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Viola: landing and care

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It is difficult to find a plant in the garden that is less demanding to the conditions of its development than cute curly bushes with eyes-flowers. The cultivation of the viola can be done even by a person who first poured seeds into a palm for sowing.

The name of the plant is a translated translation of the Latin name of the genus Violet (Viola). For many years, fragrant flowers have been adored in many countries, especially by the French. Emperor Napoleon never returned home to his Josephine without her favorite bouquet of violets. And the great Goethe always went for a walk with a bag of viola seeds and scattered them in all surroundings of Weimar.

About 500 species are known in the Viola family of the Violet family, and according to individual sources, more than 700 species are distributed throughout the northern hemisphere in areas with a temperate climate. Viols are considered the most popular of them in garden floriculture:

  • fragrant,
  • horned
  • sister,
  • Labrador,
  • canine
  • pubescent
  • Korean,
  • tricolor,
  • Wittrock,
  • ampelnaya,
  • Williams and others.

The plant is very easy in culture, but it is necessary to know certain rules of agrotechnics to a grower who decided to plant him in his flower bed.

Growing viola in the garden

There are several ways to plant a cute flower in your garden. The most common is sowing of seeds, which is carried out both in open ground and on seedlings. The vegetative method propagates varietal viols using cuttings and layering.

The site for planting is chosen sunny, with a loamy soil, which is loose and rich in humus, well fertilized with potassium and phosphorus.

Sowing seeds in open ground

The propagation of viola by seeds is used more often, as a simpler and less expensive opportunity to grow a flower. If you sow seeds for seedlings, then you can wait for flowering this season. From seeds sown in open ground will turn out plants that bloom in the spring of next year.

Planting viola in the open ground is carried out in May and June, when the threat of recurrent spring frosts will disappear. Sowing is carried out sparsely, in rows, and the seeds are embedded in the soil no more than 1 cm. Shoots appear after 10-15 days. If the weather is dry, they are lightly watered so as not to wash off with water. The soil between the rows is loosened and weeds are removed.

When the seedlings grow, they are thinned, leaving a distance of 7-10 cm between adjacent flowers. It is possible to pick a seedling after 3-4 weeks on the beds where the viola will hibernate. The first time after picking the seedlings pritenuyut.

Sowing seeds for seedlings

Terms of planting Viola seedlings depend on when they plan to wait for flowering. If you sow in late January or February, the bushes will delight buds in late May. March sowing will give flowers at the end of summer.

Shallow bowls for seedlings are filled with purchased soil, which is shed with a weak-pink solution of potassium permanganate on the eve of crops. The small seeds of the viola are laid out in shallow grooves, barely covered with earth. Spray water from a spray bottle, cover the crops with plastic wrap on top and place it on the window sill of the south-west window.

Mini teplichku regularly air and moisturize. Shoots appear after 10-14 days. In early April, they dive into larger pots, deepening to cotyledon leaves. At the end of this month, they begin to harden the seedlings, exposing the day to an unglazed balcony or veranda, and returning to the room for the night. In the open ground, seedlings are planted in the first or second decade of May, keeping the distance between them 15-20 cm. In early June, the viola is already blooming.

The advice of experienced flower growers is how beautiful it is to plant a viola: if you plant some plants in the shade when planting seedlings on a flower bed, and the rest are in a lit place, the flowering is prolonged.

Those that are in the sun, bloom earlier petals, which receive less coverage - bloom later and fade after all the others.

Reproduction viola cuttings and layering

Especially valuable varieties propagate vegetatively. Cuttings are cut from May to July with well-developed healthy plants. To do this, use the apical shoots with 2-3 internodes. Put them on a shaded bed close to each other so that they touch. The groove is well spilled with water and the cuttings are buried by about 0.5 cm. Spray on top and cover with film. After 3-4 weeks you can already check which roots are in the viola. Usually, a good root system develops in plants.

For reproduction by layering, a plant is shaved so that it stretches out. In early autumn, the shoots bend down to the ground and sprinkled with fertile soil. By spring, the layers are rooted and transplanted to the garden bed.

Planting viola in the winter to a permanent place is carried out in early September by way of transshipment. Rooted bushes cover with dry fallen leaves to protect from freezing. In winter, it should be ensured that during thaws in the beds with wintering viols, water does not stagnate.

Growing and caring for a viola flower in a pot

In May, the grown up seedlings are transferred to flower containers, which are placed on the patio, on the terrace, or suspended in pots. Violet loves moisture, but is soaked by stagnant water. Therefore, at the bottom of the pot a layer of drainage is required, for example, of expanded clay or gravel. The soil for the viola will suit any purchased and fertile. However, the containers can be filled with ordinary garden soil mixed with humus, and for looseness, add a little coarse-grained river sand.

Plants moisturize regularly, avoiding overdrying. On the eve of a prolonged absence of a grower, watering is also possible in the pan. Weekly viola feed up any universal fertilizer for flowers. With this care, they open the buds almost all summer.

How to care for the viol in the garden

The main measures for the care of the viol in the garden consist in the timely loosening of the soil, especially after rain it is necessary to weed and destroy the crust on the ground, which prevents air from penetrating to the roots. Simultaneously with weeding, weed grass is removed from the feeding area of ​​the viola bushes.

Watering and feeding

The plant is quite moisture-loving, but from an excess of moisture in a particularly rainy summer, it gets wet if it turns out in a low-lying, constantly flooded puddle. However, the viola should not suffer from a lack of moisture, otherwise the flowers become shallow, the growth of the bushes slows down, the flowering may stop altogether. In too great a heat, flower buds do not form.

The first dressing during the cultivation of the viola is made on the eve of budding - a tablespoon of nitrophosphate is added to a bucket of water. The second time is fed during the flowering fertilizer "Agricola-7", diluting 1 tablespoon in 10 liters of water. The solution is watered under the root of the plant.

After the flowers wither, the stems are pruned, leaving 10-12 cm from the ground level, the bushes are plentifully watered and fed. Very soon new young shoots grow, on which tops flowers appear again.

How to collect viola seeds

The time to collect seeds comes when the top of the seed box turns white or turns yellow, and it itself rises up on the peduncle. Plucked at this moment, they ripen well during drying in a shaded place with active air circulation. Germination viola seeds retain for 2-4 years. 1 g of them contains about 800 pieces.

Viola diseases and control

Many growers claim that the viola is resistant to diseases and pests. However, this observation is more true in relation to natural species, but varietal plants are more vulnerable to problems in the care.

Most garden violas suffer in conditions of high humidity, black-foot disease and powdery mildew. In order to prevent blackening of the base of the stem, experts recommend not to thicken the planting and disinfect the soil by pouring a solution of potassium permanganate or foundationol. Against powdery mildew, it is treated with a solution of soda ash and laundry soap.

Leaf spotting often threatens viola Vittrok. Treat it with Bordeaux mixture or copper-soap preparation. Viola tricolor and fragrant ascohytosis sprayed with copper-containing agents. Phylostycosis most often occurs on plants of viola Williams and ampelous. It helps to save the planting from it processing before flowering with Bordeaux mixture or drugs "Abiga-Peak", "Home".

The viola tricolor, ampelous and fragrant plants, destroyed by podium (root rot of seedlings) or gray rot, are destroyed along with a clod of earth where they grew. The soil under the neighboring healthy bushes is spilled with solutions of "Maxim" or "Alirin-B".

People with fusarium, blight or a variegated Vittrock, fragrant, Williams and tricolor virus cannot be cured. Spores of fungi live in the soil for a long time and they no longer recommend planting a viol in the garden where the defeat happened. In order to avoid viral infection, the plant is not planted near cucumber and pumpkin beds.

Viola pests and ways to get rid of them

Parasitic fauna most annoying Vittrok and tricolor violets. During the cultivation of viola are found:

  • spider mite in very dry weather,
  • spring earthen moth, eating the growth points and plant roots,
  • pearl - large forest or Pafia, the caterpillars of which gnaw all parts of the flower,
  • Mathurn's Shashechnitsa - its larvae eat the leaves,
  • gallic nematode parasitizes on the roots, forming swellings with egg-laying - galls.

Insecticides use insecticides of systemic action, get rid of ticks with the help of acaricides, and to prevent the occurrence of nematodes a week before planting in the soil make sodium nitrate - 150-200 g per 1 sq. Km. m

Planting and caring for viol in the open field does not cause too much trouble florist. But the friendly flowering of cheerful bushes, accompanied by fragrant aroma, brings a lot of positive emotions throughout the summer.

How correctly called a flower

Very often with the name of this plant there is confusion. Some call it a violet, others call it a viol, and still others call it pansies.

Violet is a genus of plants from the violet family (Violaceae). Viola (Viola) - the Latin name of violets. Perennial pansies (or tricolor violet) - a type of plant from the genus of violets.

Viola (or violet) - often one-, two- or perennial herb, less often half-shrub. Plant height 15-30 cm.

A bit of history

Viola, whose flowers are one of the oldest garden plants, has been known to botanists since the 16th century. Even in ancient Greece and Rome, people decorated their premises during the holidays. But they began to cultivate it only two centuries later. The first to do this was F. Miller, the famous English florist.

In Russia, the violet appeared at the end of the XVIII century, thanks to the well-known botanist P.S. Pallas, who studied the flora of the Altai. It was he who brought to St. Petersburg violet, which is now called the Altai.

At the beginning of the XIX century in Europe there were known to all pansies - Vittrock hybrid violets. They combined the beauty of three types of violets: Altai, yellow and tricolor.

Seed planting

How is viola grown? Flowers, growing from seeds of which is the easiest and cheapest way, can also be planted by sowing in open ground or cuttings.

Growing from seed - this way you can grow enough plants for the garden or balcony. In addition, it is beneficial - the seeds are much cheaper than ready seedlings. To improve the germination of the seeds of the viola before planting, it is desirable to soak for a day in a solution of special preparations (for example, zircon).

Any variety of perennial and biennial viols can be grown according to one of 3 schemes:

  • Sowing seeds in open ground in autumn - flowering next year. In August and September, seeds are sown in the ground. Before the snow plants have time to ascend and develop powerful roots. Viola, planting and care for which are very simple, blooms the next year after sowing. Flowering lasts from April to frost.
  • Sowing seeds in early spring for seedlings - flowering in the year of planting. It is believed that with this method, the viola begins to bloom in the second year. In fact, flowering can begin as early as the first summer after planting. To do this, sow the seeds in an earlier period - from late February to early March. It is advisable to use extra light. The resulting seedlings bloom in May and June. If you create suitable conditions for the viola (she does not like direct sun and heat), then she will bloom all summer, and next spring will bloom again. Seedlings grown in the spring, then planted in open ground or on the balcony.
  • Sowing seeds in summer. From late May to early June, you can sow the seeds immediately into the ground. Viola bloom begins in August-September. Snow covers plants already with flowers. In early spring, the viola blooms again.

Seed germination

The period of seed germination depends on the variety. Usually sprouts appear on the fifth or eighth day Causes of slow germination:

  • old seeds
  • a thick layer of soil over the seeds,
  • heavy and dense soil, which is sprinkled with seeds.

Emerged shoots expose to the light. And even direct sunlight in the spring is not dangerous for plants.

Sowing and growing seedlings

For planting select any suitable containers: special cassettes for seedlings, small flower pots, food containers, etc. It is very important to choose a suitable soil - it should be loose. Special soil for violets can be bought or prepared by yourself.

Fill the tank with soil and start sowing. It can be produced in different ways:

  • Seeds are buried in the ground. In the ground form depressions (up to 0.6 cm) after 1 cm from each other. In the resulting grooves, the seeds are laid out after 1-2 cm. Sprinkle the seeds with earth. Landings shed or sprayed with water. To create a wet microclimate in the seating containers, they are covered with a film or glass. To prevent mold, twice a day, the film is opened for about 10 minutes. Put the "greenhouse" with the seeds in a warm place (20-25 ° C). Illumination does not matter.
  • Seeds in the ground are sown superficially. The soil is poured abundantly or sprayed with water, preferably warm (30-35 ° C). Seeds are laid out in the grooves after 1-2 cm. The container with the seeds is covered with a film or glass. Soil is regularly ventilated. Place the container with the seeds in a warm place and cover with some material (for example, a sheet of cardboard).
  • Seeds lightly sprinkled. First, seeds are sown superficially (as in the second embodiment). Then lightly sprinkled on top (1-2 mm) with earth or sand. Spill or spray planting with warm water. Capacities cover with a film or glass, regularly aired. Put a seedling in a warm place. Illumination does not matter.

Proper care of seedlings viola

After the emergence of seedlings immediately remove the film from the container is not recommended - you need to give the seedlings to get stronger. It is best to gradually increase the ventilation time during the week.

Viola seedling is sufficiently resistant to temperatures of 5-10 ° C, so before the appearance of real leaves of the container (already without a film) you can take it to a balcony for hardening.

Seedlings need proper and regular watering. The topsoil should never be dry, but it is not necessary to flood the seedlings either.

When sprouts appear 1-2 true leaves, they dive into separate containers. Usually, at this point, the seedlings stretch the central stem to the cotyledons. When picking sprouts up to the cotyledon can be buried in the ground - they will be more stable, with powerful roots.

To seedlings better bush, at the stage of two or three pairs of true leaves do nip shoots.

When warm weather is established and the threat of frost passes, they begin to plant seedlings on a permanent place - on the balcony (March) or in the open ground (May-June).

When planting seedlings in the ground can withstand an interval of 10-15 cm. If the seedlings are planted in boxes or pots, then observe the following ratio: 1-2 liters of soil per plant.

Viola: planting and care in the open field

Many people think that growing seedlings is a rather troublesome business, so they prefer to sow seeds immediately in open ground. When sown in late May - early June, the viola will begin to bloom in August and September. If you sow the viola in August, flowering will begin in early spring next year.

When sowing, the seeds are laid out in small depressions (up to 0.6 mm), observing an interval of 10-15 cm. After that, the ground is poured abundantly and waiting for the emergence of shoots.

Pinching done at the stage of two or three true leaves. In the future, the care of plants consists in regular and sufficient watering, feeding.

When planting seedlings or sowing seeds of great importance is the choice of location. Best of all, viols grow and bloom in bright sunny places, but with shading from the bright midday sun. In the garden it can be a place under the trees with a not very thick crown, and on the balcony - the western or eastern side.

No less important is the appearance of the soil. Viola, planting and care in the open field for which are discussed above, prefers well-hydrated, drained and fertile soil.

Viola Types

About 500 species currently includes the viola. A flower whose varieties are so diverse amazes even the experts.

Существует несколько видов, которые считаются среди садоводов наиболее популярными:

  • Виола триколор (V. tricolor). Дву- или однолетнее растение. Высота 10-20 см. В открытом грунте эта виола цветет с мая по сентябрь, причем наиболее декоративно она выглядит на второй год цветения.
  • Виола Виттрока (V. wittrokiána). It is usually considered a two- or an annual plant, but it can also be grown as a perennial with annual division. Height is 15-30 cm. It is a strongly branchy plant. Large flowers have a diameter of 4-10 cm. Flowers of the most diverse colors, while it can be monotonous or spotty. Depending on the time of sowing seeds and planting seedlings in the soil, the viola may bloom in summer or autumn. Viat Wittrock varieties are conventionally divided into several groups: “trimardo”, “hemalis-winter”, “schweizer rizen”, “Swiss large-flowered”, etc. For example, varieties from the group “Pyrnaer” are distinguished by early flowering.
  • Viola Altai (V. altaica). Ornamental perennial plant. Height is up to 20 cm. Frost-resistant. May bloom twice a season: from mid-spring to mid-summer and from August to the first frost.
  • viola yellow (V. lutea). The most unpretentious of all violets. Height is 8-15 cm. Viola received its name for its bright lemon yellow color of flowers. It blooms from May to July.
  • Fragrant Viola (V. odorata). Herbaceous perennial plant with small flowers (diameter about 2 cm). From the second half of the summer, a large number of easily rooting shoots, which form a dense cover on the soil, grow in the viola. The flowers have a dark blue color and have a pleasant delicate aroma. Viola fragrant can bloom for a whole month.

With its incredible beauty and variety of shapes and colors, the viola, the planting and care of which are discussed above, inspires breeders, landscape designers, flower growers and artists to work.

Characteristics and description of the flower viola

Viola is a perennial herbaceous ornamental plant, the stems of which can sometimes grow up to 30 cm. The type of root system is uricine, the structure of the shoot is erect. Leaves have dissected ends and stipules. They can be assembled in the form of a rosette or grow individually. Small solitary buds grow on long peduncles. The color of the flowers is monotonous, spotty or striped. Viola flowering period falls at the end of May or early August. It depends on when the seeds were planted. Some varieties can bloom throughout the season, others bloom only 2 times a year. The fruit of the plant looks like a box filled with seeds, which, if properly stored, do not lose their germinating properties for several years.

Viola can easily tolerate low temperatures and poor light, but if the bush is in the shade, the diameter of the flowers will be small. Moist fertile soil is selected for growing the viola. On sandy loams the flowers of the plant also become small and rare.

Growing Viola from Seed

Viola seeds are planted directly in open ground. However, experienced growers prefer to trust the seedling breeding method, because it is considered more reliable and practical. To observe the emergence of the first buds in the summer, then it is worthwhile to start growing seedlings already in late February. For these purposes, a ready-made soil mixture for growing violets is perfect, which can be purchased at any specialized store of garden equipment and goods. Before planting, seeds are soaked in Appin solution. They are then placed in shallow, excavated grooves and sprinkled with a small amount of earth. The surface of the soil is leveled and abundantly watered. The growing container is covered with a film to keep it moist and stored at a temperature of 15 degrees.

Viola seedling

The first shoots may seem 1-1.5 weeks after planting. Containers with seedlings are released from the film and transferred to a cooler room in which there is natural or artificial lighting. However, it is necessary to fear the impact on young shoots falling into direct sunlight. The main activities related to the care of plants during this period are regular watering and complex fertilization of the soil twice a month. Such actions are sufficient for the plant to fully develop.

Pickling seedlings

Dive viola can be in different ways. Some flower growers do this several times, for example, when a first pair of strong leaves is formed, and the plant is again dived after two weeks. However, other specialists in this field call the second pick a direct transfer of the viola to open ground. In any case, it is safe to transplant even a flowering plant. It will easily take root in a new place. With seed cultivation, viola blooms begin in late spring or summer.

When to plant the viola

The time of planting viola in open ground is interrelated with the weather conditions that prevail in this area. The growing area should be well lit. A small amount of crushed coal, humus or bird droppings in the same proportions is added to the prepared soil. No less fertile mixture is considered to be a composition of humus, sod land, peat and sand. To protect the root system of viola from rotting, it is not necessary to plant a plant in the lowlands, near which ground water flows.

How to plant a viola

The process of planting will not cause any special difficulties even for inexperienced and beginner gardeners. Seedlings are placed in the wells, keeping the spaces between the individual bushes about 10 cm. The holes are covered with earth, the surface around the seedlings is slightly compacted and watered. Mature plants must be transplanted 1 time in 3 years. This requires the division of the bush. If you do not pay attention to its growth, then over time the viola will lose its appeal. Flowers will be small and barely visible among lush foliage. Most varieties of viola are propagated by grafting.

Viola care in the garden

It is necessary to constantly monitor the condition of the site where the viola grows, to keep the soil moist. Features of the structure of the root system require regular loosening of the soil. Irrigation at normal climatic norms in the summer should be moderate. Enough to be naturally moistened with rainwater. For a hot and dry summer, the frequency of watering increases, otherwise the plant may die. Weeds, fallen flowers and leaves are cut off in time, as they will interfere with flowering. Every month, viola bushes are fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate or superphosphate. On an area of ​​one square meter will need about 30 g of the substance.

Seed collection

After the plant blooms, and it happens, as a rule, in late summer or early autumn, the seeds are collected. In place of withered buds, seed boxes are formed. They are considered fully ripe when they begin to turn up. The boxes are cut and the seeds are taken out of them, which are then dried and stored in a cool place. If you do not remove the seed boxes from the bush, then an independent self-seeding will occur and next season you will have to plant the bushes.

Perennial viols, which are bred today in suburban areas, can safely withstand low temperatures. Hybrid properties allow them to endure severe frosts in our region. However, in winter, the bushes are covered with fir branches and dry leaves so that the root system of the flower does not freeze. Annual varieties after flowering must be disposed of.

Diseases and pests

Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the cultivation of the viola in the garden plot should not cause any particular difficulties or questions if you carefully follow the care guidelines. Otherwise, you will have to face various plant diseases, for example, powdery mildew may appear on the bushes, which looks like a bloom covering leaves and stems. The cause of this disease can be excessive nitrogen feeding bushes. A solution of soda ash with the addition of soap or foundation, which is sprayed on diseased parts of the plant, is used as a remedy. To consolidate the effect, the procedure is repeated after a couple of weeks.

If the required temperature regimes are not observed, the soil is saturated with moisture, other more serious diseases arise, for example, gray mold or blackleg. Spores of affected areas spread rapidly throughout the plant. Patients specimens are cut, and the soil around the surface is disinfected with a solution of foundationol.

Spotting in the bushes is rare. Signs of the disease is considered the appearance of dry leaves. Gradually, the viola begins to weaken and eventually dies. In order for the disease not to be transferred to other plants, it is necessary to collect all the infected flowers and burn them, and spray the healthy bushes with Bordeaux liquid several times for prophylactic purposes. After that, it is better to repeat this procedure after 2 weeks. Caterpillars and pearls are common among viral pests, consuming the green parts of the plant. Spraying the viola with a solution of chlorophos and extract of tobacco helps to get rid of them.

Planting and caring for the viol (in short)

  • Landing: Perennial seeds are sown in the ground before winter, annuals are grown seedling: they sow seeds for seedlings in March, and seedlings are planted in May in the ground. If the viola is grown in a two-year culture, the seeds are sown on a school bed in June or July, and in late August or early September, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
  • Bloom: depending on the type, variety and mode of cultivation from early spring to late autumn.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: rich, moist, well drained.
  • Watering: In the season with the usual amount of precipitation, the viola can not be watered, but watering should be regular during drought: the soil in the area is kept loose and slightly wet.
  • Top dressing: once a month full mineral fertilizer.
  • Reproduction: seeds and green cuttings.
  • Pests: clover moths, spider mites, gall nematodes and violet pearls.
  • Diseases: Podium, smut, leaf spot, gray mold, black leg, powdery mildew and variegation virus.

Viola flowers - growing conditions

Viola is represented by perennial, biennial and annual herbaceous plants, reaching a height of 15 to 30 cm. The root system of the viola is fibrous, the main shoot is upright. The simple or pinnately dissected viola leaves, equipped with stipules, are either assembled into a rosette or grow alternately. Viola flowers are axillary, solitary, on long peduncles, up to 7 cm in diameter, upper petals with marigolds, lower, larger, with a sacciform formation at the base. The colors and forms of viols are striking in their diversity: plain, two-tricolor, spotted, striped, with one spot, with wavy or even edges of the petals, simple or double. Viola blooms very copiously, depending on the time of planting either from mid-March to late May, or from August to frost, although there are hybrids that can bloom throughout the summer or twice per season. The fruit of the viola is a box with seeds that remain viable for up to two years.

  • Viola is hardy and shade-tolerant, although far from the sun's rays, it does not bloom so heavily, and the flowers become smaller. The soil for the viola is preferable loamy, fertile, moist, since the growth on dry sandy soils also leads to the fact that the flowers of the viola become small.

    Sowing viola on seedlings.

    You can sow the seeds of viola right in the open ground, but better we will tell you how to grow viola seedlings, since the seedling method of seed propagation is usually more reliable than seedless. If you plan to see flowering this year, the cultivation of viola seedlings should start from the end of February. Before sowing a viola, buy a soil substrate for violets at a flower shop, and soak seed seeds for a day in Appin or Zircon solution. Then place the seeds in the grooves made in the soil and sprinkle them with the substrate rubbed between the palms of your hands, pour, cover the container with glass or transparent film and keep it in a room with a temperature of about 15 ºC.

    Viola pick.

    There are two opinions about how many times and when to pick the viol. Some flower growers insist that the seedlings of the viola swoop down twice: the first time when the seedlings grow a pair of true leaves, and the second time the picks of the viola are performed in another 2-3 weeks according to the 6x6 scheme. But other, no less experienced experts believe that the second picking is, in fact, planting the viola in open ground, so you will have to decide whether the viola should be swooped a second time. In the end, the viola can be planted on the site in an already flourishing state - it is perfectly acclimatized. A viola blooms from seed in late spring or early summer.

    How to grow viola.

    Growing viola requires maintaining the soil in the wet and friable area, since the root system of the plant is superficial - it is at a depth of only 15-20 cm. Watering the area with a viol as needed, but in a normal summer there will be enough natural moisture - rain and only if the summer is hot, you have to mess with the watering. It is also necessary to remove the weeds from the site as they appear and to cut off the faded flowers with seed pods in time so that the viola's flowering does not lose intensity.

    In addition, the care of flowers Viola provides monthly fertilizing with ammonium nitrate or superphosphate at the rate of 25-30g per square meter.

    When to plant seeds for seedlings?

    This option is most common because the bright colors of flowers are simply necessary during this period to create the mood and attractiveness of the garden.

    If the time of sowing in early spring was missed, then the execution of this work in May will bring the gardener the pleasure of flowering in August, and it will last until the cold.

    Planting Viola Seeds - Sprouts Pansies

    First, prepare a soil mixture suitable for sowing. Would need:

    • 3 pieces of leafy ground
    • 2 pieces of river sand
    • 1 piece of sod land

    The soil must be moisture-permeable (the viola does not like waterlogging). To improve the structure of the soil, as well as possible, suitable charcoal, which can be added to the mixture.

    Small cups, peat tablets or general boxes can be a seedling container. Soil tanks fill in advance, giving the soil the opportunity to settle. For disinfection of soil used a solution of manganese. A day later, seeds are laid out on the surface, which have been pretreated with growth stimulants. This may be "Appin", "Zircon", etc.

    In separate cups need to put 2-3 grains. In the boxes between the seeds leave a distance of 1-2 cm, and rows of 0.5 cm should be at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other.

    Close up of seeds shallow. The minimum layer of soil that is moistened, strictly, from a spray bottle, so that no seed is exposed to exposure.

    In order to protect crops from drying, they are covered with glass, film. For the emergence of shoots enough temperature at 15-20 ° C. Do not forget about the daily airing. Shoots will appear in 7-10 days. Shelter clean and create the conditions for the normal development of seedlings. The best option would be t = 10 ° C, a bright place and watering, without waterlogging.

    From the boxes, the grown-up seedlings swoop into more bulk containers. Deepening is carried out up to the cotyledon leaves. Capacities are shaded to rooting flowers.

    From the cups and tablets from the peat you need to remove the weaker sprouts, leaving one. They also need to provide more food area. The most convenient to work with a container of peat. Enough to the bottom of the glass in 250 ml. pour a small layer of fertile soil, put a tablet with a sprout on it, cover it with earth and pour it.

    Site selection for planting

    Garden violet does not apply to capricious plants. Compliance with the minimum comfort conditions will allow you to create magnificent flower arrangements.

    A favorite place for growth - sunny areas, but the sun is not desirable. If at noon, the planting of pansies will be covered with a scattered shadow of garden trees and shrubs, it will be gratefully swaying with motley, purple and yellow flowers, without understanding the heat.

    The addition of charcoal, in a ground form, copes well with drainage functions. In addition, having the properties of water absorption, it will absorb its surplus, and, if necessary, give water to the roots of the plant. Having created such a content, in the future it will be enough to weed weeds, loosen the ground, and combine irrigation with rare dressings with mineral fertilizers.

    Growing viola in a biennial culture

    Summer crops in June, determine the initial purpose of the viola - growing in a two-year culture. In this case, bloom will fall on the spring following the year of sowing.

    In the garden, with a light fertile soil, shallow grooves are cut, and the seeds are sown. You can use the method of "scatter".

    In both cases, sprinkle a very thin layer of soil on top. Moisturizing is not required if the soil is well-moistened before sowing. The bed is shaded to prevent rapid evaporation of moisture from the top layer of soil. After 10-14 days there will be sprouts violets.

    Окрепшие всходы пикируют на другую грядку, когда на них будет не менее пяти листочков, соблюдая интервал в 5-7 см. В августе или сентябре проводят вторую пересадку, используя рассаду в качестве окаймления цветников с многолетниками, или высаживая цветы отдельными группами. Разбавляя однотонные тёмные сорта, яркими и пёстрыми цветами фиалок.

    Расстояние для созревшей рассады должно составлять не менее 15 см.

    By the end of September, the viola will have compact bushes, with 5-6 leaves. Such plants will go green in winter, and in spring their flowering will be early and abundant.

    If the seeds of the violet were sown earlier than the specified period, or during a long fall, flowering is possible in the autumn. But this deficiency will lead to the worst wintering of the flower.

    Flowering will occur in mid-May. One flower retains its decorative effect throughout the week and fades. If you remove them in a timely manner, then the period of flowering of the viola will last significantly.

    Pansies - care in the open field

    To extend the flowering period will also help fertilizing with complete mineral fertilizers (nitrophoska - 50g / m2), in combination with irrigation. Bright islands of violets will decorate the garden for a month, then there will be a sharp decline in flowering, and it will resume in the second half of summer.

    In the shaded corners of the summer cottage pansies can bloom all season, with timely watering and dressing. Removal of wilted flowers and seed pods should also be carried out in a timely manner so that the plant does not have to expend energy on seed ripening.

    The main works are weeding and loosening. About watering and fertilizing already mentioned.

    General information

    Viola belongs to the family Fialkovye, the main habitats of which are concentrated in mountainous areas, as well as those places that are characterized by a temperate climate.

    Viola in the balcony boxes

    To date, experts allocate from 400 to 700 species of the Fialkov family. If it seems to you that you do not know a plant called “viola”, then you are very mistaken, since each of us, if not growing this flower at home, then, in any case, you saw and smelt it. And all because the second, the folkly name of the viola, sounds like pansies.

    Viola Vittrock - garden pansies

    The charming simplicity and inconspicuous attractiveness of the flower attracted connoisseurs of beauty for a long time - even two and a half thousand years ago, the ancient European nations used the plant for weaving festive garlands and wreaths, as well as to decorate the premises where traditionally held celebrations. The categorical popularity of the viola has reached our days: now the garden viola is one of the most sought-after plants among those who love green "jewelery." A variety of varieties allows you to not limit yourself to fantasy.

    Viola white

    Viola is a plant whose “life” lasts from one year to many years of prosperity. Viola has a fibrous root system and upright escape. The leaves of the plant are equipped with stipules and can be either collected in a rosette or grow along the stem in turn. The flowers of the viola are amazing, they amaze with their diversity: they can be monophonic, two-colored, three-colored, double, wavy. The diameter of single flowers reaches 7 centimeters.

    Viola Vitrokka "ROKOKO"

    Growing conditions

    Gardeners and gardeners love the viol for its abundant and frequent flowering. If a person’s choice fell on a hybrid of a plant, he will be pleasing to the eye with bright flowers during three summer months or twice a season. Flowering time depends on when the viola was planted: either from March to the last month of spring, or from August to the first frost.

    Flowering ampella viola

    A characteristic feature of the viola is its resistance to cold, as well as shade tolerance, that is, the conditions in which it can exist can be quite tough. The only thing that lovers of viola need to remember is that in the shade the plant will not produce as many flowers as when exposed to direct sunlight. For the growth of viola loam soil is ideal. Dry sandy soil is also good, but in such conditions the sizes of flowers will decrease.

    Viola Vitrokka "Inspire White Visa Red Bloch"

    By and large, this is all the information that should be armed to those who are going to plant the viola. Since the ready seedlings can empty the wallet, it makes sense to grow it on your own, especially since it is not at all difficult.

    Popular varieties of viola

    Seedling preparation

    So, you bought a few bags of seeds of pansies. The most common mistake inexperienced florist - sowing viola in the spring with the expectation that in the summer the plant will delight the eye with lush flowering. But everything is wrong, because it is a two-year flower. In fact, seedlings of pansies should be planted in the summer, in July.

    First you need to treat the seeds with fertilizer that accelerates growth. The finished seeds are placed in a half centimeter groove and sprinkled with earth. The next step will be watering the seedlings. The soil should be shed completely, but very carefully, to prevent the blur of the ground.

    In the photo watering seeds planted in the cassette.

    Experts advise zamulchirovat planting small sawdust to maintain soil moisture.

    It will take ten to fifteen days, and there will be small shoots that should be slightly hidden from the sun with a dark film, and after fifteen days to remove it. Around August, the pansies will be ready for landing on a “permanent residence”.

    If you do everything according to this scheme, the bushes will grow with lush, rich and long flowering. From pansies planted by a simple seedling method, this is not achieved, because this is how we give sprouts a strong and confident start.

    Viola, planted in the ground, in need of shelter for the winter with the help of straw or fir branches. Such an air cushion will keep your plant safe and sound during the winter, save the roots from freezing. At the onset of spring, flowers must be fed with complex fertilizer twice - even before the formation of buds and at the very start of flowering.

    Where better to plant viola

    The nuances of growing viola in containers

    Growing Viola on the balcony

    The first thing that novice gardeners should remember is the need for additional lighting of seedlings using fitolamps or ordinary fluorescent lamps, which are sold in any store. Pansies are very light-loving: ideally, the light day for a flower should be from fourteen to sixteen hours.

    Growing viola in pots

    To seedlings not stretched in the container to unimaginable scale, you must use the growth regulator Alar.

    Temperature

    It is very important to choose the right temperature for seed germination. Ideally, it will be from 18 to 30 degrees. Even insignificant deviations from the norm can lead to the fact that seeds will germinate much slower. However, at the moment when the sprouts appear above the soil, the temperature can be reduced to 15 degrees, since the grown seedlings calmly tolerate cold (but not frost). If you do everything right, in a short time you will be pleased with the gentle, beautiful flowering of pansies.

    Viola pests and diseases.

    As you can see, planting a viola and caring for it is very simple, so do not neglect the rules of cultivating the viola, follow them meticulously, otherwise you will have to face difficulties that could be avoided with proper care. We are talking about diseases and pests that occur when the rules of agricultural engineering are violated. Most often viola suffers from powdery mildew, which manifests itself at first as a gray or white bloom on the leaves, buds and stems. This happens if fertilizing is made only with nitrogen fertilizers or in a dry sunny summer with abundant morning dew. In the case of powdery mildew, the plants are sprayed with soda ash and soap or a foundation, or ground sulfur. If the disease does not pass, the treatment can be repeated in two weeks.

    In addition, in violation of the temperature, humidity and soil conditions established by agricultural technology, problems with such diseases as gray mold or blackleg can occur. Remove the causes of the disease, until it has covered all the plants, remove the affected specimens, and pour the soil after them with the foundation.

    Sometimes the viola is sick with spotting, from which its leaves dry, and the plant itself becomes weaker. It is necessary to destroy the affected specimens, and it is best to burn them so that the infection does not spread throughout the garden. For the purpose of prophylaxis, healthy plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid 2-3 times with an interval between sessions in two weeks.

    From insects dangerous for the viola caterpillar clover shovel and pearl violet, eating the leaves of the plant. Destroy them by spraying viola with chlorophos or extract of tobacco.

    How and when to collect viola seeds.

    Collect the seeds from the faded plants in August and September. After the flowers wither in their place, there are small boxes with seeds. A sign of seed readiness is turning the box up. From cut boxes, remove the seeds, dry them in the room and sent to storage in the refrigerator. If the seed boxes are not removed, then abundant self-seeding may occur, and you will see fresh natural shoots either in the autumn or next spring, but if they are thinned out and transplanted in time, you can grow the viola without any labor for sowing and planting.

    Viola Wittrock (Viola wittrockiana).

    The most common type of viola on our flower beds is the Viol Wittrock, or pansies. This is a perennial 20-30 cm tall, grown in culture as a biennial plant, with oval alternate leaves with blunt prongs along the edges and single large flowers from 4 to 10 cm in diameter of various colors and shapes. Flower growers divide the viola garden varieties into several categories: according to the timing and quality of flowering, flower sizes, color, shape and level of winter hardiness. If the criterion is the size of flowers and their simultaneous number on a bush during flowering, then according to these characteristics, the varieties of viola Vittrock are divided into groups of large-flowered (grandiflora) and many-flowered (multiflora) varieties. If the basis of the difference is color, then conditionally the varieties are divided into monochromatic, bicoloured and spotty, but it should be understood that there is no clear boundary between these groups, and the same variety can be considered, for example, to be spotted and bicolor.

    Single-color varieties of Viol Wittrock:

    • Viola White - sprawling bush with a diameter of 25 cm and a height of 20 cm with green leaves, white with a barely noticeable green and yellow fragrant flowers on long peduncles. This variety blooms from mid-April to early August and from late September to October. Good winters under cover
    • Blue boy - Bush up to 25 cm tall with bluish leaves, lilac-blue corrugated flowers with a diameter of 6 cm, with dark lilac strokes at the base of the petals, the upper petals bent back. At the same time on the bush can open up to 19 flowers. It blooms from April to August and in September-October; it hibernates well under shelter,
    • Rua de Negri - compact bushes up to 23 cm in height, leaves with a bluish bloom, flowers up to 5 cm in diameter with rounded black wavy velvet petals at the edges, slightly bent back, and a bright yellow eye at the base of the lower petal. It opens simultaneously on the bush to 14 flowers. It blooms from April to August and from September to October. Good winters under cover
    • Viola red - upright stems up to 20 cm in height, flowers up to 7 cm in diameter red with a very dark eye at the base of the petals.

    Two-colored varieties of Viola Vittrok:

    • Jupiter - compact variety up to 16 cm in height with dark green leaves and flowers up to 5 cm in diameter with rounded white and purple flowers, the upper petals of which are white at the base, are bent backwards, and the lower ones have a velvety texture and a deep purple hue. Opens up to 20 flowers at once. Winters well
    • Lord beaconsfield - bushes up to 25 cm high, glaucous leaves. The flowers are up to 5.5 cm in diameter. The upper petals are white-blue with ink strokes at the base, the lower ones are deep-purple with an uneven lilac rim around the edges. At the same time on the bush blooms up to 30 flowers. Winters well
    • St knud - compact bushes up to 20 cm in height with green leaves and flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, in which the upper petals are of a light yellowish-orange shade, and the lower ones, bright orange with a red base, strongly protrude. At the same time on the bush can be open up to 19 flowers.

    Spotted Viols:

    • Shalom Purim - repeatedly improved form of the Rococo viola variety, the same terry viola, but with an incredibly strong corrugation of the petals of very large flowers - one third larger than the standard. It is marketed as a mixture of seeds of various colors. In contrast to the parent species, it prefers light partial shade to the sun - then the leaves are more corrugated,
    • F1 hybrid eyes tiger - a novelty of an incredible color: on the yellow background of the petals there are frequent thin brown strokes, the flower diameter is up to 3 cm. It can be grown both in flowerbeds and in pots. The hybrid differs in early, plentiful blossoming and pleasant aroma,
    • F1 hybrid "Cassis" - a compact plant with purple petals with a thin white border at the edges, it blooms very abundantly, it has high winter resistance.

    Viola horned (Viola cornuta), or viola ampelnaya.

    In addition to the Vittrock viola, the horned viol is often grown in culture, or the ampelous viola is a perennial plant with a height of 15 to 25 cm with a creeping branched rhizome that, growing, forms a carpet. The stalks are triangular in section, the leaves are oblong, large-toothed, up to 6 cm long, and pinnate pinworms. Numerous flowers 3-5 cm in diameter, with a horn-shaped spur, painted in a lilac-violet range with a small yellow eye. It blooms from May to September. Hardy, but it is desirable to cover for the winter. Cultivation of ampelous viola is not much different from cultivation of viola garden. Mainly British breeders were engaged in breeding new varieties of horned viola:

    • Arkwright Ruby - large-flowered variety with petals of intense red color with a yellow peephole and dark spots on the base of the lower petals,
    • Balmont Blue - variety with blue flowers and climbing shoots, grows well in hanging baskets and in balcony containers,
    • Perple Duet - in the flowers of this variety, the two upper petals are burgundy in color, and the three lower ones are dark pink with darker strokes at the base.

    Sweet Viola (Viola odorata).

    Another species that grows well in culture and has many garden forms is the fragrant viola, a perennial with a thick rhizome and almost round leaves up to 9 cm long and up to 8 cm wide, forming an outlet. The flowers are quite large, fragrant, purple hue. It blooms in May for three weeks, sometimes re-blooms in the fall. Grades:

    • Rosina - very fragrant flowers of pink color, darkening closer to the base, the upper petals are bent, the side ones are slightly extended forward - the flower looks like a flying bird,
    • Charlotte - Viola with large dark purple flowers,
    • King - Viola with very fragrant purple flowers.

    Viola moth, or klobuchkovaya (Viola papilionacea = Viola cucullata).

    Cultural moth and deer, or klobuchkovaya, 15-20 cm in height with heart-shaped or bud-shaped, with jagged leaves and large, single purple flowers, in which the upper petal is white with a purple stripe, and the center is yellowish-green, almost white. It blooms from April to June. Grades:

    • Freckles - white flowers with thick purple specks that become larger in the cool spring. It blooms in spring before the beginning of summer. One of the most unpretentious cultivars of viola,
    • Royal robe - a miniature viola with very fragrant flowers, the petals of which are bent back, and at the base of each petal are yellowish and black strokes. The petals themselves have a color ranging from violet-blue to purple,
    • Red Giant - very large red-purple flowers on long peduncles. Long-flowered variety.

    In addition to these widely used types of viola, the graceful, mountainous, yellow, marsh, Altai, hairy, labrador, single-flowered, variegated, sandy, Somhet, canine, sister, stop-like, amazing, hill and violka Selkirka could grow in garden culture. In the meantime, they are used by breeders mostly for the breeding of new varieties and hybrids of viola garden.

    And although garden violet, as the viola is also called, unites under its name about 300 different species, the following varieties are usually chosen for home and garden cultivation:

    1. Tri-color viola. This species is found as wild-growing, and it can also be used as a background plant for flower beds with ground-covering flowers. The height of the bush is 12-15 cm, the flower itself shimmers with white, yellow and purple hues. Blossoms from April to September, perennial.
    2. Viola Wittrock. This variety is found everywhere and is distinguished by its large flowers of various shades. To create such a hybrid, the breeders used about six different violets. The bush reaches a height of about 25 - 35 cm, the buds can reach 11 cm in diameter. This variety is grown both as an ampelous plant and as a groundcover.
    3. Horned Viola. This variety grows in one place for many years in a row and does not lose its decorative effect. Бутоны по диаметру скромнее, чем виола Виттрока, всего 3 – 4 см, но при этом сорт радует разнообразной окраской и устойчивостью к болезням.
    4. Виола Сорория. Этот вид называют еще и мотыльковая фиалка, потому что на фоне компактно сформированного зелёного куста, голубоватые мелкие цветки выглядят как присевшие отдохнуть мотыльки. Этот вид хорошо смотрится в составе альпийских горок, можно использовать при оформлении дорожек и рабаток.
    5. Виола Вильямса. The species originated from the crossing of horned violet and Viola Wittrock. The color of the species is bright, the flowers are small, perfect for ampel growing.
    6. Scented violet. And although this variety is not as decorative as the others, it is grown mainly because of the aroma, since such violets spread a thick honey smell. But since the flower was originally wild, sometimes it goes wild without proper supervision, and the flowering becomes smaller.

    Did you know that an extract from the buds of a fragrant viola is used to create perfumes.

    Sowing viola seeds on seedlings

    Before planting the seeds, it is worthwhile to disinfect them in a solution of biofungicides, because otherwise you can not only get seedlings with a bunch of diseases, but also infect the soil and other garden plants. Despite the fact that the seed is small, and does not imply a preliminary soaking, it is worth doing the following procedure.

    1. Seeds are laid on a piece of thick fabric and the fabric is tied in a knot, so that a bag is formed.
    2. After that, the seeds can be dipped in a disinfecting solution and after 10 - 12 hours to get such a device. You do not have to catch the seeds in all capacity.

    Planting viola seeds for seedlings will be successful if the following conditions are met:

    • landing capacity must be in sufficient quantity, otherwise future sprouts will not have enough space. Seeds are planted at a distance of 1 - 2 cm from each other, this must be taken into account when preparing containers,
    • ambient temperature for the germination of violets should be not lower than 20 ° C and not higher than 25 ° C,
    • Violets sprout in the dark, so before the first germs appear, the boxes with the seedlings are covered with a dark film. But 2 times a day you need to arrange air procedures for future shoots, that is, remove the protective film for half an hour.

    Planting technology:

    1. In the transplanting boxes spread out the drainage.
    2. Pour the soil on top.
    3. Depth of seeding is 0.5 mm.
    4. After planting, the seeds need to be watered.
    5. After that, sprinkle on top with dry soil.

    It is important that the soil for planting is loose, and it will be useful to add moisture-absorbing granules to it, because the viols do not tolerate overdried soil.

    Seedlings care

    A week later, the first shoots of the earth will stick out, after which the viola must immediately be rearranged to sunlight or to fitolamps.

    1. After transferring the seedlings to the window, the film should not be immediately removed. First you need to increase the intervals of ventilation, gradually increasing them, and then completely remove the film. If material of dark color was applied, but it is replaced with transparent fabric.
    2. On sunny warm days it will be useful after the seedlings get stronger to take it outside, as the flowers adapt more quickly to transplanting to the open ground.
    3. Water the flowers when the soil dries.

    When watering it is important to make sure that the tray for draining the water is empty, because otherwise, root decay may occur. Viola loves moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water.

    Pick and Pinch

    Viola tolerates travel. Still, the first pick should be carried out when two leaves appear.

    If the root system was damaged during the picking, then it is not fatal for the plant, the viola will correct itself. In this case, the plant will lag a little in development.

    Pinching violets is needed in order to better bush them. It is produced when the plant will have 3 pairs of leaves.

    Terms of transplantation depend on where the viola will live on:

    • if on the balcony, the seedlings can be transplanted as early as April,
    • it is best to transport the seedlings to the household plot in May, after the weather becomes steadily warm, otherwise the night frosts will destroy young plants.

    When choosing a permanent place, it should be borne in mind that violets bloom better in coolness, but with a large amount of diffused light.

    1. Prepare the ground for landing. The place allotted for the flower bed must be carefully dug, aired and sifted the soil, as well as organic fertilizers. Compost or rotted manure at the rate of 10-liter bucket per 1 square. m of land.
    2. After preparing the soil and before planting the plants, at least a few days must pass before the planting can begin. This is necessary in order for the soil to ripen. The optimal time is a week.
    3. Since viols do not like to keep their feet damp, it is best to fill in a little drainage in the wells for planting, suitable for this is expanded clay or sand-gravel mixture (sand-gravel).
    4. Before the transplant itself, shed the solution of biofungicides.
    5. After this, the bushes of viols are planted at a distance of 12–15 cm from each other.
    6. The top layer of soil is better to be mulched, or to powder PGS.
    7. If the violets are planted on the balcony, for 1 bush you need 2 liters of land.
    8. It is better to plant viola flowers in the evening.

    It is important to remember that the flowering of violets begins quite early and almost always flowering plants are transferred to the garden.

    Further care of the viol in the open field

    In order for the whole season to admire the beautiful pansies, it is worth knowing how to take care of them.

    1. Watering the plant should be moderate, but if the weather is dry, then watering should be increased.
    2. Violets do not like weeds, so they require regular weeding.
    3. It is necessary to loosen the upper layer so that oxygen is supplied to the roots.
    4. Constant flowering takes a lot of energy, so regular feeding is a must. Fertilizers should be applied at least once a month. And you need to alternate between organic and minerals. It is better to buy ready-made complex fertilizer for violets.
    5. For preventive protection against pests, the plant can be treated several times per season with special solutions.

    Usually, with proper care, violets do not cause any particular problems, but there are some difficulties that a gardener may encounter:

    • if a place not protected from direct sunlight is chosen, then violets may stop flowering as early as June,
    • on a too shaded area, viola's flowers will be pale and small,
    • the buds will shrink when too thick,
    • on depleted soils, the plant will be stunted,
    • Inadequate watering has a bad effect on growth and disease resistance.

    Violets, satisfied with the care, will always be pleased with a rich scattering of lush blooming.

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