Recalling cauliflower in appearance, broccoli was recognized for its excellent taste, low calorie content and healthy properties. Nowadays, many gardeners plant broccoli as the main crop on their land. Broccoli not particularly capricious in cultivation and care in the open fieldand at the same time it brings a pretty good harvest, even in the short, cold summer season.
Agrotechnics growing broccoli from seeds
To get rid of growing seedlings and its subsequent transplantation, you can immediately plant the seeds in open ground. Such planting occurs at the end of April in regions with a warm climate, and on sunny days in May in regions with a cold climate. Seeds are planted to a depth of 2-3 cm in a moist soil, then the cabbage will rise much faster. To obtain a crop in regions with a cold climate, for example, in the Urals, it is necessary to buy only early and cold-resistant cabbage varieties. If you plant in such regions a late-harvest cabbage variety, it will not be, as it does not have time to ripen broccoli.
Features of the cultivation of vegetables
The plant is distinguished by its simplicity, therefore, to care for him is quite simple. But despite this, broccoli is very demanding on lighting and moisture.
Features of growing broccoli:
- Where does a vegetable grow better? According to experts, the best soil for broccoli cabbage is a mixture of sod land, sand and peat. It is not recommended to use the old land from the garden, because she can be infected with her black leg and infect the plant.
- Ripening cabbage heads are best kept away from sunlight, otherwise they will get an unpleasant and untidy appearance. They do not really need light due to the minimal sensitivity to high and low temperatures.
- As mentioned above, the vegetable must be well watered. But in all the necessary measure, in case of an overabundance of moisture, there is a risk of infection with a black leg and decomposition of the roots, and in case of lack - the heads of the plant will be tiny and sluggish.
It is not recommended to plant broccoli earlier than 4 years in the same places.
Differences in breeding from other members of the cabbage family
Broccoli cabbage can often be confused to taste with color, but it is more fruitful. After removing the heads in the center, a new crop is formed on the side shoots. Unlike cauliflower, broccoli heads do not need a large shade; it is enough to cover them with a broken sheet (we talked in detail about how broccoli differs from cauliflower). At the time of the formation of the heads is better to reduce the amount of water.
Broccoli also tolerates heat and cold more easily; it can be grown on any land. For the normal development of large-sized heads, you need a minimum amount of nitrogen, a sufficient amount of phosphorus and potassium, as well as good lighting. It grows in a shorter time, unlike other species, heads ripen faster.
Below in the photo you can see how broccoli is growing:
Comparison of seeds of different varieties
There are early ripe varieties of broccoli cabbage, and there are hybrids obtained by merging key varieties. Seeds of an early ripe grade are suitable for landing next year. It is consumed only in raw or canned form. The downside is that these varieties are not very fruitful and not suitable for long-term storage. Broccoli hybrids are not suitable for planting the next crop..
Virtually no pest damage. In comparison with the early ripening, it is much more fruitful. The formation of the fruits occurs earlier, can be stored longer.
How to choose the best?
Growing broccoli from seed begins in the first half of March - it is then that broccoli seeds are sown on seedlings.
It is possible to sow broccoli cabbage seeds in a conveyor way, in several terms every two weeks until mid-June, but since the end of April the broccoli has been planted in a seedless way directly into the ground.
Broccoli has different varieties and cabbage hybrids, but which ones are the best? You can choose broccoli in 2 important ways.:
- Pay attention to the period of ripening varieties. Hybrids come to the stage of readiness for 50 days, the late time of ripening is 140 or more days. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to stop the selection on early ripening varieties for the conditions of a short time of year.
- On the yield. From 1 meter of planting area can be collected from 1 to 4 kg of fruit, in some cases even 7 kg, depending on the quality and characteristics of varieties.
When to plant and what does it depend on?
- If you are counting on harvesting in June, then it is more fruitful to start planting in the second half of March or in the first days of April.
- If the seedling was carried out in March, then it is first transplanted into a greenhouse, and then to the beds.
- April seedlings are sent immediately to the open ground.
It should be noted that the time for planting broccoli is chosen near the evening, on an overcast day.
This method is simple in that you just need to seed the seeds. First, the largest ones are selected. Approximately 35 - 40 days before landing in the open ground. Usually they are seated in boxes with soil or in a greenhouse, to a depth of about 1 cm and with a distance between the holes of 2.5 cm.
Many gardeners sprinkle ashes, lime or dolomite flour on the selected land before sowing in order to provide the necessary microelements. And then dig it up. Use humus and mineral fertilizers. Before planting, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with compost with the calculation of 1 bucket per 1 square meter. m. The temperature of the medium in which the seeds will develop must be equal to 20 degrees. Then the temperature can be reduced to 15 degrees, stably maintaining it before disembarking.
At a temperature of more than 10 degrees, the first shoots appear after 3-4 days. After 1.5-2 weeks, you can already see 3-4 leaves. During this period, they are seated in separate containers, or directly in the greenhouse, if the temperature condition allows this. The depth of the holes should be about 25 cm, and the distance between the landings should be at least 40 cm.
One way to transplant seedlings:
- To begin, prepare a bed (you must dig up the bed, then fertilize with humus, 30-40 g per bush),
- in a few weeks to conduct liming in order to reduce the acidity of the soil,
- add compost (10 l / m²) to maintain a cool temperature,
- 10.15 cm plants can begin to replant in the garden,
- pour over
- dig holes 8 cm deep (soil should reach leaf level),
- it is worth a little to pinch off the main root in order to subsequently achieve a good root system,
- at the end pour water well.
Neutral and slightly alkaline soil is excellent. As well as the soil for sowing can be prepared as follows: mix sand with turf and peat, having laid limestone on the bottom. To disinfect the soil need to perform the following steps:
- warm up the ground a couple of weeks before sowing
- 24 hours before sowing for the prevention of the black leg, pour the soil with manganese liquid.
Planting directly into the soil
Already in May, under the condition of warm weather, broccoli seeds can be planted by non-seedlings. In the same way, the land is processed and prepared. Should be planted in wet and fertilized soil. After the appearance of 2-3 leaves need to weed the shoots, the distance between the bushes should remain about 40 cm.
How to care for crops?
In the care of broccoli in the first place includes watering plants, every day or every other day. After irrigation procedures it is necessary to loosen the soil. You can use a spray to moisten the environment.. Urea can be used as the first top dressing; for this, 2 tablespoons are added to 1 bucket, about 15 bushes.
Further care of the plant:
- inspection of plants (removal of bad leaves, etc.),
- processing chemicals (for the prevention of diseases and pests),
- loosening the soil
- watering as drying,
- extracting affected plants
- airing greenhouses.
After 3 months, when the buds have fully matured, but have not yet opened, they cut off the central head with a part of the main stem, the length of which should be 15-20 cm.
Due to the heat, if the broccoli heads do not darken, they quickly open. Therefore, it is recommended to harvest every 2-3 days, and in the period of bad weather - every 7-10 days.
The approaching harvest can be determined by decrepit inflorescences that bloom the very next day. Early collection is suitable for storage for a relatively short time (several days), while autumn is long. Do not forget that some varieties of broccoli ripen and side shoots. Faster, they begin to form after cutting the main ones.
Therefore, they can continue to care for and get large heads. When they grow up - they are also cut off.
Diseases and pests
- non-observance of planting dates (early disembarkation),
- untimely harvest,
- insufficient watering or lack thereof.
- high humidity, that is, excessive watering of plants,
- other aspects of the weather that carry increased humidity.
- Kila - a disease that contributes to the fungus. If the plant is not removed, the infection with the fungus will continue to grow.
- Black leg - as mentioned in this article, develops due to high humidity and is also a fungal disease. Subsequently, the plant dies.
- Alternaria A sign of this next disease caused by the fungus - black spots. It originates in the aftermath of heavy rains and warm weather.
- Mealy dew. It may occur in the autumn, on the leaves appears a raid in the form of flour and star spots. The reason for this may be - fog and lack of precipitation in hot weather.
- Turnip mosaic is a viral disease that spreads the pest of aphids. Can be determined by plant growth retardation and mosaic stains.
- Mucous bacteriosis. The cause of this disease is bacteria that simply kill the plant. Signs - leaf rotting, softening stump.
- Vascular bacteriosis is the same bacterial disease. It affects all vessels. Occurs due to the following factors: moisture, persistent precipitation and pests. As a result, the vegetable dies.
- Belle is a fungal disease that damages the leaves and the aerial part. Similarly, with black ring spot.
- Fomoz. The disease manifests itself if the seed has already been infected. Light spots and black specks seize stems, roots, as well as cotyledon leaves.
In detail about the beneficial properties of broccoli, as well as contraindications to its use, read here, and from this article you will learn how this vegetable can be cooked.
Like all other vegetables and fruits, broccoli cabbage also requires timely care, even though it is particularly capricious. So, if you meet all the requirements of cultivation and care, you can have your mini factory of broccoli cabbage on hand.
Broccoli: Description and Useful Properties
Asparagus Cabbage (broccoli) - an annual plant, a subspecies of garden cabbage. The maximum height reaches 0.8 m. Maturation occurs buds. After removal of the head (upper) part of the central stem, intensive formation of lateral shoots begins, which allows to increase the time of cultivation and to obtain a higher yield.
The main varieties are as follows:
- Calabrian (classical),
In general, the culture has about 100 varieties of broccoli, about 20 of them are grown in Russia.
- It helps to improve the work of the heart,
- is a powerful natural antibiotic
- removes alcohol and tobacco toxins,
- has antitumor and anti-sclerotic effect,
- helps to cleanse the blood vessels
- removes salt deposits
- Broccoli juice is used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, as it promotes its healing.
The composition of broccoli includes the following useful material:
- Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, PP,
- trace elements: iodine, copper, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron,
- folic acid, fiber, high-quality protein and other elements necessary for the body.
Where to plant broccoli?
When choosing a place for planting cabbage should follow the following rules:
- The soil should be loose, neutral or with a low level of alkalization.
- The site is better to have on the sunny side, where the lighting will be present for at least 6 hours / day, the landing site should be well ventilated.
- Broccoli grows well after cereals, potatoes, cucumbers.
- Such crops as radish, tomatoes, cabbage, and radish cannot be used as precursors. In such a soil can be returned only after 4 years.
- Acid soils can be neutralized with chalk or lime.
- Do not place other types of cabbage next to broccoli.
Broccoli is grown in one place for one season!
The main factors that determine the choice of seed, are the desired time of harvest and growing conditions. For open ground and greenhouses are equally suitable varieties and hybrids like Caesar, Vitamin, Lucky F1, Continental, Calabrese and others.
In terms of ripening broccoli is divided into the following groups:
- Early ripe varieties. Comanche, curly head, etc. ripen in 70-90 days.
- Mid-season. Green Favorit F1, Gnome. Maturation occurs in 90-100 days.
- Late. Marathon F1. The ripening period is more than 100 days.
In different regions, the same variety may have a different classification. By type of factory processing are the following broccoli categories:
- Ordinary, that is, not processed.
- Instructed - multi-colored. Were processed by polymers that stimulate germination and give a protective shell.
- Framed Packed in a peat-mineral mixture that provides protection, rounds the seed and increases its size. Such seeds are quite economical, they do not require thinning after germination.
When buying seed, pay attention to the packaging, where the following data should be indicated:
- Type of seed treatment, their number and time of collection,
- manufacturer information,
- for Russian seeds - a link to GOST, for import - the original characteristics.
Seed preparation for growing broccoli in open field
In order to avoid possible problems during planting and further care for broccoli in the open field, seeds or seedlings should be prepared in advance.
Prepared seeds are less susceptible to disease, germinate more actively and show a high yield. Mandatory event is pre-soaking, after which the material is thoroughly washed and dried. For processing, you can use the following solutions:
- Immunociphate Solution. Seeds are soaked for 3-12 hours. Dosage - 1 tablet / 100 ml. water.
- The solution of boric acid: 0,5gr. / 1 l. - for 8 hours.
- Solution of manganese: 1 gr. / 1 l. - for 8 hours.
- Aloe juice - for a day.
- Solution Epina - 2 drops / 100 ml - for 18 hours.
Instructed and drafted seeds are sown dry in moist soil.
Although broccoli and refers to cold-resistant crops, the cultivation of this type of cabbage in the open field is not suitable for all regions. The optimal time for sowing is the end of May. By this time, the soil should already be sufficiently heated to a temperature of +20 degrees. Before landing The following fertilizer must be applied to the soil:
Before sowing the seeds are pre-training, which is to conduct following manipulations:
- The seed is placed in warm (up to +50 degrees) water for 15 minutes.
- Now they need to be immersed in cold water for just a minute.
- At night, the seeds are placed in a stimulating solution, and then washed thoroughly.
- Planting material is placed in the refrigerator, where it is located day.
- To dry
How to grow broccoli in the garden?
Broccoli can be grown in the country, sowing seeds directly in open ground. Such plants will be stronger and more cold-resistant - they are able to withstand temperatures as low as -7 degrees. For better preservation, seedlings are covered with foil or non-woven material. Sprouting cabbage must be kept under cover until strengthened.
Sowing in open ground is produced in May and early June. To do this, make a shallow hole size of about 50 * 50 cm, the seeds are sunk into the ground to a depth of 1.5 cm and well watered. The first shoots will appear a week later. With this method, the harvest can be obtained by August-September.
How to grow broccoli in the cottage rassadny way?
In addition to direct sowing of seeds in open ground, broccoli can also be grown in a seedling way. In this case, preliminary preparation of the seed by the above method is also carried out.
Boxes filled with soil (peat, turfy ground, sand) and produce sowing. The first shoots will appear on the 3-4th day, and after 40 days the seedlings will be ready for planting on a permanent place according to the scheme 20 * 50 cm.
Broccoli seedling soil
Субстрат для рассады можно приобрести в специализированном магазине либо приготовить самостоятельно. Для этого необходимо смешать золу, перегной, дерновую землю и песок. Грунт должен быть рыхлым и лёгким, и что немаловажно - хорошо дренированным, так как застой влаги может спровоцировать появление чёрной ножки. При этом следует учитывать, что капуста брокколи обожает воду.
It is better to plant seedlings in the evening or in cloudy weather, in the absence of solar activity. The holes are deep because the main part of the stem must necessarily be below the level of the ridge. Planting depth is about 1 cm. As plants grow, soil is poured into the pits before leveling the well to the level of the ridge.
Caring for broccoli in the garden includes activities such as watering, weeding, fertilizing, pest control. Since cabbage is a moisture-loving crop, it should be watered at least once / 2 days. In the dry season, the frequency of watering should be increased to two times / day. The soil at a depth of 15 cm. Must be constantly kept wet. Watering plants preferably in the evening, and after each watering should loosen the soil, thus avoiding the decay of the root system.
Broccoli cabbage responds well to fertilization. Fertilizing is recommended even if the soil is already well fertilized. After the seedlings in the garden take root, the plant is fed with organic fertilizers: a solution of bird droppings, prepared in proportion 1:20 or cow dung - 1:10.
After 2 weeks, the second feeding is carried out. The third is performed with the beginning of the formation of inflorescences. For her, you can prepare such a composition of liquid fertilizer:
- Water - 10 liters,
- superphosphate - 40 gr,
- ammonium nitrate - 20 gr,
- potassium sulfate - 10 g.
These proportions are designed for processing 10 bushes.
After removal of the apical part, lateral shoots with inflorescences form on the plant, which contributes to a significant increase in yield. To accelerate their growth using the following composition:
- Water - 10 liters,
- ammonium nitrate - 10 gr,
- superphosphate - 20 gr,
- potassium sulfate - 30 gr.
As an additional food, you can use nettle tincture and wood ash.
Features care for broccoli cabbage in the garden
There are a few simple rules for caring for a plant, compliance with which will allow you to get a more delicious and rich harvest.
- In hot weather, plants should be more often sprayed with water. You also need to monitor the humidity of the air, which should be at least 80% and the soil - 10% less.
- Maintain the optimum temperature for growing in a greenhouse - about +20 degrees.
- Conduct mandatory watering 1 time / 2 days, followed by loosening the soil.
- Ripening broccoli inflorescences need to pritenyat, in order to prevent their grinding.
- Mulch the soil around the plant.
- Do not plant broccoli next to the cruciferous.
In appearance, broccoli cabbage strongly resembles cauliflower, however, its inflorescences are not cream-colored, but green. In the first year, a broccoli stalk grows by 70-80 cm and numerous succulent-type flower stalks form on its tip. These peduncles crowned dense clusters of green buds, which are arranged in a loose head of medium size. That is exactly the head and eat, cutting off it before the flowers are formed. If you tighten with the cleaning of broccoli and the buds turn yellow, then it will be almost impossible to eat such cabbage.
Since after cutting the broccoli head from the lateral buds, new inflorescences begin to form, the cabbage can yield several months.
Experts have noted an increase in the demand for broccoli cabbage literally all over the world; if we take the averaged figures for different countries, by the level of consumption of broccoli only a fraction of a percent is inferior to traditional cabbage.
In this article, we will tell you how to grow broccoli through seedlings, how to properly care for it, how to harvest and which varieties to pay attention to.
Broccoli, or Asparagus cabbage. © Farhan Ahsan
When to start sowing broccoli seeds?
Usually, broccoli seeds are sown on seedlings at the very beginning of March and continue until the middle of the month. As for varieties, when selecting them, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of your region, for example, in the northern regions, where summer is short and rather cool, should not be considered for planting varieties with late ripening, then you need to focus on early and middle early varieties.
To avoid surprises in the future, try to buy broccoli seeds only in specialized seed shops and be sure to take the freshest of them.
How to prepare broccoli seeds?
After the purchase, sort the seed, select the largest, and soak them in water heated to 50 degrees for about a quarter of an hour. Next, the seeds of broccoli cabbage should be immersed in cold water with a temperature of about 10 degrees, thereby you “wake up” them.
It remains to soak the seeds of broccoli in a solution of any growth stimulant such as Heteroauxin, IMC, and others, in order to accelerate their germination. You can soak broccoli seeds in a growth stimulant solution for 7–8 hours, then rinse in running water, put it in the refrigerator door for a day, and then dry to a flowability on a dry napkin.
Sowing Broccoli Seeds
You can sow seeds in any containers with a side height of about 25 cm. A layer of drainage should be laid on the bottom of the dish - claydite, pebbles, centimeter thick, and then filled with nutrient soil (a mixture of sod earth, river sand, wood ash and humus in equal fractions) . The soil must be loose, waterproof and breathable. After the tanks are filled with soil, it is necessary to spray it with a spray bottle, better with rainwater, and then make grooves a little more than a centimeter deep with a distance of three centimeters between them. When the grooves are ready, you can sow the seeds of broccoli, and then sprinkle them with soil, slightly thickening it.
Further, it is important to monitor the temperature in the room where broccoli sprouts are grown. The temperature before germination should be at the level of 19-20 degrees, immediately after the appearance of sprouts on the soil surface, the temperature should be lowered to 9-11 degrees for about 7-8 days, and then the temperature should be adjusted depending on the time of day. So, in the afternoon, in sunny weather, it should be maintained at a level of 15-17 degrees, and in cloudy conditions, 12-13 degrees. At night, regardless of the weather outside the window, the room temperature should be 8-10 degrees Celsius.
Humidity in the room should be maintained at 80-85%, the soil should also be kept moist, but not overflowing the ground beyond measure, otherwise a black leg may appear that will destroy the seedlings.
Broccoli seedling pick
A pick of broccoli cabbage seedlings is usually carried out when the seedling reaches 14-15 days old. Peaty pots are the most convenient to use as picking tanks, no further transplantation is needed, they dissolve in the soil and serve as additional food for seedlings at the initial stage. Dive broccoli seedlings need to carefully, trying not to damage the roots. Pre-cups should be filled with the same mixture that you prepared for sowing, pour it out of the spray bottle, make indentations. Next, with a small stick, for example from ice cream, you need to carefully select the seedlings from the box, place the cups in the holes, compact the soil and re-sprinkle from the spray.
Before broccoli seedlings grow stronger, it should be protected from direct sunlight, shading. At the same time you need to raise the temperature in the room, bringing it to 20-22 degrees.
After two or three days, when broccoli seedlings take root, you can feed them by adding a solution of nitroammofoski. For this, a tablespoon of complex fertilizer needs to be dissolved in a bucket of water, 50 g of solution can be poured onto each cup. After feeding, you need to lower the temperature and regulate it depending on the time of day. During the day it is necessary to maintain the temperature at 16-18 degrees, and at night to lower to 8-10 degrees.
Approximately two weeks before planting the seedlings of broccoli cabbage can begin to harden, bringing to the balcony or loggia first for 2-3 hours, a couple of days, then 8-10 hours, a couple of days, then try to put the seedlings early in the morning and clean up late in the evening and finally, 2-3 days before disembarking, leave the seedlings for the night.
Broccoli seedling. © Catherine
When to plant broccoli seedlings in the ground?
Usually the age of broccoli seedlings before planting in open ground is 40-50 days, not more. At this point, the seedlings should have five or six true leaves, which is a signal that it is time to plant them.
The calendar period usually falls in the middle and second half of May; however, if it is cold and the soil is not sufficiently heated during this period, the broccoli cabbage seedlings can be shifted.
When planting broccoli seedlings, it is imperative to choose the most open and well-lit area, it’s great if it is protected from the north by cold wind. Try to choose the garden where you used to grow green manure crops, carrots, onions, any cereals, legumes and potatoes - these are the best predecessors. Broods are considered to be bad predecessors for broccoli: red beet, radish, tomatoes, radishes and turnips, if they grew in the area earlier, then broccoli can be planted at this place only after four seasons.
The optimal soil for broccoli cabbage is considered to be neutral or slightly alkaline soil, with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5. Preparation of soil for planting seedlings should begin in the fall, but it can be done in the spring, at least a week before planting. Under the digging of the soil on a full bayonet of a shovel, which must be combined with the maximum removal of weeds, it is necessary to introduce well-rotted manure or compost in an amount of three kilograms per square meter. In that case, if the soil is acidic, add lime - 200 g per square meter.
Broccoli seedlings planted in the ground. © Mark
How to plant broccoli seedlings in open ground?
It is advisable to plant broccoli seedlings in the soil early in the morning and preferably in cloudy weather. The optimal planting pattern is 35 to 50-55 cm. Planting is carried out in the wells, which must be dug a day or two before planting the seedlings, and watered before planting (0.5 l). In addition to water, add 6-7 g of nitroammofoski to the wells, carefully mixing the fertilizer with moist soil, then put the seedlings in the hole in the peat container or with the bare root system, sprinkle with soil, compact it and pour it again (250-300 g on the plant). Next, it is important to monitor the weather: if frost is expected, then the seedlings should be covered using glass jars or plastic bottles cut in half. Be aware that even with two degrees of frost, broccoli sprouts can die.
Speaking of watering: broccoli is usually watered once every 6-7 days, however, if drought costs and the temperature is around 24-26 degrees or more, then watering can be done more often. When watering, try to moisten the soil, and not to turn it into a swamp. Do not forget about spraying, sometimes they are even more useful than watering, for example, in regions with dense, clayey soil.
Broccoli, or Asparagus cabbage. © allison mcd
Top dressing broccoli
Naturally, if your plans include getting a full crop, then it is necessary to provide additional feeding. Feed broccoli cabbage can be more often. The first time (apart from feeding the seedlings and fertilizing in the hole when planting) broccoli can be fed 12-14 days after planting in open ground. Organic fertilizers are more important for plants at this time. You can feed broccoli with a solution of mullein, you need about 250 g of mullein per bucket of water. To enhance nutritional value, a teaspoon of any nitrogenous fertilizer, such as urea, can be added to the solution. If there is no mullein, then you can use chicken manure, but it must be dissolved in a ratio of 1 to 20. The consumption rate of any of these solutions is about a liter per square meter.
The following broccoli feeding can be done 18-20 days after the first one. This time nitrogen fertilizers are more important. Use preferably ammonium nitrate in the amount of a matchbox per bucket of water. The consumption rate is the same - liter per square meter of soil.
The third dressing can be done closer to the end of the summer period, at this time potash and phosphate fertilizers are most important for broccoli cabbage. It is necessary to dilute 30-35 g of superphosphate and 9-11 g of potassium sulfate in a bucket of water and irrigate the soil, consuming 1.5 liters per square meter.
After the first wave of harvesting begins and the central head is removed, it is necessary to feed broccoli again to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots. To do this, in a bucket of water, you need to dissolve a tablespoon of nitroammofoski and pour a liter of solution under each bush.
A week after this feeding, you can make 150-200 g of wood ash for plants, this is a good potash fertilizer. Ashes for greater efficiency need to be scattered on pre-loosened and watered soil.
How to harvest broccoli?
We have already slightly touched the cleaning: you need to know that you should clean the broccoli cabbage before disclosing its flowers. This moment is easy to miss, so you need to watch the cabbage more closely. There are a number of signs by which it can be understood that cabbage is ready to be harvested, for example, head size: ready for cleaning, they have a diameter of about 12-14 cm. Further - coloring: The broccoli head, ready to harvest, is usually colored dark green, and the buds must be closed. At the beginning of the yellowing of the buds, the harvest should be carried out immediately, otherwise it will be late, and the entire harvest will simply disappear, that is, it will not be tasty and with a reduced nutritional value.
Harvesting broccoli must be done in the morning when it is in turgor. In this case, it is desirable not to tear off the heads, namely, to cut off, using for this purpose a sharp and clean knife.
Most often, from the moment of emergence of shoots on the soil surface until the first harvest, 60-65 days pass, usually broccoli harvest continues until mid-September. The entire harvest should be collected before frost.
Broccoli, or Asparagus cabbage. © Matt Green
Broccoli Varieties of Cabbage
In total, the State Register currently has 37 varieties of broccoli cabbage. Of early varieties Broccoli should pay attention to cultivars: Venus, Vyrus, Green Magic and Corato, from medium early Broccoli varieties have proven themselves well: Macho, Moscow souvenir, Naxos and Fiesta, from the category mid-season Broccoli varieties can be distinguished: Batavia, Heraklion, Dwarf and Curly Head, from middle late The best are: Ironman, Lucky, Monterey and Orantes, well, and finally, from the later ripening stand out: Agassi, Belstar, Beaumont and Quint.
The subject is the most unpretentious of all cabbages and, together with chard, is probably the richest and most elegant decoration of the vegetable garden. And if you add amaranth to them)) All these mixborders, flowerbeds and other alpine slides are a faded resemblance next to this tumult of life energy, its strength, its variety of shapes and colors))
The unpretentiousness of broccoli lies in the fact that all these dances with tambourines, in the form of a shock over the seeds and seedlings, all these hardening, weeding and other vanity - wasted time and effort. And yes - with our sun is not particularly worried. Seedlings perfectly stays a week before planting in the greenhouse, without any problems.
In the adult state, weeds are absolutely indifferent to her. They just will not be on the bed. In addition to cabbage, on the garden, there will be nothing at all)) Pests? No, this is not about her) Of course, in the case of epiphytotic raids, some problems are possible, but were not particularly noted. Powdering with ashes and as prophylaxis from pests, and as top dressing is enough. Frequency - at the discretion of the gardener. There are no special ills either. Naturally, if you had a keel of cabbage in the garden, then any kind of cabbage is contraindicated in your garden. Better for good. But here, as the white-haired loves to cheer on - there is no such thing.
Watering - no problem. As soon as the cabbage got out of the seedling state, it is better to make a small indentation in the middle of the bed, along the entire length - throw the hose and forget. By the way, it tolerates heat very well. In heat it grows quickly and leaves quickly closes the ground. Under them is always wet and cool. Ideal conditions for slugs, but they have never been noticed on it. Next pekinku homyachat, already behind the ears pops))), and in the broccoli - not one.
What does broccoli need? She needs a place. Lots of space. This is one of the main growing conditions. Burdock nervously smokes aside from the size of broccoli. If there is a living creature on the plot - the leaves are excellent food. The leaves, by the way, are good and on the table in the form of cabbage rolls, borsch and other vegetable stews.
The second is warm. Good, real warm. No, she is not a sissy and the adult calmly endures the cold, maybe even up to frost. Heat is needed for tying heads. Good big heads. Actually, the first head - it is the largest. The rest - really - shoots. Cute - but small. Принципиально – растение можно вообще убирать, после среза первой головки – остальные ( особенно если лето жаркое), быстрее чем вы их найдете будут зацветать. И вот это самое главное – ценности в желтеющих головках – никакой. Совсем никакой. Если только вы их не на семена разводите).
Кроме этого – растение это очень сильное, мощное, поэтому почву она истощает очень сильно, и вот чтобы это дело минимизировать – стоит её с грядки убирать, после среза головки.
И, наконец, третье и самое важное условие – почва. All these gram-fertilizers and a mullein spatula are nothing.
Must be a powerful fertile, breathable and moisture-absorbing surface layer. And no signs of acidification of the soil! If you have wheat grass and sow thistles in the garden, and the earth is powdery sand or thick clay - broccoli is not for you. Do not torture yourself and the plant. You can’t help with any dressings.
The article is useful but I am very interested in something else. I have a greenhouse conditions ideal and light and warm and watering drip and cabbage does not knit their blossoms. Work up to 2 meters leaves like palm trees. And in 2-3 days flowers already are shorter than cabbage and the color does not behave as well. what will advise. live on Kuban
Good afternoon, Olga! The cause of this phenomenon may be heat (above 25 C) or low temperatures (below 18 C) during the laying of the head. You probably have heat!)) And the fact that the leaves grow huge - an excess of food. Broccoli needs nitrogen, but more in the early stages, and during the formation of the head more in phosphorus and potassium. For this reason, it is recommended during the period of tying the feeding head with potassium humate, once every two weeks to ten days.
But flowering heads are also suitable for food, so that you are not in a hurry to throw them away.
Most likely too warm. And you just need to choose a grade for these conditions.
Growing from seedlings
Growing broccoli in open ground from seedlings is the most convenient and common method that allows you to anticipate the amount of the crop and save as many plants as possible.
Seed preparation for growing seedlings begins in early spring. To get good and high-quality seedlings, seeds are sorted, selecting only large and not damaged specimens. They are sown in boxes, which are filled with a neutral or weakly alkaline substrate.
The soil for sowing seeds should be loose and permeable, so drainage material is laid on the bottom of the boxes.
Seeds are placed in the ground at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other in shallow grooves. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the air temperature in the room where the seedlings are grown should not be lower than + 20ºС; after the seedlings emerge, it can be reduced to + 10ºС.
Broccoli seedlings develop rapidly, so after two weeks they need to dive. It is best to pick a small peat pots, which with the onset of heat, along with young plants can be planted in the ground.
Usually broccoli seedlings are planted on the garden no earlier than one month after sowing the seeds, when cabbage has 5-6 leaves. Planting broccoli in the ground in the Moscow region, as well as in other regions with a cold climate, is made not earlier than May and only in the soil well warmed by the sun.
The technique of growing broccoli from seed
In order not to bother with boxes and seedlings, you can grow broccoli on a bed of seeds. As a rule, seeds are planted in the ground to a depth of 2-3 cm in late April. For the first shoots of broccoli to appear as quickly as possible, the soil must be moist when planting seeds.
Growing broccoli in the open field in the Urals, as well as in other regions with cool and short summers, should be made only with the help of cold-resistant and early cabbage varieties. The use of late-ripening varieties in these regions will be inappropriate, since the cabbage does not have time to ripen. To plant broccoli seeds in open ground in cold areas can be no earlier than May.
Features care for broccoli
Growing and caring for broccoli in the open field does not practically differ from the cultivation of other varieties of cabbage and will be the strength of each summer resident. Broccoli cabbage is one of unpretentious plants. However, for the plant to be pleased with its abundant harvest, the soil in the garden with broccoli needs to be loosened regularly, and the cabbage itself should be fertilized and watered.
Watering broccoli should be done at least 1 time per week. In order for the cabbage to grow juicy and big, it is necessary to water not only the roots of the plant, but also abundantly spray its leaves.
To broccoli pleased with a generous harvest, it must be fed three times a season. The first time - 2 weeks after planting seedlings on the garden bed. In this case, organic fertilizers (for example, chicken manure or mullein) are used as top dressing.
The following dressing is done with the help of nitrate several weeks after the first one. The third fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is carried out in the period of the appearance of the first inflorescences.
Pests and diseases
Growing and caring for broccoli in the open field is sometimes complicated by the pests and diseases that this variety of cabbage can undergo. The main pests of broccoli can be:
Seedlings, leaves and inflorescences can affect diseases such as the keel, black leg, rot, mosaic, and peronosporosis.
To combat pests using special chemicals. In the case of diseases of broccoli, diseased specimens are removed from the beds, and healthy inflorescences are treated with special solutions.
Before you start planting and cultivation of cabbage in the open field, you need to get seeds. The market offers a huge selection of varieties: from early to late, from ordinary to hybrid.
Hybrid varieties ripen faster, less affected by pests, but at the same time, if you like the variety, it will not be possible to collect seeds from it - this is perhaps the main drawback.
Among ordinary seeds, there are early-ripening seeds too, but their maturation period will be slightly longer than that of hybrids. Depending on the variety, ordinary seeds also have good resistance to diseases and pests and have a very good and rich taste. And with ripe broccoli you can collect seeds for planting next year.
If we talk about maturity, they are as follows:
- Early - 60 - 100 days
- Average - 100-130 days
- Late - 135-150 days
And finally, when choosing seeds, pay attention to the shelf life, ideally, it is better that they are no older than 1 year, then the germination rate will be higher.
Before growing broccoli in his country house or garden, it is necessary to grow seedlings. Make it easy and no problems even for a beginner.
As a container for future seedlings, you can take several pots, not very deep, a long pot, 50-60 cm or a wooden box with a size of 40x30 or 50x30 cm. there will not be a lot of seeds in the pots, and it will be inconvenient to loosen the ground. You can also consider special cells for seedlings, which are also very convenient.
Prepared soil mixture can be purchased at any flower shop or you can make it yourself. For this you need:
All ingredients must be mixed in equal proportions, the only thing is that you can add a little more land and compost. The resulting mixture must be disinfected. You can do it like this:
Pour an even layer of prepared soil on a baking sheet, and then place it in an oven preheated to 120-140 degrees for 20 minutes.
For better germination, seeds need to be prepared before planting. To do this, you can use the old proven method.
The seeds are wrapped in a cloth and placed in a thermos with hot (55-60 degrees) water for 20-25 minutes. Then, after the time has expired, the bundle is taken out and put in a light solution of potassium permanganate, for 30 minutes, not more. In order to germinate the seeds faster, you can add a teaspoon of ash to the manganese solution.
After potassium permanganate, the seeds should be washed under running water and wrapped in a slightly damp cloth. After that, remove them on any window sill until such time as they do not hatch.
After everything is ready, you can proceed to disembark. It will be very useful if the day before sowing, pour the soil in a box with a solution of manganese.
Next, you need to cut the grooves. Their depth should be no more than 2 cm, and the distance between them is 3-3.5 cm. Then evenly distribute the seeds in all rows and sprinkle them with earth. Clean the box on any south or southeast window sill.
To get good and healthy seedlings, you need to provide proper care. Watch the temperature in the room, it should be 18-20 degrees. Watering do every 2-3 days, but do not allow waterlogging.
After the second leaf appears on the bores, you can perform the first feeding, for example, with nitre or superphosphate. Well, periodically, once every 7-10 days, loosen the soil a little.
In general, this is all you need to get good broccoli seedlings. Cultivation in the open field is approximately similar to the process of growing seedlings, although there are some moments, but more on that below.
Transplantation in open ground
It is necessary to transplant the grown seedlings in open ground in late May or early June. Before you do this, you need to pre-select and prepare the site for planting. The place should be well lit, and the ground fertilized and carefully dug. Preparation is best done in the fall, because during the winter, manure will perepret well under the snow, and earthy clumps will crumble.
The next step is the hole. They should be small in diameter and up to 10 cm in depth, and the distance between them is 40-50 cm.
Now you can proceed to landing. To make it easier for seedlings to get out of the box, carefully pour it half an hour or an hour before the start.
Next, carefully with the ground, remove one seedling one by one and place them in the prepared holes, then sprinkle it on top of the ground. When finished with planting, be sure to perform the first watering. Additionally, the bed can be mulched - it will save you from weeds and reduce the number of future waterings.
Growing without seedlings
I would like to say a few words about how to grow broccoli in the country or garden, but without seedlings. In general, there is nothing complicated here, but instead of a box with the ground, a prepared and fertilized bed is used.
Seeds are prepared in the same way as for seedlings, after which they are planted in holes. Well, then everything is standard - watering, care, feeding.
The only thing in order to grow broccoli in a seedless way, the landing dates must be transferred to the month of April, but there may be one problem - not enough heated land. Therefore, immediately after planting, the bed should be mulched and covered with film so that all the heat remains inside. As soon as 2-3 leaves appear on young sprouts, the film can be removed.
Broccoli Cabbage Features
This culture is known, first of all, for its anti-cancer and dietary properties, in addition, it stimulates the formation of blood. Broccoli is especially useful for those who suffer from diabetes or heart disease, and because of the large amount of fiber and folic acid, cabbage is also recommended for pregnant women.
Broccoli - useful properties
Nutritional value and chemical composition
Note! It is believed that even a “lazy” summer resident is able to grow broccoli. The culture is easy to maintain, as you will see for yourself by reading the instructions and recommendations given in the article. But first, we advise you to find out what the plant is.
Broccoli - this culture of the cruciferous family, the stems of which can reach 0,8-0,9 m in height. In the upper part of the stems a lot of buds are formed - they are edible. Externally, the culture resembles a cauliflower, but it differs favorably from it in that it forms several heads at once.
Growing broccoli in the garden
Broccoli cabbage can be of two types, consider them.
- Asparagus. It has a large number of heads on thin stems. Edible in this case are just the stems that are very similar to asparagus (hence the name). Inflorescences can have both green and purple color.
- Calabrian. A rather large heading, located on a massive stem. Very similar to cauliflower, that's just green buds. Although there are varieties with white inflorescences.
Types of broccoli
The described culture is considered one of the most unpretentious members of the family. It should not be shaded because she loves the light. Moreover, due to shading, too small heads may form. The acidity of the soil should be from 6.7 to 7.4 pH. Potatoes, onions, pumpkins, carrots, cucumbers, legumes, and grains may serve as the plant's predecessor.
Express analysis of soil acidity
Note! If cabbage grew on the plot, then over the next four years other plants need to be grown there.
The process of growing broccoli, as already noted, is extremely simple. Culture can be grown even on the windowsill, although this is not the case now. Today you will learn how to grow broccoli in the garden.
Stage one. Seed preparation
Sift dried seeds, leaving only the largest of them for planting. The procedure for seed treatment consists of several stages, let's get acquainted with them.
Preparing seeds for planting
Step 1. First, immerse the seeds in water, the temperature of which is about 50 degrees, for 20 minutes, after which - in the cold, but for a minute.
Step 2. Immerse the seeds in solutions that contain beneficial trace elements. In parallel, this will provide additional protection against various infections. First of all, prepare a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g) and boric acid (0.5 g) by mixing the components with 1 liter of water. Then insist the seeds in the resulting tool for 12 hours.
Preparing a solution for soaking seeds
After that, immerse them in another solution prepared in advance (1 tablespoon of wood ash dissolve in 1 liter of water, then leave for 48 hours), and leave for another five to six hours.
Step 3. Rinse with clean water.
Step 4. Put in the fridge for 24 hours.
Step 5. Spread the seeds on a piece of clean cloth to dry slightly. Do not overdry!
Step 6. Everything, now you can plant seeds.
This can be started in March-April. As for the March seedlings, it needs picking and planting in the greenhouse, and then into open soil. April, you can immediately plant in the garden, without resorting to a greenhouse.
To obtain a crop throughout the season, seeds for seedlings should be sown in two or three periods, the interval between which should be 12-15 days. Thanks to this, you will be able to harvest until autumn. In addition, in May, the seeds can be planted seedlessly, that is, in open soil, but under the condition of warm weather.
In the photo, the process of planting seedlings in the ground
Stage Two. Seedling
Seedlings can be grown in a greenhouse or small boxes. For this, drawers with a height of 25 cm and dimensions of 30x50 cm are suitable.
Wooden seedling box
Prepare the soil for the seedlings as follows: mix the sand with the turf and peat in equal proportions, and pour the mixture obtained into the boxes, after placing the drainage there.
The best soil for seedlings
It is also recommended to add a little wood ash to the soil to neutralize the acidity and provide all the necessary trace elements.
In the photo ash to add to the ground
24 hours before sowing, pour the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate to avoid the development of a disease called “black leg”. But in the future, it is better not to use potassium permanganate - because of it, the soil acidity will increase, so that broccoli will not “like” the cabbage.
Even for seedlings can use small pots.
Seedlings in a honeycomb box
If you still use boxes, then make for planting seeds furrow 1-1.5 cm deep in increments of about 3 cm. The distance between plants within one furrow should be at least 2.5 cm. After planting, maintain a temperature of 20 degrees After the emergence of shoots, reduce it to 15 degrees and maintain at this level until the transplant. Seedlings water moderately, once every two days. It is not necessary to re-moisten the soil, since this, again, will lead to the development of the “black leg”, while the lack of moisture is dangerous for a bad crop.
Note! If the seedlings grow poorly, you can feed it with a solution of potassium chloride, superphosphate, and also saltpeter (20 g each for a bucket of water). It is important that the feeding is performed only after the second sheet is formed.
Feeding is done after the formation of the second sheet
Stage Three. Dive
A dive, as well as a transplant, the described culture suffers poorly. Nevertheless, many gardeners recommend still diving broccoli and, if possible, plant it in the soil along with a lump of earth. In the greenhouse, diving can be carried out 14 days after germination. But since the crop growth slows down after the picking, the procedure can be performed immediately before transplanting.
Dive broccoli seedlings
Dive broccoli need in two cases:
- if the seedlings are too thick,
- if the seedlings can already be transplanted, but the air temperature is less than 15 degrees (with prolonged cooling, arrows may form).
When diving, the stems descend on the cotyledon leaves. After 30-40 days the seedlings can be planted.
Stage Four. Transplanting
Prepare the beds in advance.
In the autumn, carefully dig them up and add humus (one bucket per sq. M.) Or fertilizers listed in the second stage (30-40 g each). Если кислотность почвы повышена, то перед вскапыванием проведите известкование (как вариант – можете сделать это ранней весной, за несколько недель до посева). С наступлением весны внесите в грядки компост (10 л/м. кв.).
Компост для удобрения почвы
Обратите внимание! Пересадку начинайте во второй половине дня, желательно при пасмурной погоде.
Таблица. Инструкция по высадке рассады
Этап пятый. Care features
How to care for broccoli
Water broccoli daily or every other day, preferably in the evening. After watering, loosen the soil. In hot weather, you can create partial shading, but humidifying the air brings more benefits, so you can put large, low tanks of water near the beds. In addition, spraying can be carried out using a spray bottle.
Plants may well grow with more rare watering (even weekly), but in this case the heads will be small, and their taste will be unusual. Another useful various dressings, one of the possible schemes is given below.
The first feed. It is performed six or seven days after disembarkation, although it is possible immediately. Urea solution should be used as a fertilizer (2 tablespoons per bucket of water - that’s enough for about 15 seedlings).
Urea for feeding broccoli
The second. Should be carried out after two weeks with manure diluted with water (1: 4). The resulting mixture is poured under the root.
Third. It is carried out when the inflorescences begin to form. You need to use a solution of superphosphate (1 tbsp. Spoons per bucket of water - that's enough for about 15 plants).
In the photo, the preparation of a solution of urea for feeding broccoli
Fourth. Top dressing is brought in after the central head is cut.
After each fertilization, hilling and loosening.
Hilling and loosening the soil after fertilizing
Although if you can not spend four feeding, then nothing terrible will happen, because broccoli is more demanding on moisture than fertilizer.
Stage Six. Protection against pests and diseases
Broccoli is fairly resistant to these negative factors, and if you followed all the recommendations below, then you have already taken preventive measures against a number of diseases. In addition, you can use natural methods of protection. So, if you land celery between plants, then protect broccoli from an earthy flea. Dill, in turn, protects against cabbage aphids, while peppermint - from cabbage.
In addition, you can spray the plants with a decoction of tomato tops (3 liters of water per 1 kg).
Tomato decoction - cooking
To combat the cruciferous fleace, use chemical preparations (for example, Iskra), but at least 20 days before the inflorescences are tied.
Stage Seven. Fruit picking
You can get a harvest in about three months after planting the seeds, but the fruits from one plant can be removed throughout the season, because after cutting new shoots will grow.
In the photo, yellow broccoli sprouts, but you can not cut them yet
Collect heads only green. If yellow flowers are observed, it means that the fruits are perespered and unsuitable for consumption.
- Determine the moment of harvest on the inflorescences: if they become loose, the flowers will bloom the very next day.
- In dense fruits, more nutrients, even if they need to boil longer.
Broccoli Cutting Rules
Start harvesting early in the morning when the inflorescences are juicy. Early fruits can be frozen or stored for several days in the refrigerator, while the autumn harvest is suitable for prolonged storage in the cellar.SharePinTweetSendSendSend