Once the beautiful goddess Venus wandered into the northern forests. Tired after a long road, she decided to give her legs a rest, threw off her shoes, and forgot about them. And they turned into a wonderful flower, called "lady's slipper." Description of the origin of this plant, won the love of many gardeners, like a beautiful fairy tale.
The Legend of Venus Shoe
Indeed, the shape of the calyx of the flower is externally similar to the shoe, and the petals near it resemble velvet ribbons. In Russia, this plant is differently called the godfathers boots, cuckoo shoes, in Europe, called ladies shoes, and in America - moccasins. Where grows lady's slipper? What legends are associated with it?
Ancient mythology says that somehow during the hunt the goddess Venus and Adonis suddenly caught a thunderstorm. A loving couple hid in a cave, and Venus left her soaked shoes at the entrance. A passing traveler did not notice the goddess and her lover, but he saw gold shoes on the ground. As soon as he leaned over to pick them up, the latter turned into beautiful flowers. The man understood that the gods were resting in a cave, and went on. Since then, in the forests of growing unusual beauty flower - lady's slipper.
Habitat in natural conditions
Fifteen years it takes a venereal shoe in order to please the world around us with its bloom. As a defense against the likelihood of being eaten by some herbivore, the flower uses acrid and poisonous juice. For humans, it does not pose any danger, but on the contrary - it is widely distributed in traditional medicine.
In nature, the plant Venus slipper grows in groups, prefers dimly lit places, located among the mosses and in the shade of trees. Also, the flower is comfortable on the precipices of rivers and in ravines, in coniferous and mixed forests on well-moistened, lime-rich lands. Where grows lady's slipper? On the territory of Russia in the natural environment the lady's slipper is rarely found. Received its distribution in North and South America, Mongolia, Japan, China (highlands).
Features of cultural cultivation
The lady's slipper present has long been adapted to cultural cultivation and requires proper care, as close as possible to natural conditions. The absence of drafts and direct sunlight is a mandatory rule for its qualitative growth. It is advisable to choose a seat in the shade, the substrate of a complex composition (sphagnum moss, small bark, charcoal, crushed walnut shells, chalk or dolomite flour) is optimal.
For indoor cultivation should choose a wide capacity due to the horizontal root system, which is characterized by lady's slipper. The description of the planting process is similar to other indoor plants, a coarser substrate should be placed on the bottom of the pot, while the smaller and moisture-consuming substrate should be placed closer to the surface.
Lady's Slipper: Care
Watering the plant is recommended regular and abundant, causing the constant humidity of the substrate. In the summer, it is necessary to wet the soil frequently, in the winter, during the period of rest, less often. Water is recommended at room temperature, and when watering it should not fall on the base of the stem, in order to avoid its rotting. In hot weather, the plant should often be sprayed or artificially raised around it. Fertilizing a venereal slipper should be done with a solution of a low-concentration complex mineral fertilizer applied during watering (approximately once every 2-3 weeks), in the winter - once a month.
Propagation of the venereal slipper is done in a vegetative way, by dividing the rhizome. The most favorable time for this operation is considered the end of summer - mid-autumn. Part of the rhizome with several daughter buds is required to be planted in the substrate at a shallow depth, then sprinkled with a thin layer of earth. In this state, planted orchids survive the winter, and in spring form new shoots. In winter, the landing site of the venereal slipper is recommended to be covered with foam or dry foliage. Transplantation of a venereal slipper is done every 3 years. It must be done very carefully, eliminating the possibility of damage to the roots, otherwise it may lead to the death of the plant.
The lady's shoe, which is interesting to many gardeners to describe, is resistant to diseases, but can sometimes be affected by spider mites or powdery worms.
Lady's Slipper: Endangered
Man's economic activity reflects badly on nature, including lady's slipper, which suffers from it. The Red Book contains this plant as able to disappear forever from the face of the Earth due to the influence of external factors on it. Deforestation, land reclamation, fertilizer demolition from the fields are factors that cause this amazing creation of nature to disappear without a trace. If we add to this an irresistible desire to keep this flower as a keepsake, pick it and take it home, then the eradication of the forest orchid is accelerated at times. Therefore, all European countries carefully protect the lady's slipper. The Red Book is a way to protect a plant from its voluntary and involuntary destruction.
Lady's Slipper: Types
In nature, the most common plant species are:
- Lady's Slipper ordinary. It is characterized by a height of about 50 cm, a horizontal rhizome, large elliptical leaves, an original flower shape with a bright yellow shoe-like lip and brownish bracts. Flowering occurs in July.
- Lady's slipper spotted. Characterized by the original flower of white or pinkish color with dark purple spots.
- Lady's slipper large-flowered. It is widely used for breeding hybrids, has large, up to 10 cm in diameter, bright pink flowers. Flowering occurs in May.
Lady's Slipper is widely used for garden decoration. It looks beautiful in single flowers, suitable for decorating shady places, where most plants feel uncomfortable. Some species of these orchids can be a highlight of rock gardens.
Types of Venus Shoes
Three types of shoe Venusina are the most promising for garden design.
Lady's slipper swollen is considered the most beautiful orchid, found in the European part of Russia, Siberia, in the Far East. This is an elegant plant with a slightly pubescent stem up to 40-45 cm tall. Flower color is white, brownish-red, lilac-light. Such a highly decorative plant can be used in garden plantings.
Lady's shoe large-flowered differs strongly shortened thick rhizome and thin winding roots. The height is the same as in the previous view. Coloring - from lilac to purple-pink. There are pure white tones, yellowish with yellow-green mesh, with a yellow-reddish tint. Bloom in June and July. Sparse plant, but promising for introduction to garden culture.
The healthy rhizome of the Venus shoe, suitable for planting, has a large number of white, light roots and healthy living buds. It is best to acquire three-year plants. Brown roots, a large number of black, broken roots, black color of rhizome indicate the unsuitability of the material.
The slipper is speckled or speckled - a low plant (stem up to 30 cm). Rhizome long creeping. The leaves are smaller (6-12 cm), simple, elliptical, hairy along the veins and edge. It blooms in May and June. The flower is distinguished by a purple-white spotted pattern. The species is able to grow on any soil. Decorate the alpine hill, stone garden. Dense curtain does not form. Unpretentious care. As a deciduous and flowering plant is recommended for use in landscape gardening.
What do they like?
Venus shoes are photophilous, but do not tolerate direct hot sunlight, so they will approach the north side near the fence, other buildings or an open shadow of deciduous trees. The place should be cool and windless. For these plants, the soil is depleted in organic matter, loose, air- and permeable, with a well-drained lower layer.
It is best to grow a mixture of the following components from the following components: local garden soil or peat (2 parts), leaf soil (1 part), neutral disintegrating agents: sand, silicon gravel, crushed brick or expanded clay (2-3 parts ), limestone crumb or chalk, finely crushed shells (1 part). And to neutralize the acidification, add the dust from the oak (2 parts). The mixture must be thoroughly mixed.
Lady's Slipper - Landing
The best planting season for shoes is spring, before the growth begins, and autumn, when the foliage dries. Before that, the plants must cut the blackened roots. The pit prepared for planting 30–40 cm in depth is filled with soil mixture, and in width and length they should correspond to the size of the planting material. At the bottom of the pit (under the soil mixture) it is good to add a few chalk stones. Rhizome is placed in a prepared place horizontally. Roots neatly straighten to the sides. A shubin planting should cover a vegetative kidney by 1-1.5 cm. Deepening will prolong the onset of flowering, sometimes by several years.
Top poured a layer of soil mixture and watered. Then covered with a layer of mulch from moss, pine needles, rotted healthy leaves. With proper planting and care of venereal shoes in the first 4 years, the plants form a root system on an area of 50-70 cm, deepening the roots to 30 cm.
Spring care for Venus shoe
In the spring, with the onset of warm weather (April, May), shoes are freed from the winter shelter (if it was). Spring dressing of species shoes can be limited to autumn leaves, left over from the winter shelter, by introducing a thin layer of mulch of mature biohumus. During this period, well planted rhizomes or delenki. In the second half of May, it is possible to carry out the first dressing of only varietal shoes with full mineral fertilizer, using half-dose floral fertilizers. You can dilute 1 tbsp. l "Agricola" in 10 liters of water and add 2-3 vials of "Epin-extra". Orchids do not like to overfeed.
Species plants include those that are found in nature. Varietal - derived from human breeding.
Flowering begins in late May - early June and lasts 2-3 weeks. In mid-June (at the end of flowering) it is necessary to repeat the dressing of varietal shoes and all weakened plants, including last year’s planting of typical species. During the whole growing season, the soil is maintained in a clean state. Weeds do not pull out, but are cut above the soil surface. The soil is not loosened in order not to damage the roots and not to break their symbiosis with soil fungi. Watering should be moderate, it is carried out when the topsoil dries.
In late August - September, the dead ground mass is cut off. Prepare shoes for vegetative reproduction, planting, transplanting. With the onset of a cold snap (October-November), landing for the winter is mulched (sheltered). Kidneys above the ground are sprinkled with pine needles, moss, mature compost. Hybrid sorts of shoes perfectly withstand cold temperatures up to minus 25-30 degrees.
If the snow layer is 10-20 cm, there is no need for another cover with venereal shoes. But in more southern areas where there is little snow, plants should be warmed.
Diseases and pests
Shoe diseases are associated mainly with the violation of agricultural cultivation. Fungal rot lesions occur during excessive watering, causing root rot, use of infected diseased plants in planting, and work with non-disinfected instruments. Diseased plants are treated with biofungicides: "Fitosporin-M", "Trichodermin", "Baktofidom" idr.
Pests that cause significant damage to plants are mealybugs, spider mites, aphids, scale insects, slugs, snails. The chemical preparations “Biotlin”, “Aktellik”, “Iskra” are used to combat them.
Place in design
Venus shoes, taking into account their features, it is better to use in landscape architecture and decor of open ground, in the form of mono-plantations in shady areas, for example, recreation corners. Some species can be used in the decoration of rock gardens, rocky gardens.
Lady's slipper looks very decorative in combination with low ferns, hosts, astilbe, ground cover plants, and also gets along well with slow-growing herbs, grasses and shrubs that can not quickly drown.
Lady's Slipper: Description of Plant Varieties
This amazing type of flower has a sufficient number of varieties with a description of color, types of leaves and stem. What are some shoes?
- The slipper is a perennial plant, reaching a height of about forty centimeters. It has a well-developed, thick root system. Inflorescences are large with a mild aroma. The petals are red, the lip is yellow. There may be other types of colors: yellow, white, green, brown. It blooms often from late spring to early summer, fruits appear in the last month of summer. Propagated by seeds and shoots of rhizome.
- Large-flowered slipper - is a rare type of orchid, perennial up to forty-five centimeters in height. It has oval-shaped leaves covered with villi. The plant is distinguished by a bloated lip, covered with spots. The color of the plant is varied: pink, purple, violet, cherry. After flowering on the stem a box with fruits is formed. This type of shoe is used in medicine, as the flower contains oxalic and ascorbic acids. They can treat insomnia, epilepsy, childhood fear, mental illness and problems with the genitourinary system.
- A spotted or drip shoe grows up to 30 cm. Its leaves are even and oval, measuring about ten centimeters in length. It blooms from late spring to early summer.
- Stemless Lady's Slipper is a rather interesting type of flower with a wonderful aroma that was discovered in America. It is difficult to grow, rhizome has an above-ground stalk, leaves are dense, oval-shaped. Petals have a greenish tint, lip about five centimeters.
- California view shoe - is one of the most prominent representatives. It grows only in Oregon or the mountains of California. Likes places where high humidity, to various external sufficiently stable. This flower has a miniature lip gently purple and yellow flowers on the sides. The plant is quite tall, since it can reach a height of ninety centimeters. On the stem can form up to twelve flowers at the same time, which have no flavor.
- Lady's shoe is puffy - this species can be found in the western forests of America. The plant is low, about forty centimeters in height, the leaves - ten centimeters in length and about seven in width. The flowers are green, lip with a yellow tinge.
- Baranogam slipper Venus - lives in the forests of America, loves moisture and heat. In height reaches up to thirty centimeters, has weak leaves and a stalk. His flowers are small, apical.
- White slipper - you can meet such a view on wet meadows and marshes of the USA. The plant has short roots, reaches a height of up to thirty centimeters, the leaves are pointed, about twelve centimeters in length and in width - four centimeters. Flowers - small, solitary, green with purple splashes. The plant blooms in late May.
- The royal slipper is a tall plant that reaches a height of sixty centimeters, with very short roots. The stalk of the flower is strong and erect, covered with fibers. The leaves, up to twenty-five centimeters long and ten wide, have an oval shape with a sharp edge, the color is light green. The flowers grow to a size of eight centimeters, the color most often have white or pale pink. The lip is white with red stripes. This type of plant can easily tolerate frost at thirty-five - thirty-seven degrees and at the same time not lose its flowering properties.
Growing and caring for plants
Having started growing these representatives of orchids at home, the growers were able to adapt them to growing in the garden in flower beds or indoors in pots.
Therefore, if you observe certain rules for the care of this plant, then without much difficulty you can grow a flower that will be a great decoration for any window sill or flower bed.
How to choose planting material and place for landing
Three-year-olds are best for planting, the rhizome should have a sufficient amount of white roots, and the buds should be healthy and alive. If the plant has brown roots with black broken roots, then this material will be unsuitable for planting.
Lady's shoe is very fond of light, but does not tolerate the direct rays of the sun, so it is best to plant a plant along a fence or other buildings. Также цветок отлично приживется в тени деревьев, где будет прохладно и безветренно.
Каким должен быть грунт для посадки башмачка
Этому цветку нужен рыхлый грунт со слоем дренажа и низким содержанием органических веществ, который сможет хорошо впитывать в себя воду. Оптимально для выращивания этого растения подходит смесь, которую можно приготовить из следующих компонентов:
- местная земля из сада,
- листовая почва,
- нейтральные разрыхлители,
- gravel and fine crushed brick
- haydite, limestone crumbs, rakushnyak,
- oak dust
- coniferous litter.
Planting the soil
- The optimal period for planting a flower is considered to be early spring or late autumn.
- Before planting, be sure to check the planting material, if blackened roots are found - they must be cut off.
- Pits prepared for planting should be thirty to forty centimeters deep. They must be filled with prepared soil.
- The roots of the plant should be placed in a prepared place horizontally, gently straightening to the side. Planting depth should be such that the vegetative bud is covered one and a half centimeters.
- From above the flower should fall asleep layers of soil and water. Then the plant is covered with moss, pine needles and rotted healthy leaves.
If landing will be successfulthen for the first four years, the slipper will form the root system, deepening the roots to thirty centimeters.
What kind of care you need to provide a flower
As soon as warm weather sets in in spring, the plant should be freed from the winter shelter. Flower fertilizer may consist of a leaf that remains from the cover, with the addition of a small layer of biohumus. At the end of May it is necessary to fertilize. varietal types of shoe minerals. For example, dilute one tablespoon of Kemira-Suite in ten liters of water with the addition of Apin’s ampoule. And this solution to spray the flower with weakened leaves, which have a yellow or light green color.
At the end of June, when the shoe has faded, the fertilizer of the plant should be repeated. For all the time of flower growth, weeds should not be pulled out, but cut off over the soil; the soil should not be loosened in order not to damage the root system.
Water the plant is necessary as drying of the top layer of soil. In early autumn, the dead plant is cut off and the slipper is prepared for reproduction and transplantation. When the cold comes, flowers cover for wintering. (if the usual snow layer is five centimeters, then it is not necessary to warm the plant additionally. But in areas where there is little snow, the plant should be covered).
We decorate the open ground with shoes
To grow and develop normally Orchid needs to create certain conditions. Given the peculiarity of representatives of this species, they are best used in monoplants, preferring shaded areas.
Some species are great for rock gardens or a stone garden. This flower gets along well with herbs and shrubs that grow slowly and which can not quickly mute them. Beginner gardeners will be easy to create beautiful compositions using shoes.
The Legend of Venus Shoe
In ancient Greek mythology, there is a legend about the Venus shoe, more precisely about the shoes of Venus, which have turned into a beautiful flower.
Thunderstorm caught Venus and Adonis during the hunt, they hid from the rain in a secluded quiet place and indulged in amorous pleasures. A passing man did not notice Venus with his beloved, but he saw her slipper of pure gold thrown on the ground. And, as soon as the commoner stretched out his hand to raise the shoe, he instantly turned into a flower resembling a slipper.
Lady's slipper stemless (Cypripedium acaule) - with a ground stem and two folded, oblong or broadly oval, lanceolate, greenish-purple leaves up to 20 cm long and up to 8 cm wide. Peduncle up to 35 cm tall with a large, fragrant flower. Highly decorative, blooms in late spring and early summer.
Ram-headed (Cypripedium arietinum) - up to 30 cm tall with thin, weak stems. Leaves alternate, elliptical or lanceolate up to 10 cm long and up to 5 cm wide. Flowers apical, solitary, small. It blooms in late spring.
Californian (Cypripedium californicum) - the stem, together with the flower up to 80 cm tall, strong with 3-4 leaves. Leaves alternate, oval, sharp, up to 10 cm long. Inflorescence is a rareish brush, consisting of 4-12 flowers, with leaf-shaped, round bracts. Flowers up to 4 cm in diameter on long stalks. Petals and sepals of the same length (up to 1.5 cm), yellowish-green. It blooms in late spring.
Snow white (Cypripedium candidum) - A plant with a short rhizome up to 30 cm tall. At the bottom of the stalk is covered with several scale-like pharynx. Leaves (3-4 pieces) lanceolate or elliptical, pointed or sharp, up to 12 cm long and up to 4 cm wide. The flowers are small, solitary, apical, with a diameter of up to 2 cm. The sepals are lanceolate, greenish, with purple spots. The flowering period is the end of spring and the beginning of summer.
Sheaf (Cypripedium fasciculatum) - up to 40 cm tall with a woolly pubescent stalk, two opposite, wide-oval leaves located in the middle of the stem, up to 10 cm long and up to 6 cm wide. The inflorescence is direct, stable, has from 1 to 4 greenish flowers. Bracts lanceolate. Petals and sepals lanceolate, with brown veins, up to 2 cm long.
Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium calceolus L)
Perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous plant of the family Orchid, up to 50 cm tall. The lady's slipper present has a thick, short, creeping rhizome consisting of two internodes remaining from each year's growth. Adventitious roots, sinuous and long, up to 30 cm. Stalk with brownish bowls at the base, with short glandular hairs along the entire length. The leaves are alternate, elliptical, pointed from 2 sides, slightly hairy along the edge, up to 18 cm long and up to 8 cm wide. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, with large leaf-shaped bracts. Tepals red-brown color, lip swollen light yellow color. The ovary is lower, glandular pubescent. The fruit is a box.
Lady's Slipper Flower (Cypripedium macranthon)
It is a plant with a thick shortened rhizome and thin, winding filamentary roots. Stem up to 45 cm high with brownish shoes at the base, higher with 3-4 glandular-hairy sessile leaves, with stalk-based bases, oval and pointed up to 15 cm long and up to 8 cm wide.
Flowers solitary with large leaf-like bracts. Perianth violet or lilac-pink with dark veins. Tepals diverging. Lip length up to 7 cm, strongly swollen, with a small hole, the edges of which are wrapped inward, forming an expanded rim. Two stamens, the third is turned into white with violet-purple patches of staminodia up to 1.5 cm long. Ovary not twisted. Stigma stigma. Lady's slipper large-flowered blooms in June and July.
Lady's shoe spotted (Cypripedium guttatum) or speckled
A small plant with a creeping long rhizome. The stem is 15 to 30 cm tall. The leaves are elliptical, pointed to 12 cm long, hairy on the bottom along the veins and edge. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, leaf-shaped.
Upper outer tepal leaflet pointed, elliptical-ovate, up to 3 cm long, white or with violet-pink spots. Bottom densely accrete of two leaves - greenish, ferruginous, up to 2 cm long. The lateral tepals are bare, white in color with large violet-pink splashes. Ovary fusiform, densely and finely glandular pubescent. Lady's slipper spotted blooms from late May to mid-June.
Growing Orchids: Lady's Slipper
The flower is very rare, it is very difficult to multiply and grow. A whimsical flower loves shade and is unstable to winds; it must be covered and protected from pests such as a snail or aphid. Lady's slipper prefers cultivation in a complex substrate consisting of sphagnum, bark, charcoal with chalk or dolomite flour. At room content, you can increase the proportion of peat moss for greater capacity. At the bottom of the pot for orchids placed a rougher substrate, and closer to the surface is moisture-absorbing and shallow.
The roots of the plant develop horizontally, so you need a wide pot or a bowl.
For normal flower growth and flowering, you must create the appropriate conditions:
- for thermophilic plant species, the air temperature during daylight hours should be within the range of +22 to + 32 ° С, at night from +16 to + 18 ° С, but not lower than + 15 ° С,
- for species and varieties with monophonic leaves, daytime temperatures range from +16 to + 22 ° С, at night from +8 to + 10 ° С, but not lower than + 6 ° С.
- not to allow even a short-term lowering of the temperature below + 5 ° С - leads to the death of the plant,
- It is necessary to provide bright lighting (not direct sunlight) of the flower for 12-14 hours a day.
What is lady's slipper
The orchid Venerin slipper is a perennial flower that gives a bud for the 15th year after germination the seed. It reaches 40-50 cm, has large, tight leaves, shaped like lily of the valley leaves. Each plant produces a stalk, where there are from one to twelve flowers. Pollination is made by bees who are attracted to bright flowers with a slight vanilla smell. After pollination the wilting of the flower begins. Botanists secrete 50 species of the plant Cypripedium calceolus (Latin), which are not only monochromatic, but also speckled.
Where grows lady's slipper
The frost-resistant plant lives in forest zones of Europe, Crimea, in the south of Siberia, China, Mongolia, Japan, on Sakhalin. Lady's slipper grows in deciduous forests on the plains, avoids wetlands, prefers alkaline soils with a large layer of humus and high humidity. From China and North America, the classical Orchid Slipper was driven out by Henry Slipper, a Shanxi type, Chiloschista segawae, who has no Russian name.
The plant can be found near dense overgrowth of trees, where there is a lot of moss, there is enough water in the ground, near low bushy thickets, ravines, on the northern slopes of rivers, near limestone deposits. An important factor for flower growth is the presence near the roots of the mycelium, which nourishes the seeds for several years before the rhizome sprouts.
Care for Venus shoe at home
Representatives of this species were adapted to cultural cultivation in flowerbeds and in pots. If you follow the basic rules for the care of Venus shoe, at home you can grow a plant that will decorate your window sill and garden. How to grow a flower slipper in the open ground on the garden plot on the north side of the house?
- The choice of location is made on the basis of habitat habitual for the plant - it is a shaded area without sunlight and drafts. It does not require direct sunlight for photosynthesis.
- Soil preparation - preparation of the substrate from moss, charcoal, chalk, crushed tree bark and walnut shells.
- Plant feeding is done twice per season, the substrate is sprinkled once before the start of the season.
- Moderate watering plants need at least twice a week.
- In winter, rhizomes cover polystyrene or fallen leaves.
- Reproduction occurs vegetatively from the roots, which gave shoots.
- It is not necessary to spray from pests, the plant protects itself with poisonous juice, which is safe for people.
Lady's slipper can be grown in pots. The basic principles of caring for a houseplant are the same as for a flower bed, but several more are added to them:
Flower Venerine slipper - a perennial, grassy plant. It belongs to the Orchid family, of which there are more than 500 species. The leaves are green, sometimes with a grayish shade and a marble pattern, up to 30 cm long. From each rosette of leaves there is one 40-cm peduncle with one or more flowers.
The flowers may have the most diverse color: yellow, white, purple and even brown or greenish. They also have a pleasant vanilla scent that attracts bees to pollinating flowers. Sometimes you can find flowers decorated with spots or stripes.
Very often, the stem is covered with a fluff and can be quite short, in which case only one pair of leaves adorn the stem, located close to the ground. In specimens with a high stem, the leaves are large, arranged in an alternate order, the tops of peduncles crowning up to 12 flowers, which have a complex structure that can become a trap for small insects. However, nature is prudent, and they can get through the small holes in the back of the cup after pollination. This lady's slipper begins to fade after pollination.
By the end of summer, many small seeds ripen, very tiny, similar to dust. Most of them shatter through the air without touching the ground. The same seed, which manages to reach the ground, will germinate if there are symbiotic fungi in the soil, penetrating into the germ of the grain and activating the processes of sprout formation and further growth.
Habitat in the wild
One of the interesting facts is that it takes a Venus shoe many years to bloom. To protect against the possibility of being eaten by someone, nature endowed this flower with a poisonous juice with a strong odor. But for humans it is not dangerous, on the contrary, it is widely used by folk healers.
Lady's slipper grows in groups in places with poor lighting and where there is a lot of moss and shade from trees. It also feels good in ravines, river cliffs, in forests with coniferous and mixed types of trees, in very moist soil rich in lime.
In Russia, this flower is very rare. It is more common in the territories of South and North America, the highlands of China, Mongolia, and Japan.
Known species and varieties
Initially, there were many varieties of venerian shoes in nature.However, over time their number has decreased. Some of them are popular with gardeners, others can be found only in natural habitat conditions:
- The lady's slipper is real. It is grown not only at home, but is also actively used for medical purposes: it is able to cure some mental illnesses, epilepsy and soothe headaches. This species has a horizontal root, rather thick, from which 40-centimeter shoots emerge. It differs from other counterparts in color - the lower cup-shaped petal is yellow, and the other petals are brown-red. Begins to bloom in mid-May, and ends in August.
- Large-flowered. Name deserved due to the large size of the lower petal. It looks a little different than the rest of the species: the petals are not elongated, but oval, resembling leaves, sharpening at the ends. They can be of different colors: violet, pink, lilac shades, sometimes with specks. On the cup-shaped petal there is very often a pattern - dots and specks.
- Spotted. This is the most frost-resistant. Therefore, he was appreciated by amateur gardeners of the northern regions. Its feature is unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil. He feels comfortable on fertile soil and on poorly fertilized. It is a low flower - from 10 to 30 cm. The color is white, with violet splashes. The bottom petal looks like a shoe on the platform. New shoots grow from rhizomes once a year at a distance of 10 cm from each other. This greatly facilitates the process of transplanting to the site.
- Acaulescent. It has an interesting fragrant smell. It was first discovered in America in 1789. It is very difficult to grow it yourself. But if you carefully recreate the natural conditions, he will feel comfortable. The flower has thick oblong leaves with folds. Sometimes small leaves are present on the peduncle. The bottom petal is small - only 5 cm, it has a longitudinal fold, which creates a feeling of doubleness. Sometimes pink and white colors.
- Californian. Perhaps the most exotic and bright representative of the species. It grows only in Oregon and in the mountains of California. It is resistant to external factors, but prefers exceptionally highly humid places. It has a small "lip" pale beige and yellow petals on the sides. It grows up to 90 cm in height. On one shoot can accommodate up to 12 flowers. It is noteworthy that they do not smell.
- Sheafy Often can be seen in the forests of western America. Low-growing ones - up to 40 cm. The stem is covered with short hairs, below there are two basal leaves, above which flowers of a greenish shade rise. Cup-shaped petal of yellow-green color with purple impregnations.
- Baranogolovy. It grows in saturated and warm places. Its height is up to 30 cm. It has rather thin thin leaves and stems. The flowers are small, located one by one on the tops of the stems. There are red-white, white-purple flowers. Begins to bloom in July.
- Snow white The natural habitat zone is wetlands and wetlands of America. These are medium-sized plants that grow up to 30 cm in height. Rhizome short. There are 4 elongated and pointed leaves near the stem. Sepals are green, covered with purple specks. The cup-shaped petal is white. The beginning of flowering - the end of spring.
- Slipper of the queen. This is a tall 60 centimeter plant with a small rhizome. Stems strong, covered with hairs resembling fluff. The leaves are oval, 25 cm long and 10 cm wide, light green. Flowers 8 centimeter, white or pink. "Lip" bloated, white with purple splashes. Begins to bloom in July. Устойчив к морозам до -40 градусов.
- Пушистый. Встречается в болотистых и сырых местах. Высота — до 50 см. Внизу стебля располагается 4 листа. Чаще всего цветки одиночные, изредка на одном стебле вырастает до 3 цветков. Чашелистики зелёные. Нижний лепесток ярко-жёлтый либо светло-зелёный, с красными прожилками.
- Мелкоцветковый. Растёт в горах и заболоченной местности. Высота всего лишь 7 см. At the bottom of the stem are small oval leaves. The top is crowned with two flowers, exuding a pleasant aroma. Sepals are purple-green. The “lip” is bright yellow, swollen and slightly compressed. The flowering period is from May to July.
The structure of the flower of venereal shoes
Garden lady's slipper is primarily characterized by the structure of its amazing flowers, which gave it a name. Its most important feature is the lower petal, which has a swollen bulging shape that resembles a toe of a shoe. All other petals are quite standard: the two main petals rise above the main inflorescence, and they can either just stick out or twist a little into a spiral. Two more petals are hidden under the lip of the flower, while they usually grow together. A very attractive sepal also hangs over the lip itself.
Planting material and soil composition
Growing veneer shoes is a rather difficult task, since their rhizomes, suitable as planting material, are very vulnerable and can quickly get damaged and rot. therefore for planting is best to buy plants in pots, and only after they reach the age of five. The fact is that they bloom only at this age, so if you buy cheaper three-year planting material, you will have to wait another two years for the first flowers.
If, however, used for planting rhizomes, they should have a white color and a few healthy buds that are ready for development. If the rhizome is black and rotten - it is better to immediately throw it away, since it will not give a result in growth. A rhizome with weak buds can grow only in a few years, and then with great luck. The soil for orchids "lady's slipper" needs to be chosen very carefully: this plant will not grow on the fertilized black soil of the garden, since such soil is too "fat" for it. At the same time, the soil should also not be sour and overly rammed. It is best to create soil for garden orchids by hand, mixing for this purpose:
- neutral acid peat,
- humus from fallen leaves,
- birch woods
- coarse sand.
The choice of location and landing of venereal shoes
"Kukushkin boots," as the flowers described are called, grow well in shaded places, so the flowerbed on the north side of the house will suit them very well. Ideally, they should be planted in the shade of fences, as well as under widened fruit trees. A good guideline of the place where shoes can perfectly settle down is the fern, since these plants have the same requirements for soil and shading.
As for the direct planting of these flowers, it should be carried out either in autumn or in early spring, while the plant has not yet entered active growth. Special pits with a depth of 30-40 cm are prepared for the plant, which are filled with the prepared soil mixture (the width of the pit should correspond to the dimensions of the root system of flowers). It will not be superfluous to make drainage at the bottom of the pit, which is recommended to use pieces of limestone,
Further landing involves the following actions:
- On the prepared place in the pit in the horizontal position laid out the roots of the plant and very carefully straightened to the side. It is necessary to work with them carefully, as in certain periods of time they can be very fragile.
- When planting, the plant must be covered with a layer of soil no more than 1.5 cm thick. If you deepen it more, you will have to wait longer for flowering.
- After falling asleep the plant with a mixture of soil, it also needs to be watered and mulched, for which it is recommended to use moss, pine needles or garden tree leaves.
Good partners for veneer shoes
Garden orchid "lady's slipper" is very demanding in relation to the partners in the flower bed, which must be chosen with special care. Above we have already mentioned the fern, which has growing requirements similar to shoes, and can also act as an excellent partner for these plants.
It is good to give these flowers a neighborhood with hosts and ground cover garden flowers. Especially dangerous for them are fast-growing plants and shrubs, which over time can simply drown out Venus shoes and stop their growth. In this regard, many flower growers organize monoplanting of them.
Care for cuckoo boots in the garden
Already in early spring, the adult plant can be opened from the winter shelter and loosen the soil around it. Throughout the growing season, shoes will require very little attention, but still they will need it.
Pafiopedilumu requires moderate watering, which, however, should be regular. In particular, it is worthwhile to moisten the beds as the topsoil dries, although the deep layers must always remain sufficiently moist. Remember at the same time that an overabundance of moisture will not benefit the venereal shoes.
If a slipper flower is timely fed, it will show very good growth. Therefore, since spring it can be fertilized with the remains of mulch. The second dressing is recommended not earlier than the beginning of May, and then only for varietal flowers. To do this, you can use complex mineral preparations for garden flowers, diluting them with water in half the dose. If we are talking about flowers that you yourself multiply at home, then among them it is worth treating only the yellowed plants.
Repeat feeding can be at the end of June, when the plants are already lost flowers. But it must be remembered that the shoes of Venus are very sensitive to the increased content of nutrients and may die from oversupply.
Frost resistance of shoes
Orchids in the garden, especially when it comes to hybrid varieties, are very high resistance to low temperatures and can easily winter in open ground, even if the mercury in the thermometer drops to -37 ° C. But still, to prevent damage to the rhizomes of venereal shoes, in the winter it is important to cover them with a dense layer of snow. If you live in the southern areas where the snow layer usually does not exceed 1-5 cm, then it is recommended to cover the flowers for the winter period with mulch.