Tomatoes - the most favorite vegetable, equally suitable for fresh consumption, and for winter preparations. The desire of gardeners to grow as rich as possible is understandable. harvest
To achieve this goal, you have to work hard. The challenge - to grow a lot of fruit, and not a beautiful lush bush. Therefore, almost all tomatoes require pasynkovanie.
What is pasynkovanie and why is it needed?
The process of removing such germs is called cradle. Removing them, you help the plant to direct all the juices to the formation and ripening of fruits. Simply put, ignoring this process, you risk being left without a crop. Grazing, as well as mulching tomatoes in the greenhouse, will help to prolong the fruiting period, increase yield per unit area, get an early harvest.
Almost all types of tomatoes beadling required. The exception is the standard varieties - a kind of determinant.
This is what is called a tomato for the lazy. They do not need the formation of a bush, or tying, or pasynkovanie.
They have a short - up to 50 cm - strong thick stalk and their growth is limited to the formation of 3-5 fructifying brushes.
They are planted in open ground, preferably in warm regions, where they will have time to produce the fruits of technical ripeness.
Leaf or stepson?
How to distinguish the sheet from the stepson? For those who are just starting to grow tomatoes, this is not an idle question. The stepson always grows out of the leaf bosom, that is, the leaf first grows, and the lateral shoot, the stepson, begins to stretch above.
In fact, they grow from one point. Thus, it is necessary to break off not the lower, but the upper sprout.
In the photo below you can see how the stepson tomatoes in the greenhouse correctly:
Start off need when the first stepson will be formed under the first flower brush. Do not allow him to grow more than 5 cm, otherwise he will have time to pick up the precious food. In addition, the grown-up stepchild is difficult to remove without damaging the stem, and this can cause bush disease. In order not to miss its appearance, tomatoes should be regularly inspected.
Masking is best done in the morning with good ventilation and natural light. The weather should be warm and dry. Always start with the strongest and healthiest bushes.
Weak bushes or suspected of any defeat leave in the end. The optimal frequency of removal of stepsons is 1 time in 7-10 days.
How to pinch?
It is undesirable to use a tool for removing side shoots. This can trigger tomato viral diseases. Masking is done only by hand. For many, the question arises: how to tear off stepchildren from a tomato in a greenhouse?
Having seized the sprout from above with two fingers, you just need to pinch it. Be sure to leave a stump up to 3 cm long, then at this point a new stepson will not appear. In no case can not pull the stepson down, trying to tear him. So you can tear off part of the stem and cause great harm to the plant.
Formation in 1 stalk
In a greenhouse, it is preferable to form a tomato in 1 stalk. There will be no thickening with unnecessary branches, which will ensure good penetration of light and air between the bushes.
The formation scheme is as follows: as soon as the first blooming brush has formed, the stepson begins to grow under it. It must be promptly removed.
At the same time, the lower leaves must be removed, they have already played their role and the plant is no longer needed. Removing the lower leaves will promote better ventilation of the bushes below.
Features of the formation of different varieties of tomatoes
All tomatoes are divided into three types - determinant, semi-determinant and indeterminant. Determinantal varieties complete their growth after setting 4-5 blooming brushes. Semi-determinant varieties can be completed at any time, and can continue to grow. Indeterminate varieties have unlimited growth.
Formation of indeterminate varieties
Such varieties always form in 1 stem. Many gardeners prefer to form 2 stems to increase their yield. But this is everyone's choice.
Indeterminate formation in two stalks it is justified in large greenhouses, where tomato bushes can be planted at a greater distance from each other, so that they get enough light.
The second stem is formed from a stepson growing under the first flowering brush, and no more than 4-5 flowering brushes are left on it. The remaining shoots are removed.
Formation of semi-determinant varieties
It is difficult to guess whether the plant will stop its growth after the formation of several fruiting hands or not.
Therefore, it is always formed a second, spare stem. If the primary is completed, the backup will give results.
In the future, if the main stem is not completed after the formation of 6-8 fructifying brushes, the spare stem can be carefully removed so that it does not pull off the food.
Formation of determinant varieties
Sometimes stunted determinant varieties do not form at all. But if you want to get an early harvest on them, the bush can be formed into 1 stem.
To do this, leave no more than 4 inflorescences, the rest are removed along with the stepsons. Above the upper inflorescence leave a few leaves and pinch the growth point of the plant.
In this case, the harvest can be removed two weeks earlier than usual. Recommendations on the formation of determinant varieties are always indicated on the package with seeds.
Without labor, it is impossible to grow a decent crop. Therefore, we should not neglect such a procedure as care for tomatoes in the greenhouse pasynkovanie. Your work will pay off with interest when in the winter you will be happy to open cans with canned billets.
What is pasynkovanie?
On the stepsons, as on the main stem, ovaries and fruits can also be formed, but they no longer possess varietal properties: their size is much smaller than real tomatoes, the taste is significantly different (most of them are tasteless), they deteriorate quickly. So in this case the rule “more shoots - more harvest” does not work. Despite the pinning is the breaking off of shoots, it does not bring any harm to the plants (provided that it is done in a timely manner).
Do I need to pinch tomatoes?
The answer to this question depends on the type of tomato chosen: tall indeterminants and determinants grown in one or two trunks are required to stick, and short-cut determinants can be not pinned. In the latter case, the climatic conditions in the region play an important role - they are not formed at all in warm areas, and 4 ... 5 trunks are left in colder ones. Such agrotechnical reception allows obtaining an earlier crop of tomatoes, however, its quantity may suffer from it.
For novice growers, it may seem that a branchy tomato bush with a well-developed green mass will produce more fruits, so they refuse to stick it. As a result, the green saping with health and strength, the sapling does not want to bear fruit at all, since all the forces were spent on building up foliage and stepchildren. The main goal of the gardener is to get a harvest, so you should not spare extra processes, but you need to systematically delete them ruthlessly.
When and how often to stick it?
Begin to remove stepchildren about 2 ... 2.5 weeks after planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. The first one appears under the first flower branch. And from this moment, with a frequency of 1 ... 2 times a week, the inspection of bushes and their pasynkovane begins. The optimal length of the fattening processes in this case is 3 ... 5 cm. They should not be allowed to grow more than 5 cm in length, since they will have time to suck out a huge amount of nutrients from the plant. In rare cases, stepchildren can even appear on tomato seedlings. They must be removed before planting.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse step by step
It is important to know the basics and methods of removing excess shoots: then all the useful parts of the plants will remain in place, and the tomato bushes will be properly formed and with official care will give high yields.
Below are considered the steps of pinching tomatoes, depending on the characteristics of their variety.
To tall, so-called, indeterminate, varieties include tomatoes, whose growth is unlimited. They can reach a height of more than 2 m. As mentioned above, all tall varieties of tomatoes must be stepson. This operation includes the following steps:
- Determination of the number of stems. Usually indeterminants, especially large-fruited, are grown in a greenhouse in one stem. If the variety provides for the cultivation of two stems and is able to withstand the next harvest, then it should leave one of the most powerful stepson, which is formed at the first fruitful branch. But one rule should be taken into account: the more fruits, the smaller their size.
- Removing lower stepsons. It is imperative to remove constantly appearing stepchildren under the lower leaves, they will not yield a crop, and the airing and passing of the sun's rays in the greenhouse worsen.
- Removal of stepsons as the plant grows. During the growing season of tomato bushes, stepchildren will constantly appear in the leaf axils. They need to break in time.
These varieties have a limited growth point. This means that such tomato bushes grow to a certain length, after which the stem growth stops, and all their energy goes to growing fruits. The height of medium-sized determinants is usually up to 1.5 ... 1.7 m, and short-growing - up to 80 cm.
Formation of a bush in two or more stems
Determinants with an average growth in the greenhouse are grown in two shoots. If you wish, you can start up the third one, leaving the stepson at the second fertile branch. A larger number of trunks for these varieties is not recommended, as yield suffers - fruits become smaller.
Low-growing bushes can be staked if necessary, leaving 4 to 5 stems. Some gardeners, instead of pinching, resort to pinching them. After two fruit brushes are fastened on the stepsons, they should be limited in growth by pinching.
Removing lower stepsons
In sredneroslyh varieties, these shoots need to be removed, but with shrubs come differently: either they are simply left, or they are slowly bent (so as not to break), carefully pinned to the ground and sprinkled on top of the ground. Pysynki root and give new bushes. This technique is good if little seedlings have been planted. New bushes in greenhouse conditions will quickly grow and give a harvest a little later uterine. This technique implies a looser landing pattern.
Removing emerging stepsons. As in the previous case, all the excess shoots are smashed out by the middle erectors, and in the undersized, sprawling ones they are left, as the excessive shaping will negatively affect their productivity.
There are a few simple general rules of stabbing, which will help a gardener painlessly for bushes to perform this operation:
- Most often, stepchildren break off so that a stump of 2..3 mm in length remains. With this removal of the shoots, the risk of their reappearance at the same places is reduced. It is necessary to graze tomatoes with particular care, taking care not to damage the stems, leaves, and adjacent shoots of the plants.
- If the tomato plantings in the greenhouse are neglected, the stepchildren can occur even on the leaves. In cases where the strawberry is held very rarely, the shoots should be removed gradually, as the plants will experience enormous stress and may even get sick.
- If, after all, the stepchildren managed to develop thick stems, and when they were removed, rather large wounds opened on the stalks of the tomatoes, then they should be immediately sprinkled with wood ash.
- Each time after the end of the formation, all the stepsons need to be collected from the greenhouse beds, thrown away or left to prepare anti-pest products according to popular methods for spraying other vegetables.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
In addition to staving in the greenhouse, they also conduct a number of activities to care for already grown seedlings.
Tomatoes need frequent watering only a couple of weeks after planting them in the greenhouse. During the growing season, their number is reduced to 1 ... 2 times a week. When excessive watering begins to actively grow lateral shoots, leaves, and, of course, stepchildren. Water is supplied solely at the root - tomatoes do not like dropping on the leaves.
Formation of bushes during the growing season. In addition to the pinching, the formation includes timely garter (wrapping around growing string around the twine) and limiting the growing point (for indeterminants). When the height of the bush reaches the trellis, pinch its top. At the same time over the last floral brush you need to leave two sheets that are necessary for its nutrition. Typically, the clipping is carried out in August. Pruning of diseased leaves also refers to the formation of a hawk.
Of course, tomatoes during the whole season need fertilizers, but they must be balanced. Nitrogen is introduced only when the seedlings are planted in the hole and at the first feeding after planting. Then the need for it disappears. If the gardener continues to fertilize tomatoes with nitrogenous top dressing, the stepchildren will appear and grow even faster, and the fruits will be ground. Already with the appearance of ovaries under the tomatoes, potassium and phosphorus-containing water-soluble supplements are applied.
Gardener errors when stacking
Sometimes, when gardening and caring for tomatoes, the gardener can make mistakes that, as a result, will lead to undesirable problems: yield losses, diseases of the bushes, etc.
- Rare removal of stepsons. It is very important to keep frequency in pasynkovka. If you remove the long shoots once a month, then there is no benefit from this event - the shoots have already managed to pick up a large number of forces from the bush.
- Removing fruit branches instead of stepsons. Novice gardeners often confuse these types of shoots. When staving it is important to carefully look at the place of its growth: if it comes directly from the stem and there are ovaries on it, then it is a fruit branch, not a stepson.
- Use of dirty inventory. If garden shears are used when removing the stepsons, they should be wiped with a solution of potassium permanganate or another disinfectant after each bush has been treated (otherwise you can spread the disease throughout the greenhouse). Occupation is quite a chore, so it is faster and more efficient to cut off the shoots manually without any inventory.
- Overfeeding bushes. If plants have long been formed, and stepchildren continue to appear at the bottom of the stem, this means that tomatoes are getting too much nutrition. In this case, you need to balance the dressing or abandon them for a while.
From time to time the seedlings planted in the greenhouse tomatoes, gardener improves the ventilation and illumination of the bushes, and also directs all their strength to the ripening of fruits. As a result, the tomatoes will thank for a large and tasty harvest of good quality.
Masking of tomatoes in the greenhouse: what is this procedure
Tomatoes - a very specific plant. When the tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground, it begins to grow rapidly.
Many gardeners are faced with such a situation: a large and lush shrub grows from small seedlings. Especially often this happens in a greenhouse, where a favorable microclimate and comfortable air temperature are constantly maintained.
Inexperienced gardeners are happy that the vegetables in the greenhouse are so grow actively and wait from a big bush big harvest.
However, when it comes time to harvest, it turns out that there are almost no fruits on the bushes, one tops. If several fruits are hanging, they are small and irregularly shaped. Usually in such cases, the gardener begins to look for possible causes of crop failure. Most often the reason lies on the surface. The point is not that the tomatoes watered little or poorly fed. The reason for the crop failure is that the gardener did not conduct the staking on time. What is pasynkovanie? To graze is to remove the stepchild from the plant.
The side shoots are called side shoots, which, if they are not removed, expand and take energy from the plant, hindering its normal development. If you look closely at the tomato bush, which has not yet been sacrificed, you can see that a side shoot is located just above each full leaf. If it is conditional to imagine that each piece is the “son” of a tomato bush, then each such side shoot is a “stepson”. This is an alien element that needs to be removed in a timely manner. Gotting contributes to the proper formation of a tomato bush. Pysynki significantly harm the development of the plant, because:
- The plant spends its energy not to bloom and bear fruit, but to develop lateral shoots,
- Pacenki take away all the nutrients
- If the stepchildren are not removed, a bush is formed incorrectly at the tomato,
- Pasynki slow down the development, flowering and fruiting tomato bush.
Pasynkovka tomatoes in the greenhouse: what is it for
Masking greenhouse tomatoes - One of the most important activities for the care of tomatoes. To put greenhouse tomatoes in time is very important. Для тех томатов, которые выращиваются под пленкой, эта процедура имеет гораздо большее значение, чем для помидор, которые растут в открытом грунте. В теплице, благодаря комфортной температуре воздуха, растение намного интенсивнее развивается.
Accordingly, the stepsons grow very quickly. The main thing is not to miss this moment and time every bit of a bit to put the shovel Passing tomatoes is a rather monotonous and painstaking work that requires manual dexterity and skill. But it is necessary to perform this work because:
- Gotting increases yields,
- In time pasynkovannyh plants are usually large and juicy fruits,
- The treated tomato bushes look beautiful and neat, while the bushes with overgrown stepchildren have a “neglected” look,
- When there are no overgrown side shoots on a bush, it is much more convenient for a gardener to visually inspect a plant: inspect the condition of flowers and fruits, identify signs of viral and bacterial infections (for example, phytophtoras), and also collect dangerous pests - Colorado beetles (they willingly eat not only potatoes, but also tomatoes).
Passy need to properly. For the procedure, it is best to choose a clear, sunny day so that the gardener can see the side shoots well. This procedure requires care and good vision, so if you need to wear glasses. However, you should not hold this event under the scorching midday sun, the best time to work is about ten in the morning or five to six in the evening. After completion of the procedure, tomatoes must be watered, and after a while to feed. This will help the plant to recuperate, as stading is still a stress on the plant.
Masking tomatoes in a greenhouse: a sequence of actions
Pashing must be done as follows:
- You must enter the greenhouse and conduct a visual inspection of the plants,
- According to the results of the inspection, it should be determined which bushes need to be staved and which others can wait. If the stepson is still quite small, is just being formed, it is better not to touch it so as not to damage the full-fledged tomato leaves,
- Then one hand carefully pick up a tomato bush, and with the other hand gently pinch the stepson with two fingers. Sometimes this procedure is also called “pinching”
- Pasynki need to pinch, not pull down. If you pull the side shoot down with a sharp movement, it will not come off, but full leaves will come off. One awkward movement can ruin a healthy tomato bush,
Many gardeners simply throw out ragged stepchildren. But they can be used in business. First, many gardeners prepare infusions for spraying garden plants from pests and diseases from stepchildren, diluted with water. Secondly, the stepchildren can be attributed to a compost pile, so that the humus, which is useful and necessary in the economy, is gradually formed from them. And finally, thirdly, when it comes to greenhouse tomatoes, stepchildren are best placed on the ground in the greenhouse. When they begin to decompose in a confined space, they will emit carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide), and this gas is very necessary for plants. Absorbing it, they convert this gas into oxygen.
You can not delay with staking. When the side shoots noticeably grow in length, the procedure has lost all meaning. Long stepchildren can no longer pinch. If you try to remove them, you can easily touch the full leaves. If tomatoes are pasynkovany, you can already not worry about the harvest. Of course, if all other care activities are carried out regularly and correctly.
When compiling a personal calendar of gardening works, a gardener must necessarily include a pasynkovanie tomato. This procedure is not tied to any particular month. It all depends on when the seedlings were planted in the greenhouse, as well as the growth rate of the tomato. Each time the pasynkovaniya may vary.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse: precautions
In no case can you use a pruner, pruner, garden shears, a knife or other garden tools to remove side shoots.
You can only work with your hands. If an inexperienced gardener will cut off his stepchildren with scissors or a shears, the resulting scars will lead to the development of viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Particularly high risk of such diseases in the greenhouse, because round-the-clock heat and high humidity are ideal conditions for the reproduction of bacteria and fungi.
It is not uncommon for a plant to become ill with late blight after pruning the stepsons with the help of garden shears. Scourge and tomato fruits turn black and rot. Phytophthora affects the root system of the plant.
It is necessary to act very carefully so as not to accidentally pinch normal leaves together with the stepsons. If an inexperienced gardener accidentally squeezed with his fingers not a stepson, but a leaf, it should be carefully straightened. In no case can you exert physical efforts when staving, side shoots need to be removed with light, imperceptible movements. Pinch should be sharp, but not strong. When properly tweaked, the stepson easily detaches from the trunk. In no case can not bend and crush the stem of a plant, otherwise you can cause irreparable damage to tomatoes. For those who are going to pass the tomatoes for the first time, it is advisable to watch a training step-by-step video on the Internet or see how experienced gardeners work.
How to pinch tomatoes in a greenhouse: practical advice
Proper development of tomatoes depends on staining, so the importance of this procedure cannot be underestimated. A gardener must understand that tomatoes, whose stepchildren were not removed on time, cannot fully bear fruit.
In order not to miss the right moment for this important procedure, it is necessary to go into the greenhouse every day and inspect the bushes of tomatoes. Usually stepchildren form very quickly.
As soon as a real sheet appears, the stepson will certainly come out behind it. If tomatoes are regularly fed organic and mineral fertilizers, stepchildren develop much faster. The more fertile the soil, the faster the stepchildren grow. Also, the rate of formation of stepsons depends on the grade. Some varieties of tomato stepsons practically does not happen. However, for most varieties characteristic intensive formation of lateral shoots. But the goal of any gardener is not to get lush tops, but quality fruits. Therefore, pasynkovanie is of great importance.
Removing the side shoots from the stem of a tomato, or so-called pasynkovanie, helps to increase the yield and form a beautiful, healthy bush of tomatoes. This procedure requires skill, and therefore the first time something may not work. However, you should not be upset. The main thing is to act neatly and do not harm the plant by careless actions. In general, staving is a simple procedure, and its meaning is clear to any gardener. Tomatoes will certainly respond to care and give a great harvest.
What is the procedure
When staving remove all regrowth surplus side shoots growing from the leaf axils.
They do this in order to provide nutrition to the above-ground part of the tomato bush, sending nutrients that go to the stepchildren, if available.
The objectives of the implementation are as follows:
- optimal formation of the bush for a rich harvest,
- acceleration of fruiting,
- terms of fruiting plants are extended,
- per unit area of the greenhouse it is possible to get more tomatoes.
Stepson and list - what are the differences?
Carefully consider the tomato bush to distinguish between leaves and stepchildren. The leaves begin to grow from the stem itself, and between it and the trunk in the bosom begins to grow shoots. This is the stepson. He will continue to actively develop and grow the leaves and stepchildren of the second level.
Removal should be done until the shoots have grown more than 3 cm. Up to this limit, the plant does not spend a lot of nutrients on their supply, and the bush will not be severely injured due to removal.
Suitable time for pasynkovaniya
It is necessary to remove unnecessary sprouts as soon as you notice them. The most active will be their growth in the period of the appearance of the first flower clusters.
Tightening with the breaking off of unnecessary shoots is not worth it - if you do not take out the stepchildren for a long time, you will not be able to figure out which of the stems is the stepchild, and which of the stems is real. Determine the stepson by location: most often their growth occurs from under the first of the floral brushes.
The best time for the procedure - the morning. The shoots are the easiest to break off at this particular time, and the plant will more endure loss. In most cases, the wound formed on the stalk is delayed in a day.
Try to eliminate the danger of spreading viral diseases. When breaking out stepsons do not allow the juice to fall on your hands.
Starting to remove unwanted shoots, decide the following points:
- how often you are going to stick tomatoes in the greenhouse - the scheme may be different, for example, once every 10 days or every week,
- how many stalks you will leave on the plant - depending on the type of crop and the size of the greenhouse, the bushes form 1, 2, 3 stalks.
How to form a bush with the right amount of stems
According to experts, the most suitable for growing in greenhouses will be a bush formed in one stem. But some of the gardeners with great experience do not agree with them - the more tomato stems, as they say, the higher the harvest from each of the bushes.
The formation of a bush in 1 stalk is that both the stepchildren and the twins break out, which are obtained by splitting the stem. At the same time all the floral brushes, including the bottom, remain in place.
When you create a bush in 2 stalks on it, both the main and the first of the stepsons remain, which looks the strongest and develops more actively. It is located above the first bunch of flowers. Other stepchildren must be removed.
To get 3 stalks on a bush, the following scheme is applied:
- remains on the bush that of the stepsons, which is located above the first flower,
- the strongest is selected from the remaining shoots
- remove all remaining processes.
Application of staining for different types of crops
Tomato it is necessary, depending on their type - they are as follows:
- Indeterminate - varieties without restrictions in growth. They are formed in 1 stalk, leaving a small stump at the place of harvested shoots. Shrubs pile and mulch.
- Determinant - undersized, often do not require staking. Before planting, carefully read the instructions on the package. The early harvest is most often obtained with this type of tomato.
- Semi-determinant - can grow very high. You can form in 2-3 stalks. When staving growth may stop.
General rules for pasicking
Perform the procedure in the morning in dry, sunny weather. The wounds on the stems with this approach heal quickly. When removing shoots in damp conditions, disinfect the instrument with 1% potassium permanganate solution. This should be done after processing each of the plants.
Masking is done every week. You can combine the procedure with the removal of leaves. Delete all shoots - no matter what size they are. The most painless for plants is to lose stepchildren 5-7 cm long.
The most valuable varieties of tomatoes are the first to be staked, as are the healthiest of the plants. In the presence of spots, signs of disease bushes stepchildren last.
Masking: his conduct and features
The root system of tomatoes evenly distributes nutrients throughout the plant. The more a shrub grows, the more substances go to the nutrition of green tops, rather than flowering and fruit growth. To reduce the consumption of food for greens, and to send substances to the development of fruits it is necessary to carry out the hatching of the bush.
Gotting is the removal of additional shoots that the plant produces to grow a bush. Also, this operation is called the formation of the bush, because this process determines the number of main branches of the plant.
The stepson is formed in the leaf bosom, growing between it and the main stem of the plant. In order not to grow new shoots, they must be properly removed. Formation should be carried out throughout the season, at a time when the shoot grows no more than 5 cm.
Important! Remove stepchildren, breaking them out not upwards, but away from you so that the sap of the plant doesn’t fall into your hands. This reduces the risk of infecting healthy tomatoes after stabbing a patient.
To conduct the formation of tomato bushes in a polycarbonate greenhouse correctly in the morning: at this time of day the tomato stalks are soft and break better. To remove stepchildren should be by breaking off hands, and not cut them, so as not to damage the rest of the plant with scissors or a knife. If you do decide to cut off the stepchildren with cutting tools, note:
- the blade should be as sharp as possible so that the cutting does not resemble cutting,
- removal should be a sharp and precise movement, so as not to harm the stem,
- Pasynking tools must be disinfected after each bush has been treated.
Driving pattern of indeterminate and determinant varieties of tomatoes
For tall (indeterminant) varieties of tomatoes, a 1 stem formation scheme is recommended. When to begin stepping tomatoes in a greenhouse depends on how quickly the plant develops. It is customary to combine this process with tying up tomatoes to supports. With good care, the first stepsons appear when the 6-8th leaf has developed - approximately 9 days after landing. And from each leaf sinus begins to grow a young shoot.
The indeterminate type of tomatoes, unlike undersized ones, does not limit growth with the appearance of inflorescences and bears fruit throughout the season. When staving increases the amount of the crop.
The most common varieties of indeterminate tomatoes are:
If tomatoes do not bloom as much as you want, you can safely cut the lower ovary. The first fruit grows slower and poured harder. After release, the plant will throw out much more new fruits.
When strawling tomatoes in a greenhouse with a determinative type of a bush, a two or three stem formation scheme is used. This means that, before you form the entire bush, you must leave 1 or 2 main stepson on it. Afterwards, fruitful brushes are formed on them: the left processes grow into additional stems. All other shoots are removed. After the appearance of the inflorescences and new leaves on each of the additional branches, the stems are pinched.
When forming a bush in 2 stems, 5 - 8 inflorescences are left on the plant. In this case, the fruits will ripen in time, and they will develop a greater number. For the formation of a bush in 3 stalks, it is necessary to initially plant tomatoes in 30 cm increments. Shrubs will not close each other, and the amount of harvested crops will increase.
Such determinant varieties of tomatoes are planted in the greenhouse:
Tip! To get large tomatoes from determinant varieties, you should cut a few unripe fruits from each of the brushes. The remaining tomatoes on the brush immediately begin to grow and may increase by 2 times.
In order to improve the ventilation of determinant bushes, as well as speed up the ripening of tomatoes, it is necessary, in addition to stepsons, to remove the lower leaves. It is necessary to tear off all sheets before the first branch. You should not remove at the same time more than 3 sheets from 1 plant to prevent deformation of the fruit.
Pasynkovka hybrid varieties of tomatoes
Hybrids that have a superdeterminant type of shrub, stepson in a special way. Hence the question: “How can we tear off the stepsons of hybrid varieties of tomatoes in a greenhouse?”. A feature is that if you remove all the additional shoots to the first fruit cluster, then in the future they can not stepchild.
Some of the hybrid varieties that have a determinant type of growth, such as Verlico, are best formed into one stem, until tomatoes throw out 3 fruitful brushes. Then one of the strongest stepsons is left and an additional stem is formed from it.
There are also semi-determinant hybrids of tomatoes. Such varieties are not cultivated (do not end their growth), as determinant, after the ejection of the first fruit cluster. Their peculiarity is that they can stop growing at any moment. Nevertheless, they are well suited for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses. It is better to grow them in 2 stalks.
How to distinguish the stepson from the fruit brush of a tomato
Care must be carried out with great care and attention. Instead of an undesirable shoot, there is a risk that the flowering brush from the plant will be removed, which will lead to a decrease in the yield of tomatoes. In order to avoid mistakes, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the process to be removed.
The main differences from the stepson fruitful brush:
- The most important difference between the stepson and the fruitful brush is that on it, even on the smallest one, sheets are immediately visible. And on the brush visible beginnings of flowering,
- The ovary brush does not grow out of the leaf bosom, it begins to branch off directly from the stem of the plant.
Tomato bush formation: photo
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Indeed, pasynkovanie able to increase the yield of tomatoes and its quality: the fruits are larger. Without removing the stepsons, the bushes produce a lot of unnecessary greenery, which the plant takes away from the plant, and strongly shade the already tied fruits, preventing them from ripening. And in August, in unheated greenhouses, flowers should also be removed, since they will not have time to give fruit.
How exactly does the bush develop after the removal of the stepsons?
So, how to put the tomatoes in the greenhouse? During staving, the plant directs all the nutrients to form floral brushes, and then ovaries and fruits. Accordingly, without giving due importance to this procedure, you can end up with a smaller crop than after it.
To remove stepchildren must be on tomato bushes of almost all varieties. This procedure is not needed only to determinant plants that do not need to be formed and tied up.
Possessing a wide stem up to half a meter in height, such bushes themselves do not form more than five fruit brushes and therefore their fruits receive the full nutrients. Tomatoes of these varieties are usually planted under the open sky in southern latitudes, because there tomatoes have time to fully ripen before the onset of cold weather.
Stepson that should be removed
The main branch, which the bush needs, and the stepson originate in the same place of the stem, but the stepson always grows higher than the main branch, therefore, it will be quite easy to determine which of the processes must be eliminated.
What vegetation period is it necessary for?
Judging by the experience of many vegetable growers, it is best to engage in pasynkovanie tomato in the greenhouse at the stage of their growth, when the first side process starts up below the level of the earliest floral brush.
There is no meaningful need to wait until it becomes longer than five centimeters, since during this period he will have time to absorb too many valuable organic and mineral substances.
In addition, the matured stepson is not removed as easily as the young, and therefore, if you try to tear it off, you can damage the coating of the trunk. For this reason, to prevent the emergence of too many long stepsons, you will have to constantly subject all the beds to a close inspection.
Tomato planing in a greenhouse
Discard the use of a pruner, as it is enough to pinch all the excess shoots and tear them off with two fingers. In general, the whole procedure of pinching a tomato in a greenhouse should not take a lot of time and effort if it is carried out competently and slowly.
Removing the stepson
It is advisable to always leave on the stem a three-centimeter stretch of escape, so that a new stepson does not grow exactly there. It is highly undesirable to tear the stepson with a pulling force, since such tactics often lead to stripping the shell and causing an irreparable injury.
While pinching the appendix, it is also necessary to ensure that the liquid coming out of it does not wet the fingers, otherwise there will be a danger of carrying some infections.
Formation of a single stem
Greenhouse tomatoes better to leave only a single stem. The use of such a scheme of pinching tomatoes in a greenhouse will prevent competition for light due to the appearance of many extra branches. At the same time, the ventilation of the beds will improve, which is of considerable importance for the health of the bushes.
Tomato Formation Scheme
It is necessary to act in this way as follows: noticing that under the first fruit brush, the stepson has proclaimed, it must be removed in time. After this, it is necessary to cut off its lower branches on the bush, since they have already fulfilled their function and the plant no longer needs them. This procedure will increase air circulation at the surface of the garden, which will reduce the presence of pathogens in it.
There is an opinion that the branches torn in this way should not be thrown away, but left under the bush, mixed with cut grass and dry weeds.
In the process of decimating, this mixture will supply the bush with the carbon dioxide necessary for it to fully grow. However, if the lower shoots are affected by late blight, then in no case can they be put on the ground, otherwise there will be prerequisites for creating a pathogenic environment.
Later, you have to break off all the side shoots that appear on the stem, and leave only the floral brush. Thanks to this procedure on the tomato is able to form up to fifty floral brushes. Leaving the bush only one stem, you can extend the time during which it will bear fruit.
Formation of two stems
To grow a bush with two stems, you need to keep on it one healthy stepchild growing just below the first fruiting brush. In this case, all the branches and stepchildren located below, it is necessary to break. In the future, during the entire growing season of the bush, the stepchildren must be pinched in a timely manner.
Formation of tomato bushes, depending on the variety
Tomato plants are divided into several varieties:
The growth of determinant varieties stops after they release about five flowering brushes. In contrast, semi-determinant varieties can stop growing at any time or grow without restrictions. The growing season of indeterminate varieties does not stop at all.
How bushes of indeterminate varieties are formed
Most often, only one stem is left for such tomato plants. However, for the sake of increasing the yield, such bushes often form two stalks. Therefore, the choice of method in this case remains for the vegetable grower.
Indeterminate variety of tomato.
It makes sense to form an indeterminant in two stems in extensive greenhouses, where the area of the beds allows planting tomato bushes at a great distance from one another, so that each of them receives as much light as possible.
At the same time, the second stem should be formed from a stepson, which grows under the first fruiting brush, and keep no more than five flowering brushes on it. All other side shoots must be removed.
How semi-determinant varieties are formed
It is usually quite difficult to understand whether the growth of a bush will cease after several fruiting hands have formed on it. For this reason, it is usually allowed to grow another trunk that should bear fruit if the main stem stops growing.
If the main stem does not stop growing after the appearance of six to eight fruiting hands on it, then the additional stem can be pinned so that nutrients are not wasted on it.
How are determinant varieties formed
Sometimes determinant bushes do not form at all. However, in the event that there is a desire to get a harvest on them as early as possible, then such a bush is usually formed into one stem.
Determinant variety tomato
At the same time, no more than four fruiting hands are left on it, and all the rest are cut off along with the stepsons. Above the upper inflorescence retain several branches and pinch the point of growth of the bush.
This technique will allow to harvest about ten days earlier than usual. Tips on how to form determinant varieties can usually be found on the seed package. Often there is an explanation about the optimal location of the plants in the garden relative to each other.
It should be borne in mind that getting a bountiful harvest will not work without making great efforts for this. That is why it is not necessary to abandon any procedures that contribute to obtaining as many fruits as possible, including from staking greenhouse tomato bushes.
These labor costs will be generously rewarded when in the cold season you want to drink tomato juice or eat salted tomato,
The time will come to sell vegetables, if they are grown not only for themselves, but also for commercial purposes, since competent care of the bushes will significantly increase trade revenue by increasing the number of tomatoes sold.
In addition, the crop farming method described above will allow the vegetable grower to receive an early harvest, the cost of which is significantly higher than the prices of tomatoes ripening at the usual time,
There will be a desire to significantly increase the presence of tomatoes in your own diet.
As a rule, the lion's share of the crop goes to get tomato juice, which is then preserved and does not reach the family table before winter. If the harvest is more than usual, then it will constantly delight with seven salads, soups and pizza,
There will be a need to share the harvest with relatives and acquaintances,
an opportunity to thank for the services rendered plumber or cleaner. Even receiving a salary for their work in the housing department, they will not give up personal encouragement in the form of a tomato bucket and then, if necessary, will come to the aid of the first request and without delay.
Pasynkovaniye tomato in the greenhouse video
As you know, theory without practice is dead, and practice without theory is blind. That is why it is important not only in all trifles to study exactly how to deal with excessive vegetation, but also to personally treat at least a few matured plants. Contrary to some stereotypes, this will not be so difficult.
Enough to arm yourself with patience, and things will go. The film below will be useful in this theoretical help and clear practical guide explaining some of the peacock greenhouse tomatoes.