Maple Ginnala well adapted to our latitudes. It can be found on the streets, in parks and squares. Maple leaf is quite famous. He is a symbol of Canada. Often, famous writers and poets celebrate it in their works. The wide crown saves in strong heat from the baking sun, and in the fall you can see a magnificent combination of bright colors.
Maple is an unpretentious plant, so it is often used for landscape design. It possesses positive energy, fills a person with strength and restores life balance. The maple of Ginnal (reviews of people make it possible to draw such conclusions), although it is a decorative element, it is quite capable of healing the human soul and resisting the “dark forces”.
River maple: description
The Latin name of the breed is “Acer ginnala Maxim”. Culture first appeared in 1860. It is a fairly large shrub, sometimes grows to the size of a small tree. Homeland maple is considered to be China, Korea, the Far East and the south-eastern part of Mongolia. Differs tent-shaped crown, wide enough and thick, if the trunk is only one, then its shape may be conical. The trees of this species grow annually by 30-60 cm. The flowering process begins after the leaves bloom. Such a maple inflorescence-panicle many-flowered, yellowish and with a light fragrant aroma. In the summer in the trees appear fruit - lionfish. They have an elongated shape, something resembling wings. Their size reaches up to 3 cm, and the color can vary depending on the sun: from green to bright red. The leaf of the figured form resembles the three connected blades, of which the middle one is slightly longer than the rest.
Interesting description of the Ginnala maple plant. The photo is presented below.
- crown dimensions reach 5-7 m,
- tree height - up to 6 m,
- growth rate is moderate
- life span is more than 100 years,
- leaves change color in autumn, grow to 10 cm,
- flowers are small, about 5 mm, round, flat,
- breed refers to ornamental plants.
This breed of maple can be used as a hedge. This method is common in cities. Around the roads you can find often planted trees. In late autumn or early spring, the crown is cut, giving it a neat shape. Also, these trees are used to decorate country plots, creating beautiful compositions. In parks and squares one can meet both groups and the single-standing Ginnala maple.
Features of this breed:
- sufficient frost resistance of an adult tree,
- germination on any type of soil,
- resistance to arid climate
- love for a lot of light.
Features of growing
- The choice of location. Since the maple likes a lot of light, a place to land must be chosen open. Small penumbra are allowed. Dark areas will cause the leaves to lose their natural color.
- Landing. The root system of the tree is not recommended to go deep into the ground. The valid parameter is no more than 5 cm for varieties with an advanced root system. How to plant Ginnala Maple? Planting is made in the fertilized soil with humus or other mineral fertilizers.
- If the groundwater is very close to the landing site, it is necessary to build a drainage of rubble.
- Irrigation rates: in the summer - up to 20 liters per week, in the fall and spring (in the rainy period) - up to 20 liters 1 time per month. The dosage is calculated per unit of the plant.
- Loosening the soil around the trunk should be carried out regularly, especially after watering, in order to avoid compaction of the earth.
- Additional feeding can be made only one year after planting. Such types of fertilizers as "Superphosphate", urea, Kemira, and potassium salts will do.
- Trimming is done every year.
Ginnala Maple: Winter Care
Adults tolerate frost well, but the young do not. They need additional warming, especially if there is little snow in winter. As a rule, a section of the root collar is the most unprotected, therefore it is recommended to cover the tree with spruce branches. If the plants are 2-3 years old, then it is necessary to wrap the sacking of a tree trunk in two layers. Later, this need disappears by itself.
In early spring, shoots of the crown are examined for frost damage. Dead branches must be cut off in order for the Ginnala Maple not to waste energy on their restoration. Subsequently, the crown grows to its usual size due to young shoots, which by the beginning of the next winter have time to become covered with tree bark.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
- When buying seedlings pay special attention to the root system. Be sure to check for the presence of growths and other diseases. If the roots are well developed, and the tree itself is very flimsy, then this indicates some kind of irregularity.
- Planting is done only in spring or summer.
- In order for the trees not to clog each other, it is recommended to maintain the distance between seedlings 2-4 meters.
- In case of maple disease, the affected branches are completely cut off, and the cut points are treated with a special garden pitch.
Ginnala Maple is prone to infectious diseases.
- Mealy dew appears as white bloom on the leaves, usually in May-June. The rapid development of this disease contributes to the arid climate. New foci of infection appear within 10 days. By the end of summer, white dots change color, first to yellow, then to black. The virus survives even in winter, affecting the soil. Ripe ascospores in spring infect new foliage.
- White spotting. At the end of summer numerous white irregularly shaped spots appear on the leaves. In the center of them is the center of the viral disease, represented by a small dot of black color.
- Brown spotting. Fungal pathogen infects the leaves in the first months of summer. Manifested in the form of brown and red spots.
- Pink spot affects leaf on both sides. The focus of the disease develops directly under the spot.
- Leaf deformity occurs due to the development of the fungal pathogen Taphrina polyspora. As a rule, the affected areas become black or dark brown.
Diseases of branches and tables
- Wilt. A very serious disease that can lead to the death of a tree. The fungus infects the vessels of the trunks and branches, preventing proper nutrition. The affected tree begins to dry out gradually.
- Nectrium necrosis affects the maple bark and blood vessels. The plant at the beginning of the disease begins to fade, and then dries completely. The fungus is spread by rainwater and insects.
- Cytosporosis develops mainly on thin trunks and branches. Manifested in the form of necrotic lesions of a local nature. Often, the affected bark changes color, becoming lighter or darker by several tones.
- Diplodial necrosis is expressed by black growths on the bark of a tree. To the touch the infected places are rather rough.
The main condition for successful recovery - time to notice the source of infection. Therefore, it is recommended, especially in summer, to carefully examine the trunks, branches and leaves of trees every week. Even if at first glance Ginnal's maple is completely healthy, then protective preventive measures are still necessary.
Places where beetroot, potato and sunflower had previously sprouted are not suitable for this tree, since they can potentially be a source of wilt infection.
An effective method of prevention is timely pruning, with which you can remove damaged areas. These branches, leaves and trees can not be left on the site, as the fungal infection can spread to healthy plants.
What requirements makes this tree to its habitat, we learn.
It is best to grow a tree in an area well lit by the sun. The plant does not like shadows, only sparse, light shading is permissible. The fact is that the maple growing in the shade will not be so decorative - for example, it will definitely not please the red, bright foliage.
It is also important to plant a tree on the site where there is no close groundwater occurrence. Although maple grows in nature near water bodies, however, it does not tolerate stagnation in the ground. If such a place is not found, it is necessary to take care of quality drainage before planting.
It is not recommended to plant maple in the area where beets, sunflowers or potatoes were grown before. The fact is that these plants could suffer from fungal diseases, which are also subject to ginnala.
Ordinary gravel may be used as drainage, which should be laid on the bottom of the planting pit with a layer of 10-20 cm. If the soil contains a large amount of lime, mix peat into it to create more favorable conditions for the plant.
The nutritional value of the soil is also important for this tree. If the soil is poor, it must be fertilized with compost or humus (4-8 kg of fertilizer per 1m2 of soil). It is also important that the soil where maple grows is light, loose. In heavy clay soils, the plant slowly stretches upward, develops worse.
Consider the main points regarding the planting of a ginnal maple.
The plant can be rooted in the fall and spring. Autumn is more suitable for the southern regions, but spring is more suitable for the north and middle lane. It is necessary to plant the plant during the period when the latter has no active sap flow. March or November is the best fit.
Begin to prepare the landing hole should be a couple of weeks before the autumn planting and even in the fall for the spring. The pit parameters should be as follows: 0.7x0.5x0.5 (depth-length-width).
The earth extracted from the pit must be mixed with the following components:
- humus (compost, peat) - 3 parts,
- river sand - 1 part.
The earth itself is taken in relation to the other components, as two parts.
If you plan to plant plants to form a hedge, a long trench will be dug instead of a hole.
- A seedling is placed vertically in a pit filled with half-prepared nutrient soil.
- The roots of the plants are straightened.
- The seedling is covered with earth (its root neck should fall on the ground level).
- Falling asleep, the ground must be slightly tamped.
- After planting, the seedling is immediately watered.
- Mulching of the basal circle is performed using straw, peat, sawdust, and spruce fir branches (layer 5-10 cm).
Planting and care of the ginnal maple - procedures are simple. And if we dealt with the planting, now we will learn how to carry out the proper care of the ornamental tree growing on the site.
It is necessary to produce soil moistening during the active growing season regularly: once a month. If the weather is very dry, the frequency of watering increases to once a week. During one procedure, it is necessary to pour 15-20 liters of water under the roots of the plant.
Important: Immediately after planting, maple is watered once a week for a month, each time using a double rate of water.
If during planting all the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the ground, the next two years you can not feed the maple river. However, if the supply was not sufficient, the next year after planting in the spring, it is necessary to feed the plant using:
- urea - 40 grams per 1m2,
- superphosphate - 30-50 grams per 1m2,
- Potassium salt - 15-25 grams per 1m2.
In the summer, the maple will thankfully respond to top dressing with complex mineral compounds. Ideal for Kemira station wagon: the composition is prepared at the rate of 100 grams per 1m2.
Soil loosening is necessary the next day after watering in order to break a hard crust on the surface. This procedure will allow air to access the roots of the tree, as well as relieve some weeds.
Attention: it is necessary to loosen to a depth of only 5-7 cm, since the roots of maple lie superficially.
This procedure should be carried out as needed to rid the maple of weaning nutrients.
The first cut maple cut next spring after planting. Tolerates the plant pruning well, almost immediately recovering after it. When forming pruning, most often the maple is given the shape of a pyramid, a tent that fits best with its natural beauty.
In the spring the tree needs sanitary pruning. Carefully inspect the plant after wintering and remove frozen, broken, sore branches. Sanitary pruning preserves the decorativeness of the tree and eliminates the likely breeding grounds for infections and diseases. Be sure to burn all the bio-material obtained during pruning, as it may be infected with pest larvae, parasites and microbes.
Ginnal maple quite adequately tolerates cold and frost. Adult plants will survive without shelter even in extreme frosts, but young seedlings are better to cover for the winter.
Gardeners use fir twigs to shelter. The root neck of a young plant is the most vulnerable place for frosts, therefore the base of the trunk is wrapped with sacking. Such protection will be required by the seedling until three years after its planting.
The disease greatly spoils the decorativeness of the tree and manifests itself as an unpleasant white bloom on its leaves. Most often there is a pathology in the late spring and early summer. The disease is contagious and can spread to the whole tree, and then to the nearest plants. Struggle with powdery mildew by spraying systemic fungicides.
The disease manifests itself at the end of summer, its main symptom is the spots on the leaves - white, small and multiple. In the center of each such spot is a small black dot, which is the focus. Apply also systemic fungicides.
It is also possible that the plant is infected with fungal diseases affecting the trunk and branches. Such diseases include, for example, wilt. This disease is able to completely destroy the tree, as it directly affects its vessels.
It is important to begin to fight this disease as early as possible, so regularly examine the maple for the detection of alarming symptoms: various stains, damage, rot.
Important: It is advisable to completely remove and burn the parts of the plant affected by the fungus. This measure will prevent further spread of the disease.
Ginnal maple is a wonderful ornamental plant that can decorate any infield. As you can see, planting and caring for this tree is easy, so a beginner can grow it
Usually it is a large shrub, in more rare cases - a smaller tree. Multi-stemmed plants have a crown of marquee-shaped form, when the trunk is single - wide-conical. For the year the shrub adds 30-50 cm.
Flowers in rich multicolored bunches it dissolves flat and round shape. They have a yellow tint and delicate aroma, and bloom after the leaves bloom. As a result, green lionfish appear, up to four centimeters in size, although in some cases they may be bright red. In September and October, the color of the foliage changes from yellow - orange to bright red, it is especially well distinguished in sunny weather.
The tree grows on average about five meters in height and in diameter, and sometimes it can reach seven meters. This plant usually lives a century, but can live up to two hundred and fifty years. The leaves are oblong. In spring and summer, they are green, in the fall - crimson, in size reach 8 cm.
Maple Ginnala in landscape design is also called maple riverine. This name of this plant has earned its popularity on the coast of rivers in Chinese, Japanese and Korean regions. It should be noted that it is used for the purpose of bonsai on Japanese soil, because maple blossoms for up to three weeks.
The main characteristics of the tree
The maple's peculiarity is that it grows quickly enough, stress-resistant to cold and is able to decorate municipal streets with its presence. It is important to keep in mind that this plant is very fond of light, and therefore loses its individual color palette under dim lighting.
It is worth noting that the maple in landscape design shows itself well and alone, and in combination with other trees. Very beautifully, it stands out with a colorful crown in the fall among other plants. And also the bush can be applied favorably as a plant hedge.
If it is supposed to be used in this particular variant, then the river maple Ginnnal should be regularly cut, so that it can be no more than one and a half meters high. Regular haircuts will have the necessary impact on the renewal of the crown and allow the shrub the opportunity to bloom in a magnificent, beautiful and orderly manner. Then the tree will be an unsurpassed decoration of any place.
The tree is a honey plant. For this reason, in the flowering period, you can see bees circling around Ginnal. This is worth considering if the landing is supposed to be near children's educational institutions.
Features of planting and care
Посадка и уход за кленом Гиннала имеют свои особенности, которые необходимо иметь в виду. От их соблюдения зависит будущий внешний вид посадки:
- Важно внимательно отнестись к выбору саженцев. Они должны смотреться крепкими и здоровыми. Само дерево следует выбирать таким, чтобы оно не казалось чахлым или хрупким.
- When planting it is worth considering that too low lighting will lead the crown to the loss of a kind of deep color. This means that it would be more correct to choose the sunny side of the plot as a last resort to partial shade.
- Planted maple trees correctly 2 times a year: in early spring and autumn.
- It is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers, as this will contribute to the rapid and high-quality growth of the shrub.
- Planting seedlings is better at a distance of 2-4 meters. This range will not interfere with the growth of adult maples.
Of course, the maples perfectly tolerate drought and heat, but still, abundant watering will help preserve the original bright color of the crown. On one bush on average there will be enough liters of fifteen - twenty water.
The plant is very malleable to various characteristic diseases and the influence of harmful insects. The most common ones are:
- maple whitefly,
- coral spotting,
- maple mealybug
If with a sapling this happened, then immediately you need to cut off the affected areas of the crown and process the fresh place with garden pitch. Moreover, seasonal pruning has a very positive effect on the condition of the trees. This accelerates the growth of new healthy branches and soon the gentle green foliage will please the eye.
We should also mention the features of care in the winter. These trees must be monitored during the winter., especially for young trees. Their seasonal cold can ruin, for this reason it is necessary to warm the root system in order to exclude freezing of the roots. At the same time, an adult tree becomes almost indifferent to the cold, and there will be no need for this event.
In ancient legends, the maple tree was considered a talisman. Therefore, this plant will not only provide aesthetic pleasure, but will also save the garden from otherworldly evil.
In the care of maple trees are completely undemanding, and therefore they are so easy to use in landscape design. If you choose the Ginnal maple for planting, you can soon get a beautiful plant that will be able to please with its brightness and richness of colors, to transform any, even the most ordinary-looking garden.
Who to choose a neighbor
Since the Ginnala river maple is a tree with a very saturated color, it is more correct to combine it with greenish trees. Conifers are excellent in this quality, for example: spruce or fir. Besides, the tree will look beautiful with such trees:
These trees are great and are combined with each other, while they have quite similar pretensions to the ground.
For arrangement of rocky zones dwarf species of a maple excellently serve. It should be here and choose the neighbors. The tree is very colorful mixed:
- with small-leaved limes,
- fir trees
- larch trees.
Such a choice of trees will be particularly successful, since they require the same soil composition.
Conditions for favorable growth
Ginnal needs very fertile soils, so be sure to worry about the composition of the soil. If candidates for planting consider large trees, then it is important to fertilize the holes for planting maple and then wet the seedlings well.
An important advantage is that such trees are much better able to cope with strong frosts, so if you plant them in the northern regions, it is advisable to opt for large varieties of shrubs.
Maple breeding is carried out through seeds that are collected in the autumn, and cuttings. In the first case, it will be necessary to collect maple seed during the leaf fall, when the temperature outside will be near zero.
Seeds are placed in cooked grooves for three - four centimeters. The first shoots will appear in 14-20 days.
The height of the young escape in the first months is not forty - eighty centimeters. Before planting a shrub in its permanent growth zone, it should be kept in the first landing site for two and a half or three years. During this time, their root system should be strengthened.
For growing these plants in wetlands it is necessary to use a drainage system.
Reproduction of ornamental species
Decorative species are propagated by grafting trees of the same type with them. To do this, used as grafting, and budding.
It is important to take into account when breeding various conditions, although a big plus of this type of maple is that for him favorable conditions can be created artificially. For this you will need:
- dig a deep hole 60 cm
- fill with the substrate, which includes humus, turf ground, sand,
- after planting, you need to properly water and not allow the soil to dry out, and also not to forget about fertilizers,
- near-stem space must be systematically cleared of weeds.
Ginnala Maple is a convenient and attractive plant for landscape designers, thanks to which it is possible to embody many interesting original design solutions in the garden in a relatively short time.
Appearance and botanical description
Cannon or maple maple (Acer ginnala) belongs to the genus of the same name and the Sapindovye family. It is not too tall deciduous shrub or tree.
Height. Reaches growth from 3 to 8 m.
Trunk. Short. It grows in diameter from 0.2 to 0.4 m.
Crown. Wide, in the form of a tent. Reaches in diameter from 5 to 7 m.
Bark. It has a thin smooth structure, painted in brown and gray. At old trees it cracks.
The branches. Thin, upright growing. Reddish or brown.
Root system Superficial, dense.
Leaves. Opposite, simple. Reach lengths from 4 to 10 cm, widths - from 3 to 6 cm. Divided into three blades. The average share is somewhat elongated. With age, dissection becomes less noticeable. The leaves grow on straight petioles with a length of 3 to 5 cm, which often have a pinkish tint. They have a smooth surface, painted in dark green.
Flowers Appear in the spring - then, when the leaves fully bloom. Have a yellow-green color. Medium in size - from 0.5 to 0.8 cm in diameter. Combined into inflorescences in the form of brush-panicles. Have a light pleasant aroma. Flowering lasts from 2 to 3 weeks.
Fruit. At the end of the summer there are paired lionfish. Their length is from 0.8 to 1 cm and in width from 3 to 6 cm. First, the fruits are painted in a reddish color, then brown.
Growth rate. Moderate. Growth for the year ranges from 30 to 50 cm.
Lifespan. This long-lived tree - on average, lives up to 100 years, but older specimens, which have celebrated their 250th anniversary, are also recorded.
Where is growing
The habitat of this maple species is East Asia, Southeast Siberia. It is found in the eastern regions of Mongolia, in Korea, Japan, and China. It grows on the banks of rivers, sea coasts. Because of the latter feature, and received its second name - riverine. It can also be found on the mountain slopes, in light forests.
Application in landscape design
The river maple remains decorative throughout the growing season. He has a very beautiful crown, it is original when it blooms. After ottsvetaniya its decoration become lionfish. The peak of decorativeness occurs in the autumn months - it is then that the leaves turn yellow, orange and fiery red.
This type is widely used in park culture since the XIX century. Use in group and single landings. Planted on the banks of rivers, ponds, curbs. His best neighbors are dogwood, loch, coniferous crops, snowberry.
In culture, this species is most common in northern Europe and in North America. In Japan, it is used in the decorative art of bonsai.
Planting can be made in spring and autumn. It is important to properly prepare the landing hole. This process begins two to three weeks before the seedling is placed into it. It is excavated with a size of 0.7 m in depth and 0.5 m in width; humus and mineral fertilizers are added. We dig a hole for planting maple
The soil mixture is prepared from the following components:
- humus (peat compost) - three parts
- sod land - two parts
- sand is one part.
Before planting the bottom of the pit must be well loosened. To do this, you can pierce it several times with a fork.
If the plants are planted in a hedge, then it is necessary to dig a trench and plant it, leaving a distance of 1-1.5 m. In this case, the root neck can be slightly deepened - up to 5 cm. We dig a trench for planting maple
Sapling must be selected in a specialized nursery. It is better to take a two-year copy. He must be healthy looking, with no signs of wilting, defects, damage. If the root system of the seedling is open, then you need to make sure that everything is in order with it, it is sufficiently developed and does not have lesions with rot or other diseases.
Carefully place the seedling in the prepared landing pit and straighten the root system. The root neck at the same time should be at ground level. Then the pit is filled with the prepared mixture. After lightly tamped. Planting Ginnal Maple
Immediately after planting, the plant will need to be plentifully watered, and the soil in the near-stem circle will be mulched using peat, straw, lapnik, sawdust. Mulch is laid in a layer of 5-10 cm. She will allow to keep moisture at roots, to warm them in the winter and to save from emergence of weeds.
After planting, the maple will require minimal care efforts, which will be to:
- loosening the soil
Periodic weeding will also be required to get rid of weeds that take the life-giving moisture and nutrients from the maple.
In the event that no mineral fertilizers are applied during planting, a year after planting, in the spring, the tree will need to be fed. For this purpose, use of urea (40 g per 1 sq. M.), Potassium salt (15-25 g), superphosphate (30-50 g). Urea
In the summer, during loosening, you can make a comprehensive fertilizer. Suitable "Kemira Universal" (100 g per 1 sq. M).
The first haircut must be made a year after planting (spring). Pruning maple pruning tolerates very well - quickly restored. Since its shoots have a peculiarity to form long internodes, and the trunk grows very quickly, it is desirable to leave no more than 7-10 cm of growth every year when cutting to achieve the desired height of the fence, while respecting its shape as a trapezoid. Only after that it will be possible to produce a haircut on a pattern.
When making maples in the form of borders, they are regularly cut, leaving no more than 0.5 m in height.
Despite the fact that the river maple is characterized by high winter hardiness, the first years after planting its root system will still have to be covered before the winter period. It is suitable for spruce branches, dry leaves. As it grows, winter hardiness will increase, and the tree will no longer need this procedure.
Maple has a good immunity, but not one hundred percent. It can suffer from coral blotch, which manifests itself as red spots on the bark. With the defeat, the diseased branches are removed, the cut sites are covered with garden pitch, and the tree is sprayed with blue vitriol. Coral spotting
Powdery mildew is another dangerous disease for maple trees. If there are signs of infection - white mealy plaque on the leaves - the plant should be ground gray with lime in a ratio of 2 to 1.
Recommendations for growing Ginnal maple
It has one drawback, essential for hedgerows - it dissolves late and leaves the leaves early. But in general, the glenal tree mall is very beautiful.
The height of the fence can be any - from living walls with a height of 2-3 m to a curb with a height of 0.5 m.
Planting pattern: the distance between the plants in a row is 0.5-0.8 m. With a two-row planting, the plants are placed in a checkerboard pattern, the distance between the rows is 0.4-0.7 m.
Since the growth rate is high, you will need 4-6 haircuts per season. For low hedges it is better to use a sloping cut from the sides so that the bottom does not become bare.
The following aspects are important for growing: the soil must be rich in nutrients, and the most important thing is that the hedge from the Ginnal maple loses its decorative effect in the shade, since the plantings are loosened, i.e. need to plant in the sun.
Ps and in our botsad: I saw a pretty field there, and after the first winter I had -50% of what it was (besides it was stitching hard with a lapnik tree !!). In general, and told when I bought :-D
In autumn, such a culture adorns the garden with its beautiful foliage. Maple ginalla (in a different way - riverine) comes from the genus of the same name and the Sapindo family. Such a shrub does not differ in height and replaces the foliage every year. The height of the tree can vary from 3 to 8 meters. The crown is spreading, wide, possesses the form of a tent. In diameter, the crown can be up to seven meters.
The bark is small in thickness, represented in brown with a gray tint. In old cultures, the bark is usually cracked. The branches are thin and erect, painted in brown and red.
Surface type root system with abundant thickness. The leaves are located opposite, reach a length of 10 centimeters, the width is about five. All sheets are divided into three separate blades, the middle share is elongated. Over time, the section begins to become not so noticeable. The leaves grow on straight petioles with a total length of up to five centimeters, very often painted pink. The surface is smooth, dark green.
Inflorescences on maple form in springtime, when leaflets are fully developed. The flowers are yellow-green. Average sizes in diameter can reach up to 0.8 centimeters. Inflorescences create a solid brush-panicle and exude a pleasant smell. The flowering process lasts two to three weeks.
At the end of the summer on the tree there are paired lionfish, which subsequently form the fruit. Their length reaches a centimeter and a width of up to five centimeters. First, the fruits have a red color, over time they begin to become dark.
The growth rate of the tree is moderate. In one year, from 30 to 50 centimeters is added, everything will depend on the growing conditions of the crop. The lifetime of this tree is very long. Culture can grow for about 100 years, but trees have been noted that have continued to grow for 250 years.
The maple leaf has been used by Canadians as a state symbol since the 17th century. Since 1965, it has been used on the official flag of the state. This honor was given to the plant due to the fact that Maples are important economic resources of the countryThey are used during the harvesting of wood, in the extraction of sugar, as well as for the preparation of nutritious maple syrup, which helps to improve human health.
Places of growth
Places of growth of this type of maple - East Asia, Southeast Siberia. Often the plant can be found in Japan, China, Mongolia and Korea. The tree grows on the banks of rivers, as well as in coastal areas. Because of the latter, the culture was called the riverine. And also the tree can grow in mountainous areas, in forests with good illumination and dispersion of sunlight.
Such a culture is considered a good honey plant. Honey, which is collected from this type of maple, includes about 2.5 percent of sugar, as well as about thirty percent of tannins.
In the lush green mass of the Ginnal maple, birds like to lodge, bullfinch eat their seeds. Branches and buds are designed for small proteins.
Peculiarities of care
This plant loves sunshineand therefore the place for its landing needs to be chosen the most open. However, the shrub is able to tolerate well and small penumbra. The dark area will lead to the foliage losing its natural color.
When planting a plant, the root system does not need to go deep into the ground. A maximum of 5 cm. Before this, it is better to feed the earth with humus or mineral fertilizers. With the close occurrence of groundwater in the planting pit make a drainage layer of rubble.
Watering the bush requires the following:
- summer - weekly up to 20 l,
- Autumn and spring (with regular rainfall) - up to 20 liters per month.
To avoid the problem of compaction of the earth, it is necessary to regularly loosen the soil around the trunk. It is especially important to do this after watering.
Additional fertilizer allowed to produce only a year after planting. To do this, suitable fertilizers such as:
Every year the bush requires trimming.
This maple species is frost resistant.. Its adults normally tolerate even severe frosts, which is not the case with the young.
Young plants, especially in winters with little snow, need additional warming, in the form of a spruce cover. In addition, protection is needed and the most vulnerable part of the bush - the root neck. To protect it from the winter cold, they use burlap. The fabric is wrapped around the trunk of a young tree in two layers and secured with a rope. Оберегать растения необходимо до достижения ими возраста трёх лет.
С наступлением весны крону осматривают на предмет повреждённых морозом побегов. Всё погибшие ветви обрезают, что позволяет клёну не тратить силы на их восстановление. In the future, the crown will grow to its former size due to the growth of young shoots, which by the next winter will have time to acquire sufficiently dense bark.
Ginnal's maple breeds in three ways:
In the wild, fallen plant seeds undergo a natural stratification, that is, cold treatment, during the winter, which allows them to successfully germinate in summer.
It is possible to grow maple from seed and at home. Do it in the spring or fall.
With spring cultivation plant seeds need to be subjected to artificial stratification. To do this, the crib is placed in a container with moistened sand, which is then left in the refrigerator for three months. In April or May, it is time to plant seeds from the tank into the open ground. For better germination, they are soaked in hydrogen peroxide for up to three days. The first shoots can be expected after 15 days.
When planting in the fall seeds are naturally cold treated. To do this, as close as possible to the time of snow fall, they are placed in a landing pit to a depth of four centimeters with wings up.
At any time of planting, by the beginning of autumn the young maple will grow by 20-40 cm in height. Care of it consists of weeding, loosening the soil and regular watering. In addition, in the summer heat the plant will require shading from the sun's rays. At a permanent place of growth it is transplanted at the age of 1−3 years.
For the reproduction of the bush cuttings it is necessary to prepare cuttings in the autumn from 20 to 25 cm long in the fall. Then the finished cuttings are instilled in the ground for the winter period. In spring, young plants are seated one by one in pots with a light soil substrate.
Maple trees are most often propagated by grafting. That is, on the bushes of one species, they either carry out a budding, that is, a kidney inoculation, or copulation, that is, a graft. In such cases, the height of the trunk is from 0.5 to 3 m. The best time for grafting is considered to be early spring, when plants do not start sap flow.
Maple leaves are subject to the following diseases:
- Mealy dew. It looks like a white bloom on the leaves. Appears in May - June. By the end of the summer period, the white dots become yellow, and then black. Even the winter cold does not save from the disease, it goes into the soil and with the advent of spring infects new leaves.
- White spotting. The disease manifests itself in foliage at the end of summer with multiple white spots. In the center of each spot is the focus of the disease - a small black dot.
- Brown spotting. Fungal disease affects the leaf in the first months of summer. It looks like brown and red spots.
- Pink spotting. The disease affects the leaves on both sides. Its center is right below the spot.
- Taphrina polyspora fungus. Causes leaf deformation. Usually, sore spots become black or dark brown.
The branches and stem of a plant can suffer from diseases such as:
- Wilt. This disease can kill shrubs. The victims of the fungus are the vessels of the trunk and branches, which deprives the plant of good nutrition.
- Nectrium necrosis. The disease attacks the bark and vessels of the bush. It is spread by rainwater and through insects. This type of fungus can destroy maple.
- Cytosporosis. This disease is evidenced by the appearance of local necrotic lesions on thin trunks and branches. Often the affected bark becomes slightly lighter or darker.
- Diplodial necrosis. It is given by the appearance on the bark of a maple of black growths that are rough to the touch.
For effective treatment, it is important to detect the infection in time, which is why you should carefully inspect the tree every week and remove its diseased parts in a timely manner.
The following measures are suitable as preventive measures:
- Maple trees cannot be planted in the places where beets, potatoes and sunflower were previously grown, as there could be a wilt.
- Timely pruning will help eliminate damaged areas of the plant, as well as reduce the area of spread of a possible disease.
- The trimmed parts of the tree must be removed from the site, preferably burned to prevent new infection.
Maple Ginnala with the right care for many years will adorn any park, garden or backyard. All summer long, it will be a decent part of landscape design in the form of a luxurious green bush, and in the fall it will bring bright colors to its garden palette with its magnificent crown.
Planting and care
Maple looks great in different styles of landscape design. Bright hedges come out of it.
In order to achieve a saturated color of foliage in the fall, you should choose a sunny place. If there is no such goal, then the tree can be planted in a partial shade. Landing is carried out either in late autumn or in early spring.
For a fence, dig a trench 50 cm deep. At the bottom they fill up the soil consisting of humus, leaf soil and sand. For each square meter contribute 100 g of superphosphate. If the groundwater lies close to the surface, then you need to make a drainage system. The trench is dug to a depth of 70 cm and covered with a layer of rubble. Then add a fertile mixture. Trees are planted at a distance of 1 m. At the completion of the work, the soil is mulched with pine spruce or peat.
Ginnal maple is picky about soil quality. In the autumn, under digging, 4 kg of humus or compost are introduced into one square. Care is a systematic weeding and loosening pristvolnyh circles.
In dry years it is necessary to water the trees, as the root system is sensitive to water scarcity.
The variety is susceptible to pests and diseases. A weevil, mealybug and a whitefly perch on the leaves. When these insects are found, it is necessary to collect and burn the fallen leaves. The crown and pristvolny circle are sprayed with karbofos.
Due to fungal diseases, maple can lose a significant part of the shoots. At the first signs of contamination, the damaged parts should be cut out and the wood treated with a fungicide, for example the Switch.
Maple tolerates removal of sprouts. During the season, the branches are pulled out by 30 cm. The first pruning is done the next year after planting. The event is held either in the middle of autumn or in early spring, until the buds are swollen. At riverine maple sap flow begins early, you should be careful in complying with the timing of pruning.
Trapezoid profile of the fence should be formed as early as possible. With the annual pruning of the ginnal maple, almost half of the growth is removed. To get even compact bushes, you must meet the following conditions:
- avoid soil salinization. After digging into the ground, pour out the plaster and close it up with a rake,
- improve viscous earth. Sand is applied to the clay soil to make the texture lighter.
follow the mode of dressings. In summer, the land is fertilized with complex fertilizer, for example, diammofoska, and in the fall - with superphosphate and potassium,
- water the fence. Under one tree you need to make 20 liters of water. The procedure is repeated once a week.
The hairstyle does not cause special difficulties. If the maple is planted in favorable climatic conditions, then after a while it will create a green barrier. Leaves absorb dust and purify polluted urban air.