The real flowering of winemaking began in ancient times, and now there is not a single country in which this craft would be engaged. For the production of wine using special varieties, called technical. When growing, they pay more attention not to the appearance of the clusters, but to the chemical composition of the berries, in which there should be a sufficient amount of sugars.
The best wine grapes
In technical varieties of berries can have different colors - white, pink, red and even black. It is what gives the future wine the original color, and the smell of grapes brings a specific, easily recognizable aroma to the drink.
All wine varieties have small or medium-sized berries, with a thick skin and a high content of juice, which is fermented into a intoxicating drink. What is important is the percentage of sugars accumulated in the fruit, which are converted into ethyl alcohol in the process. The best for making wine are considered varieties containing 20 percent or more of sugar.
The quality of wine depends on the growing conditions and the area in which the vineyards grow. These factors affect the juiciness of the berries.
For a good drink, it is important that the weight of the fruit relative to the ridge is low, and the juice content in the grapes reaches 85% of their mass.
The slightest deviations in these parameters and agricultural technology will affect the quality of juices. Therefore, from the same grape variety grown in different conditions of cultivation, drinks of different taste are obtained, which allows the production of wines.
The most common wine varieties are Western European, some of which have got along pretty well in Russia. Often, the so-called "international" varieties of domestic growers are more preferable compared to local, as the drinks from them won worldwide popularity.
"Cabernet Sauvignon" is the source of various types of red wines with intense color and an interesting blend of flavors. The French variety is late-ripened, and has loose, small clusters with round bluish-black berries. It is sufficiently resistant to frost, phylloxera, rot and mildew.
The sweeter variety comes from Burgundy - Pinot Noir. Vine is very capricious to the conditions of growth, but if you make an effort, you will end up with an amazing noble drink.
The variety “Merlot” is quite harvested, its large berries with thin skin give light wines of rapid ripening. The low content of acids and tannin make the drink a bit sweetish, which makes it possible to attribute it to "female" wines.
In the southern regions they grow the Italian Barbera grape variety, the dark berries of which have a pleasant sourness. They make strong, rich in taste and rich in aroma of wine.
In many garden plots of domestic summer residents, you can see the variety "Isabella", which belongs to the non-covering, as it tolerates winter frosts. The vine is resistant to many diseases and unpretentious to the conditions of growth. In industry, this variety is used to enrich the taste of other types of pink and red wines.
Traditional in domestic winemaking is a variety "Lydia", having round-oval large berries of a pinkish-purple hue. A bit juicy mucous pulp has a specific flavor. The variety is considered universal, as it is used not only for the production of wines, but also goes for food.
"Bastardo Magarachsky" has conic-cylindrical clusters on which dark blue berries with a high content of sugars develop. The variety belongs to the middle late and gives great yields.
Among the "Muscats" can be identified red varieties - "Hamburg" and "Tairovsky" with a high tasting assessment. Juicy flesh of dark berries gives a nutmeg flavor (whence the name of the species), which makes the drinks obtained from grapes quite pleasant to the taste.
Beetroot color is characteristic of the juice of grape berries of the variety “Saperavi”, from which it is produced along with the wine of the same name also “Kindzmarauli”, which was once popular in the Soviet Union.
In the Moscow region, the red variety “Dobrynya” is actively grown, which differs from other technical varieties in large heavy berries.
Rich red wine is obtained from a variety of "Augusta", grown specifically for the central regions of the country. The sugar content of berry juice reaches 23%.
Variety "Odessa Black" has small berries with a well-pronounced bluish bloom. Of them turns out quite rich juice, which is used to make intensely colored wine, which has an original thorny taste. Although the frost resistance of the variety is relative, but the yield is always stable and high.
The variety "Rondo" can be called a hybrid - it is derived from the crossing of the varieties "Amurets" and "Pinot Sepage". Matt-black berries with thin skin have a pleasant rich flavor, bringing a shade of cherry to the future drink. Low acidity (9 g / l) and 22% sugar content make it possible to produce wines with a pronounced merlot character. The variety is quite fruitful, resistant to mildew and perfectly tolerates frosts of up to -42 ° C (in shelter), which makes it possible to grow this grape in the northern regions of the country.
To get a rich taste and aroma of red wine, you should pay attention to the color intensity of the berries. Light shades of red make it possible to get lighter drinks. Dark blue-gray fruits give astringency, typical of "male" types of wine.
Despite the fact that white technical grapes are inferior in composition to red, the percentage of cultivation is higher because they are more adapted to the harsh growing conditions. If in the southern regions any varieties take root well, then for the northern white grapes are a more acceptable option.
Among the popular varieties grown in Russia are the following.
Chardonnay is a fairly widespread variety in all regions, which is considered universal - many varieties of wine are made from it. The berries are sufficiently saturated with sugars - up to 22 g per liter of juice, which is found in grapes up to 74%. Therefore, winemakers use this variety not only for the preparation of dry wines, but also to improve the quality of Champagne. The taste properties of future drinks are directly dependent on the growing conditions of this grape variety. The characteristics of the soil and climate give the wine a different aroma - peach, lemon, apple and even oak. The disadvantages of varieties include their poor resistance to fungal diseases and "dislike" of rain.
History and description
Scientists consider grapes to be one of the first plants cultivated by man in prehistoric times. In particular, written records have been preserved indicating its cultivation in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 5-6 millennia BC. er
Over time, this fruit has spread throughout the world, and today, plantations that cultivate various grape varieties can be found even in Australia and South America. The shoots of this plant are called vines, and its fruits grow in clusters, which consist of 5 dozen or even several hundred berries, depending on the variety. As for the berries, they have different sizes and oval or spherical shape. If we talk about color, it can vary from bright yellow and greenish to dark blue, purple, black and pink. Grape bushes bear fruit long enough, on average, up to 80-100 years. 30% of the berry content is glucose. In addition, organic acids, minerals, as well as vitamins C, B1, B2 and provitamin A are present in the fruits. Juice is obtained from the grapes by pressing, from which then after fermentation, wine of different strength is obtained. The main thing that characterizes grapes is the varieties described below.
Today, grapes are divided into areas of use as follows:
- Technical grape varieties are mainly intended for the manufacture of wine (wine materials) and juices. At the same time they have a rather mediocre taste. Two more distinctive features - the pulp in the berries is much smaller than the juice, and the clusters consist of berries of small mass, which are tightly pressed to each other.
- Table grapes. They are usually grown for fresh consumption in food. They have excellent taste, have a rich pulp and contain little juice. At the same time the mass of bunches is 0.5-2 kg, and they themselves consist of several dozen large or very large berries.
- Universal varieties, as the name implies, can equally well be used for eating and for making beverages. In such grapes, the pulp and juice in the berries are approximately in the same ratio, and the clusters have an average weight of up to 1.3 kg.
- Crimson varieties, or, as they are also called, raisins, are used for drying, making confectionery and in cooking.
As already mentioned, viticulture has a history of many thousands of years, for which hundreds of varieties have been created, including table grapes.
For their evaluation, a special 10-point scale was developed. Moreover, unlike technical varieties, not only taste qualities, but also appearance are important for dining rooms, since they are often the adornment of banquet tables. Also for assessing the quality of such grapes is important factor early ripeness. In particular, they distinguish between early (very early and simply early), early average, medium, medium late and late varieties. In quantitative terms, this parameter is expressed as the number of days that must pass from the moment the buds appear and until the berries are fully ripe.
Early grape varieties
Among specialists engaged in the cultivation of this plant, to this day, the Pearl Sabot variety is considered the benchmark of early ripeness. This Hungarian variety is more than 100 years old, and its fruits can be tasted as early as the eightieth day after the buds have blossomed. Its distinctive features also include a pleasant musky flavor and high fruitfulness. The only drawback is the small size of the berries, which makes the “Pearl of the Sabot” uncompetitive compared with other varieties that ripen early enough. However, many gardeners gladly planted it on their plots in order to be able to enjoy delicious berries in the middle of summer.
In addition to the Pearls of the Sabot, the definition of “early ripening grapes” includes Ekar-35, ripening on the 88th day, Galahard - on the 89th day, and Serafimovsky - on the 89th day. It is known that gardeners continue to work on the cultivation of more precocious grapes. In addition, the issue of obtaining frost-resistant options is relevant. Domestic varieties can also be noted top-grade table variety Donskoy agate, well ripening even in cloudy weather and having a large, conical, somewhat loose cluster, consisting of large berries of almost black color, rounded shape. Arkady refers to the early maturity. This is a table variety with medium-growth bushes, which has a high yield. His clusters are very large and dense, and the berries are white.
The varieties are average
In Russia and Ukraine, for the purpose of obtaining a crop, at least in September for decades they were forced to grow grapes of species belonging to the category of early ripening. However, today, due to the climatic changes observed on the planet, average grape varieties have become popular, which ripen within 130-145 days from the start of bud break, with a sum of active temperatures of 2600-2800 ° C. In addition, the middle late varieties are known. , for example, the French table grapes Alphonse Lavalle and the rather popular American variety Isabella, the berries of which are gathered in clusters weighing 140 g of moderate density and almost cylindrical in shape.
The best grapes for growing in Russia
The middle zone of our country does not belong to the regions where viticulture has traditionally been engaged in, although there is information about its cultivation in the times of Kievan Rus. At the same time, thanks to the constant breeding activities of Russian gardeners, varieties were bred that got along perfectly with us and allow us to feast on delicious grapes already in early autumn. If you read reviews, Kesha grapes, or, as it is also called, Talisman, is the best choice. This is a bisexual variety. There is also his version of Kesh-1 with exclusively female flowers. This variety is characterized by high yield and has vigorous bushes. The clusters of Kesha are dense, conical, large, and in Kesha-1 they are loose. They have large, white, oval, very tasty, fleshy-juicy berries.
In addition, in the Russian climatic conditions, good results can be achieved by growing the following varieties:
- American variety Valiant. It is vigorous and shows good resistance to low temperatures and has berries of dark blue and blue. At the same time, the sugar content in fruits can reach 20 percent. In addition, Valiant is suitable for decorating garden plots, as it is an excellent choice for gardening hedges and garden arbors.
- Augustine is a table variety that belongs to the category of early aging options. This is a very unpretentious, reliable and high-yielding variety. His clusters can be stored, without tearing from the bushes, for 20 days. A cluster of Augustine varieties conical, large, medium density, consisting of large elongated berries of white color, having a harmonious taste and slightly translucent in the sun. Suitable for decorating hedges and garden arbors.
The most famous wine regions of the world are the countries of the Mediterranean basin, Germany, Hungary and Chile. On the territory of the CIS, Georgian and Crimean wines are especially famous, and also wine grapes are used to produce the famous Armenian brandy. Wines are also produced in Moldova. In addition, the grapes for making wine for over 150 years grown in Australia, where it was brought from Europe.
Among the most valuable and well-known varieties can be noted Aligote (Makhranuli), French Cabernet Sauvignon, also known as Lafite, Kokur white, bred in ancient times in Egypt, Muscat white, German Muller Thurgau, famous Georgian Rkatsiteli, French Chardonnay, Armenian 3000-year-old variety Mskhali and Hungarian Furmint are the main raw materials for the production of excellent Tokay wines, which Hungary is famous for. These best grapes have many varieties. However, for the manufacture of excellent wines, which are very popular among true connoisseurs of this solar drink, they use them.
White grape varieties
Despite the popular belief that white wines can only be made from berries of green or yellowish-green color, such drinks are also made from pink or red grapes. The fact is that, regardless of what color the skin of the fruit, inside them is a colorless juice. However, white wines are usually sweeter and lighter than red wines and have a smaller strength. The main feature of the production of such beverages is the organization of the fermentation of grape juice in the absence of the skin of berries.
Experts believe that the best grape varieties (white) are grown in France. In particular, the already mentioned Chardonnay variety has been recognized as their queen. White wines from Chardonnay are also produced in California, Australia, Italy, Argentina, Germany, South Africa, Austria, Chile and in New Zealand. In order to get the original oak flavor, they are kept in special large oak barrels. In this case, it turns out expensive luxury drink. As for mass production, they use simple oak barrels or add oak chips and even special essence. It is obvious that in such cases there can be no question of getting really high-quality wine, which real connoisseurs will like.
Considering the white grape varieties, it is impossible not to mention the German Riesling. It is noticed that the most delicious wines come from berries grown in the Moselle River basin in Germany. In addition, there are excellent vineyards in the Alsace region of France, and this variety is cultivated in Hungary, Austria, Argentina and the USA. If white wines from Chardonnay are known for their oaky taste, then the drinks from Riesling are distinguished by the taste of pears and green apples and the floral and fruity aroma.
The history of the white Muscat grape goes back to the times when the Pharaohs ruled Egypt. Некоторые исследователи даже связывают его создание с именем Клеопатры, что совсем необоснованно, так как доказано, что он существовал за несколько веков до эпохи правления этой царицы. Сегодня Мускат культивируют по всему миру, включая ЮАР и Австралию. Существует множество различных видов такого винограда, а также производимых из них вин.In particular, they can be both light and dry, with low alcohol levels, and sparkling, very sweet and strong.
As you can see, for many thousands of years of its history, people were able to improve the grapes, donated by the ancient Greek legend to the mortal Olympic gods, and learned to make excellent wines from it. By the way, it is believed that the culture of drinking wine can even be judged on the level of development of the country and the people.
The best grapes for wine - practical advice on choosing
Winemaking is popular in every corner of the globe. The climatic conditions of Russia contribute to the cultivation of table, technical and universal grape species, suitable for the occupation of this ancient craft. Red varieties are found in the southern regions, due to their thermophilic character. Whites have increased cold resistance and are good for planting in unstable climates. Novice winemaker should take into account this factor and focus on the area in which he plans to carry out its activities.
The grape variety is selected on the basis of the goal. Having decided on the desired taste and smell of the future drink, the grower draws attention to the technical characteristics of the seedlings offered for sale.
- 1. Sugariness - a factor that directly determines the condition of the future drink. Dry wines are made from varieties containing 18–23% sugar, sparkling wine — 17–20%, and brandy — about 15%.
- 2. The smell of raw materials is also a merit of the variety. It is subdivided into grassy, floral and fruity.
- 3. The acidity of the berries is responsible for the soft taste. Varieties with a high content of malic acid give rise to a drink with a rough aftertaste, the level of tartaric acid makes it velvety.
- 4. The size of the fruit affects the thickness of the drink. Large berries have a larger area of the skin, which includes tannin, which increases the density of wine.
- 5. The content of grape juice in berries, suitable for the production of beverages, meets the mark of 85%.
Creating your own vineyard requires following the rules of agrotechnology. One variety when grown in different climates gives dissimilar raw materials. Russian winegrowers have learned to use this misunderstanding of themselves as a plus, and today in the regions of the country wine beverages are produced, the progenitor of which is one type of plant.
In central Russia, the territory of the Urals and regions of Siberia, it is advisable to grow early-maturing varieties. Given the difficult climatic conditions, such grapes pick up enough sugar in the fruit and prepare the vine for the upcoming winter cold.
Mid-season and late species, whose growing and ripening period is up to 160-170 days, are grown in the southern regions with a warm autumn. Choosing a suitable planting material, you need to focus on zoned varieties.
Among the variety of early grapes stands a group of popular representatives for the northern regions.
The best white varieties for winemaking
Chardonnay is a worldwide known technical variety of Western European origin. Thoroughly clarify the pedigree is not possible, but it is believed that the species appeared due to the crossing of pinot noir and hue blanc.
Berries are processed for the production of wines with different flavors, fruit aroma. Also, part of the crop is sent annually for the manufacture of wine materials, which are subsequently used as a champagne taste improver.
Brief description of the plant:
- the bush is formed srednerosly, although there are also vigorous,
- the growing season lasts 130-140 days,
- flowers bisexual, which provides good pollination,
- conical clusters are friable, weight reaches 900-1000 gr.,
- white-green berries are shaded by a golden sheen,
- the shape of the fruit is rounded, slightly elongated,
- grape weight - 12-15 gr., each contains 2-3 seeds,
- sugar content - 18% with an acidity of 8-12 g / l,
- yield - 8-12 t / ha,
- the culture is cold-resistant, withstands temperatures up to minus 20 °.
Wine material from Bianchi has an unsurpassed taste with hints of vanilla, almond. For the production of table, semi-sweet and other wines, blending with other juices with a low sugar content is used. This helps to avoid cloying, which is characteristic of this grape.
Brief description of the plant:
- early term of ripening, vegetation period - 110-120 days,
- medium bush,
- brush cylindrical shape, weight 90-120 g.,
- fruits are small and medium, weight 1.5 g.,
- the shape of the berries is rounded, slightly elongated, the color is greenish-yellow,
- thin skin, taste harmonious, filled with a bouquet of aromas,
- the crop does not lose its presentation on the vine after full maturity,
- sugar content - 20-28% with an acidity of 7-9 g / l,
- high resistance to mildew, gray rot, oidium, tolerance to phylloxera,
- frost resistance - up to minus 27 °.
Muscat mid-ripening with a growing season of 130-140 days. Muscat is one of the most ancient varieties originating from Syria, Arabia and Egypt. The peculiarity of the culture is the ability to accumulate a high level of sugar (up to 25% with an acidity of 6.5-7 g / l).
A brief description of:
- medium bush
- the weight of a conical shape is 100-450 g.,
- the berries sit tightly on the hand, the average weight of one is 4 grams,
- the taste is full of nutmeg,
- yield - 66-109 t / ha,
- resistance to disease is low.
Especially appreciated among domestic winemakers "Muscat Belyi", from which fine wines are obtained. Round, yellowish (almost wax) berries of medium size are collected in dense clusters. This variety is quite thermophilic and has an average yield.
“Shasla”, although it belongs to table varieties, is quite popular in winemaking. Yellow-green round berries with a waxy coating have a golden hue, thin skin and flesh melting in the mouth. Wines produced from this variety have received a high tasting rating due to the harmonious taste of the drink.
Among the early high-yielding varieties can be identified golden-white berries varieties "Aligote", giving a pleasant acidity to the future of wine.
A little later, ripens "Riesling" with small greenish round berries. For him, the nature of high yields, but not sufficient frost resistance for the northern regions.
Greenish-golden, as if "tanned" berries of medium-sized Rkatsiteli grapes, though ripen later, but give a good harvest with proper agricultural technology. The variety is relatively resistant to frost and able to resist rot.
Among the top varieties stands out "Friendship", created by domestic breeders. In terms of quality and flavor, something resembles Shasla, and in terms of flavor, it is closer to Muscat. By the end of ripening, up to 21% of sugars accumulate in the berries, which makes it possible to make high-quality drinks from grapes. The variety is sufficiently resistant to fungi and is able to withstand temperatures down to -23 ° C, but so that the vine does not lose its properties, it is better to shelter it for the winter.
White wine variety "Crystal", grown in Hungary, well settled down in southern Russia. The variety is fairly trouble-free - it is almost not susceptible to diseases, tolerates frost well and is unpretentious to the soil. But it needs an abundance of sun, so the bush requires frequent thinning. In berries, up to 18% of sugars accumulate, and the minimum amount of pulp makes the fruit quite juicy. From the "Crystal" is obtained fragrant light sherry.
In the Crimea, they grow (along with others) the Albilo variety, which is used both as an independent raw material for making wine and as an additional component that improves the taste properties of port wines.
Delicate table and dessert wines with the aroma of muscat are obtained from the variety “Platovsky”. Despite its small size, whitish-golden berries are quite juicy and rich in sugars. This variety is characterized by high yield, frost resistance (can withstand up to -29 ° C) and relative resistance to diseases.
Amber-golden berries of a small size have a thin, but strong skin. The variety "Muscat Odessa", despite the name, is grown not only in the southern regions, as it tolerates severe frosts. Juiciness of fruits and light nutmeg aroma are ideal for the production of table and dessert white wines.
The Verdello grape variety has come from Portugal, from Madeira Island, to the southern regions of the country. Golden berries are grown not only for the production of Madeira wines - the juice of this variety is included in the blend in the manufacture of fortified drinks and sherry.
Grapes intended for receiving wine and natural juice are called technical. It differs from canteens in more modest dense clusters with medium and small juicy berries. Technical grape varieties have a high juice content (75–85% by weight of the berry).
The acidity and sugar content of the berries determines which type of wine production (for example, dry or dessert wine, champagne or brandy) can be made from this grape variety. Sugar in technical varieties intended for the production of wine should be more than 18%.
To the important qualities of technical grapes is the high stability of the crop.
It is worth noting that the same technical grape varieties can have completely different uses depending on the climate, the soils of other terrain features where it is cultivated.
Technical grape varieties are grown in all geographic areas where it is possible to grow this crop, Ukraine is no exception.
Popular varieties for winemaking
The best varieties for industrial and home-made wine products include:
- Cabernet Sauvignon,
- Muscat is white,
- Pinot Noir,
- Traminerose (Tramin),
White and dark grapes make material for sparkling drinks (champagne) and cognac, a wide range of high-quality wines of various types: dry red / white, sweet (dessert), liqueur (strong).
White and pink technical varieties
White wine can be made from almost any grape (including dark, if the juice of the berries is colorless). The production technology of white wines (fermentation on white) is based on the use of pressed grape juice without skin (the pigment contains coloring pigments in the skin), so a light drink is obtained, the shades of which vary from golden yellow to cognac. From the white grapes get only light (white) wines.
This popular French grape, which has been known for more than three hundred years, is considered one of the main white grape varieties for the manufacture of high-quality natural juices, white table (dry) wines, vintage champagne, as well as blanks of blend and brandy. Aligote is grown in France, USA (California), Eastern European countries.
For example, vintage wines “Pearl's Steppe” and “Aligote” (Ukraine) are made from this variety grown in Odessa and Dnepropetrovsk regions.
Wine from Aligote is better consumed by young, as the process of aging does not improve the drinks from this technical variety.
The berries are medium in size, rounded, delicate light green in color, the skin is thin. The taste of the grapes is pleasant, the flesh is sweetish, very tender, so this grape is also used as a table.
The oldest German variety cultivated in Alsace and on the banks of the Rhine. This amazing grape competes with the recognized leader among white wine varieties - French Chardonnay.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the German wine Riesling was very much appreciated, its value was as high as the prices of the famous red wines from France.
Excellent dry wine from Riesling has a distinctive taste, which combines amazing softness, fruity sour notes and light tartness.
The small dense clusters of these grapes are formed by round and very juicy berries of a greenish color. Grape bushes easily tolerate frost, which allows you to grow this variety in different climatic zones.
This is a high-yielding (up to 100 kg / ha), stable variety, which is important for successful winemaking.
Ukraine cultivates the Rhine Riesling.
This technical grape is an excellent material for a large number of French dry wines. It is considered the main variety for champagne winemaking. Homeland grapes - Burgundy.
Professional winemakers are sure that it is simply impossible to make bad wine out of these grapes.
This variety is ideal for the production of hop drink for all characteristics. In Chardonnay wines, a rich bouquet of aromas is revealed gradually in the process of making a drink. And the aroma of wine depends on the technology of its production.
It can be light drinks with a delicate fruit smell, with citrus and floral notes or rich sugary wines with the taste and smell of honey or sweet aromatic pastries, marzipans.
Long ripening reveals a taste of hazel and dry fruit in wine.
The greenish-white Chardonnay grapes moderately accumulate sugar, and slowly reduce the acidity during ripening.
Despite the fact that the variety has a moderate yield (70 centners per hectare), is susceptible to fungal diseases, and in rainy years it suffers from gray rot, it is very popular among winemakers.
Traminer pink (Tramin)
This is one of the oldest technical varieties of Austria, which is cultivated throughout Europe, despite the fact that its yield significantly depends on weather conditions.
Considered one of the most valuable technical varieties. Fine sparkling, original dining and unusual dessert drinks with the exquisite aroma of rose petals are obtained from it.
Tramin has small dense bunches, berries are light pink with a bluish tinge, the skin is strong, dense, the flesh is juicy, melting.
The yield is not very high (60 kg / ha). Bushes are frost-resistant.
Red and black technical varieties
Red wines are made only from dark grapes (suitable red and black varieties). Red fermentation takes place on the pulp with the skin. The color range of red wines varies from light red to deep ruby.
Rose wines are also made from grapes with red berries. To get a delicate pink color of the drink, the pulp wanders for several hours, then the pulp is removed and fermentation continues on natural juice. The color of this wine from pinkish to pale red.
From dark grape varieties, the berries of which have colorless juice, you can prepare white wines.
Merlot is a rather popular technical grape. Homeland Merlot - Bordeaux (France), but this variety is actively cultivated in Italy. It is considered to be quite young, for the first time they mention Merlot only in the XVIII century, as the best variety in one of the Libourne winemaking centers.
Merlot is an excellent material for high quality dry and dessert drink. Wine, including young, has a surprisingly mild flavor, in which herbal and fruity notes are mixed. To make the taste of the wine better, Merlot drinks are kept in barrels of oak. Merlot Noir organically complements Cabernet Sauvignon in the traditional blend of Bordeaux winemakers.
Black rounded grapes have dense skin and juicy flesh. Berry has a sweetish melon flavor.
What distinguishes wine varieties from all the others?
Grapes for wine have their own characteristics, which distinguish them against all other varieties of these berries. The main distinguishing features of winemakers include:
- high level of resistance to low temperatures, various diseases, as well as pests,
- high concentration of juice (as a rule, this indicator is at the level of 80-90% of the total mass of berries),
- the amount of sugar in the berries should be from 20%,
- the ratio of the mass of berries to the mass of the comb should be as much as possible as the green component of the comb can significantly impair the taste of the wine,
- the sizes of the brushes and the grapes themselves are substantially smaller than the berries belonging to table species.
What berries make the most delicious wine?
It is not yet known exactly how many species of grape crops actually exist, but if we start from generally accepted information, there are about 5,000 of them. There are a little more than 100 technical grape varieties for winemaking, and the main ones are only about 30 for each type of drink.
Various types of grape wine
The main differences of white wine from red are in the use of grapes, different in color, as well as the use of various methods of the production process. The rind of berries for this drink is removed from the wort after a couple of hours after the fermentation began.
Then, when the fermentation and purification processes are over, the wine is ready to be bottled. The grape varieties used to make white wine have a diverse geographic location, which largely affects the taste of the final product.
Muscat is one of the ancient varieties of berries, the intensive cultivation of which started because of its smell. Pleasant fragrances of roses and carnations are characteristic of muscatel wines, and spice and velvety taste are characteristic of taste sensations. Данный сорт произрастает в южной части Крыма, а также во французских, итальянских, португальских, американских и австралийских виноградниках.
Мускатный сорт винограда
Кристалл — весьма высокоурожайный и беспроблемный сорт винного винограда со сроком созревания в 110-115 дней. These berries are able to withstand a decrease in temperature to 20 degrees below zero and are suitable for cultivation in the Moldovan and Georgian fields, as well as in southern Russia.
Crystal is distinguished by its resistance to gray rot, however, with insufficient care, there is a high probability of the appearance of such diseases as oidium and mildew. In addition, this grape needs good lighting. Otherwise, the berries can crumble, and the yield will fall. This wine grape variety often serves as the main source of raw materials for the production of sherry.
Very often in winemaking, universal wine grapes are used, among which Sauvignon Blanc stands out. From these berries it turns out an exquisite white wine, characterized by a grassy or fruity aroma. This variety of aromas is caused by the time of gathering bunches of grapes.
Sauvignon Blanc grapes
Chenin Blanc is recognized as the oldest grape variety, processing of which began in the IX century on the French fields. Now these berries grow in South Africa and in America, but French wine producers still occupy one of the leading positions in terms of the quality of this product.
Based on its geographical location, white wine made from these fruits has different flavors. The only thing that unites them is spicy acidity and flower-honey character.
Chenin Blanc grapes
Grapes for red wine are distinguished by their blue or reddish berries. Also to another feature of this drink should be attributed to the fact that the berries are not peeled and pitted. This makes the drink more tart and adds flavor to the brightness. Let's look at the most popular red grapes used in the production of wine.
Cabernet France is another highly sought-after variety of red berries for winemaking and is recognized as the progenitor of Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast to the latter, Cabernet France has a mild flavor and complements the aftertaste with notes of raspberry.
Cabernet France Grapes
Merlot - demanded wine grape variety used in blending with Cabernet France or Cabernet Sauvignon. The classic flavor is a harmonious combination of tobacco and chocolate with inclusions of prunes and plums. Also characteristic features of Merlot include a warm shade with a rather high alcohol content with a slight tannin concentration.
Shiraz or Syrah is another very common wine grape that does not need to be added to other varieties of berries. However, Australian winemakers almost always share it with Cabernet Savignon. As for the aroma of the drink, shades of black pepper, tobacco leaf, and chocolate are easily recognized here. The drink is thickly colored with a warm shade.
Sangiovese is also a red variety that is in high demand in the Italian wine region of Tuscany. The drink turns out an average level of saturation and with a relatively high degree of acidity. A bouquet of aromas combines cherry, violet, and when rolling wine through the tongue, nut tones are clearly recognized.
Carmenere - a grape variety, which is the hallmark of winemakers from Chile. The drink has a sweetish taste, which is due to the low acidity of the berries. If you inhale the vapors of the drink, you can catch the notes of not only spices and plums, but coffee.
Grapes varieties Carmener
Frost-resistant species for winemaking
Today, there is a wide variety of grapes that can withstand frosts, reaching up to 40 degrees. However, despite resistance to negative temperatures, these wine grape varieties need additional warming.
This allows you to protect young stems from long frosts, which are not as stable as the old stiff shoots. Let's look at the most cold-resistant wine grape varieties that are actively used in the production of high-quality wine:
- Odessa Muscat. Grapes with yellow fruits, which gives the drink a nutmeg taste.
- Anniversary. Wine variety with blue hues, from which wine is produced with pleasant taste sensations.
- Fortune. This is another kind of blue berries with a pronounced nutmeg flavor.
- Pineapple. To obtain a strawberry flavor it is the berries of this grape that are used.
- Gurzuf pink. This is another cold-resistant grape, the use of which allows you to get a dark red wine with a pleasant nutmeg flavor.
What are the best varieties for red wine
Black productive grapes ripen in 141-151 days. There is no reliable information about the origin, but Traminer and Pino Mene are probable parents. Bush srednerosly with an unusual color of the lower leaves (green with a red tinge). Flowers bisexual, problems with pollination does not arise. A cluster of small sizes weighing 66-120 grams, the shape is often cylindrical. Berry has a pleasant taste, colorless juice, balanced sugar content. Its shape is rounded, the color is dark blue.
The yield of Pinot Noir - 50-60 c / ha. The plant is vulnerable to phylloxera, manifested tolerance to gray rot, oidium.
Very old Georgian grape variety with dark blue berries. The vegetation period of saperavi is 150-160 days, the harvest begins in late September - early October. The bush is beautifully hung with wide-conic clusters with small grapes, the mass of one is 90-100 grams. Berry is very juicy with a harmonious taste, the weight barely exceeds 1 gr. Each contains 2-3 seeds.
The yield of Saperavi is 90-110 c / ha. The culture is frost-resistant, going through the winter without shelter at a temperature regime not exceeding -20 °.
Saperavi - frost-resistant grade
Cabernet Sauvignon berries are very juicy with a balanced taste, tinted with a hint of currant. Variety bred in France, but is now cultivated in many countries around the world. Technical ripeness occurs in 143-165 days. The cluster has the shape of a cylinder, the weight is 70-80 grams. Each berry contains 1-3 seeds. The skin is a dark blue color of medium density, which ensures good preservation and transportability of fruits.
Productivity - 55-60 c / ha. There is an increased resistance of the culture to mildew, gray rot. In comparison with other species, it is better opposed to phylloxera, the attacks of the wheller.
Cabernet Sauvignon - ideal for winemaking
Technical ripeness occurs in 145-160 days. The unusual taste of the berries is filled with different notes, in which there is raspberry and blackberry. The clusters of a cylindrical shape have a dark blue color, the weight does not exceed 70-90 grams. The yield is low (35-40 centners per hectare), but this is offset by the good resistance of the plant to mildew, phylloxera.
The merlot variety was bred in France, the alleged parents are Cabernet Franc, crossed with Magdalen and Noir de Charente. Clusters of medium size and density, have a dark blue color with a characteristic wax coating, weight is 110-150 grams. The taste is balanced with a hint of hair.
Grapes ripen in 152-164 days. The plant shows average resistance to oidium, phylloxera, mildew. Frost resistance - up to minus 15-17 °.
Merlot has an average cold resistance and can withstand temperatures down to -15
How to choose a grape to make white wine
Winemaking is an occupation that is very popular among residents of the whole world, but in order to get a really tasty drink, you should first choose the right grape varieties. White grapes for wine must have berries of a light yellow or pink hue. Few novice winemakers know that the best wine comes from grapes, which is intended for technical use. The berries of this plant have a tart taste and a minimum amount of pulp. Purchase technical saplings grapes is very easy, but before making a purchase you should know the full characteristics of the plant.
The parameters of the differences of grape varieties
- Fruit ripening time.
- Tastes of fruits.
- Plant resistance to diseases.
- Susceptibility to frosts.
- Requirements for the care of the plant.
When purchasing grapes for planting, you should pay attention to the fact that the plant was not damaged and had a healthy stem and root. After studying the information about the plant, each winemaker gets a chance to grow a full-fledged vineyard and get a large amount of harvest.
Often made mistakes when choosing grapes
The most common mistake is to assume that the grapes are an unpretentious plant. An erroneous opinion leads to the fact that after planting young saplings grow poorly, do not bear fruit, often get sick, or even die. In order to avoid the sad consequences and get a good harvest, you should follow certain rules before buying young bushes:
- The grape variety must be highly resistant to diseases.
- Depending on the climate of the region, a certain grape variety is selected.
- High cold tolerance.
- The best grapes are those that have a long shelf life.
Guided by these rules, you can buy a good grape variety, which will produce a large amount of harvest. All white grapes for wine in varying degrees, subject to various diseases, and therefore require special care. In most cases, the place of growth and the chemical composition of the soil influence the development of the plant.
The best grapes for making white wine
Each grape variety has a certain taste and beneficial properties. There is a certain list of varieties that make white wine especially tasty. All winemakers, ranging from amateurs and ending with professionals, argue that the most delicious grape varieties are:
- "nutmeg white",
Now let's talk about each variety in more detail.
"Rkatsiteli" - a grape variety that grows throughout Georgia. This species has large berries that ripen within 5 months, so the first crop is harvested in October. One of the negative qualities of this variety is its dependence on weather conditions. Bad weather can greatly reduce yields. The plant is very fond of a humid climate, so the soil where it grows should be constantly irrigated. Vineyard bushes should be placed in a horizontal position. With cold winters, grapes must be warmed. "Rkatsiteli" - a grape variety that has a special taste. Taking a sip of this wine, you can feel the taste of citrus, herbs and flowers. The popularity of wine from the "Rkatsiteli" is due to the fact that it is combined with any dishes. Depending on the amount of sugar added, the drink will have a sour or semi-sweet taste.
Cooking White Wine
White wine tastes much softer than red wine, so its preparation is not an easy task. Not every beginner winemaker knows how to make white grape wine. The main feature of making white wine is the use of berries without skin and seeds. It is also unacceptable to add any impurities to the raw materials. White grapes for wine are selected at the discretion of the winemaker. Even preparing a drink for the same recipe, you should not expect that the wine will have the same taste. In most cases, the taste of the wine depends on the ripening time of the fruit and its taste characteristics.
White table wine is made from Rkatsiteli grapes. One of the technologies used for the preparation of white wine is to use not only the berries of the plant, but also its crests. This technology allows you to cook a wine tart to the taste, with hints of honey. The main secret of cooking wine from the "Rkatsiteli" is the minimal addition of sugar to the drink. For this type of wine is used alcohol 12%. The finished product has a full flavor, and its color varies from transparent to straw.
Dry white nutmeg wine can be made from any kind of muscat grapes. Each berry of this variety contains many useful substances, so a large amount of sugar or alcohol added to this wine, deprives it of its beneficial qualities.
26% sugar is added to dry white chardonnay wine. This is exactly the wine, the preparation of which is impossible to spoil, thanks to the high qualities of the Chardonnay grape itself. Therefore, for novice winemakers who would like to conduct experiments, the grapes of this variety will fit perfectly.
Aligote grapes are ideal for making white dry wine. Drink this wine should be young, to feel the notes of fruit and herbs. Aligote wine is often prepared using standard technology, but experienced winemakers have their own proven recipes that allow you to make wine with amazing taste.
For the preparation of dry wine from the "Riesling" berries should be collected at the beginning of their maturation. The peculiarity of this variety is that even the harvest continues to ripen in bottles. The wine acquires a special taste after ten years of aging. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the grapes themselves have a sour taste, which cannot be killed by even the largest amount of sugar.
The beneficial properties of white wine
The most delicious grapes allow you to prepare a truly healthy white dry wine. It is important that this wine also has useful qualities, which include:
- Prevent the development of various diseases.
- Saturation of the body with vitamins and minerals.
- Strengthening the human cardiovascular system.
Do not forget that all white grapes for wine have a huge list of useful properties, so you can eat them fresh.
Whatever useful wine is, by abusing it, the body can be harmed. Therefore, the use of this drink should be in reasonable quantities. Many gourmets prefer to drink wine, diluted with sparkling water, arguing that such a drink has a beneficial effect on the entire body.
Wine or technical varieties are those used to produce wine in domestic or industrial environments. These technical varieties are called, because the berries obtained from the vines of these varieties are the raw material for the production of wine and juice in industrial wineries. Most of the wineries are located in the southern part of our country. Wine of industrial production is made in the Crimea and the Caucasus. In the Central region there are no such plants and factories, but there are gardeners, enthusiasts who grow technical grapes on their land and make wine from it.
The most popular technical varieties are as follows:
These varieties are widely distributed in southern Russia. In the Central region, for example, in the suburbs, the most commonly grown grapes are Isabella. The main features of technical varieties are that the brushes of grapes look more compact, and the berries are rather small, having a dense structure. Tastes may be different. The sweetest varieties go to the production of sweet and semi-sweet wines. From sour berries make dry and semi-dry wine.
The benefits of homemade wine from technical grapes
The taste of homemade wine can not be compared with anything. This is a very weak drink. Rather, it resembles grape juice to taste. It has a mild flavor and leaves behind a light, pleasant aftertaste.. Main advantage of it lies in the fact that the home winemaker himself determines the degree of the drink. You can even make this divine drink non-alcoholic. To do this, it is enough just to heat the wine to a high temperature so that all the alcohol is evaporated from it. However, during heating, the wine will lose most of the nutrients. For those who do not drink alcohol, it is best to stock up regular grape juice for future use.
Home-made wine is very healthy because:
- It normalizes blood pressure and reduces the risk of blood clots,
- It has a tonic effect, gives energy, helps to restore the vitality of the body,
- Normalizes the digestive system,
- It has a relaxing and soothing effect on the nervous system.
Homemade wine is widely used in traditional medicine. This drink, heated and diluted with water, is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of acute respiratory diseases. Delicious hot mulled wine made from wine with cinnamon and other spices, help get rid of autumn depression and warm up in the long winter evenings.
If you make the right wine, grapes will preserve all the nutrients: vitamins, organic acids, antioxidants. If you use one or two glasses daily, this will be the best prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Однако, не следует забывать о том, что любое вино, в том числе и домашнего производства - алкогольный напиток, в составе которого содержится этиловый спирт. В связи с этим оно противопоказано:
- Детям и подросткам до достижения совершеннолетия,
- Женщинам, которые ждут ребенка или кормят грудью,
- People who suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or have an increased acidity of the stomach,
- Those who suffer from diseases of the central nervous system,
- Those who are driving a car.
How to harvest
In order for the wine turned out well, you must seriously approach the harvest. Many gardeners complain that ripe-looking grapes have a very small size and sour taste. This is explained quite simply. If the grapes are purple or blue, this does not mean that it has ripened. Since the appearance of the blue or the purple color of the berries until fully ripe, usually takes three to four weeks. During these weeks, the berries are poured with juice and acquire their true taste. Thus, it is necessary to harvest grapes for making homemade wine no sooner than three to four weeks from the moment the berries change color visually.
This winegrower must firmly know that in no case can not collect the grapes, tearing it from the brush by hand. Those who do this break the thin film that protects the berries from external exposure, and risks injuring the vine, because sometimes it is not easy to tear the berries off the brush. Berries collected in such a "barbaric" way, very poorly stored, quickly deteriorate and rot. Cut berries need only a sharp shears. If you use a blunt pruner, you can only hurt: bend or break the vine.
For the manufacture should be selected berries, which are:
- They are large in size and regular shape.
- Not damaged by pests and parasites,
- Untouched by powdery mildew
- They have a dark blue or dark purple color, characteristic of fully ripe berries of most technical varieties.
Before you start making wine, the berries must be sorted. Withered and rotten berries should be removed immediately so that healthy grapes that are not affected by rot do not catch the infection from them. Store grapes preferably in low wooden boxes with sides of the rails. At the bottom of the box you can lay a parchment. Laying a newspaper is not desirable, because printing ink contains harmful chemicals.
For the vintage it is advisable to choose a sunny, but not hot day. If you pick berries on a hot day, they can quickly wilt under the scorching sun. If you collect grapes in the rain, wet berries will be very poorly stored and soon spoil. It is necessary to collect only those berries that are fully ripe. Do not pick berriesthat fell to the ground, as it is very difficult to clean them from dirt and dust.
How to choose varieties for wine
When choosing wine varieties You should pay attention to the following characteristics:
- The ability of the vine to tolerate severe cold,
- The taste of berries (sour, sweet, sour-sweet),
- The presence or absence of immunity to pests and parasites,
- The duration of the life cycle of the vine,
- The duration of the fruiting period.
Acquire planting material is best in nurseries, as well as from experienced vineyards. The order of saplings on the Internet is also widespread.
For cultivation in the Central region, you should choose the most winter hardy and unpretentious varieties in the care. It is much more important than taste. Taste special role do not play, since the degree of sweetness of grapes can be adjusted at their own discretion. To do this, you just need to add a certain amount of sugar to the raw materials.
Grape seedlings, which are naturally immune to fungal diseases, are quite expensive. But there is a way out, and it is very simple. The organization of effective drainage of fluid and planting grapes in a dry and warm place are the best methods of preventing fungal diseases. With proper care, almost any grape variety can be protected from insidious powdery mildew.
Wine tips tips
During the preparation of the wine should not be added to the raw material flavor and aromatic additives. Also, if possible, limit the amount of sugar. Wine should not only taste goodbut also a beautiful color.
Berries that are intended for the manufacture of alcoholic beverages, it is not customary to wash. They are simply sorted out, removing all the garbage and unusable rotten grapes.
Wine should be stored in wine bottles made of dark green or brown glass. It is recommended to prepare raw materials for the production of a drink in a spacious enamel pot, for example, in a large saucepan. In no case can not use metal containers, since the contact of grapes with metal can release harmful substances - by-products of the oxidative reaction.
Home-made wine must ripen to the end. Ripened wine can be stored in a cool and dark place, for example, in the basement.
Wine should not be abused. It has a pleasant taste and almost does not cause intoxication, but it should be remembered that it is an alcoholic drink, and its excessive use can cause great harm to health.
Domestic wine made for the purpose of sale, you must necessarily provide labels. On the label it is necessary to indicate the type of grapes and vintage.
Wine from technical grape varieties is a wonderful gift for family and friends. Grapes in Central Russia have long ceased to be exotic. However, so far not all gardeners of this region have suitable conditions for growing this crop. Caring for wine grapes requires a lot of time and effort. And yet engaged in their cultivation it is worth it, because homemade wine cannot be compared with the one purchased. Anyone who has ever tried this drink will never forget its amazing taste.