Now is the most favorable time for sanitary pruning of stone fruit, so do not rush to hide garden tools, but rather study our cherry and sweet cherry pruning schemes in the fall - and get to work!
Without pruning, trees age faster and lose their ability to abundant fruiting. Also, this procedure allows you to form a crown and prevent the occurrence of disease. As for the autumn pruning of cherries and cherries, its goal is to free the trees from everything superfluous, thereby strengthening immunity and retaining strength for future development. In the spring, the cut plant will have a strong growth of shoots, and the branches in the thinned crown will receive more light. As a result, flower buds, and hence the fruits, will increase. But in order for everything to go well, and the trees survived the winter after pruning, you need to figure out how to properly conduct this work.
Pruning of one-year-old saplings of cherries and sweet cherries in the fall, as well as young immature plants is unacceptable. Better to do it in spring or summer. Expose the remaining trees to the procedure only on the condition that they are generally strong and healthy.
Terms of pruning cherries and cherries in autumn
Proper pruning of cherries and cherries in autumn is carried out from September to November. The warmer in your area, the later you can begin to work. The main indicator is foliar fall. At this point, sap flow ends inside the trunk, and the tree will bear the loss of branches more easily. But it is important to catch before the frost, otherwise the slices may not be delayed before the onset of winter, and the tree will suffer.
Cut only in dry weather to reduce the risk of infection. If frosts are expected in the near future, it is better to postpone the procedure until spring.
Favorable days for pruning in 2018 look in our lunar calendar.
For work you will need a pruner, knife, pruner or garden saw. All tools must be sharp and sharpened. Disinfect inventory can be alcohol, potassium permanganate or 5% solution of iron sulphate. To process the cuts, prepare a garden pitch or a special putty (RanNet, BlagoSad, etc.).
Proper pruning of cherries and cherries in autumn
Before you start pruning, you need to learn how to make the right cut. The diagrams show slices per kidney (when pruning a part of the shoot) and on the ring (when you need to completely cut the branch). Below you will see how to trim the ring correctly.
With the partial removal of a branch using pruning on the kidney. Approximate cutting angle - 45 degrees, which will reduce the likelihood of rotting. The direction is outside the crown, this will prevent the subsequent thickening of the tree.
And now let us consider in detail what to cut on the cherry and tree cherry in the fall. On the spray cherry will tell separately.
So, the main purpose of the autumn pruning - sanation and thinning. It is necessary to remove some of the extra branches, so that the plant does not waste strength on maintaining ballast. Carefully inspect the tree and remove:
- dry, diseased and damaged branches, which can become sources of infection,
- thickening branches,
- Shoots growing inside the trunk,
- branches that look down
- young basal shoots.
Also, it would not be superfluous to remove the tops (powerful fattening shoots), young shoots on the trunk, lower branches at forks and intersecting shoots. Clearly these cases are presented in the diagram.
Do not try to remove all of the above at one time, as Such a global pruning of young cherries and cherries in the fall can weaken the trees and even lead to their death. Better to work in several stages, each year paying attention to a specific problem. Small shoots until spring, do not touch.
Pruning old cherries and cherries in the fall has a peculiarity. If the trees are already very high, it is necessary to cut 60-90 cm from the tops, leaving up to 3 m of the main trunk. Young trees can be subjected to such a procedure only two years after planting and subject to an annual build-up of at least 75 cm of the trunk. Pruning of old cherries and cherries in autumn is usually limited to thinning. But if necessary, you can also shorten too long shoots, using the method of cutting to the bud (at the same time cut off no more than 1 m). This will allow the redistribution of nutrients and increase the yield.
When pruning young cherries and cherries in the fall, it is important to pay more attention to thinning, but now you can calculate how you will conduct the spring formative pruning.
After pruning, the crown of the tree will become more transparent. Each branch will receive more light and there will be no risk that in the winter under snow the weak shoots will freeze or break.
Cherry and sweet cherry seedlings are not subjected to autumn pruning, but if necessary, you can carefully remove the interfering or dry branch.
Pruning spray cherries in autumn
In contrast to the tree cherry, in which most of the flower buds are located on the bouquet sprigs, the shrub forms buds on annual growths. In other words, the type of fruiting in these plants is different. Spray cherries need more thorough thinning of the crown, because over the summer it grows heavily. It is necessary to remove dry and diseased branches, young shoots, as well as branches before the first significant branching. You should not immediately cut off all unnecessary, divide the work into several seasons.
Here are a few rules that will allow for the correct pruning of autumn bush cherries:
- do not cut the shoots less than 50 cm in length so that the plant does not lose strength,
- make branches not inside the crown, but outside, this will avoid thickening,
- do not touch the young shoots, otherwise next year you can not wait for the harvest.
Care for cherries and cherries after autumn pruning
The sooner the wounds heal, the faster the tree will recover and successfully winters. This will help not only a sharp tool that leaves even cuts and thus promotes rapid healing, but also special tools - garden var or putty. Apply them to large sections with a brush or toothbrush.
Then clean the branches, leaves and other garbage in the ringing circle and burn it. If you do not want to burn the branches, you can make them pretty crafts. Just do not lay in the compost, so that other plants can avoid the defeat of diseases and pests.
Carefully dig the soil to a depth of 15 cm, burn it, and then water the plants abundantly (10 liters of water per 1 square meter for each year of the tree’s life). To protect against pests and diseases, spray the soil with a 5% solution of urea.
Adult plants shelter for the winter is not necessary. But if in your region the winters are very cold, you can ram the near-stem circle with straw, and during the winter rake up snow to the trunk. Young trees, especially cherries, cover with winter sacking or agrofibre. It is also important to protect the plants from rodents, so whitewash the tree trunks or mesh it.
Andrei Belyaev, a practicing gardener from Kursk, gives his recommendations regarding the autumn pruning of cherries, cherries, plums, cherry plums and other stone trees.
Stone stone can not be cut immediately "on the ring." This can cause gum treatment, the bark will not tighten the wound, but on the contrary will begin to move away from the wood. Over time, this skeletal branch will have to be cut to the wrong pruning point.
Autumn pruning of living branches is better not to produce. In the autumn I advise you to remove only dry and diseased branches. In central Russia, the majority of stone fruit are “guests” from the South. Therefore, our cold winters for them - the ultimate stress. Any pruning will weaken the trees, and this before the cold is best avoided.
Stone stones do not suffer from the thickening of the crown, they do not need a central conductor or other specialized form of the crown. When pruning we remove only conflicting branches and sharp forks.
Cherry is a tall tree with powerful growth dynamics. If pruning is done in spring, the tree will direct all its forces towards the formation of young growths, and the harvest will be low. Therefore, the best sweet cherry cut after removing the berries.
After autumn pruning your garden will noticeably change. Trees will look well-groomed, reducing the risk of pests and diseases. The next pruning will need to be done in the spring and its goal will be no less important: to form a crown and increase fertility.
We also recommend to study the materials on the autumn pruning of other fruit trees.
Why prune in spring?
Conducted in several techniques:
- in the beginning of March, immediately after the snow melted, they carry out sanitary pruning, removing the branches damaged during the winter,
- in April, before the beginning of active movement of tree sap and swelling of buds, they begin to form pruning, designed to correct, and in the case of young trees, to begin forming the crown of the tree.
Do you need crown formation in summer?
About the need for a summer pruning gardeners are ambiguous.
Stages of summer pruning cherries:
- in late May, early June, after flowering, but before the start of ripening, in order to stimulate the growth of horizontal branches and correct the direction of their growth, they are pruned by pinching the still non-lumbering shoots. At the same time, the main trunk is shortened,
- in the middle of July and until the beginning of August, after harvesting, shoots grown after the first pruning are shortened by 10 cm.
Proper pruning in the fall
It is carried out after falling off of foliage with the aim of:
- thinning: removal of broken, old and weak, as well as branches and branches growing at the wrong angle,
- shortening the length of the shoots by a third.
Autumn processing needs to be completed in September. In the fall, the wounds from the slices are slowed down. The tree must recover before the arrival of cold weather.
Sweet cherry pruning:
Rules of conducting
Formative pruning required in the first year after planting. It will allow to form a compact, regular shape and a good density of the crown.
The growth of young shoots at an acute angle with respect to the fruit-bearing branch is adjusted with the help of a load or a garter to a branch growing below. This eliminates the risk of breaking the fertile branch.
Once in 5 years rejuvenating pruning is carried out.
These simple rules will allow you to avoid mistakes, grow a sweet cherry with the correct crown and get excellent harvest.
Formative: from first to sixth year
Carried out in order to form a correct crown, consisting of 2 or 3 tiers.
Shaped pruning held in the spring during the first 6 years after planting sweet cherries
Works in the first, after landing, spring:
- on the seedlings mark the height of the trunk. It usually ranges from 30 to 60 cm,
- put the mark, counting up to escape a maximum of 6 buds,
- make a cut.
- We select 3-4 young shoots growing in the lower part of the crown on opposite sides of the main trunk. They will form the basis of the first tier. We cut these branches, leaving half a meter of length,
- among the shoots of the lower tier, choose the one that grows above the rest. We measure it by length 70 cm along its length, then we count 4-6 buds and make a cut.
On the third spring We continue the forming trim from the lower tier:
- we cut the upper branches to the level of the lower knot,
- remove branches that grow at an acute angle or inside the crown.
It is important not to touch the bottom, often poorly developed, branch.
Processing branches of the second tier:
- we select strong shoots less than 30 cm long. We carry out their pruning. The length of the branches of the second tier should be 10-15 cm less than the length of the branches of the first tier,
- among the shoots of the second tier we distinguish growing above the rest. We measure about half a meter along its trunk and, having counted 4-6 buds, we make a cut,
- adjust the length of the remaining branches of the second tier: it should be 20 cm shorter than the central trunk.
Formation of the crown in the spring of the fourth year:
- choose and shorten one of the weak side shoots to half a meter,
- cut the center conductor, making the cut above the shortened shoot.
If there are branches on the cherry tree, located above the second tier, we will form 3:
- we cut branches to a length shorter than the main stem by 20 cm,
- We remove short branches along with the central conductor, making the cut below the discharge of the thinnest shoot.
We complete the work by adjusting the length of branches 1 and 2 tiers:
- we shorten outward and long (over 80 cm) shoots of the first and second orders by a length not exceeding 75 cm,
- cut the shoots growing inside the crown.
Spring of the fifth and sixth year We continue to work on the formation of the crown according to a scheme similar to the previous one:
- shorten shoots longer than half a meter
- we get rid of the branches intertwining and directed inside the crown,
- among short, up to 50 cm, shoots, remove all growing at an acute angle,
- along the central trunk we cut off all large shoots of lengthening, thereby transferring them to short side branches.
Hygienic or sanitary
Plants, like people, are aging. His signs are:
- reducing the number of fruits and the size of berries,
- the deterioration of the taste of berries,
- frequent plant diseases.
All these manifestations of aging say about the need for anti-aging pruning.
It consists in a significant, up to the length of a two-year plant, the shortening of all branches and is carried out after fruiting.
Radical sweet pruning - why and why:
In order to limit growth
What to do, if for some reason, the cherry is strongly stretched uptaking the fruit beyond their reach by man?
The adjustment of the crown begin with the removal of all strongly raised and growing branches directly at the crown. This activates the development of external branches.
Growing branches will be located at a large angle of separation from the skeletal shoots and weaker than the previous ones. But this is exactly what we need.
After removing growing up branches the crown will become lighter, wider and lower. As soon as the sweet cherry recovers from the cuts, its growth will begin. At the site of remote shoots will remain only minor bends.
Important in the future prevent general thickening of the crown, while tracking the growth of shoots directed inside the crown.
If the cherry is strongly stretched upwards, it is necessary to correct the height and shape of the tree
After forming a trim on the tree replacement shoots will appear. It's unavoidable. They are subject to unconditional removal.
The sooner you notice such an escape, the easier it will be to remove and the more sweet the cherries will transfer this procedure.
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Lateral branches will also increasethat are removed after fruiting. They are cut from bottom to top in descending order, forming longlines and giving the crown a pyramidal shape.
Otherwise, the upper shoots will darken the lower ones, leading to their weakening.
Nuances of trimming:
- Trimming the trunk and escape of any age, do not make too low cuts, but do not leave hemp.
- Sawing 3-5-year-old branches, gradually loosen the pressure of the hacksaw by the time the process is completed. This will reduce the risk of bark tearing.
- Removing the lower massive branches, make deep-nib files from the underside of the shoot. This will protect the branches from falling, if you do not keep them, while maintaining the integrity of the bark.
Cherry trimming scheme with step-by-step explanations
Step 1. Formation of the skeleton of the crown and planning its height.
It is the main stage of crown formation by lowering its height. Work is convenient to hold in the spring, before the foliage:
- Selection of skeletal branches of the lower (first) tier: carefully consider the tree, beating it from all sides. Visually determine the choice of the main (skeletal) branches.
- Trimming the side branches of the lower tier: select 3-4 lower branches that grow horizontally in different directions from the trunk. Annual side trimming of these branches you can achieve the expansion of the crown.
- The formation of the basis of the following tiers is carried out in a similar way.
- Plan the desired tree height and make a mark on the main trunk.
Step 2. Gradual removal of the main trunk.
It is the first addition and carried out directly after it:
- We make a cut above the mark placed on the main trunk (Step 1, point 4) and the third tier. It should go about ½ of the length of the segment to the horizontal branch of 3 tiers left by us (Step 1, point 3).
- We are waiting for the emergence of new shoots leaders. We grow them by 20-30 cm. As soon as this happens (approximately in July), the tree is ready for the final procedure.
Step 3. Removal of the main trunk.
We complete the gradual shortening of the leader by making a cut along the previously made mark (Step 1, item 4).
The process of pruning strong-growing cherries:
Phased pruning tactics reduce the likelihood of a large number of tops, and those that appear will be weak. The tree that is saved will be used for development and fruiting.
As you see Sweet cherry pruning is not a very complicated procedure.. Having studied the relevant literature and having understood the schemes, the novice will cope with it.
It remains to recall that the main condition for the effective conduct of pruning is regularity. According to experienced gardeners, if a tree regularly shows what you want from it, it will understand you and will not run up.
Зачем нужна обрезка черешни?
Cherries and its hybrids with cherries (cherry trees, dyukhs) are not bushes in nature, but trees that are prone with strong growth upwards. This feature is not always convenient for garden culture.
Sweet cherry has grown in height. This is not very convenient!
In addition, free-growing cherries uncontrollably thicken or become bare. The main fruiting of the sweet cherry is concentrated on the bouquet sprigs, they are formed on two-year-old wood and have been viable for more than a decade, but only in favorable conditions. Without the necessary trim crop plants quickly become unproductive.
High tree problems
- The plant takes up a lot of space and obscures the garden.
- From a tall tree is not easy to harvest.
- Berries difficult to protect against the invasion of birds.
- It is difficult to fight with pests and diseases.
- It is problematic to control the exposure of some areas of the crown and the thickening of others.
The effects of thickening
Condensed sweet cherry is often affected by fungal diseases.
- poor lighting inside,
- the death of part of the bouquet twigs,
- weak airing
- activation of infections
- the deterioration of the quality of the fruit,
- reducing the number of ovaries
- overall drop in yield.
Experienced gardeners know that Sweet cherry pruning - a mandatory event . The difficulty is that this is not a one-time procedure. You can’t throw a lineup halfway. The tree responds to pruning with strong growth, so regular adjustments are needed. A detailed review of all the details of trimming cherries will help the video, but first you need to understand the principles of this work.
When is it better to cut the cherry in spring or autumn? Spring pruning is considered basic, but summer and autumn works are also carried out.
Spring wounds heal faster.
Spring pruning is carried out before the leaves bloom.
After the snow melts, first make sanitary cutting of branches damaged during the winter. Then, before the buds swell, the main forming and correcting cutting is made. Too early, while there are cold, wounds are not recommended.
Waiting for spring heat , but work before the start of sap flow. Sometimes the term is slightly shifted forward, conducting work on the awakened tree, in order to assess the strength of the kidneys.
Summer pruning is considered necessary to maintain some bushy formations, but in regions with cold winters it can be dangerous: late sprout shoots mature poorly and freeze.
Summer pruning is more suitable for the southern regions.
If the gardener has the time and desire, then in the summer, green operations are performed - regular pinching of unnecessary young shoots (tops, sprouts inside the crown, etc.). Small wounds of the plant heal faster than subsequent large cuts. But in the northern regions too much interest in this procedure should not be - act competently, without provoking the growth of shoots that do not have time to woody.
Autumn pruning is carried out immediately after the leaf fall for sanitary purposes: broken, sick, old twigs are harvested.
This work should not be delayed, because autumn wounds heal more slowly, and the tree should have time to recover by winter.
In winter, sweet cherry is not pruned.
Types and goals of forming
Formation of the crown includes four main types of work: pruning, nipping, dazzling the buds, pulling the branches.
- Pruning involves cutting off or cutting off branches (full or partial) with a saw, knife, pruner.
- Nip made with your fingers, while not undigested (green) part of the shoot. Pinching is considered the least traumatic for the plant.
- Blind kidney - This is their removal (with a knife or fingers).
- Delayed - forced change of direction for a branch or escape. It is carried out by placing clothespins and other struts, hanging loads, tying ropes to pegs, etc.
General principles of pruning cherries.
- Lower height - pruning to reduce growth up.
- Crown diameter adjustment (outer contour).
- Thinning and thickening prevention (inner space).
- Care for skeleton strength.
- Strengthening growth processes or, on the contrary, an increase in the number of fruit buds (a significant part of the sweet cherry crop is formed on the bouquet sprigs).
Pruning is the main method for the formation of sweet cherries, and the other methods are related and auxiliary.
The main varieties of pruning cherries.
Sweet cherry needs annual attention.
- formative (first 3-5 years)
- corrective - to maintain the shape of the plant and its productivity,
- sanitary (regular removal of broken and diseased branches),
- rejuvenating (as needed, about once every 5 years).
Signals to rejuvenation
- Decreased productivity.
- The lack of good annual gains.
- Excessive rarefaction or thickening of the crown.
Scheme running crown and places rejuvenating pruning.
Another type of pruning is thinning a fledged adult tree. This event can not be carried out at once: the plant can respond with compensation - uncontrolled growth, and the death of a tree from extensive wounds is not excluded. They work in several stages (sometimes 2–3 years), keeping in mind the desired result. The main term is spring before bud break.
Trimming begins with the preparation of the tool.
It is necessary to protect plantings from the formation of hollow holes, to avoid unnecessary burrs of bark.
- All work is done well with ground tools.
- When cutting it is impossible to leave hemp, but too low and deep cuts are also not needed.
- Removing a large branch, be sure to make a preliminary file from the bottom.
How to make the correct cut branches.
Cuts and large sections are covered with (garden pitch, oil paint on linseed oil, etc.).
The main form of the crown
When planting cherries gardener need to decide what he wants to see it in perspective. This affects both the distance between seedlings and the early stage of shaping.
All pruning work depends on the CROWN SHAPE, which the grower will choose for CHERRY.
The main types of crowns of sweet cherry trees.
- climatic conditions of the region,
- microclimate of the site,
- characteristics of the variety
- gardener's capabilities (for example, the amount of time and assistants for work),
- economic tasks (planting for the needs of the family or a plantation for the purpose of selling berries).
Cherry plant cultivated forms
When a tree shrub, the bush looks like a wild plant.
Gardeners have come up with many options for forming, but they all boil down to two main ones - tree and bush.
- Tree The formation is close to the natural. It assumes the presence of one central stem-conductor (leader). Species: rarefied, tiered, spindle, Vogel system, etc.
- Kustovidnaya (bush, multi-leader, multi-leader) forming artificially turns a tree into a bush. Varieties: fan, triangle, bowl (vase), Australian bush, Spanish bush and its KGB variant (KJB, Kim Green Bush, Kim Green's Bush), etc.
Its specific formation exists in column-like varieties, whose viability and productivity have yet to be tested in a continental climate.
Advantages and disadvantages of formulations
The bush form is more convenient for pruning and harvesting, but requires constant care for the crown.
Both bush and tree cherries have their pros and cons.
Positive aspects of the bush (with proper formation):
- Higher density of landings.
- Yield increase due to better lighting, active bookmarking of bouquet branches, enlargement of berries, greater return from the area.
- The availability of branches during harvest and processing.
- Ability to throw a net to protect the crop from birds.
- The bushy form unnatural for a tree needs constant support.
- After active summer pruning (sometimes necessary for shaping), regrown young shoots do not always have time to woody and risk permafrost in winter (in cold areas).
- In areas with spring frosts, the soil zone suffers more than the tops of the trees. Buds and flowers with frosts survive better in the upper part of the tree crown.
On the other hand, a low bush can try to protect from freezing, covering with agrofiber.
Custard shrubs are a fashion trend that is gaining popularity. However, he has opponents.
In fruit-growing farms in the southern regions, bush forming cherries is more often used.
Sweet cherry is a southern culture, and its advancement to the north faces certain difficulties. Breeders produce more winter-hardy varieties of sweet cherries and cherry trees, but the issues of shaping and trimming remain controversial.
In Southern Europe, the benefits of the bush are tangible: they may be important for the North Caucasus, Krasnodar Territory, the South of the Black Soil Region, the Lower Volga Region, and other warm regions. But in Nizhny Novgorod, disputes already exist: some gardeners are introducing an Australian bush or KGB, others prefer the sparsely-tiered (tree) version.
Even more ambiguous is this question for Black Earth (including Moscow region), North-West, the Urals and Siberia.
Pruning by year
Cherry trimming schemes may be different, and their choice depends on the planned shape of the crown.
Scheme of pruning cherries by year.
Pruning for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th year of the plant’s life is mainly formative, further corrective and sanitary is needed, with age it can be rejuvenating (for a cherry tree, usually 5–6 years ).
Sparse longline tree forming
The task is to get a slim, moderately tall (3–4.5 meters) tree with evenly spaced branches that do not obscure each other.
The principle of formation of a sparse-tiered crown.
The length of the trunk from the ground to the first branching is approximately 0.65 m . The height of the tree is regularly adjusted. The distance between seedlings is at least 4–5 meters.
The formed fruiting tree has one main trunk and one main top, as well as several tiers (usually not more than 3) of skeletal branches. In the first tier - 4 skeletal branches, in the subsequent - 3, then 2. On the skeletal branches of the second order (semi-skeletal) are located with a small further ramifications.
- First spring annual seedlings pruned, leaving the height of the ground 70–100 cm. During the summer side shoots grow. (If the seedling is weak and short, then in the first year it is not pruned, but allowed to grow and grow strong, the formation is started the next year.)
- In the second spring leave 3-4 branches (evenly diverging, preferably at obtuse angles to the trunk) - these are future skeletal branches of the first tier. Also keep the central conductor, and the rest of the shoots cut out entirely on the ring. The remaining branches are cut to a third (or leaving them about 60 cm long) for branching. The height of the central conductor above the upper side branch should not exceed 100 cm (cut off excess). Over the summer, shoots for the second tier grow at the top.
- On the third spring form the second tier, leaving 3 branches in it, the rest are removed completely, on the ring. It is desirable that the skeletal branches of the second tier is not shaded lower. The distance between the second and third tier should be 50–80 cm. If the branches of the lower tier gave an increase of 60 cm, it is shortened by a third. The branches of the second tier are cut so that they are shorter than the first in 10–15 cm.
- On the fourth spring lay the third tier by the same rule as the second. The center conductor is cut to a height of half a meter from the third tier, transferring the top to a weak side twig. The third tier should be shorter than the center conductor. on 20 cm.
Formed pyramidal crown.
- In subsequent years, in autumn or spring, shoots that grow inside the crown or at the intersection of other branches are removed.
- Skeletal branches are shortened, leaving them no longer than 60–75 cm . A small increase is not necessary to cut, but the annual growth of more than half a meter is shortened by a third.
- Over the years, when the growth rate is waning (less than 30 cm per season), anti-aging pruning is performed on 2-3 year old wood on an older tree - on 5–6 year old wood .
- The height of the cherry is kept within 4.5 meters , periodically cutting the conductor with the transfer to a weak side branch. If the peak is completely removed, to the level of the upper tier, powerful processes of gibing will begin (growth inside the crown of long shoots directed upwards) and thickening, and it is difficult to cope with them.
Cherry trees need moderation. Weak pruning will unduly inhibit growth processes, and a strong one will provoke excessively active growth.
Bowl (vase) - bush form with tree elements
A bush consisting of three powerful branches, each of which is a separate tree with its apex, sits on a shtambe 60 cm high. The lateral branches (tiers) of each tree are directed mainly outward and are located almost horizontally. Overall height - up to 4 m.
- In the spring of the first year, the annual sapling is pruned at a meter height. . Among the awakening buds, a group of the three strongest is selected, located at a distance of 20 cm from each other. They are left, and the remaining kidneys are removed. A smooth stem is needed from below, and a small piece of stem (spine) is left above, which will be removed later. As the lateral shoots grow back on the spine, the clothespin is temporarily attached, placing it horizontally. She will make the upper escape grow not up, but a little sideways. Similarly, put clothespins on two other shoots. Later, these twigs are already weighed down with the help of weights or tied up with twine to the pegs driven into the ground. The tops of the shoots should be slightly upward. By the autumn it is desirable to get a peculiar shape of the bowl, assistive devices can be removed when not needed.
Trimming for the first year.
Pruning for the second year.
Trimming for the third year.
Pruning for the fourth year.
The upper tier should be shorter than the bottom, so as not to obscure it. In the future, the height of the crown (each of the three) is regularly lowered, cutting to a weak side branch. Strong lateral growths are shortened by a third, long branches are pruned to the bottom weak branching. Thick branches, growing inside the crown, cut out on the ring. As the tree ages, they alternately replace each of the three trunks with a new one, leaving a strong young branch for this.
Australian bush, Spanish bush and Kim Green Bush (KGB)
For formation "Australian bush" is characterized by a low height of the plant.
The bush forms are similar to a bowl, only the stem branches even lower, and the total height of the plant does not exceed 2–2.5 m. The structure is based on 4 skeletal branches. Possible landing patterns: 5Х2 m, 5Х3 m, 3Х4 m.
The first spring sapling pruned, leaving a height of about half a meter.
- The skeletal branches of the Australian bush initially form like a bowl . In the spring of the second year, all the buds directed inside the crown are removed. Side shoots that grow at an acute angle, cut out, leave horizontal. In the third year, the twigs that grow on last year’s pinch when they reach 8 cm. In the future, keep their compact dimensions in width and height, cutting off and pinching all that is superfluous. After five years of fruiting, skeletal branches are gradually replaced by young ones. The plant resembles a sparse shrub with four strong branches.
- Kim Green's Bush (KGB) - multi-leader shaping . Fruiting plant looks like a bush with equal branches, the number of which is from 12 to 20 pieces (on average - 16). With the gradual formation of KGB to the first autumn grow 4 strong shoots. In the spring of the second year, they are cut shortly, leaving only 10–15 cm of hemp. By the fall of the second year, 2 powerful branches should grow on each of the four hemp (a total of 8 per bush). All excess shoots are plucked in a green state, watching this over the summer. In the third spring, the operation is repeated, increasing to 16 branches by the third autumn. The basic formation is over. (Sometimes the process is accelerated by not cutting next spring, but in summer. So, by the end of the first season, not 4, but 8 branches are received).
On the 4th spring, all last year's (one-year) growth is cut by a quarter. In addition, the first rejuvenation is performed: one of the four leaders is removed and they start to grow a new one. They do this every year. Too old branches in the bush does not happen. Excess thickening is prevented by conducting summer green pinching and trimming operations.
Various flat crown shapes (fan, triangle, etc.) are original and compact, but they require constant care and undying enthusiasm.
Why do you need to prune the cherry trees
Many gardeners believe that it is better not to practice pruning stone trees, especially cherries and cherries, allowing trees to grow naturally.
Agree with this - do not quite right. Forming pruning stone fruit allows to improve the crown of trees (cut dried boughs and twigs, which serve as additional gates for penetration of harmful infections and pests into the wood). Removing the branches growing inside the crown during pruning allows air access; this operation can significantly reduce the risk of developing pathological fungal infections.
When pruning, a strong skeleton of a tree is formed, the height of the trunk is reduced, which facilitates harvesting and makes it easier to work on the garden from pests.
Tip! A strong healthy tree is a pledge of a bountiful harvest, regular pruning helps to stimulate fruiting.
Types of pruning cherries
В садоводстве применяют три вида обрезки черешневых деревьев:
- Formative pruning - this type of pruning involves the implementation of some actions aimed at the formation of a strong skeletal base of the tree. In this case, there is an order for pruning branches on different tiers of the crown. Formative pruning allows laying the foundation for the development of the cherry tree in subsequent years, which has a positive effect on the ripening of a rich harvest and increases the resistance of the tree to infections.
- Rejuvenating pruning - necessary when forming the crown of old, very overgrown trees that have stopped producing. The rejuvenating effect will be noticeable as early as next spring, when the sweet cherry will again bloom abundantly and tie up a mass of fruits. A rejuvenating pruning is carried out after the harvest of the fruit has been removed, and the tree will recover its strength a little. Usually the beginning of work on pruning timed to the beginning of autumn.
- Pruning a cherry tree in autumn is necessary for sanitary purposes to reduce the risk of infections. During the summer, some branches on the tree are infected with pathogenic infections, therefore during the autumn pruning it is necessary to get rid of the infected branches. The cut parts of the cherry branches must be burned.
Schemes pruning trees in Cherry Orchard
The classic scheme of the formation of cherries - sparse-tiered. On one tree, there are only 8 branches of the main skeleton, arranged in three tiers. The lower tier consists of 3-4 main branches, which must be directed in different directions (no overhang of the branches above each other is allowed).
The second tier rises above the first 60 cm, and the intervals between the branches of the second tier are up to half a meter.
First year (pruned when planting sapling)
The one-year sweet cherry sapling, planted in the garden at a permanent place, is already subject to pruning. For the correct formation of the crown adhere to certain rules:
- In the southern regions of Russia, it is customary to leave a stem up to 60 cm, the further north, the shtamp height is less - in the northern and chernozem regions, a cherry tree is formed on a stem of 30-40 cm.
- For cutting use a sharp clean knife, in advance it is necessary to prepare the compositions to protect the cut point: oil paint, garden pitch, special protective mastics. Slices sections in order to exclude the possibility of infection through the wound surface.
The first pruning is carried out in the spring months.
The second year of cultivation of sweet cherry: the rules for pruning a two-year sapling
Pruning a two-year tree is carried out in the spring, it is important not to delay the procedure. Strong branches developed from the buds left in the first year, of which 3-4 pieces are left. The remaining branches are cut near the trunk, leave hemp is not allowed.
The remaining branches should be arranged harmoniously around the trunk, without touching. It is necessary to cut off the branches of the first tier, leaving up to 50 cm in length. Simultaneously with pruning the branches of the first tier, in the second spring, the main stem of the cherry is shortened. 4 buds are counted from the uppermost branch of the 1st tier and the upper part of the trunk is trimmed with a sharp knife. The cut points are reliably covered with special means.
Third year: spring cherry tree pruning
The scheme of pruning a cherry tree in the third spring is carried out according to the following rules: on the branches of the first tier, one is determined, with the worst annual increase. Pruning of this branch is not carried out, and the remaining branches of the first order are truncated to the size of the weakest.
Tip! At the same time, pruning of all branches growing deep into the crown is carried out.
In the second tier form second-order skeletal branches, while it is strictly necessary to ensure that the branches grow outward and are approximately at an equal distance from the trunk.
After pruning the branches, they proceed to the formation of the main stem of the cherry tree, for which 50 cm recede from the second tier and leave 4 to 6 buds, which will give rise to branched branches of 3 orders. The magnitude of the future harvest depends on the angle of the directed growth of the branches: the greatest harvest is collected from the horizontal branches.
Fourth year: spring cherry pruning
The central trunk of the tree should be cut to the weakest side shoot, such an operation will help limit the growth of cherry in height. All side shoots are cut, leaving no more than 80 cm on shoots 2 and 3 tiers, the branches of the first tier are cut more strongly - leave up to half a meter long shoots.
In the fourth year, not only the branches of the main skeleton are cut, but also strong shoots are shortened on the skeletal branches. At the same time strictly follow the direction of growth of the branches - all shoots directed inside the crown ruthlessly removed. Also remove one of the two intersecting shoots.
In the fifth, sixth and subsequent years, the pruning of cherries is carried out similarly to the 4 year scheme, and the shoots on the skeletal branches are removed: weak, underdeveloped, broken, with the direction of growth inside the tent crown. The central trunk and the main skeletal branches shorten no more than half a meter.
Inexperienced gardeners who do not understand the meaning of regular pruning often do not bother to remove excess shoots and provide the sweet cherry with the possibility of uncontrolled growth. They should be aware that these fast-growing trees will bear fruit only until their crowns thicken thoroughly. After that, getting a bountiful and high-quality crop will have to be forgotten.
The thing is that due to the lack of light in the depth of the thickened crown, the fruit branches die off. Shaded fruit branches give too few flower buds, ovaries on them are formed quite rarely, and the quality of the fruit is low. In addition, the thickened crown creates all the conditions for the emergence of diseases and the development of insect pests.
Thus, regular and correct pruning:
- Able to significantly increase the yield of fruit trees.
- Significantly improves the quality of fruits: their sugar content, juiciness and taste.
- Reduces the risk of dangerous diseases.
- Improves winter hardiness of sweet cherry.
- May significantly increase the lifespan of trees.
Since the method of pruning depends entirely on the intended tasks, before its implementation it is necessary to determine in advance what purpose it pursues.
With cropping you can:
- Significantly improve the lighting of all parts of the crown.
- Correctly form a beautiful crown, resistant to the effects of adverse external factors (first of all, the wind).
- To prevent excessive growth of the crown (for cherries that do not have short rootstocks, this is extremely important: otherwise, it will significantly complicate the collection of fruits).
- To direct the main forces of the fruit tree to the development of the lateral branches giving the greatest yield.
When to cut?
Opinions gardeners regarding the timing of pruning cherries diverge. Some of them prefer to spend it in early spring. Others are committed supporters of autumn pruning. Qualified agronomists insist that the cherry should be cut at least two or three times a year.
Terms of spring pruning
There are two diametrically opposite points of view regarding the timing of spring pruning of sweet cherries. According to the first, pruning is necessary before the start of sap flow, according to the second - after it.
Consider the arguments of each side:
- The advantage of spring pruning, carried out before the onset of sap flow and the moment of bud swelling, is that at this time the crown of the tree is best seen.
- Spring pruning, carried out at the very beginning of the growing season, after the start of sap flow, is good in that it provides the tree with a rapid overgrowth of wounds. During this period, as a rule, pruning of skeletal branches is performed.
And in fact, and in another case, spring pruning is necessary when the threat of recurrent frosts is over. The impact of sub-zero temperatures on a newly thinned crown of a heat-loving tree can be detrimental to it.
In central Russia, spring pruning of cherries is carried out in early to mid-March, in its southern regions in the last decade of February, and in the northern regions in late March or early April.
Stages summer trim
Summer pruning of cherries should be divided into two stages:
- First summer trim (attributable, as a rule, to the first decade of June) is carried out immediately after flowering. At this moment, the tops of the green young shoots of this year are cut, thereby stimulating the emission of side shoots. Sometimes they appear in the same year. Removal of non-timber shoots by pinching (or pinching) in the summer period is advisable only in those cases if they are growing too fast or if they grow in the opposite direction to that necessary for the correct formation of the crown.
- Second summer trim perform immediately after harvesting (from mid-July to early August). Removal of excess branches and shortening by 10 cm of shoots, regrown after the first pruning, carried out after fruiting, provides trees with the possibility of accelerated overgrowth of cuts. This variant of pruning is equally suitable for the middle zone and for the southern regions, and for trees grown in climatic conditions of northern latitudes characterized by too short summers, it is a real salvation. After it, the cherry will have enough time to restore and store nutrients.
Dates of the autumn pruning
Many gardeners prefer to be engaged in pruning the cherries in the autumn, after the foliage has completely subsided, due to which the crown becomes well-viewed.
The purpose of the autumn pruning:
- The thinning of the crown, providing for the removal of damaged, weakened, old and growing at an acute angle of branches and branches.
- Shorten the shoots by about a third of their length.
Since at this time the stone-seed crops are making a supply of nutrients, in the Moscow region and more northern regions of Russia, their autumn pruning must be done in a short time: from the moment the leaves fall to the end of September.
If pruning is carried out at a later period, the trees simply do not have enough time to restore and create a supply of essential nutrients, since the wounds left after cutting the branches heal much more slowly at this moment.
Autumn pruning of cherries grown in the southern regions of the Russian Federation can be moved to a later date - until the last decade of November.
The purpose and timing of winter pruning
Gardeners resort to the winter pruning procedure solely for the purpose of rejuvenating old trees, in which their ability to bear fruit has either markedly decreased or completely disappeared. Anti-aging thinning of the crown is performed at the end of February, choosing the warmest day for this.
Young healthy trees do not need winter care. Winter pruning of the crown can cause irreparable harm to young heat-loving trees, which are extremely sensitive to low temperatures.
How to trim?
To form a young tree (using regular pruning) begin from the moment of its landing. During the first four years, the gardener should take care of the formation of the trunk, skeleton and crown of a young plant.
So that the young sapling can quickly recover his strength, the pruning procedure should not be too frequent. That is why the work aimed at the formation of skeletal branches and trunk, experienced gardeners prefer to carry out in the spring, and sanitary thinning of the crown - in the fall.
It is possible to perform cutting of saplings of the fifth year of life at any time of the year. When choosing the best time for the procedure, it is necessary to proceed from the expected result.
The main types of pruning cherry
There are several types of pruning cherries.
She may be:
- Formative. Performed in early spring, this type of pruning is especially important for young seedlings.
- Sanitaryheld, as a rule, in the autumn months. To avoid the risk of infectious diseases, patches of pathogens are cut out and burned immediately. The main purpose of spring sanitary pruning is to remove branches, severely damaged by frost.
- Rejuvenatingcarried out either at the beginning of autumn or in winter. Its objects are non-bearing trees, old or neglected trees. Anti-aging pruning combines the functions of forming trim and sanitary cleaning.
- Performed during the fruiting period. The indication for summer pruning is significant branch damage (most often breaking) due to crop overload.
Stages of the spring forming trim
It is impossible to cut seedlings whose height is less than 50 cm: being very weak, they can not move the procedure. For novice gardeners, we offer a detailed description of all stages of formative pruning of young trees.
First-year saplings first of all regulate the height of the trunk, depending on the region in which the sweet cherry is grown:
- in the southern areas, the central trunk of the seedling is cut at 70 cm,
- the recommended height of the trunk for the middle band is from 50 to 60 cm,
- in the northern regions, its height should not exceed 30-40 cm.
In saplings that have not reached a certain height, the trunk is laid for the next season.
Trimming the central trunk, performed at a height greater than one meter, will contribute to an over-arrangement of the crown and skeletal branches. As a result, the height of the vegetative mass will be more than 1.5 meters, and the fruiting area will be 2 meters from the ground. It is clear that harvesting and sanitizing the crown of such a tree will be associated with certain difficulties.
At the same time, it should be noted that the re-pruning of the central trunk is completely unacceptable, since it will necessarily affect fruitful branches, which will inevitably affect the yield.
The formation of the trunk is always carried out in the spring. Having counted at least six strong buds (of which skeletal branches of the lower tier will develop over time), a cut is performed on them. Side shoots are left inviolable.
For cutting the seedling it is necessary to use a very sharp and well-disinfected garden knife. Fresh cut should immediately be treated with protective mastic, garden pitch, linseed oil or oil paint.
In the second year, begin the formation of the lower tier of the crown:
- Having chosen three or four of the largest shoots that have emerged from the buds left on the shtambe, all excess branches are removed with a sharp garden knife (as close as possible to the trunk, leaving no stumps).
- Left shoots, located evenly, should not touch. They should also be shortened to a length not exceeding 50 cm.
- Simultaneously with the procedure for removal of the lower taps, the main stem is pruned, which after some time will turn into a sufficiently strong stem. For this purpose, having counted 3-4 strongest buds on the central stem, cut off its remaining part. These buds will give the skeletal branches of the second level. For the treatment of the cut apply special garden mastic.
In saplings of the 3rd year of life, tabs of the second tier are laid, the undercut is trimmed, and the trunk continues to be formed:
- Before pruning the branches of the lower tier, they reveal the weakest skeletal branch, which gave the worst annual growth. This branch is left intact, and all remaining shoots are trimmed to its length.
- In parallel with the procedure of shortening the skeletal branches, they remove (at the root) shoots that grow inside the crown or vertically and thereby thicken it.
- The taps of the second tier appear from the buds left when cutting the central stem in the past year. Convinced of the uniform arrangement of the branches extending from the trunk at an angle of 45 degrees, produce the removal of excess shoots. Skeletal branches of the second tier are pruned, making them shorter than the first level branches by 10-15 cm.
- In order to properly form the trunk, retreat 50 cm from the uppermost branch of the second tier and count 5-6 the most powerful buds. Above the last bud, the central stem is cut off. Abandoned buds will give third-level skeletal branches.
The process of forming the crown and trunk is completed in the fourth year after planting the seedlings:
- To limit the stretching of the tree, the trunk is cut at the level of the weakest horizontal branch of the third tier. Skeletal branches of the second and third level are pruned, leaving no more than 70-80 cm from the original length. The branches of the first tier are cut to 50 cm.
- Incorrectly growing branches must be deleted. In the presence of intersecting shoots, only one of them should be removed. Leave only one whose direction of growth and location is more correct.
When performing spring pruning of cherries older than 5 years, it must be remembered that in no case can one shorten the tips of skeletal branches with growth buds, since this manipulation is fraught with desiccation of the entire pruned branch.
The main tasks of spring pruning of trees older than five years are in thinning and sanitizing the crown, which involves the removal of improperly growing and damaged shoots.
Features of the summer care of the crown cherries
Летом рекомендуется делать две обрезки:
- Первую летнюю обрезку целесообразно выполнять после окончательного распускания листьев и образования завязей. Именно в это время хорошо просматриваются веточки с участками омертвевшей древесины, на которых отсутствуют листья. В этот момент можно избавиться и от лишней завязи. Summer thinning of cherries also provides for the removal of the branches that have begun to dry out due to the defeat of the fungus. To remove future tops or young twigs growing inside the crown, use the pinching method (pinching the tips), with which you can give them the right direction. The feasibility of summer pruning of cherries is that the tree will transfer the removal of a green, non-woody twig much easier than the trimming of unwanted branches, which have become thick enough by that time, that weakens it.
- After fruit picking Sweet pruning requires sanitary pruning, consisting in removing broken fruit branches and cutting out tops that remain unnoticed. Since only horizontal branches bear fruit, experienced gardeners prefer not to cut out tops, but to pull them in the right direction with the help of ropes.
To increase fruitfulness
- In order to increase the fruitfulness of cherries, it is necessary to remove all the branches that grow vertically, since the most productive are the shoots located parallel to the ground. By removing vertical taps, a significant improvement in nutrient flow to the right branches can be achieved.
- Some gardeners seeking to increase the yield of sweet cherries prefer to do this without the help of a shears and garden saws. The main tool of such gardeners becomes ordinary rope. The essence of this technique is to bend the branches, and not to remove them. The action algorithm is incredibly simple: in order to make the seedling trunk perfectly straight, they attach a strong peg to it. To the same support tie up all the shoots that grow wrong. After 1-2 years, the woody branches will take the right position and begin to grow in the right direction, so the peg is removed: there is no need to use it further.
- There is another method to increase the yield of sweet cherries. Armed with a garden saw, a series of shallow cuts are made above the buds along the entire length of the branch. This manipulation allows not only to slow the stretching of the shoots, but also gives an impetus to the development of lateral branches.
Pruning preventing upward draining of cherries
If for some reason there is a strong draw of cherries, as a result of which fruit harvesting becomes difficult, to reduce growth they resort to special pruning, which makes it possible to correct the shape of the crown and the height of the tree. The purpose of such pruning is to form a cup-like (or non-leader) crown.
At the first stage of crown correction, all strongly raised branches growing inside it are removed.
This gives an impetus to the development of external branches, which will be much weaker than the previous ones, and their angle of separation from the skeletal branches will be sufficiently large. This is what should be pursued.
Removing branches growing up makes the crown much lower, wider and lighter. After the final healing of the inflicted wounds, the cherry will start to grow actively. In the place where once there were distant shoots, there will be only subtle bends.
In the future, the gardener must in time remove the shoots directed and growing inside the crown, thereby preventing its general thickening.
Features of the autumn pruning
- The main goal of the autumn pruning, performed immediately after the leaf fall and ending at the end of September, is to remove all weak and damaged branches, because a tree that has got rid of weakened shoots will be better able to endure the period of hibernation.
- In the autumn period, you can thin out the crown, providing for the removal of all branches growing at the wrong angle.
- Another popular type of autumn pruning is shortening, consisting in cutting by a third of all annual branches.
To perform the autumn pruning of cherries, it is best to use a well-sharpened garden saw, since the cuts left by this tool heal much faster than the damage caused by shears.
When to cut the sweet cherry and for what purpose
Spend formation cherries should start from the first year of the tree's life in a permanent place.
This should be done several times a year - in spring, summer and autumn.
To limit the growth of the tree up, cut the crown is necessary annually. For this conductor is transferred to the lateral buds.
How to cut the spring cherry
Spring pruning held in several stages:
- Immediately after the snow melts, in March, sanitary circumcision is carried out. In early spring, the tree removes all branches damaged during the long winter.
- Before the active movement of juices begins at the tree and the buds swell, a formative circumcision is carried out. This is done in April. The purpose of such pruning in the spring is correction of the crown or its formation, if the seedling is still quite young.
Start formative trimming is necessary not earlier than the air temperature is set above +5 degrees. At night there should not be frosts. Spring forming pruning is carried out on the lower tier.
Spring cherry pruning is aimed at rejuvenation branches. The length of the pruned shoots depends on the intensity of their growth:
- Weak pruning awakens the upper buds and forms sprigs for intensive fruiting. In this case, a quarter of the length of the shoot is removed.
- For pruning this year and stimulating the growth of shoots outside, an average pruning is used - half the length of the shoot.
- With a strong pruning, the shoot significantly shortens and only a few buds are composed in order to form a new branch.
Before cutting the sweet cherry, it is necessary to assess the condition and age of the tree, as well as the growth rate of new shoots.
Pruning summer cherries
Opinions of experts about whether cherries need pruning in the summer, diverge significantly. A number of domestic experts consider such a procedure impractical. However, most Western gardeners consider pruning in the summer to be necessary and very important, as it allows form the crown on your own.
Summer pruning should also be carried out in stages:
- In late May or early June, after the tree has finished to bloom, but the fruits have not yet begun to ripen, you can stimulate the growth of horizontal branches and give them the right direction. At this time, circumcision is performed by pinching or pinching. At the same time green shoots are still not woody.
- At the same time, you can shorten the main tree trunk.
- In the second half of July, when the entire harvest from the tree has already been harvested, it is possible to shorten a little shoots that have grown after the first pruning.
Pruning a sweet cherry in autumn
Autumn pruning held after the tree leaves fall. The objectives of this trim serve:
- Thinning shoots.
- Removal of broken and old branches.
- Remove shoots and trunks that grow at the wrong angle.
- Shorten the shoots by one third.
Autumn pruning can be done in September. At a later date, wounds from pruning will be much worse. A sweet cherry must be fully restored before the cold comes.
If a tree needs to cut a thick branch, this is done not with a sector, but with a saw. Such autumn cuts, according to the observations of experienced gardeners, heal much faster.
You can cut off the weak and diseased shoots, as well as shorten the young annual branches that have grown too long. After such pruning, the tree should recover well and gain strength by winter.
Regardless of when to cut the sweet cherry, you need to remember that the open wound is an open gate for infections. As soon as the fresh cut dries out slightly, it is covered with garden pitch.
Cherry cutting methods
The most common pruning technique is this. shortening one-year gain. This method can be applied to a wide variety of tree formations. It is most popular in the early years of the tree.
However, it should be remembered that such manipulation can postpone the onset of fruiting. In this case, the tree directs all its forces to the growth of shoots, and not to the formation of a new crop. That is why young trees are pruned to a minimum so that fruiting occurs as quickly as possible.
Brunner method (height growth restriction)
This method allows gradually weaken strong vertical shoots without causing damage to the tree.
The technique is as follows:
- Powerful vertical branch shortened by half.
- The branch, which is located below and grows horizontally, is shortened to the level of the second or third kidney.
As a result of this procedure, strong shoots are formed on the upper branches of the tree. All the forces of the tree are drawn from thin to thicker branches. After the new shoots on the shortened branch grow by 25 cm, the growth is removed completely.
With the help of such pruning, it is possible to cause active growth of young twigs in cases where the current year's growth is decreasing. Simultaneously with the old shoots, some part of the blossoming buds are removed.. So you can unload the tree and improve the quality of the berries.
This type of pruning is used for trees with all types of crowns. This is especially effective in cases where shoots hang downwards.
If the pruned branch has no side shoots, it is cut to a length of up to several tens of cm. When the shoots grow back, choose the main one, which will have to replace the cut one. All other processes must be removed.
If on the pruned branch there is already an escape that can replace the mother, the latter is removed slightly above the base. It is very important that the growth point was higher than the cutoff made.
Thinning pruning it is carried out in cases when a large number of branches form in the tree crown and this serves as an obstacle for normal illumination of the inner and lower parts of the crown. In this situation, it is possible the death of part of the shoots.
To optimize light mode for sweet cherry, conduct thinning pruning
- To thin the crown, remove all thickening shoots and tops.
- Recently, the practice of pruning widely included the removal of branches, leaving knots.
- To carry out thinning, you can not remove the branch completely, but only to shorten it. You can prune branches that are intertwined or rubbing together, and are also too close or parallel to each other.
- It is necessary to make a cut over the side branches, which are directed outwards.
- Particularly careful should be thinning the crown in its upper part.
With proper thinning to the lower parts of the crown comes more light, which has a positive effect on the quality of the crop. This method does not affect the time of onset of fruiting. It can be used with any kind of molding.
Bend down shoots
A distinctive feature of sweet cherry is that its branches grow at an acute angle to the main trunk. In such corners, the fabric of the tree begins to die off quickly, which can lead to their breaking off. In addition, pathogens often settle in such corners.
To prevent such damage, is necessary bend down shoots that grow at an excessively sharp angle. In addition, this procedure accelerates the onset of fruiting and improves the access of sunlight to the depth of the crown.
It is necessary to bend down shoots at saplings which are already planted on a constant place. The length of such a young, non-lignified shoot can be about 10 cm. For fixing shoots, you can use toothpicks or clothespins. Shoots need to be horizontal. Toothpicks or skewers can be used as spacers between the young shoots and the center conductor.
Formation of crown for intensive fruiting
For the organization of an intensive garden a rarefied-tiered structure is formed. Besides it, other crown formation systems are widely used:
- Stop Leader.
- Flat palmette.
- Spanish bush.
All these types of moldings are intended to fast fruiting and improving crop quality. To carry out such pruning can be both in summer and during the rest period.