an increase in the content of harmful compounds.
Therefore, if you want to continue to sell products, then be careful with the introduction of large doses of certain elements.
Why feed tomatoes after planting
During the season we have to get the volume of the crop declared by the manufacturer, and if we are lucky, even more. Without a well-designed scheme of fertilizing it is unlikely to work. Good results are achieved with the right combination of organic and mineral fertilizers, and the mandatory alternation of root and foliar dressings.
The main long-acting mineral fertilizers are applied during the preparation of the soil for planting, the plant will gradually develop as it grows. Usually contribute to the soil:
- potassium nitrate,
- carbamide (spring).
The rates and combination of ingredients depends on the type of soil and its fertility. A higher concentration of fertilizers when applied to depleted soil. If soil fertility in a greenhouse is restored annually, then fertilizer consumption is standard.
Fertilized soil is good, but 2 weeks after transplanting the seedlings will need to be first fed. It is needed as a healthy plant, and weakened. Signs of healthy, well-established seedlings:
- increase stem by 8-10 cm
- leaf color is bright green,
- thick stalk.
Such seedlings need a new charge of nutrients for the formation of green mass, the development of the root system, the formation of buds.
It is possible that the poor condition of the seedlings after transplantation is caused by the disease. In this case, it is necessary not only to feed, but also to cure the plant with the help of chemical, biological preparations or traditional methods.
How to feed
It is always nice to look at strong tomato seedlings growing very quickly. How to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse to split up a good result. Nutrient assimilation is greatly influenced by the temperature of the soil and air. When it is cold outside, in unheated spring greenhouses it is difficult to maintain a comfortable temperature for tomatoes.
The effect of microclimate on nutrient absorption
On what the temperature in the greenhouse, depends on the intensity of the consumption of seedlings of nutrients from the soil. It is important to know at what temperature the tomato root system stops absorbing nutrients from the soil.
According to experts, an air temperature of 10 ° C should be considered critical if it is kept in the greenhouse for more than 3 days. Young seedlings no longer absorb the nutrients they need.
The soil temperature in the greenhouse is equally important for the good nutrition of young plants. The lower comfort limit is 13 ° C, the upper comfort limit is 25 ° C. It is optimal if there are no sharp differences between day and night temperatures.
What time to carry out feeding
The question of what time to conduct dressing can be understood in two ways. Some ask it, implying at what time of day you need to make fertilizer, others - the phase of development of culture. Both points are important. Morning or evening, when the sun has not set yet, but is drooping, is considered to be the appropriate time of day for additional fertilizing (root, foliar).
The main phases of development, when tomatoes in the greenhouse need additional feeding:
- the first root is after transplantation, when the seedlings are rooted and grown,
- the second is exactly two weeks after the first,
- the third root - a week after the second,
- final - in the period of active formation of the fruit.
Fertilization in liquid form at the root should be combined with spraying the bushes with various mixtures. Extra root dressings are especially effective during flowering period, they improve the process of pollination and formation of ovaries.
In August, sharp daily fluctuations in temperature begin. They contribute to the intensive reproduction of fungi, tomatoes at this time are particularly susceptible to fungal diseases. Foliar nutrition helps to strengthen the immune system, for prevention it is necessary to carry out them at least 2-3 times a month.
Than to feed tomatoes that were plump
The stronger the tomato bush, the greater the chance of getting a good harvest. To shoots of tomato were thick, you need to properly organize the food. Experienced vegetable growers prefer to alternate natural (organic) supplements with the introduction of special chemicals containing a specific set of macro- and microelements.
The first time you need to make complex mineral fertilizers in the soil of the greenhouse at the stage of its preparation for planting seedlings. You can add to the hole fertilizer Master NPK-17.6.8. This preparation contains the correct proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which perform the main functions in the period after transplanting seedlings into the ground:
- restore the necessary balance of nutrients in the soil,
- increase the stress tolerance of tomatoes,
- promote the development of roots
- stimulate the growth of shoots and leaves.
Fertilizer consumption Master per 1 square. m is 100-150 g, the amount depends on fertility and soil composition.
Crystal from planting to harvest
Under the name Crystal, water-soluble complex mineral fertilizers are produced for various vegetables, including tomatoes. When preparing the soil for planting use Crystal special. It has an equal NPK combination - 18:18:18.
During flowering, the formation of ovaries and fruiting apply Crystal universal. These complex fertilizers contain all the nutrients necessary for tomatoes and perfectly replace the classical fertilizers: manure, urea, both during soil preparation and in subsequent phases of development.
The best fertilizer - Kemira Lux
Simple to use complex fertilizer used by many lovers of tomatoes. It is easy to prepare the solution. In a bucket of water you need to dissolve 1 tbsp. l powder. Top-dressing with this fertilizer can be combined with weekly watering of tomatoes in the greenhouse. The composition has everything you need for normal growth and fruiting tomatoes.
Adding an article to a new collection
You do not know how best to feed the tomatoes in the greenhouse? Our detailed article will help you understand this issue.
Even when growing tomatoes in fertile soil can not do without regular dressings. Only proper care of plants, coupled with the timely application of fertilizers will ensure a rich harvest of healthy and beautiful fruits. It is important not to overdo it with doses of fertilizing, otherwise tomatoes can die.
How to feed tomato seedlings before planting
Healthy and strong seedlings - a necessary condition for a good harvest. To the plants to develop properly, before planting in the greenhouse, they need to feed yeast.
Yeast fertilizer is done like this: 1 packet of dry yeast is mixed with 2 tbsp. sugar, pour 1 cup of warm water, mix thoroughly and infuse for 2 hours. After this time, the infusion is diluted at the rate of 0.5 l per 10 l of water and the seedlings are poured over the liquid.
In addition, during the spring digging should prepare the ground for tomatoes in the greenhouse, if you do not have time to do it in the fall. On the beds make 1 bucket of peat and turf land (per square meter). Then add organic fertilizer: 0.5 liters of wood ash, 10 liters of compost or humus and 1 tsp. urea (per square meter).
Before planting seedlings soil should be shed with a solution of potassium permanganate. To this end, 1 g of potassium permanganate is dissolved in 10 liters of hot water (not lower than 60 ° C).
How to feed tomatoes after planting in the greenhouse
In late May - early June, a few days after transplanting, the tomatoes must be fed with a complex fertilizer (containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium).
Excess nitrogen leads to a rapid growth of the vegetative mass to the detriment of ovule formation, therefore at the initial stage of tomato growth it is important not to overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers
In the greenhouse, the humidity level is higher than in open ground, so the processes of absorption of useful elements occur faster. And so that the plant has time to assimilate them, you need to slightly reduce the concentration of fertilizers.
So, experienced gardeners are advised to add to the soil such dressing: 1 tbsp. Nitrofoski and 0.5 liters of mullein diluted in 10 liters of water and poured under each plant in 1 liter of the mixture.
How to feed tomatoes during flowering
During the formation of flowers, it is recommended to feed the tomatoes with such a universal fertilizer as Sudarushka a tomato. It contains the necessary macroelements (nitrogen - 13%, phosphorus - 8%, potassium - 8%), trace elements (zinc - 0.15%, manganese - 2%, cobalt - 0.04%, copper - 0.1%, molybdenum - 0.04%, boron - 1.5%), and there is no chlorine.
1 tsp Fertilizers are dissolved in 10 liters of water and 0.5 liters of the resulting liquid is poured under each plant. This fertilizer not only increases the yield, but also prevents the development of fungal diseases.
If you prefer to cook fertilizer yourself, take 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 0.5 l of bird droppings, dilute in 10 l of water, then add 0.5 l of liquid mullein and pour the resulting mass of tomatoes at the rate of 1 l of fertilizer for each plant.
Also, during the formation of ovaries, it is necessary to conduct foliar feeding. To do this, in the evening or in cloudy weather, spray dry leaves of wood ash over dry leaves. To prepare such a fertilizer, 2 cups of ash pour 2 liters of hot water. Then insist for 2 days, then the precipitate is filtered off. The resulting liquid is brought to 10 l with water and the tops of tomatoes are processed with it.
Many modern greenhouse varieties of tomatoes respond well to foliar nutrition with magnesium sulfate: 15 g of fertilizer is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the tops are sprayed with the resulting liquid, consuming 1.5 liters per square meter. And for active fruit setting, tomatoes are fed with superphosphate (1 tsp. Per 10 liters of water).
As a rule, foliar fertilizing of tomatoes is carried out once a month.
How to feed tomatoes during fruiting
During the period of mass fruiting tomatoes are fed for the last time during the season. At the same time 2 tbsp. the superphosphate is dissolved in 10 l of water and 1 tbsp of l is added thereto. liquid potassium humate. At the root of each bush make 1 l of fertilizer.
For the formation of a large number of tasty and fleshy fruit plants need elements such as boron, manganese, iodine and potassium. To compensate for their deficiency, you can use top-dressing with full mineral fertilizer with microelements or by preparing a nutritious top-dressing at the rate of 10 g of boric acid powder (it is first dissolved in a small amount of hot water), 10 ml of iodine and 1.5 liters of sifted ash per 10 liters of water. Fertilizer consumption is the same - 1 l per bush.
After the fruits appear, only root dressings are used.
Than to feed tomatoes to be plump
So that the seedlings do not stretch, and its stem is thick, 2 weeks after picking, feed the plants. To do this, dissolve 20 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 15 g of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water. Then add 100 g of ash extract (1 cup of ash per 1 liter of water). Repeat this feeding after 2 weeks.
How to feed tomatoes for good growth
If a tomato seedling grows very slowly, it must be fed with sodium humate. Fertilizer is prepared in accordance with the instructions for the preparation and watered them with each plant at the root.
If the growth of apical and lateral shoots is delayed in tomatoes, yellowness appears on young leaves, then, most likely, they lack nitrogen. These tomatoes can be fed with any nitrogen fertilizer.
If you prefer organic fertilizers, then to stimulate the growth of tomatoes, it is best to use fermented nettle extract
How many times in a season do you need to feed tomatoes
Clear instructions on the time of fertilization and the number of feedings of tomatoes do not exist. It depends on the characteristics of a particular variety and the state of the plants. Well-growing tomatoes in the greenhouse are fed 3-4 times per season, but if by the appearance of the plants you realize that they lack some elements, then the number of dressings needs to be increased.
So, "problem" plants (which develop poorly and get sick) fertilize every 10-14 days. At the same time alternate root and foliar feeding.
If you prefer to grow plants without the "chemistry", feed the tomatoes with natural means. The best folk recipes of such dressings read here.
Types of dressings
Immediately worth noting some terminology differences. Many people are confused when determining what a tomato is and what is called a tomato. The fact is that these names come from different words. Thus, the word "tomato" comes from the Italian word, which means "golden apple". And the word “tomato” was used by the French, to whom the Aztec people were. But the vegetable itself was the same. Therefore, we can safely say that tomato and tomato are one and the same.
Top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse can be divided into two types:
By name it is easy to guess what each of them is. Let's start with the root type. The essence of this method is to feed nutrients under the root of the plant. This method is known to absolutely all experienced gardeners and is considered correct, but there is one thing. There are situations when the plant urgently needs to get a certain type of microelement. In this case, some time will pass until the nutrients of the fertilizer are absorbed by the roots of the plant. For seedlings and defective plants, this may mean a quick death, since the necessary substances may simply not enter the root system in time.
Whether it's foliar feeding system. The method is quite simple and consists in watering the nutrient solution directly on the leaves. This is excellent for helping the plant at the initial stage, especially when there are problems with the absorption of nutrients. The concentration of trace elements in these fertilizers is much less. Otherwise, you can only spoil the plant and "burn" it.
At hit of solution on a leaf, all nutrients are absorbed by them in a short time. This method is relevant for both organic and mineral fertilizers. One of the significant advantages over the first method is to save fertilizer. In addition, in the first case, the fertilizers are partially washed away during watering, which reduces their coefficient of utility.
Gardener can cook their own foliar application. Tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse are not very different from vegetables growing in other conditions. Here care and necessary fertilizers are important. One of the most important points for this is proper water quality. It should not contain chlorine, as this component adversely affects the health of the plant. For these purposes, rainwater or standing water is excellent.
Despite the advantage of the second type of feeding, you should not abandon it completely. Both types are useful for both greenhouse growing tomatoes and for open ground. In the first half of the growing season should be alternated. During the second half - go completely to the root method. Each plant that needs additional feeding will learn useful elements much better if you feed it at a certain time of day.
Tomato growing in the greenhouse has one important nuance when feeding. If you use the foliar method, a greenhouse effect may occur, which, in turn, threatens the decay of tomatoes. To avoid this, you only need to air the room regularly. But this should be done in moderation, since in the cold season there is a risk of a “disease” of the vegetable.
Recipes for foliar feeding
It should immediately stipulate that the frequency of the procedure depends on the recipe for feeding and varieties of tomatoes. The following recipes are intended to be used one week after the Cio-Chio-San variety tomato has been planted:
- Microfertilizers of the finished essence, sold in specialized stores,
- 10 liters of lactic acid solution to half a glass of sugar,
- A solution of 2 liters of whey, half a cup of sugar, 15 drops of iodine and 8.3 liters of water,
- Solution with one liter of whey, 10 drops of iodine and 9.2 liters of water,
- 10 tablets "Trichopol" per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 vial of ordinary green.
All these solutions are applied, of course, not right away, but take turns. In some cases, a weak solution of ordinary manganese is used, but not immediately after the first planting. There are also recipes in which components there is manganese, laundry soap, boric acid, magnesia, copper sulphate and so on. Each of them has its advantages. In the process of feeding, you should better monitor the condition of the seedlings and record all observations in a separate notebook, in order to take on further arming the best of the tested recipes.
Root feeding recipes
Перед тем как приступить непосредственно к подкормке рассады помидоров, следует полить растение чистой водой. При условии, что первая подкормка помидор в теплице после посадки будет корневой, её надо делать примерно на десятый день. Второй заход осуществляется через 15 дней (после первого). During flowering, a third run is made, since it is at this time that the plant has the best absorption of nutrients.
- Organic fertilizers (depending on the situation, it is recommended to carry out them once a month),
- 10 liters of water per tablespoon of ammonium nitrate. In the absence of the last component, it can be safely replaced with half a liter of chicken or a liter of cow manure,
- A solution of 10 liters of water and 1 cup of ash. Instead of the last component, a suitable proportion of such elements as phosphorus, calcium, potassium and others will suit. The solution should be infused for several hours. The procedure is performed every 2 weeks.
- If you have a lot of good stuff like chicken and cow litters, you can make another good solution. Half a liter of litter (any), 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate, 7 grams of boric acid, 10 liters of water. This essence is enough for about 7 bushes, since one portion per bush is 1.5 liters,
- In the presence of superphosphate, it makes sense to use the following recipe. Two tablespoons of superphosphate account for half a liter of chicken droppings, 10 liters of water and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate.
Tomato feeding time
Previously, it was agreed that you should choose the right time for feeding seedlings. So, in the case of a tomato plantation, this should be done in the morning and evening. And there is no difference, which way to use - foliar or root.
In the first method Attention is focused on the leaves. If you do the feeding during the day, then the nutrients will quickly evaporate and the plant will not receive the proper amount of useful trace elements. In addition, in direct sunlight, some components of the fertilizer cause burns on the leaves of the plant. In fact, the method does not mean spraying only on the leaves; this should be done in the lower part of the whole bush. At lunch, the plant will need to be slightly washed, so that the sun's rays do not cause harm.
Second way not much different from the first, except that fertilizer pouring goes under the root. It is also important to do this before watering the soil so that the components of the fertilizers are better absorbed by the roots. And in a moist soil, they dissolve better. As in the first case, fertilizer should not be allowed to fall on the leaves during the day. Accordingly, the feeding procedure should be carried out in the same way - early in the morning or in the evening. Toward lunchtime, it is better to “bathe” the plant slightly, in order to wash off the components that accidentally fall on the leaves.
To always have a good harvest, fertilizing should be done during the flowering period of tomato. No matter what method will be used. But they need to alternate and in a month you get 2-3 supplements. However, during fruiting (when the ovary appears), top dressing only under the root during the entire growing season is relevant.
Regardless of where the tomato grows - in a greenhouse or in the open field, sub-feed is made individually for each plant. Spraying is best done in the morning, so that in the evening the plants are dry and the whole nourishing cocktail is completely absorbed. The recommended water temperature for irrigating the soil is about 20ºС.
Other top dressing of tomatoes after planting in the greenhouse
Alas, not everyone has enough time to search and implement all the components to feed the plant. In this case, so-called humates help a lot. Many people mistakenly consider these components as fertilizer. In fact, this is only a growth stimulator and a concentrate of substances that are a catalyst. For proper development, other additives and fertilizers are needed, and humates contribute to the improvement of soil quality.
Humates can be mixed with mineral fertilizers.sold in the same specialized stores. An example of a recipe would look like this: 10 liters of water for 2 tablespoons of concentrated humate. This solution will be enough for 20 copies of the plant. It should be borne in mind that feeding is better than less. For this reason, when planting seedlings, ash or compost is used as a mineral fertilizer. After that, plants can be fed with humates, and all subsequent fertilizing can be of an organic type.
Homemade organic "green" fertilizer
Earlier it was said about this type of fertilizer, as "green". Under this name is most often understood fertilizer from cut grass or other plants. There are many ways to prepare it, but the most popular and affordable is based on the usual mowed green weeds.
As a vessel it is best to use plastic barrels with a volume of 200 liters. In the absence of those, you can use the containers of another material, but still with a plastic "liner". A metal container, for example, promotes oxidation, which negatively affects the quality of the product. It should be noted that fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse are suitable for specimens grown in the open air.
One of the recipes will have the following Components:
- two thirds of nettle (a small part can be replaced by weeds),
- 1 kilogram of wood ash,
- 5 liters of chicken dung,
- 2 liters of whey (if the product is natural - 1 liter is enough),
- 100 grams of regular baker's yeast.
All this is almost to the top filled with water and infused up to two weeks. The smell will be quite sharp and disgusting, but you need to find the strength to stir the liquid at least once a day. After two weeks you need to separate the grass and the resulting infusion. Grass is used as mulch, but it must first be dried. This herb is effective not only for tomatoes.
As for the infusion, it is again added with water and this essence is already diluted with it again in proportions of 0.5 to 6. The solution is effective for any vegetable culture. Half a liter of final essence is spent on one bush.
The use of all these solutions of organic origin helps to strengthen the immunity of plants. The effect against late blight is especially good. Its appearance is significantly reduced in dry and hot climates. For various fungal diseases, a humid climate is favorable. That is why air should be regularly aired in greenhouses.
Among all supplements should be allocated iodine, contributing to an increase in the number of ovaries. Roughly speaking, the ovary is the future fruit of the plant. The whey used in recipes of fertilizers perfectly copes with threats of development and growth of pathogenic mushrooms. It should be remembered that natural whey is equal to double the volume that is usually sold in stores. In the absence of any component, you can always use ready-made additives that are sold in stores. This also applies to growth promoters, fertilizers, and special preparations to protect the plant from pests.
Summing up, we can safely say that they are important and mineral and organic fertilizers. After all, they are used at different stages of plant development. Young copies are more suitable complex of foliar methods of processing. As for tomatoes, it is more expedient to use natural mineral fertilizers in the second half of the growing season, and alternate them with organic components, as is the case with green fertilizer. Follow all the rules of care and feeding, and then your plant will bear good fruit!