The most popular vegetable crop among gardeners, gardeners, as you know, is tomatoes, but there are many features when planting tomatoes. By following the tips of our article you can grow a rich harvest.
Tomato seedlings can be grown at home, on the windowsill and in the soil protected from weather conditions, that is, in greenhouses.
The main advantages of planting in the greenhouse
Experienced gardeners prefer the latter method more and more, since growing in a greenhouse has many advantages and, most importantly, many times increases the yield of tomatoes.
Moreover, even in unheated greenhouses, the ripening process is significantly accelerated and the risk of vegetable diseases affecting various diseases is minimized. That is why planting seedlings in the greenhouse is the key to obtaining a healthy plant with a strong and strong root system.
Pay attention! Soil is worth cooking in the fall. For this, various fertilizers are applied to it, as well as compost.
Advantages of polycarbonate coating
To date, one of the popular materials used for the manufacture of greenhouses has become polycarbonate. This modern, high-quality and, most importantly, affordable material has a lot of advantages.
- Polycarbonate has a special protective layer that does not allow penetration of harmful, ultraviolet radiation, while not completely hindering the passage of sunlight.
- Polycarbonate - the material is quite flexible, which allows you to assemble the structure necessary in shape and size.
Nuances of sowing in a greenhouse
It is also possible to successfully grow tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, but the difference is that sowing occurs at some time earlier than in the greenhouse. Besides, for growing tomatoes in the greenhouse requires a certain temperaturewhich is achieved by decomposing cow or horse manure, as well as compost.
But, unfortunately, not all gardeners can buy such biofuels, and insufficient temperature will not allow the seedlings to grow and develop quite well. If you still plan to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, take a note of a few tips on how to do it correctly, and also watch the video below.
- It is necessary to choose the place where the greenhouse will be located, it should be even and sunny.
Attention! Do not make the greenhouse too wide, it will complicate the care of seedlings. All plants should be accessible at arm's length.
Pros and cons of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
Tomatoes grown in the greenhouse produce an earlier harvest. They have an earlier yield, compared to plants growing in open ground.
In addition to flavors, there are also disadvantages to growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, these are:
Annually, in one place you can not plant tomatoes. Plants with such planting often get sick, they lack nutrients.
Without prophylactic treatment, pests and diseases receive ideal conditions for their development.
When to plant tomato seeds on seedlings for the greenhouse
For hybrids and early ripening varieties, the ripening period from planting time is 100 days. Given this, sowing seeds for the greenhouse should be from February to early April. The sowing period is calculated from the time of transplantation into the greenhouse, counting back 60 days.
Mid-season and late-ripening varieties are sown and planted in the ground simultaneously with early varieties.
Tomato seedlings can be planted in the heated greenhouse from late February to mid-April. Sowing seeds produced from the beginning of January to mid-February. Plants in this case are provided with proper heat and light conditions.
If the store seeds have a bright color (dragee), they do not need to be processed.
Untreated seeds are pre-trained.
Seeds that settle to the bottom are washed, placed in a gauze or tissue bag, dipped in a solution of potassium permanganate or Fitosporin for 15-20 minutes. After disinfection with potassium permanganate, the seeds are washed.
They are soaked for 1 hour in any growth promoter, for example Epin. Then they are sent for a day in the fridge (department for vegetables).
After that, the seeds in a wet bag are laid out on a saucer, put in a warm place for germination. With the appearance of small roots, you can begin to sow.
Before planting, the ground is moistened, grooves are made (in containers, boxes) or indentations (in pots, cups) 1 centimeter deep, seeds are laid out and powdered with earth or sand. Crops are sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle. Capacity with seeds covered with glass or film, sent to a warm place before seed germination.
After the emergence of shoots shelter is removed, the seedlings are exposed to the south or south-east window.
The plants are provided with proper care, including: watering, dressing, diving, good lighting, temperature control and hardening.
After the appearance of 2 leaves (on the 7th - 10th day of growth) a dive is made.
- Each seedling carefully, together with the earthy clod is removed from the container and transplanted into a separate pot.
- Watering is done carefully, without touching the plants and only with warm water. You need to water the plants as the ground dries in the tank.
- A few days before planting, watering stops, it helps to fix the earthy coma on the roots. Immediately before watering the ground is moistened.
Top dressing is carried out once a fortnight. Mineral and organic fertilizers alternate.
If there is a lack of daylight, a fluorescent lamp is installed next to the plants. Additional lighting is performed in the morning and evening.
Before planting (10 days), the seedlings are hardened. They are taken out on the balcony, veranda or in the greenhouse for 2-3 hours. The residence time increases gradually, bringing to the day.
The grown up and got stronger seedling is ready for disembarkation.
Planting tomato seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse
The greenhouse is built in advance so that at the time of planting the land has time to warm up well. If it is made of polycarbonate or glass, it is built in the fall, and before planting it is cleaned and prepared. If the greenhouse is film, in the fall the frame is built, and the film is stretched in the spring.
Film greenhouse should be covered with 2 layers of film with an interval of 2-4 centimeters. This will protect the lower film and improve thermal performance. The top layer is removed in early June.
Additional shelter is not required in a polycarbonate and glass greenhouse. The greenhouse, in which the tomatoes will be grown, must be well ventilated, for this purpose, the vents or ventilation systems are equipped.
Fertilizers are introduced into the ground before planting. Per square meter, 1 part of peat, 1 part of steamed sawdust, 1 part of mature humus, 2 cups of wood ash, 1 teaspoon of sodium nitrate, 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate, 3 tablespoons of superphosphate, 1 tablespoon of potassium magnesium are taken.
The soil for planting should warm up well, to a temperature of 15-17 degrees. To warm the earth faster, it is covered with a black film.
A week before planting, seedlings are treated with boric acid to prevent diseases.
When transplanting to a greenhouse, the plants should have 8-10 leaves, a stout, thick stalk, and a well-developed root.
When planting, the cotyledon leaves are removed. Landing is carried out in the evening or on a cloudy day.
Holes with a depth of 15 centimeters are decontaminated (a strong solution of potassium permanganate is poured into each well).
20-30 minutes before planting, the wells are spilled with warm water. Then indentations are made corresponding to the size of the peat pots. Potted plants descend into the pits. The ground around the stem is lightly crushed. If plants are not planted in pots, the seedlings are carefully removed from the tank, along with the earthy clod at the root. The tips of the roots are slightly trimmed. This contributes to the accelerated growth, strengthening of the roots, which will begin to grow in breadth.
If the seedlings have outgrown, it can be planted by this method:
The holes are made long and narrow. Grooves watered. Lower leaves are pruned. Seedlings are planted in semi-horizontal position. The root is laid out in the furrow, the tip remains on the surface in a vertical position. The seedling holes are covered with earth.
Each seedling is watered on top of 1-2 liters of water per plant. The upper part of the plant is tied to a peg.
Planted seedlings shaded for 2-3 days.
When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse, the timing
Planting time may vary from the climatic features of the region.
Depending on the region, the period of planting seedlings in the greenhouse is significantly different.
- In the South, seedlings in unheated seedlings are planted from mid-April.
- In Moscow, planting seedlings in a greenhouse takes place from late April to mid-May.
- In the Urals and in Siberia, landing takes place from the first days of May to mid-June.
The optimal age of seedlings for disembarkation is 50-60 days.
Distance between tomato
The beds for tomato seedlings should be 25 - 30 centimeters in height, 60 - 90 centimeters in width. The aisles should be 60 - 70 centimeters. The planting scheme depends on the varietal characteristics of the tomatoes and the height and structure of the bush.
- In short growing varietiesIt is formed in 2-3 shoots. They should be planted in a staggered order in 2 rows. Shrubs should be placed at a distance of 35-45 centimeters between each other. Row spacing should be 50 centimeters.
- Stampered varieties developed 1 shoot. They can be planted more densely. The distance between 2 bushes is 25-30 centimeters.
- High grades need more space and they should be planted in increments of 60 - 70 centimeters.
Indeterminate tall tomatoes are placed like this:
- in 1 main shoot - with a chess landing between bushes there is a distance of 55-60 centimeters, and rows of 80-85 centimeters,
- in 2 shoots - the distance between plants - 70-80 centimeters, between rows - 85-90 centimeters.
How many pieces are in the greenhouse
In a greenhouse with a size of 3 by 6 meters, beds with tomatoes are formed in 2-3 beds. Two beds are planted along the walls, with a width of not more than 1 meter. Square-bush or two-line planting of seedlings is used.
In the extreme beds are placed early varieties, in the middle - mid-early, mid-ripening.
In each row, you can plant different varieties with different rates of maturation. With such a seating planted about 90 plants.
If the greenhouse size of 3 to 8 meters, the number of bushes increases by 40 pieces.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
From the right care depends on the health of plants and their yield.
The first 8-10 days after planting a tomato in a greenhouse, watering is not desirable. Plants must have time to take root.
Then, per square meter of planting requires 5 liters of water.
During flowering, the volume of water increases to 10-12 liters per square meter. Water should be poured at the root so that the leaves, stalks, and fruits of the plants remain dry.
The best time for watering is morning.
The seedling of tall tomatoes is tied to a peg, a trellis for stability immediately upon planting.
Tying rooted sredneroslyh bushes begins 20 days after planting in the greenhouse. To do this, take a soft garden twine or tie. Twine tied eight, so as not to harm the delicate stalks of plants. Strongly pull the rope can not be!
In tall hybrid varieties, 1 is left when formed, and in medium and low - 2-3 stems. An additional stem is formed from the stepson, which remains on the main stem. It should form 5 - 6 brushes.
The top of the bush a month before the end of the vegetative period is pinched. This contributes to the rapid ripening of the ensuing tomato. During the beginning of the ripening of the fruit, all the lower leaves are removed. Any pruning is done in the morning.
Pasoning tomatoes is to remove the lateral shoots growing from the leaf axil. This procedure helps to redirect the forces of plants to the formation of floral brushes, improves yield.
In plants grown in 2 shoots, the lower stepson remains, others are cut.
It is necessary to make dressing for tomatoes 4-5 times per season. The first time they are fertilized half a month after disembarkation. Top dressing consists of infusion of mullein and nitrophoska (1 liter of liquid mullein, 2 tablespoons of nitrophoska per 20 liters of water). One liter of fertilizer is required per plant.
Then feeding is made once a fortnight. Organic matter should be alternated with mineral fertilizers so that tomatoes develop evenly.
Diseases and pests
Tomatoes are affected by various types of rot: vertex, white, brown, root rot (anthracnose), sulfur (botrytis).
Vertex Rot affects the fruit on the first 2-3 brushes.
At the top of the tomatoes appear watery spots, darker than healthy tissue. Spots grow, darken, press, harden, the top of the fruit becomes flattened, folded. Affected tomatoes quickly ripen.
White rot manifested when planting seedlings in the cold ground. Signs of the disease - wilting of the upper part of the plant, rotting from the bottom of the stem. The stem around the root softens, becomes whitish. Affected tomatoes become soft and watery.
The most dangerous fungal disease of tomatoes - late blight. First, brown spots with a pale green rim appear on the plant, whitish on the underside of the foliage in wet weather. In dry weather, the leaves dry, in the wet - they rot, tomatoes become unsuitable for human consumption.
In the greenhouse, the disease manifests itself when the air humidity is above 80% and the air temperature during the day is 17-22 degrees and at night 10 degrees.
To protect the tomatoes from the disease can not be grown annually in the same garden. The best predecessors for them are legumes, cabbage, cucumbers, green crops.
Seeds before sowing are thoroughly disinfected, and the tops of plants are harvested and burned in the fall.
Gray rot tomatoes are affected in cool weather at the end of the growing season. The watery spots on the tomatoes merge together, turn white, rot, become covered with mold.
When root rotand the root collar is rotting and the plant is withering. The rot spreads when planting seedlings in poorly heated soil. Affected plants are removed from the beds.
Strick Tomatoes - appears necrotic brown stripes and spots on the whole plant. The disease is spread by pinching, shaping and being carried by pests.
Disinfecting seeds protects against disease.
Pests threaten tomatoes, as do diseases.
Colorado potato beetlewho lay eggs on the lower part of the leaves and eat the various parts of the plant can be destroyed with Apache, Bison, Golden Spark, Tanrek, Konfidor and Commander. To combat insect pests, a thorough spraying of the bushes and the ground is carried out in the evening when eggs are mass deposited.
Whitefly and aphid destroyed drugs Aktara and Aktellik.
The best varieties for the greenhouse
In greenhouse conditions, plants grow actively and give an excellent harvest. For greenhouses, breeders have created many varieties, some of which are considered the best:
- Bull's heart is a tall mid-early variety. The bush reaches 2 meters in height. Fruits are fleshy, large, weighing up to 1 kilogram. Heart shape. The color is pink and crimson.
- Miracle of the Earth - a high-yielding drought-resistant variety. Tomatoes are large, pink, heart-shaped. Weight reaches 400-500 grams.
- Samara F1 is an indeterminate early ripe hybrid variety. On the brush matures up to 8 fruits. Tomatoes are round. Weight reaches 80 grams. The variety is resistant to tobacco mosaic, Fusarium, Cladosporia. Tomatoes do not crack, are well stored.
- Hurricane F1 is an early ripe hybrid variety. Fruiting occurs 90 days after seed germination. Tomatoes are round. The skin is smooth. The color is red, uniform. Fruit weight reaches 90 grams.
- Ildi F1 is a tall mid-season hybrid variety with brushes of orange or yellow tomatoes. The taste is sweet.
- Mazarin - drought-resistant variety. The shape of the fruit is similar to strawberries. The crop ripens in 110–115 days. The plant is resistant to late blight.
- Raspberry jingle F1 is an early ripe hybrid variety. The bush is short. Resistant to major tomato diseases and temperature changes. Tomatoes are round, raspberry. Fruits do not crack.
- Pink honey is a tall variety. The bush reaches 1.5 meters. Fruits are pink, large.
- Monomakh's cap - mid-season grade. Bush tall. Red tomatoes slightly ribbed, large. Variety resistant to many diseases.
- Red date F1 - medium late hybrid variety with red fruits of oval, finikoobrazny shape.
- Orange F1 spam is an early ripe hybrid variety. Tomatoes ripen in 100 days. Bush tall. The plant withstands temperature extremes. Fruits are round-heart-shaped, orange-colored, resistant to cracking.
Сажать помидоры в закрытый грунт нужно минимум через 2 месяца после всходов, для поздних сортов — через 75 суток. К этому времени мы получаем вполне жизнестойкие и крепкие растения, способные с легкостью перенести стресс от пересадки. Для Подмосковья и средней полосы России высокорослые и позднеспелые сорта начинают высевать еще зимой, с середины февраля, среднеспелые — с 5 по 15 марта, ранние — с 15 по 25 марта. In the northern regions, these terms are shifted, as a rule, 2 weeks ahead, in the south - on the contrary, sowing is done earlier. Planting of seedlings of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate is made in the first decade of May.
It is better to check the lunar calendar and choose the most favorable numbers for this type of work. It is better to sow the seeds and plant the seedlings on the growing moon, feed them at full moon, cradle and pinch in the waning phase. The most appropriate dates in 2018 can be explored in the table below:
Gardeners with years of experience sow several varieties of tomatoes, different in maturity. In this case, the crop can be obtained for a long time. It is believed that hybrid varieties grow better in greenhouses, they are less susceptible to diseases and produce a more abundant crop. Many prefer the indeterminate, that is, having unlimited growth. Before sowing, varietal seeds must be sorted for empty and weak ones. To do this, they are placed in a solution of salt (1 teaspoon per glass of water) and incubated for 20 minutes. The sprouted seeds are unsuitable for further germination, they must be disposed of. The strongest and healthiest will remain at the bottom, those from which strong and abundantly fruiting plants will grow.
The initial stage of preparation is disinfection in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide for 10–20 minutes. Seeds are placed in a wet gauze or cotton wool, covered with a plastic film with several holes for ventilation and left at a temperature of 22-25 ° C for 12-18 hours. After soaking the seeds are treated with a growth stimulator, immersing for 12 hours in one of the following solutions:
- aloe juice, diluted with water 1: 1,
- potassium or sodium humate (¼ tsp per 1 liter of water),
- ash solution (1 tsp per 1 l of water),
- Epin, Immunocytophyte or Virtana Pro solutions.
After such feeding, the seeds are dried without washing. The next stage of preparation is oxygen enrichment (bubbling). To do this, planting material for 12-18 hours is placed in a tank with water and running aquarium compressor. This procedure improves germination and a positive effect on the growth and further development of culture. Conducting bubbling effectively for seeds after long-term storage, the decision to use this method takes the gardener, based on personal experience. To prepare the tomatoes for possible temperature drops and improve immunity, they harden the seeds. To do this, they are placed in a wet gauze and put in the refrigerator for the night, the procedure is repeated at least 3 times.
“Hybrid seeds can be fully prepared for planting by the manufacturer. In this case, they are often painted in unnatural colors (blue, pink, yellow). Such seeds immediately after opening the package are sown in the ground. "
For sowing, it is necessary to prepare containers not exceeding 7 cm, with drainage holes at the bottom. Soil mixture is prepared from humus, peat and sod land, in equal proportions. Soil is flavored with superphosphate and wood ash. As a substrate, you can use the purchased soil for seedlings, in which there are already all the necessary trace elements in the right quantity. Before sowing, the soil must be shed with a warm solution of humic fertilizer. Seeds are placed in grooves to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, the width between the furrows should be at least 5 cm.
Planting a greenhouse of polycarbonate tomatoes should be timely, so you need to know the timing and nuances of germinating seeds in order to grow a strong, ready for transplant seedlings by a certain number. Some sow dry seeds directly into the ground, they will grow no earlier than after 10 days. Soaked and germinated seeds sprout already in 5-7 days.
Shelf life also directly affects the pace of development. So, the three-year-old seed will spawn in a week, and taken from last year's harvest in 4 days. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, tomato seeds are germinated in a damp cotton cloth or gauze. They are distributed in a single layer on a plate, covered with a layer of cloth and placed in a warm place with a temperature of 25-30 ° C until the moment of spitting.
"Seeds germinate unevenly, so you need to prepare in advance the container for planting, which will immediately be placed sunflower seeds."
Care of seedlings before planting in the greenhouse
In order to obtain good tomato seedlings at home, it is necessary to know some peculiarities of this crop, and based on them, create optimal conditions for it.
Tomatoes are considered light-loving plants. After the emergence of shoots containers with seedlings need to put on the most lighted place in the house. Daylight should be at least 12-14 hours; for this, the seedlings should be illuminated at first by fluorescent lamps or special fitolamps.
From time to time the container with the seedlings is turned, so that the bushes reaching for the light do not grow skosobosoho.
Watering and feeding
Tomatoes do not like excessive moisture in the soil and drying out of the soil. Watering tender shoots carried out daily, using a spray or a strainer. It is impossible to pour from a watering can, because you can simply wash off the shoots with a still undeveloped root system. For irrigation, warm separated or melted water is suitable. The first time fertilizers are applied after 2 weeks after germination. For this purpose, mullein, chicken droppings, and wood ash are well suited. Also, extra fertilizing will be an infusion of onion peel or chopped egg shells. You can fertilize complex means, such as azofoskoy. Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, seedlings are fed weekly.
Dive or disembark in the greenhouse
Planting seedlings in individual pots is possible with the appearance of 3-4 true leaves. Plants are carefully removed from the ground and pinned taproot на length, this will stimulate the active growth of the root system. After placing the pot in the pot slightly compacted and moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After another 2-3 weeks, seedlings are handled in a larger container (at least 1 liter) in order to provide sufficient root space to the root system and prevent the shoots from drawing out. To plant tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate is needed when the bush will get 8-12 well-formed leaves. The average height of the seedlings should be in the range of 20-30 cm.
The beds are formed in the form of an inverted “P” or “W”, when viewed from the side of the greenhouse door. The width of the beds - 60-100 cm, the distance between the bushes - at least half a meter. The most correct way to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate in rows or in a checkerboard pattern. When planting in the greenhouse, the lower 2-3 leaves are removed, the pot with a bush is turned over and carefully removed so as not to damage the roots. An earthen ball is set in the hole so that the first cotyledon leaves are on the surface, and then they level the ground and water it abundantly.
To better adapt to abrupt changes in weather conditions, seedlings are hardened. With 3 formed leaves in a room with seedlings open a window or window for 20-30 minutes. The main thing that there was no draft, and the frosty air did not get directly to the plants. The procedure is repeated several times, after which the seedlings are carried out to fresh air every day, gradually extending the time of stay from 2 hours to a full day.
Preparing a greenhouse for planting tomatoes
5 days before planting the tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to prepare it: clean and disinfect, break the beds and prepare the ground.
Clay and loamy soils make more loose the introduction of sawdust, peat and humus at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m². Sod soil and humus are added to peat soil in the same quantities. Coarse sand is sometimes used (½ bucket per 1 m²). The next stage of preparation is fertilization. For 1 m² you will need 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. After this, the beds must be carefully dig. Immediately before planting, the ground should be shed with a warm solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 10 liters of water). The prepared wells are also shed by the greenhouse preparation "Barrier", 2 glasses of solution per 1 well is enough.
Care of transplanted seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse
Care in the greenhouse provides regular watering as the soil dries, strictly at the root, trying not to wet the ground part of the plant. The first watering after disembarkation is made not earlier than in 7 days, it will allow to keep vertical growth. 2 weeks after disembarkation, the bushes are fed with a solution of mullein and nitrophoska. The lack of phosphorus is filled with a solution of potassium monophosphate (20 g per 10 l of water). To increase the yield of fertilizer must be applied every 3 weeks.
Too long a distance between the bushes will condone the formation of a large number of “stepsons”, which need to be cut off at the initial stage of development. After 10-12 days after planting, seedlings need to tie up to the trellis. In cases of disease and pest damage, young tomato bushes are treated with suitable chemicals (fungicides, insecticides). With the observance of all the basic agrotechnical rules, even a beginner can grow a rich crop of tomatoes. Modern greenhouse designs will turn this process into a sheer pleasure.
What greenhouse to pick up?
An important condition for improving the yield of tomatoes is played by the material from which the greenhouse is made. Now the most famous coating materials are film and polycarbonate.
Polycarbonate is an expensive material, however, it is strong and is not immediately worn out, unlike film. Although he perfectly protects plants from ultraviolet radiation. It is more suitable for heated winter greenhouses because of its own thermal insulation qualities, but polycarbonate is not particularly suitable for summer greenhouses. Temperature in similar buildings it will be simply intolerable for plants on hot days, besides even vented openings cannot help.
The film coating has its advantages over polycarbonate:
- it is easier to cover the greenhouse with a film, and in case of a breakthrough it is easy and simple to change,
- in winter, since the film is removed, you do not need to think about covering the ground,
- film - cheap stuff.
The principal difference between these two materials is the amount of harvest. In a polycarbonate greenhouse it is possible to plant tomatoes earlier and harvest several times.
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse - cooking beds
To date, many experienced gardeners adhere to a special planting calendar for growing seedlings. If planting is carried out in the greenhouse, the fruit can be collected much earlier than if the seeds or the plant is planted in the ground. Thanks to this construction, to grow a good harvest it is possible and where the spring is cool, and landing in open ground is actually not conducted.
You can refine a greenhouse or a greenhouse with various suitable materials, for example, glass, cellophane, or even window frames. Sometimes gardeners make a greenhouse, just covering the area with film. Sometimes a greenhouse is made of glass. But more often for the arrangement of greenhouses using polycarbonate. It is strong, and is able to store heat well. Such a structure has a period of operation of at least 10 years, subject to proper creation. And under suitable conditions for planting and growth of seedlings, you can get a wonderful and abundant crop of delicious and healthy vegetables.
How to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate - common rules
Initially, you should correctly select the site in order to equip the greenhouse. Care should be comfortable, the facility should not be in a shaded area, on the north side of the site, in front of strong drafts. Plot in which there will be a greenhouseshould be well lit. The lack of coverage negatively affects the quality and quantity of the crop. Tomatoes are a very light-loving crop.
In the greenhouse, windows should open up or one of the walls should rise, this will make it possible to open the room during cloudless and warm weather, in addition, it guarantees excellent ventilation in the building. Not only watering is important in order to grow a wonderful crop. Greenhouse must be ventilated.
Standard Tomato Requirements
The upcoming residents of the greenhouse have their own list of conditions, independent of the type of coverage of the room. For excellent growth and systematic formation of vegetables:
- Calcium is necessary, which will prevent the flowers from falling off and the formation of spots in the embryo. Enrich the greenhouse soil with this trace element during the feeding period with calcium or nitre solutions,
- Requires magnesium, potassium, nitrogen, boron, phosphorus, which in the complex in the form most accessible for plant control is in the most popular country fertilizer “Azofosk”,
- Wet soil is needed, which can retain water for a long time without drying. And at the same time, the earth should not be hard. Sandy, clayey soil is recommended for tomatoes, in which the humidity will linger and the moisture level should not exceed 70%. In order to achieve the recommended result, peat is introduced into the sandy soil, and sawdust is used as a fertilizer in the clay base.
We must not forget that the life span of the bush varies from 110 to 130 days, depending on the individual data of the variety. In order for the plant to have time to pass all the frontiers of life, planted it in the ground early. For the middle band, an ordinary period: from the end of the first decade to the middle of the second decade of May. By May 15 - 20, seedlings should already be settled in a greenhouse. For the northern regions, the landing dates will certainly shift with a focus on certain atmospheric conditions.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse
Plant lifespan - A significant parameter in the selection of varieties of cultivated vegetables. In each case, the seedlings are planted when the earth has warmed to a depth of 20 cm. Naturally, in the northern regions suitable conditions for planting come much later. Consequently, a variety of tomatoes is necessary for northerners with a more short life cycle than for the middle band. Although it saves increased daylight hours, however, recklessly rely on it is not necessary.
Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is necessary to determine the watering. Because watering plants should be warm and separated water, it is recommended indoors to determine the reservoir in which the water will settle and warm up to the desired temperature. Seedlings tomato requires excellent lighting, so put the lamp - a source of artificial light. In addition, it is necessary to consider the heating system of the room in which the seedlings will be planted. Often, experienced gardeners are used to insulate the soil, hay.
Not recommended for planting seedlings of tomatoes in the same place. You can change the place of planting culture. Between the beds you need to leave free passage.. It is also necessary when landing to observe the distance between the holes. Planting all the required seeds, it is necessary to take into account the characteristic features of the culture. In the case of planting small-sized seeds, the distance between the pits should be 30 cm. In case of tall-growing planting, seeds are sown, the distance between which should be about 70 cm. .
Modern selection has provided us with a huge selection of tomato varieties, these are varieties that differ in color, taste, size and ripening terms.
It is also worth considering that there are stunted and tall varieties. Low-growing varieties are perfect for planting on open ground and in greenhouses, and tall for planting in the greenhouse.
As soon as the seeds hatch, they can be planted in the prepared, moistened soil to a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters. For planting seeds is best to use small wooden boxes.
After sowing the seeds, they should be watered regularly and must be aired.. You may find that the seedlings grow very slowly, do not worry. Marked progress will begin after the third week, when the active growth phase begins.
How to grow healthy and strong tomatoes?
For irrigation, it is best to use distilled water at room temperature. But do not pour much young seedlings, it can lead to decay. When the seedlings reach a height of 30 centimeters, and 10–12 leaves grow on the stem, it can be considered quite strong.
In addition to watering the seedlings, mineral and organic fertilizers that are applied to the soil in three stages. The first time is to feed the seedlings when the first leaves appear on the stem. At this time, urea diluted in water will be a good fertilizer. Next, the following two additional feeding is made at intervals of two weeks. Mixtures such as Agricol, as well as various phosphate and potash fertilizers, are excellent for this period.
When can you dive?
This is best done about 12-13 days after emergence, when the roots of the tomato are already strong enough, but have not yet had time to grow and intertwine with each other. Перед пикировкой землю следует хорошо полить. Аккуратно достать каждый кустик с небольшим комом земли и посадить его в отдельную емкость.
После пикировки рассаду рекомендуется опрыскать водой с добавлением молока. Достаточно слегка забелить воду. Это прекрасный способ профилактики от сморщивания листиков и такого заболевания как фитофтора. Кроме того, можно обрабатывать рассаду настоем из воды, чеснока и луковой шелухи, это поможет предотвратить многие заболевания ваших растений.
Чтобы повысить урожайность томатов, spray them during flowering with a weak solution of boric acid. Do not forget about hilling bushes. As soon as bulges appeared on the lower part of the stem, it is necessary to pile them up, this helps to strengthen the root system and, accordingly, leads to an increase in yield.
We advise you to look at other articles about the care of tomato seedlings:
We recommend viewing a practical video about the features of growing tomato seedlings in a greenhouse:
To grow a healthy bush of tomatoes, of course, is laborious and troublesome. But, we assure you that by adhering to the above tips, you will get a great harvest!
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Pros and cons of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse
Cultivation of tomato seedlings in greenhouses allows to get high yields (with proper care, up to 30-50% higher than in unprotected soil). In temperate climates, the harvest in greenhouses occurs a month earlier than in the garden beds, but any method has pros and cons.
Positive aspects of growing tomato seedlings in a greenhouse.
- The possibility of temperature control. The frosts leading to death of plants are excluded.
- The ability to use products of a biological nature to combat pests, whose action in the fresh air is limited due to adverse weather conditions.
- Control of water, gas and food regime.
- The possibility of using suitable soil.
- Getting a few harvests per season in heated greenhouses.
The disadvantages of the greenhouse method.
- High risk of tomato damage by pests and diseases. The high density of bushes, high humidity, the absence of insects that fight pests, lead to crop damage.
- Additional investment. Even the film cover and the arc cost is not very cheap. Capital greenhouses with heating require even greater cash investments. As a result, the cost of the crop increases.
- In the heat of the greenhouse is very hot.
Planting seedlings on a permanent place in the greenhouse
We must make sure that the disease does not spread among the tomatoes, otherwise you will say goodbye to the harvest and all your work will be in vain. At the first signs of fungal diseases, use protective drugs. Watch for humidity and ventilate the greenhouse to prevent rot.
There is a technology that combines the cultivation of several varieties of tomatoes in the greenhouse. In this case, near polycarbonate, where there is more light, deterministic varieties are planted, and closer to the center of the greenhouse, high-growth indeterministic ones are planted.
Tie tomatoes correctly
More precisely, the timing of the landing is possible by measuring the temperature of the soil. She before planting seedlings of tomatoes should not be below + 12 °. You can measure it with a household thermometer, plunging it into the ground for a few minutes. Warming up the soil can be increased, cover it with black film. If you urgently need to make a landing, then you can heat the water and pour it into the wells before disembarking.
But beneficial microorganisms usually winter well under the snow.
Top dressing of tomatoes
Immediately after planting the tomatoes, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering. This is one of the important rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. It is necessary to create a contact of the roots with the soil. If this is not done, the plants can attach and then be ill for a long time, which ultimately will have a negative impact on yield.
Diameter of the main stem in the area of the root collar is not less than 1 cm,
If the seedlings were grown independently and well remember, in what time the seeds were sown - then everything is simple. Add a specific period of time for each individual crop, and get the exact day of landing in the greenhouse. But what if you bought seedlings already ready? How to understand that it can already be planted in a greenhouse? Now we will deal with this.
The water received in such a way considerably reduces a salting of the soil.
On hot days in the summer, daily watering is sometimes necessary or even twice a day.
The root system completely entangles the substrate lump and has only white live roots.
Variants of the composition of feed mixtures for tomatoes.
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse with a small window will allow air to circulate indoors.
High humidity can reduce the taste properties of tomatoes, making them watery and acidic.
The height of the latter should be no more than 35-40 cm, width - 60-90 cm, length is arbitrary.
Greenhouses and greenhouses today have found a very wide distribution due to the fact that by maintaining optimal humidity and temperature indicators in them, a higher and better yield can be obtained. The greenhouse itself must also meet certain requirements. By virtue of all this, the primary task in the cultivation of tomato or other vegetables is the arrangement of the greenhouse itself, its proper construction. It is necessary to consider in more detail how planting is carried out in a polycarbonate greenhouse, especially crop care, rules for greenhouse installation.
On the eve of the landing, water the seedlings so that the soil in the pots is wet.
In polycarbonate greenhouses wipe walls from dust and dirt, check the ventilation system. You should do the same if you have glass walls.
Cucumber seedlings can vigorously and without any problems transfer the transplant to 20-23 days of life. Moreover, it can be planted even in a greenhouse, where the temperature has only reached 20 ° C, if the beds themselves are heated. To do this, they lay manure or sawdust, and heated with boiling water.
Therefore, if you do not need too early vegetables, let the snow do its job - the harvest will be more healthy and rich.
Determining factor: soil temperature
Takvot, when the seedlings already have 3-4 leaves, it can be planted in a greenhouse. In central Russia is May 10-15.
The most popular mistake of beginners is to plant seedlings in fairly cold greenhouse beds, when the air itself seems warm. This is really a trick, because, it would seem, according to the laws of physics, the earth heats up first from the sun's rays, and from it already - the surrounding air. And this is true, and the ground can really feel to the touch ready to grow plants on it, but we often forget that the roots of the seedlings are at depth. And it's cold there.
When planting seedlings at the bottom of the hole it is necessary to pour the starting fertilizer. To do this, use 20 g of nitroammofoski content N16P16K16. The roots should not be in contact with the pellets due to the risk of burns, so they are mixed with the soil.
Therefore, it is necessary to choose the optimal landing pattern and it is recommended to use the following parameters:
In the period of plant growth in the greenhouse of polycarbonate is carried out three or four dressing. The first - 20 days after disembarkation. You need to water this solution: put a nitrophoska (1 tbsp) and a liquid mullein (0.5 la) on 10-12 liters of water. Water at the rate of one liter per plant.
- If the soil is peaty, then add soddy soil, humus and sawdust in one bucket and half a bucket of coarse sand, also based on one square meter.
- During the flowering period, these figures increase to 10-15 liters. The water temperature is 20-22 ° С. During fruiting do dressing, 3-4 times. The first is organized approximately 3 weeks after planting the seedlings. Each subsequent dressing is done in 10 days. For these purposes, used superphosphate, nitrophoska, ash and other fertilizers. Often there are problems with the growth of tomatoes.
- In order to walk freely between the beds, it is required to make a distance between them of at least 60-70 cm. In order for the planting to be successful and ripen the crop, careful care of vegetables will be required. First, the temperature is of paramount importance, not only air, but also the earth itself.
- As mentioned above, for planting vegetables or flowers in a greenhouse, the first thing to do is to select a plot and build a greenhouse itself. The site should be open and sufficient in size. The size of the greenhouse can be done practically any, the optimal width should be no more than 5 m, for the length there are no restrictions. The plot should be well insolated, since the sun's rays are necessary for plant growth and for ensuring photosynthesis. Once the territory is chosen, it will be necessary to build a foundation.
- Dig holes about 20 cm deep or a little deeper according to a well thought out scheme.
The soil is loosened, weeds are harvested.
How to determine the exact time of landing?
On average, the dates of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse - from 1 to 10 May, whereas in open ground only from the 25th. For tomatoes, the temperature in the greenhouse should be 24-25 ° C during the day and not lower than 19 ° C at night.
Take the usual outdoor thermometer and stick it in the greenhouse beds. It is desirable to a depth of 10-15 cm, where the roots of seedlings fall first (and in an adult plant will reach all 60-80 cm, have no doubt). So what's the temperature now? In the region of + 10 ° C? Plant the plants and they will stop their development for a long time.
Top dressing is one of the most responsible works in caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. They are carried out weekly, followed by watering. Tomatoes are very demanding on the content of nutrients in the soil, especially phosphorus. In the arsenal of a tomato grower, there should be monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate. These are two high-speed fertilizers that will satisfy the need of a tomato plant in macronutrients. They take 20 g each, dissolved in a ten-liter bucket of water and watered at least 10 bushes.
Early ripe determinant varieties with 2-3 stems are planted according to the 60x40 cm scheme.
After 10 days, the second dressing is carried out with the following solution: a tablespoon of organic fertilizer and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate diluted in 10 liters of water. When 12 days have passed, the third dressing is carried out. In 10 liters of water dilute 1 tbsp. spoon superphosphate (or 2 tablespoons of wood ash) and water at the rate of 5 liters per square meter. You can prepare another solution: take a tablespoon of sodium humate and a tablespoon of nitrophoska in a bucket of water. After such feeding tomatoes will be poured much faster.
Add superphosphate (2 tablespoons) and potassium sulfate (1 tablespoon). All carefully dig. Beds need to prepare in advance. A week before the transplanting, everything should be ready. They should not be made too wide, 90 cm is enough. A height of no more than 40 centimes. The distance between the beds is not less than 60 centimes. Before planting seedlings, the soil in the greenhouse is watered with a warm solution of potassium permanganate in the proportion of 1 g per bucket of water. Pour one liter of solution into each well.
Very often plants grow fat, that is, they have powerful stems and leaves and bear very poor fruit. The reason for this is excessive watering and fertilizer. To remedy the situation, it is necessary not to water the tomatoes for 10 days, raise the temperature in the greenhouse and carry out root dressing with superphosphate (3 liters of fertilizer for 10 liters of water). Under each plant pour 1 l of this solution. In tomatoes, leaves and flowers may fall off. This indicates dryness of the soil, high temperature and rare airing of the room.
In order to determine this indicator, it is necessary to place the thermometer shallowly in the ground and measure the temperature. If it is + 15 ° C and more, the land can be used for planting plants. The second point is the air temperature in the greenhouse. In order to grow tomatoes in a simple film greenhouse, its warming will be required, including the use of heaters. Polycarbonate also has high thermal insulation characteristics, so this greenhouse warms up very quickly. Nevertheless, it is recommended to make the floor insulation between the foundation and the base of the greenhouse. For this you can use polystyrene foam or rolled materials. Polycarbonate is optimally laid not in 1, but in 2 layers.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are becoming more and more popular. This building material has many advantages. Firstly, it is fairly easy to assemble, and secondly, it has good thermal insulation properties, which does not require powerful heating in the greenhouse. Polycarbonate well passes sunshine and disperses them. Fourthly, unlike simple glass, it is a shock-resistant material, in addition, it is flexible. Its greatest advantage is that it is financially affordable. To build such a greenhouse, it is advisable to organize a strip or monolithic foundation, the first option is simpler and cheaper.
Fill the hole and sprinkle it with earth, if necessary add ash or superphosphate fertilizer.
The beds are made in length greenhouses about 35 cm high, slightly less than a meter wide. For convenience, the passage between them can be made 60 cm or more (up to a meter).
Planting time and seedling status
It's all about stress from unexpected adverse conditions. Nature is intelligent, and the plant, which fell from ideal conditions into the frozen ground, "thinks" that winter has come. That is why it turns its main functions in a quick manner and falls into the most real hibernation of winter. How long will you wake him up!
Caring for tomatoes during a massive opening of buds includes operations that improve the formation of ovaries. Tomatoes have self-pollinating flowers. To pollen spill out and hit the pistil enough to gently shake the tomato plant. This operation is performed in the morning on a sunny day.
Determinant tomatoes with 1 main stem are planted closer - 50x30 cm.
Harvesting in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate is necessary by the rules. Fruits break without fruit stalks and develop in boxes. Tear them better when they turn pink. If you wait until the fruits turn red, then after they are collected, the brush begins to ripen much faster and those that remain on it will lose weight.
Preparing a greenhouse made of polycarbonate and film
To grow strong seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the seeds. In the first stage, treatment is needed to prevent diseases. Seeds are put in a fabric bag. In a solution prepared from 1 g of manganese in a glass of water, they are placed for 20 minutes. Then washed in clean water. Next, place in the nutrient solution for 12 hours and send in a warm place. Prepare the solution from a teaspoon of nitrophoska diluted in le water. After that, without rinsing, put the bag of seeds in a container with clean water and leave for a day. After this "soaking" the seeds must be sent to the refrigerator for hardening on the middle shelf for at least 48 hours. It is important to ensure that the seeds do not dry out. After these procedures, they are immediately sown in the prepared soil. Seeds of hybrid varieties are sown in moist soil without prior preparation.
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- Put a peat pot with seedlings in a boil (mud) or take a plant out of a pot, turning it over, and immerse the roots in the ground.
- If last year you grew tomatoes in the same place, then it is advisable to remove the top layer of soil or disinfect it in order to avoid the occurrence of diseases. Disinfection solution: blue vitriol 1 large spoon per 10 liter bucket of hot water. On 1 square. m consumes about a liter of solution. You can also disinfect a weak solution of potassium permanganate or any special preparation.
- 10-15 days before planting the pepper seedlings, you can begin to harden. Thus, the air temperature in the room with seedlings is reduced slowly to 17-18 ° C. First, do it during the day, and a couple of days before disembarking and at night. Three days before being transported to the greenhouse, water the seedlings well so that more roots are preserved and cut off 2-3 lower leaves.
And because of the extended period of adaptation, fruiting will come much later. And why then the greenhouse, when the same result could be achieved under the open sky? Moreover, the harvest itself from such bushes, unfortunately, will not please you.
During airing, insects fly into the greenhouse and help the flowers to pollinate. Bumblebees do it very well. You can put a hive with bumblebees in the greenhouse to increase fruit stitchiness.
In indeterminate tall tomatoes, the planting pattern is sparse - 80x70 cm.
The hothouse method of growing tomatoes allows you to get a crop during periods when it is impossible to do this in the open field. Using modern polycarbonate coating, you can grow plants in early spring without additional heating. Consider what care for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse involves.
The layout of the greenhouse and the size of the beds for tomatoes.
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Scheme of the greenhouse frame device.
Cover the roots with the earth before the first cotyledon leaves.
- Then the soil is fertilized. Usually make humus at the rate of 3 kg per 1 sq. Km. m., you can and a little more, if the soil is poor. Под томаты вносят фосфорные и калийные удобрения (по 1 большой ложке на 1 кв. м) для интенсивного развития корневой системы, скорого цветения и созревания плодов. Хорошим удобрением является зола. Ее можно засыпать в каждую лунку в процессе высадки рассады.
- В теплицу из поликарбоната можете смело высаживать рассаду перца 20-25 мая, когда почва прогрета уже до 18°С (проверьте ее градусником на глубине 15 см). Важно полностью исключить опасность заморозков – перец самый незащищенный в этом плане из всех тепличных растений.
- А потому температура почвы – действительно важный фактор. Давайте точно перечислим, какой она должна быть для самой разной рассады:
- Observing all the described rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, you can get a bountiful harvest of delicious tomatoes.
- Cups with high-quality seedlings are planted in the wells, deepening to 3-5 cm. If the plants are overgrown, then the stem of a tomato can be laid into the soil at a depth of at least 10 cm, while digging a ditch. Additional roots are easily formed on the stem, which can nourish the adult plant more intensively.
- Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with the planting of prepared seedlings to the place of constant growth.
- It is better to use ready-made soil mixtures intended for tomato seedlings. Tanks should not be high, not higher than 5-7 cm. Before sowing, the soil should be moist. The containers are filled, and the soil is slightly compacted. For seeds, prepare grooves with a depth of no more than 1.5 cm and at a distance of no more than 7 cm from each other. Sow seeds no closer than 2 cm apart. Put the container in a warm bright place. After 5 days, cover them with plastic, it will help to appear faster shoots. Seeds of tomatoes, which will then be planted in a polycarbonate greenhouse, are sown in February. It is better to sow different varieties in different capacities.
In the greenhouse you can grow not only tomatoes, but also cucumbers. To get a good harvest in the fall, you need to thoroughly dig up the earth, and in the spring to fertilize. In the spring, seedlings are planted. If seeds are planted, they are taken two or three years ago, as the young give more hollow flowers. In the greenhouse or greenhouse planted seedlings 20-24-day. Planted better plants in 2 rows, the depth of the pits is 10-15 cm. The soil should be fertilized with minerals. The optimum temperature for their growth is 20-25 ° C. It is recommended to construct a trellis, since cucumbers almost always reach for the light and hover.
A very important point in the cultivation of tomato - planting depth. For warm regions of our country, for example, the Stavropol or Krasnodar Territory, the depth of landing is done as much as possible. As for the temperate latitudes, then everything is somewhat different. The optimum depth for planting is 20-25 cm. In the event that the seedlings are large, it is advisable to lay it at an angle or lying down, sprinkled with earth. This will provide a more powerful root system. Tomatoes are planted at a distance of at least 50 cm from each other. First, you need to dig out small pits, and water them abundantly. At the same time, fertilizers can be applied: manure, sawdust, humus, but only in very small quantities. Otherwise, you can get a low yield.
Care of planted tomatoes
To build the foundation, you will need to dig a trench around the perimeter of the site to a depth above the ground freezing (about 70 cm). At the bottom of the trench lay a sand pillow in several layers, each 20-25 cm. All layers are aligned, compacted and poured with water. To stiffen make reinforcement using steel rods, coupled with wire. The next step is the installation of formwork. Wooden boards are used for it. The height of the formwork above the surface is approximately 20-30 cm. Concrete mix based on cement, sand, rubble and water is poured into the formwork. Mark is preferable to take a high (300-500).
Lightly tamp the soil and water again.
Nitrogen fertilizers and manure should be used very sparingly, as tomatoes grow from them, grow fat, to the detriment of the crop. In general, in order to have a good harvest, the technology of growing tomatoes must be observed, and an excess of fertilizers can only harm them.
So, ready for planting pepper seedlings looks like this: 8-10 true leaves, 20-30 cm tall and small buds. The seedling age for pepper should be 70 days.
Cucumbers: + 18 ° С during the day and + 16 ° С at night.
For the northern regions of the country and in the Urals, the most favorable time for planting seedlings is the second and third decade of May. By the way, there is a fairly faithful folk omen - if frogs “started singing” on the river, there will be no frosts anymore.
Many factors influence the survival rate of seedlings and the further growth of a tomato plant. Consider in detail the important points in the care of tomatoes.
The further successful development of adult plants and the yield of tomato fruits depend on the quality of the planting performed in the ground.
It is very important that the seedlings are not stretched. In the first month after the emergence of shoots, watering is carried out 2-3 times. The first - when shoots appeared, and the next - in one or two weeks. Water for irrigation is taken warm, not lower than 20 degrees. In the first week, the night temperature should not fall below 13-15 degrees, in the daytime - 16-18, then the temperature can be raised to 15-16 degrees at night and 18-20 degrees during the day. With this temperature and watering the seedlings will not stretch much.
These plants love light. To increase the branching cucumbers pinch. This is done in the region of the apical bud of the main shoot above the stem node. Watering cucumbers in contrast to tomatoes should be more abundant and frequent. Before fruiting, it can be done less frequently. And in the period of the appearance of the fruits of watering is carried out every 2 days. You can do this with a watering can or you can build an automatic irrigation system: sprinkler, subsurface or drip. This will require a pipeline from which water will be supplied.
The width of the beds is better to make no more than 90 cm.
Do-it-yourself greenhouse construction
After installing the foundation build frame. It can be made of wood or metal (from pipes). Polycarbonate is attached to the frame. Do this with screws with thermal washers. Screws screw at a distance of at least 2 cm from the edge of the plate. The holes for them make more of the screw head 2-3 mm, this is important during the thermal expansion of the material. Polycarbonate sheets are sizes 6x2.1 m and 12x2.1 m. Sheets are attached with the protected side out.
Making planting seedlings of tomatoes, it is not necessary to deeply deepen it into the ground. This is done only in regions with a warm climate. In colder areas, seedlings are buried to a depth of no more than 25 cm.
Finally, it is time to find out how they are directly planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, how plants are located in relation to each other. Competent planting of tomato bushes in the greenhouse is the key to success in the proper cultivation of tomatoes. The planting pattern will depend on which varieties you grow and how much space you have in the greenhouse. In any case, the plants should be seated so that everyone has enough sun. With a strong shadow, they will start to hurt, grow worse.
2-3 weeks before planting, eggplants must be hardened, following the same principles as other vegetables, but excluding drafts. The air temperature should be gradually reduced to 17 ° C. One week before planting, feed the eggplants, and one day sprinkle “Epin-extra”, taking 4 drops per glass of water - this will alleviate the stress from the transplant.
Beds for growing plants
Tomatoes: + 15 ° С during the day and + 14 ° С at night.
For each vegetable has its own growing conditions. So, no matter how sunny and warm your greenhouse is, there are certain requirements for it.
During the adaptation period of the seedlings in new greenhouse conditions, the air temperature must be kept within optimal limits from +22 to +25 degrees, while the soil should already warm up above +15 degrees. Under such conditions, plants quickly give new roots and they begin to grow intensively.
By transplanting, tomato must have the following parameters:
Tanks where tomatoes are grown, you need every day to turn the other side to the light. It also will not allow them to stretch. After the appearance of two or three true leaves, the seedlings are transplanted into pots no larger than 8x8 centimes. Before this, the soil should be watered with a weak warm solution of potassium permanganate (0.5 g per 10 l of water). After transplantation, during the first three days, the night temperature should not be lower than 16-18 degrees, daytime - 20-22. After the seedlings become stronger, the temperature can be reduced in the daytime to 18–20 degrees and at night to 15–16 degrees. Watering is carried out once a week. The first feeding after two weeks with the following solution: one bucket of nitrophoska per bucket of water. At least half a glass is poured into each pot. After 25 days, the seedlings are transplanted to the pots for 4-7 centimes more. Immediately you need to water it well. Then water no more than once a week. Such a transplant and irrigation regime will keep the growth and stretching of the seedlings.
How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse
It is mandatory to install wooden stakes next to the seedlings. Later tomatoes will become attached to them. The height of stakes can be different, on average it is 60-70 cm. Landing is only part of the work. During the entire season of growth for the plants need to care. It is recommended to pick off the yellow and dead leaves, in the presence of a crust on the surface - loosen the soil, protect them from harmful insects, periodically water and fertilize. Unnecessary foliage is removed in the morning. Any summer resident should know that growing tomatoes for several years in a row in the same greenhouse or greenhouse is not recommended.
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It happens that tomatoes outgrow, become too thin and elongated. In this case, it is necessary to break off the lower leaves, so that they do not take on food. The seedlings themselves are laid under an inclination so that it lets out lateral roots.
So, eggplant seedlings ready for planting look like this: 6-7 leaves and a stem 15-20 cm thick. If you already have buds - it is not terrible, but usually they are formed only after transplanting. The normal age of seedlings for eggplant - 50 days, and planted in a polycarbonate greenhouse is better after June 5th. True, you can take a chance on May 20-25, if the weather is already worth the flight. If it's cold - wait a couple of days, otherwise ruin the next harvest.
Tomato planting technology
Eggplants: + 18 ° С during the day and + 16 ° С at night.
And the lunar calendar is quite popular:
Caring for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse involves the need to constantly monitor the temperature. Polycarbonate has high thermal insulation properties and good light transmission, therefore, in sunny weather, the temperature of the air during daytime hours can increase dramatically and reach critical for plants (above +35 degrees). Open doors and transom will reduce the temperature.
Plant height 25-35 cm
Dumping seedlings of tomatoes in pots
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The best option - alternating them with other cultures, such as cucumbers. Cucumbers and tomatoes have one common disease - anthracnose (root rot). Because of all this, before planting, it is best to remove the top layer of soil (10-15 cm) where the infection is and treat the surface with Oxyhoma or copper sulfate. In the same greenhouse can not be grown at the same time cucumbers and tomatoes.
Tomato care rules
Polycarbonate mounting scheme.
A prerequisite for a rich harvest is caring and proper care. It begins with a garter. 4 days after the transplanting, when the tomatoes take root, they must be tied up. You can use regular pegs or make linear trellis.
For greenhouses, tall varieties of tomatoes are most often chosen from polycarbonate in order to use the entire useful volume of space. Planting is carried out according to the scheme: 40 cm by 70 cm, where 70 cm is the distance between the lines of the rows, and 40 between the bushes in a row. Between the beds leave a distance of about a meter, so that it is convenient to move around, lay a hose for watering, or perform other necessary plant care.
Tomatoes or tomato is a favorite vegetable of many people, so it is actively grown in greenhouses and outdoor areas. Consider how to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse, what is necessary for this to carry out the preparatory work, and how to plant the plants, because this topic requires a competent approach.Pepper: + 15 ° С during the day and + 14 ° С at night.The most natural winter treatment of greenhouse soil, conceived by nature, is snow. Here is how much work this cluster of fragile snowflakes does:
If there is no constant heating in the greenhouse, then in case of a probable frost it is necessary to install an additional source of heat. As it can be used various types of burners, heat guns or just kerosene lamps.
The presence of the first bud (possibly the opening of the first flower),
Two weeks later, additional feeding is carried out with the following solution: one bucket of superphosphate and potassium sulfate per bucket of water. In each pot poured a glass of solution. Two weeks later, the second feeding is carried out. 5 days before planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse, in order to preserve the flower buds on the first flower brush, the seedlings are sprayed with a solution of 1 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water. Spraying is carried out only in the morning and only in cloudy weather. If the day is sunny, then the leaves may burn. Tomatoes, ready for planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse, should be no higher than 35 centimes, they should have 8-12 real sheets, well-formed, and one or two inflorescences. > Two or three days before planting in the greenhouse, three lower sheets are cut off. This will help reduce the likelihood of diseases, as well as improve their ventilation and light. Thanks to this, the first flower brush will develop better.
Peculiarities of growing cucumbers
Planting vegetables in a greenhouse is a great option. Greenhouse, in particular of polycarbonate, can provide plants with sufficient insolation, temperature and humidity. To get a large and high-quality crop, you will need not only to plant the plants properly, but also to arrange for their constant care, which includes regular watering, pinching, removal of yellow and dead leaves, loosening the soil, tying up, fertilizing the soil and protecting against pests, including pathogens.
For planting tomatoes, cucumbers or flowers will need to stock up on quality land. The land must be fertile. You can make the beds for the plants yourself or purchase ready-made ones. Now in many country shops in the assortment there are already ready beds for greenhouses. They consist of sides and a galvanized fastener. The boards are made of plastic polycarbonate. These beds are very durable, can last more than 10 years. They are prefabricated structures. The side height of the bed is 20 cm, and any length can be made. Such ready beds depending on the design and color can be very diverse.
Tomatoes must be pasynkovat, so that the bushes do not grow in width, and the nutrients are spent on fruit set. Paceniks are processes in the leaf axils. It is better to tear them off (in the morning) in order to dry the wound in one day.
Conclusions and recommendations
If the bed is narrow, then you can plant tomatoes in a checkerboard pattern. The chess scheme is also suitable for undersized ripening varieties. In this case, the distance in the row between adjacent bushes is 40 cm, and between the rows - 50 cm.
In central Russia, planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse starts in early May and continues until early June. At this time, the nights are still quite cool, so in the open field the plants will develop poorly, and during frosts they can disappear altogether. The landing times may be earlier, but in this case care should be taken about heating and additional lighting.
The best varieties of tomatoes for the greenhouse
Getting a bountiful harvest is directly related to the right choice of tomato varieties.
For growing in greenhouses, both stunted (determinant) and tall (indeterminant) crops are suitable. Hybrids have proven themselves well, as they are resistant to disease and temperature extremes.
The most popular determinant varieties that are enjoyed by vegetable growers:
- tornado - a hybrid, medium early, fruits are rounded bright red, 70-90 g.,
- babes - a short-growing hybrid (50-80 cm), flat red-round fruits of 60-70 g. Gives yields of up to 3 kg per plant in greenhouses that are not heated,
- the charms are a hybrid variety of early ripening, with red fruits of saturated color weighing 100-110 g. The average yield is 5-6 kg per plant.
The best indeterminantny grades giving big yields in the protected soil.
- bull heart - medium ripening, fruit weight about 400 g, dark pink, fleshy, shaped like a heart. With 1 bush you can get 4-6 kg of tomatoes,
- Cosmonaut Volkov is mid-season, fruits are red, large, average yield is 5 kg from a bush, but can reach 20 kg,
- black iceberg - a hybrid. Fruits are dark red about 80 g, very flat. Yield 3-3.5 kg per plant.
Planting time of seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse
In vegetable production there is a direction called biodynamic agriculture.
It is based on the theory that the Earth and the Cosmos are a unified system in which everything is interconnected. All the planets to a greater or lesser extent have an impact on the Earth’s ecosystems.
The main thing in this system is the sun. The moon is the second in importance. It affects the life and development of plants through the aquatic environment. Планета отвечает за приливы и отливы в водоёмах и за движение соков в растениях. Многие садоводы проводят работы в огороде в соответствии с фазами Луны.
Первая четверть убывающей Луны благоприятна для роста корней. В это время хорошо пересаживать рассаду, чтобы она быстрее укоренялась. Если к моменту высадки на постоянное место корни хорошие, а стебель развит недостаточно, то на постоянное место ростки определяют во время растущей Луны.
В умеренном климате рассаду высаживают в теплицы без обогрева с 3 по 10 мая. At the time of transplanting to a permanent place, tomatoes should reach a height of 25-35 cm and have from 7 to 12 leaves. If the greenhouse is not heated, it is better to cover it with two layers of film with a distance of 2-3 cm between the layers. The airbag will protect the bores from possible frost, increasing the temperature inside by 2-3 degrees. After June 5, the second layer of the film is removed.
Ridges are best done parallel to the long side of the greenhouse, 35-40 cm high. The beds are 60-90 cm wide and at least 60 cm between rows. Before transplanting, the land in pots or boxes should be well watered so that the plant can be easily removed with a clod of earth. At the time of landing there should not be frosts. The soil in the greenhouse must be at least 12-15 ° C.
Preparation of soil in the greenhouse for planting tomatoes
For tomatoes, soil preparation begins in the fall. The bottom of the beds is lined with a layer of sawdust, needles or straw 10 cm thick for additional insulation of the site. Above put a layer of compost of the same thickness. On top of it pour fertile soil 20 cm high. For the cultivation of tomatoes choose sod or humus soil.
The following fertilizers are applied to the soil for digging at the rate of 1 m 2:
- potassium sulfate 1 tbsp. l.,
- double granular superphosphate 3 tbsp. l.,
- Kalimagneziya 1 tbsp. l.,
- wood ash 1.5 cups,
- carbamide or sodium nitrate 1 tsp.
In addition, 0.5 buckets of coarse sand are added to the peat substrate and a bucket of humus, sod land and sawdust per 1 m 2. In a clay or loamy soil, add 1 bucket of sawdust, peat and humus per square meter.
In spring, the soil must be prepared for planting, "warm up." To do this, hold the following activities.
- Plentifully watered the beds with hot water (60ºС), but not boiling water.
- Bleed biofuels: manure or other organic matter 20-25% of the total soil. Fresh manure should be made 1.5 months before planting tomatoes.
Soil disinfection is carried out 2 times a year. In the spring before transplanting and in the fall after harvesting. For these purposes, Bordeaux liquid, dolomite flour or copper sulfate is used.
The author of the video shares tips on when to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, depending on the region, how to prepare the soil.
Planting tomato seedlings at a permanent place
The scheme of planting tomatoes on the bed depends on the choice of variety, height and spreading bush.
- Standard and determinantal plants are planted 20 cm apart. Row spacing should be 45-50 cm
- undersized ripening varieties, formed in 2-3 stems, are placed in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other. The distance between the rows of 50-55 cm
- Seedlings of indeterminate varieties are planted in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the bushes is 55-60 cm, between the rows 75-80 cm.
For planting sprouts in the greenhouse choose a warm, but not very hot day. In the ground pits are made with a depth of 15 cm and they are spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 10 liters of water) with a temperature of 50-60ºC at the rate of 1 l per well. After 5 min, the sprouts are planted in the wells.
After 5-6 days after planting, the tomatoes must be watered abundantly with warm water and gently loosen the soil. Simultaneously with the planting of the shoots establish supports, which will later tie up the plants.
For growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, the optimum daytime air temperature should be 21-25ºC, at night 16-19ºC, humidity 60-65%. The greenhouse must be constantly aired, especially during flowering, for better pollination. With the same purpose, the plants shake well.
During the growing season, the tomatoes make 3 root dressings.
- 3 weeks after transplanting sprouts into the greenhouse. In 10 liters of water dilute half a liter of liquid mullein and 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski. Water at the rate of 1 l under a tomato.
- The second is carried out in another week and a half. 1 tbsp. l complex fertilizer and 1 tsp. Potassium sulfate is diluted in 10 liters of water. Under 1 plant pour 1 liter of liquid.
- The third suit 14-16 days after the second feeding. 2 tbsp. l wood ash and 1 tbsp. l superphosphate diluted in 10 liters of water. Pour 1.5-2 liters under a bush.
Growing tomatoes in temperate climates with short summers and frequent frosts is not an easy task even for experienced growers. Planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse makes it possible to cultivate this popular plant in the area of high-risk farming and in northern latitudes. Cultivation in greenhouses allows you to get high yields, even for beginners, if they adhere to the basic rules of plant care.
What activities need to be carried out?
Many gardeners are concerned about the issue of what measures to care for, so that the harvest was high-quality and abundant.
Care of the culture includes:
- preventive measures to combat pests and diseases.
During the period of planting seedlings and feeding in the room, seedlings are less prone to the negative effects of various parasites. It is necessary to irrigate the soil as it begins to dry out, and the position of the ground must be controlled, because tomatoes do not tolerate overdried earth and stagnant water. From time to time you can loosen the ground, because the layers of soil often come together.
Seedlings can pollinate itself. However, it is possible to accelerate the development of fruits with the support of artificial pollination. To do this, take and gently move the plants. In addition, it is possible to equip a room with a fan, with the help of which the plant is pollinated more quickly and the collection substantially increased. During the period of planting seedlings in the ground pollination usually occurs with the help of violent insect activity, but planting in a greenhouse may require additional pollination measures.
Soil preparation and transplanting
To grow a high-quality crop, observe the landing pattern. It is necessary to plant at a certain time, before planting, it is necessary to prepare the seeds in advance, in addition, the land is being prepared, it is important, moreover, the distance between future bushes. Land preparation is to remove the top layer. So you can get rid of pests and pathogenic bacteria that live in the upper layers of the earth.
After that, the land is treated with potassium permanganate. Such a culture loves fertilized soil (not only in the greenhouse). As a fertilizer it is allowed to take such means as humus, peat, ash. When fertilizing the soil, the seedlings will be excellent fruit. Seeding is done in dug pits.
In the greenhouse it is necessary to plant the seedlings already. Therefore, seeds must be planted first in a container. According to the statements and responses of experienced gardeners, you can plant seeds in the 2nd decade of April. Seeds in order to plant, carefully selected. No need to plant empty seeds or those that show signs of disease. Only healthy material can be planted. In order to grow tomato seedlings, it is not necessary to acquire seeds, they can be harvested from the good fruits of the previous harvest. It is recommended to harden the seeds before you sit down. In open ground, seeds are planted in good weather.. In a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, you can begin planting material at the end of winter.
How to plant seeds?
To grow seedlings from seeds, it is necessary to prepare containers. As them can be all kinds of convenient containers, pots, plastic tanks. Experienced gardeners are advised to use wood boxes. A previously prepared soil substrate is poured into the reservoir. In the ground make small grooves, keeping a gap of at least 5 cm between them. Then seeds are lowered into the soil, keeping distance.
You do not need to carry out abundant watering of plants, you can only slightly wet the paper or spray water. Before the seedlings are planted, it should get used to the new conditions. It is recommended to gradually reduce the temperature at which the plant grows. So, tomatoes will be healthy, they will be able to transfer the probable decrease in temperature in the greenhouse or when planting in open ground.
How to make planting in polycarbonate greenhouses?
You can plant seedlings if the temperature of the earth reaches 15 degrees above zero. When seedlings reach 30 cm in height, they can be transplanted into a greenhouse or open ground. When planting it is necessary to be as careful as possible so as not to spoil the root system of the seedlings. So, the plants will spend their own strength and time in order to renew the damaged elements.
Before planting seedlings in a greenhouse or soil, it is imperative to loosen the soil. Tomatoes do not tolerate stagnant moisture, therefore, watering should not be abundant. Enough watering 5 times a week. The plant should be planted right on top of the plant sprinkled with a layer of earth, keeping the distance between the seedlings - 40 cm. If the seedlings are tall, the distance between the seedlings should be greater - up to 70 cm. If the type of tomatoes is short, the distance between them should be about 30 cm.
Growing tomatoes is not a simple task, including for experienced gardeners, planting tomatoes in the greenhouse requires a competent approach. However, if you follow the rules and recommendations can be purchased excellent results, including the novice.