A pear is a fruit tree, more capricious and susceptible to adverse weather conditions than its related apple tree. In spite of this its fruits deserve recognition and respect from gardeners. This article provides a detailed description of the Belarusian late pear variety.
Description of pear varieties Belarusian late
Pear - a variety of Belarusian breeding, is a medium-growth tree, attributable to the group of winter fast-growing pears.
Crohn rounded, dense, formed by small, oblong-elliptical foliage. Leaf plates are smooth, have a light green color. On the edge of the sheet - small teeth.
Belarusian pear late
Large skeletal branches almost at right angles articulate with the trunk. The ends of the branches rise up. Cranked shoots are moderately thickened and have a light brown color with light pubescence. In the cross section form a circle. The bark of shoots is covered with a variety of lentils.
Small buds, in turn, are not covered with pubescence and have a conical shape. Slightly bent away from the shoots.
The formation of fruit occurs on kolchatka:
The flower of pear "Belarusian late" white with oval-shaped petals.
The opportunity to harvest the first harvest is already available at 4 years of age. Fruit ripening usually occurs in late September. Pear yield high. But the positive impressions of the abundance of crops are reduced by their frequency.
Fruits of the Belarusian Late pear are not distinguished by very large sizes, reaching a mass of only 110 - 120 g. Upon reaching maturity have the correct wide-circle shape. The fruit on the tree is mostly the same size.
Fruits pear Belarusian late
The rough, light-colored skin of pears is covered with light brown dots. Color at the time of removal from the tree green, by the time of consumption, acquiring an orange-yellow color. Cover color from red-brown to raspberry shades.
Juicy pears with white pulp of average density. They are distinguished by their oiliness and tenderness. The taste is estimated from 4.2 to 4.4 points.. Fruits are sweet with a slight sourness. Pears of a grade "sit" on the shortened equal fruit stem.
Fruits taken from a tree in the late days of September may be preserved until February, sometimes longer.
The grade "Belarusian Late" is considered self-fertile (self-pollinated), but for more yield, the presence of “Oily” and “Bereloshitskaya” pears is recommended.
Breeding history, region of growth
Pear tree varieties "Belarusian late" refers to the winter varieties of breeding of the Belarusian Research Institute of Horticulture. The variety was obtained by sowing the seeds of uncontrolled pollination of the Kind Louise pear.
The variety was entered into the State Register of Breeding Achievements Allowed to Breeding in the North-West and Central Regions.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The positive qualities of this variety gardeners include:
- Skoroplodnost, that is, getting the first harvest in just 3 or 4 years after planting,
- Long term preservation of fruits (in some cases pears can be stored until April)
- High rate winter hardiness.
The disadvantages of pear:
- Periodism in fruiting,
- Susceptibility scab and bacterial burn,
- Shallowing fruits with large yields
- Periodic Trim Requirement due to the tendency to thickening the crown.
The most favorable time for landing on the site is late spring.. Three days later, as well as within fourteen days after the snow cover disappears, the optimum time for planting a pear tree. Possible landing in the autumn period: before the first frosts, but after leaf fall.
When choosing a seedling, it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the planting material. A young tree should have elastic branches and a dense crown with healthy leaves.. In the root system of the seedling should not be dry and dangling roots.
The required area for the development of a pear tree - 4x4 m
4x4 meters - the minimum size of the area under a pear tree, which guarantees its normal development. In addition, the pear prefers well-lit places with fertile soils. The soil for planting fruit trees should be well aerated and moderately moist. It is not allowed to plant Belarusian late on soils with regular stagnation of moisture or on too heavy clay soils, which will lead to slow growth and development of the tree. Growth on sandy soils is accompanied by similar symptoms.
- Before planting, it is necessary to carry out preliminary soil preparation.. The most suitable substrate for young seedlings is rich in minerals, loose soil.
- Planting pit for the Belarusian Late Pear should be up to 80 cm in depth and 100 cm in diameter. Under the seedlings with a closed root system, the planting pit is prepared according to the dimensions of the earthy coma.
- Planting is carried out in dry, warm weather.. First of all, from a young tree all leaves are removed, and also broken branches and dangling roots are cut off. Before planting, it is necessary to maintain the seedling root system in water for 3 hours,
- In the center of the seat is preparing the holewhere the sapling is installed. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully ensure that the root neck is not buried in the soil - it is optimally placed at a height of 7 cm from the ground level,
- After filling the pit with pre-prepared primer, the landing site is rammed,
- Watering after planting must be at least 30-40 liters per tree,
- After full absorption of moisture, the trunk circle is mulched wood shavings or crushed bark of small fraction.
The care of the “Belarusian Late” variety is simple and consists in the timely conduct of dressings, pruning, and also treatment against diseases.
Pristvolny circle of pears must remain free from weeds.
For the first few years, the stem of a pear must be completely cleared of weeds., the soil is not worth digging. Planting a clover, fescue red and meadow bluegrass under the tree will enrich the soil with necessary substances.
A Belarusian breeding pear is drought-resistant, but in especially dry periods a volume of water up to 70 liters per plant is introduced under the tree twice a week.
The purpose of pruning young pear trees - formation of the future tree crown. The trunk for this is cut to a quarter of its total height, and from 3 to 4 strong branches are left on the trunk. Pruning of adult trees is carried out in the spring. At the same time, all damaged, contiguous large branches are removed from the crown.
The first feeding is carried out only for 2-3 years after disembarkation. Fertilizers for pears can be applied root and foliar ways.. In the future, autumn and spring feeding are carried out on a regular basis, summer foliar - if necessary.
Wrapping a pear trunk will save a tree from winter frosts
Preparing the fruit tree for winter, despite its cold resistance, is necessary. The trunk is recommended to be tied with paper, and the trunk circles should be covered with a layer of wood shavings.
Harvesting and storage
Fruit harvesting for storage is carried out 2-3 weeks before the average harvest date. Pears are removed from the branches by hand. During the transfer of fruit in the container must be careful: avoid blows and damage to the skin of the pear, the separation of the stem.
Fruits are stored in containers or wooden boxes in well-ventilated areas, with temperatures ranging from +2 to +9 degrees. In a container pears are stacked in no more than two layers. It is desirable to wrap each fruit in a separate newspaper sheet.
Peculiarities of this variety
Pear varieties "Belarusian Late" slope to a strong and rapid thickening of the crown, which has a negative impact on fruiting. To avoid this, regular anti-aging scraps are required..
Pears that are not stored are sent for processing - jams, juices and preserves. Dried fruits are often made from Belarusian pears..
Diseases and pests
The pear of the Belarusian selection is quite resistant to pests and diseases. Most often there is a defeat her scab.
Defeat pear scab
To protect the tree from insect pests, processing is carried out in three stages:
- Spraying "Rogor-S" before flowering,
- 5% solution of Bordeaux liquid is applied after flowering,
- During the growing season it is permissible to spray the tree with "Fitoverm" or "Aktaroy",
- Urea 5% solution is used as prophylaxis.
- Before budding starts, the plant is sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid. In the period of bud break - "Tilt",
- After flowering, it is recommended to treat the trees with “Fundazol”, and in two weeks - with a solution of urea,
- 1% Bordeaux liquid processing is allowed during the growth of the fruit.
Due to its taste, as well as long shelf life variety "Belarusian late" secured in the hearts of many gardeners. The small area occupied by the tree is complemented by significant volumes of crops, which distinguishes the variety from many others.
Choosing a good sapling
When you buy a sapling, then pay attention to some nuances. How it should look like:
- The bark looks dense and lively, not coagulated and dry. The leaves are not dried.
- Feel the branches. They should be smooth and elastic.
- Inspect the sapling so that there are no broken or dried roots. They, like branches, should be elastic, flexible. Well, if there are at least 3 thick roots from the trunk, and from them - additional small roots.
- The pear must be grafted. The vaccination site has a smooth bark.
Leaves on a sapling necessarily break off when planting. Then they will not pull from the tree he needs to adapt to the new place moisture.
If you decided to plant a pear in the next few hours, then wrap the roots with a damp cotton cloth. Then wrap in a plastic bag and tie it at the trunk. Before planting, release the roots from the bag and fabric, put in water for at least 3 hours.
Where to plant?
Best of all, the pear will grow on black soil. A free area of 4 m 2 is required. The plant loves the sun. A sapling, as well as an adult pear, should not overshadow anything.
For young plants, the soil requires loose with medium moisture. Do not plant it where there is always groundwater. The roots will start to rot and the pear will die. If you plant in a soil where there is a lot of sand or clay, it will slowly grow and give a bad harvest in the future.
How to prepare the soil?
An experienced gardener will prepare the soil before planting: loosen the soil, apply mineral and organic fertilizers, pour the hole.
Select a suitable site and dig a hole from 0.6 to 0.8 m deep. Lay the soil in the direction to be mixed with 2 buckets of high-quality compost, and preferably manure. Add sand here - 2 buckets, phosphorus - 20 g and potassium - 30 g.
If on your site land with high acidity, you need to spend liming. The disadvantage can be corrected by adding hydrated lime, dolomite flour or ground limestone. The application rate depends on the level of acidity:
- in acidic soils, with a pH level of 4.8 - 5, up to 400 g of lime per 1 m 2 is introduced,
- in strongly acidified, PH 4, add from 600 to 700 g per 1 m 2.
When it is warm and dry outside, you can start planting a tree.
Stepwise landing process
- Pit you prepared in advance. Now in it it is necessary to make deepening. The roots of the seedling can be open or closed (with an earthy ball). In any case, the size of the pit should correspond to the size of the root system.
- Put the tree in the recess. The root neck should rise 7 cm above the soil surface.
- Now fill the roots with soil. At the end you need to carefully ground tamp with a shovel.
- Water the tree well. It takes about 30 to 40 liters of water.
- After the water is absorbed, stick the tree circle with wood chips or dry grass.
How to grow properly
Gardeners know that pears are unpretentious trees and a Belarusian Belarusian pear is not an exception. All she needs is to feed in a timely manner, in the spring and autumn to cut dry branches, to carry out preventive treatment for various diseases and pests. Years are different in yield. When you see that there are too many pears on the tree, they need to be thinned, otherwise the fruit will grow smaller.
Caring for a circle
After planting pears need to carefully care for pristvolnom circle. If weeds grow here, you can weed them by hand or mow. The soil does not need to completely dig over the shovel, in order not to accidentally damage the roots. Loosen the ground around the trunk can be gently with a pitchfork or a hoe.
It is better not to land anything in the near-trunk circle. It is important to keep it clean. Weed grass can become a haven for pests.
If you do not want weeds to grow on the trunk, you can treat this place with herbicides. Processing is carried out only in calm weather, when there is no gust of wind. Chemicals must not fall on the trunk or leaves of a tree.
Belarusian Belarusian late normally tolerates a temporary drought in the summer. Additional watering is required if there is no rain for a long time and the weather is hot. Then it is enough to pour out from 1 to 50 to 70 liters of water. Watering liquid is defended in large containers, for example, barrels. Before watering, it is desirable to warm up a little in the sun.
In order for the young tree to bear fruit well and not grow too high, you need to take care and shape its crown. At the planted tree, it is enough to leave 3 or 4 strong branches, and cut a trunk at the top by ¼ of the total height.
Pruning need to early spring, when there is no active sap flow. In the autumn, inspect the tree and carry out preventive pruning, removing dry branches, damaged by insects or the sick. Thin out this way annually. This will protect the tree from the spread of disease, reduce the number of pests. Thanks to these measures, the yield will be higher.
Remember that they make a crown thicker branches that grow deep into. They should be removed first. If you notice weak or long branches, they are also cut off. When thinning, use a sharp shears or garden shears.
Wounds after pruning need to grease the garden pitch, which can be purchased at a specialty store.
Preparing for the winter
Preparing for winter begins in autumn. All fruits are removed from the pear. Under the tree rake collect fallen leaves. After all, under them just insects are hiding, which can bite into the bark, lay eggs there.
In dry weather they clean the bark of the adult pears from the moss, remove the neatly old layer, which cracked and in some places wrapped. Dry branches on the tree must be timely cut. Cut the area generously with a garden pitch. Trunks and skeletal branches should be covered with lime mortar.
Around the mature trees, the ground needs to be dug up into half a spade bayonet. Most often the insects and the larvae they set aside are at a depth of no more than 15 cm from the surface.
Belarusian late pear perfectly tolerates mild cold, but when over -20 ° C, the roots that are closest to the surface of the earth can freeze. To avoid this, pristvolny circle need to fall asleep with peat or small wood chips. Be sure to cover the mulch roots of young trees. The experts recommend warming the trunk of a pear, wrapping it with paper or any breathing material.
In the spring whitewash protects against diseases, pests and sunburn. Trunks of pears it is important to process lime not only in spring, but also in autumn. Autumn whitewash will help:
- prevent the development of fungal diseases,
- save from parasites
- protect from frost.
Do not neglect the recommendations of experienced gardeners and process pears 2 times a year. In the fall, be sure to whitewash from October 15 to November 15 in dry weather.
You can buy whitewash in the store, but you can do it yourself. It's simple:
- Mix the following ingredients: lime - 2.5 kg, copper sulphate - 0.5 kg, clean water - 10 liters, carpenter's glue - 0.1 kg.
- Stir everything thoroughly so that the components are well dissolved.
- Let whitewash infused. It takes at least 2 hours, after which it can be used.
In the first planting year, the seedling does not need to be fertilized. It is quite enough food, made during landing. The first feeding is made in 2 or 3 years. This can be done by foliar or root.
Feed the plant to spring and autumn. In the summer you can do foliar feeding. This is optional, if you think that the plant is weakened. You will notice a lack of trace elements from the condition of the tree and its fruits.
The fruits of this variety do not differ in large size, their weight ranges from 110 to 120 g. Когда фрукты достигают своей зрелости, они образуют правильную широкогрушевидную форму. Фрукты на дереве, как правило, одинакового размера.
Плоды покрыты шероховатой, светло-окрашенной кожицей, на которой имеются светло-коричневые точки. The color at the time of collection from the tree is green, at the time of consumption it acquires a yellowish tint. Cover color can be from red-brown to raspberry color.
Fruits are quite juicy, have white pulp of medium density. The fruits are distinguished by their tenderness and oiliness. Experts estimate the taste of the fruit from 4.2 to 4.4 points. Fruits taste pretty sweet, there is a slight sourness. The fruits are on a shortened and even stalk.
If you removed fruits from a tree in the last days of September, they can be stored until February, sometimes even longer.
This pear variety is self-fertile, i.e. self pollinated. But if you want to get more harvest, the tree is recommended to be planted on the site, along with varieties of pears, like oily or bereloshitskaya.
A bit of history and region of growth
The Belarusian variety belongs to the winter varieties of the breeding of the Belarusian Research Institute of Horticulture. This variety was bred by sowing seeds of uncontrolled pollination of varieties of good Luiza pears. The resulting variety was entered into the State Register of Breeding Achievements, which was allowed to be bred in the North-West and Central regions.
Disadvantages and advantages
The main advantages of pear varieties include the following:
- This variety is quite fast-growing, that is, the first crop can be obtained only three or four years after planting a tree.
- Fruits are characterized by a long shelf life, in some cases, fruits can be stored until April.
- Belarusian pear has a high rate of winter hardiness.
It is also worth noting that This variety has some drawbacks.which are as follows:
- Periodic fruiting.
- Trees are exposed to scab and bacterial burns.
- During high yields the fruits become small.
- Due to the tendency to the growth of the crown trees need periodic pruning.
How to plant?
If you are going to plant this type of pear in your summer cottage, then the most favorable time for this procedure is late spring. Landing is recommended after 3 days, as well as within two weeks after the disappearance of snow cover. Planting is also recommended in the autumn, before the first frost, as well as after the leaf fall.
If you do not know how to make the selection of a sapling, then you need to pay attention to the condition of the tree. Planting material should have elastic branches, dense crown with healthy leaves. The root system should be free of dry and dangling roots.
The size of the site for planting a tree should be at least 4 to 4 m. Only such an area of the site will guarantee the normal development of the pear. It is also worth paying attention to the fact that the pear will feel most comfortable in a well-lit place with fertile soil. The soil for planting a tree should be well aerated and moderately moist. It is strictly forbidden to plant this variety on the soil with regular stagnation of water or on too heavy clay soil, as this may lead to slow growth and development of the pear. Growing up on sandy soil can also trigger similar symptoms.
The planting technology of the Belarusian late pear is as follows:
- Before the main procedure, it is necessary to carefully prepare the soil. The tree is recommended to grow in mineral-rich, loose soil.
- The depth of the planting pit for a tree should be about 80 cm, and the diameter should be one meter. For seedlings with a closed root system, the planting pit should be prepared according to the size of the earth coma.
- For backfilling, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture consisting of two buckets of rotted manure or compost, the same amount of sand, after which 30 g of potassium and 20 g of phosphorus are added.
- Planting trees must be done in dry, warm weather. First of all, from the seedlings it is necessary to remove all the leaves, as well as cut the broken branches and dangling roots. Before planting, the root system of the seedling is kept in water for 3 hours.
- In the center of the seat to prepare the hole, where you need to install a young tree. In this case, it is necessary to carefully ensure that the root neck of the tree is not ruined into the ground. The optimal placement of the root collar is 7 cm from the ground level.
- Next, the pit is filled with pre-prepared soil, and the landing site is slightly tamped.
- After planting, the sapling must be watered with 30 liters of water.
- When the moisture is completely absorbed by the soil, the trunk circle must be mulched with wood chips or small bark.
Care and growing conditions
Care is quite complicated the main growing conditions are in timely carrying out cutting, top dressing, and also in regular processing against various diseases.
During the first few years, the tree trunk circle must be completely cleaned from a variety of weeds, and the soil is not digging. If you plant a clover, red fescue or meadow bluegrass under a tree, this will enrich the soil with the necessary elements.
Weeds can be removed using herbicides.. However, the treatment must be carried out very carefully so that the toxic composition of the drug does not get on the leaves of the tree.
This variety is drought-resistant, but in especially droughty times, under a pear 2 times a week it is necessary to bring up to 70 liters of water.
The main purpose of pruning young pears is to form a future crown. The trunk of the tree should be cut to one fourth of the total height, and on the trunk it is necessary to leave from 3 to 4 strong branches. Pruning of adult crops should be carried out in the spring. In this case, from the crown of the tree are cut off all damaged, in contact with large branches.
As for feedingthen for the first time it is necessary to feed the tree only in the second or third year after planting. Fertilizers at the same time are brought in the root or extra root way. Further feeding is necessary to be carried out on a regular basis in the fall and spring, summer feeding is carried out if necessary.
Despite the fact that the variety is frost-resistant, trees must be prepared for winter. To do this, the trunk of the pear is tied with paper, and the tree trunks are covered with a layer of wood shavings.
Possible diseases and pests
Belarusian late pear is quite resistant to various diseases and pests. Most often, trees are affected by scab. To protect the tree from pestsIt is necessary to carry out processing in three stages:
- Before flowering, spray the tree with Rogor-S.
- After flowering, apply a 5% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
- During the growing season, spraying of pears with Flyoverm or Aktar is allowed.
- As a prevention, you can use a solution of urea 5%.
Disease prevention includes the following actions:
- Before budding, it is necessary to sprinkle wood Bordeaux liquid 3%. During the budding time, you should use Tilt.
- After a flowering period, the trees are treated with Fundazole, and after another two weeks they need to be treated with urea.
- During fruiting pears can be treated with Bordeaux liquid 1%.
Belarusian late is the sort which is prone to a strong and rapid thickening of the crownthat may adversely affect the further fruiting. To avoid these actions, it is necessary to regularly rejuvenate pruning of the tree.
High yields can lead to a weakening of the tree itself, as well as cause significant chopping of fruits.
Those fruits that are unsuitable for storage, must be sent for recycling. Of them, as a rule, jams, juices and preserves are made. Dried fruits are also often made from this variety.
Due to the excellent taste, as well as the long shelf life of the fruits of the Belarusian late pear securely entrenched in the hearts of many gardeners. To grow a tree, only a small area is needed, which is further supplemented by a large harvest, which is quite advantageous, unlike many other varieties of pears.
If you are going to plant the Belarusian late, remember that she loves sunny places. By the soil conditions, this pear is not too demanding, but it grows better on fertile lands and does not tolerate excessive moisture. For really high yields, place pollinators close by - pears Bere loshitsky and Oily loshitsky.
Pear trees can be planted in spring and autumn. Still, the best time to land, especially in the non-chernozem zone, is spring. Spring planting is made from the third decade of April to the first decade of May. Autumn - from mid-October to the end of the first decade of November.
The pit should be prepared no later than 2 weeks before planting, as the soil should have time to disappear.
Important! When digging a hole, do not forget to lay the upper fertile layer on one side and the rest of the soil on the other.
For pear seedlings, the depth of the pit should be up to 80 cm, diameter 80–100 cm.
- Try to keep the walls smooth, loosen the bottom by 20–30 cm.
- If you plant in sandy soil, put a 10–15-centimeter layer of clay on the bottom.
- Drive a stake 140–150 cm long, 4–5 cm thick into the center of the pit.
- Then pour 2–3 buckets of compost, rotted humus or manure. Undisturbed compost and fresh manure can not be made in the planting hole, since during slow decomposition under the layer of soil ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are released, poisoning the seedling and worsening its survival rate.
- If the soil is fertile, you can do without mineral dressings. Otherwise, add 150–200 g of phosphate and potash fertilizers. If the soil on the site is very poor (sand, heavy clay), use imported soil for planting.
Technique planting sapling
- Seedling preparation (pruning of sick and broken branches and roots).
If you bought a dried seedling, place it in water 1–2 days before planting.
Proper planting ensures normal tree development.
It is better to plant together: one person sets and holds the tree, and the other straightens the roots, sprinkles them (necessarily the top fertile layer of soil) and tamps the soil.
To completely fill the ground with gaps between the roots, you need to shake the seedling slightly while the roots are powdered with earth.
Planting pear seedlings - video
Young seedlings should be watered every 10–12 days (20–30 l of water for 1 tree). Adult pears of the Belarusian Late are quite drought-resistant, so this should be done as the soil dries out (4–5 buckets of water per 1 tree).
In case of a very severe drought, it is necessary to wet the ground 2 times a week, about 50–60 liters per tree. If the soil in the garden is acidified, you can apply alkaline irrigation to the tree trunk.
High-quality “pre-planting” refueling of the pit with fertilizers usually ensures the normal development of the tree for 2-3 years. After this period it is necessary to conduct regular feeding. Organic and mineral fertilizers are most often applied to the tree trunk (root dressing), to a depth of 20–22 cm. Do not dig the soil deeper than 10 cm near the trunk. For organic fertilizers, use slurry or chicken manure at the rate of 1 kg per 10 m 2. Nutrients can also be applied in the form of spraying (foliar feeding).
When fertilizing fruit crops, we must also remember about weed control. Their destruction is achieved by treating the soil in pristvolnyh circles, which also contributes to the improvement of the air regime of the soil, the storage of moisture and nutrients.
Apple tree, pear. Moscow: Ed. SME House, 2005
Description and distinctive features of the variety
It is worth noting that the variety got its name for a reason. The first part of it, as is already clear, indicates the territorial affiliation of the first bred tree of this variety, the second means that the fruits of this tree ripen in autumn and winter.
This tree has a fairly average size. The height of an adult plant rarely exceeds 5 m, the crown volume varies from 3 to 4.5 m. The crown has a fairly voluminous structure, a spherical shape, the main branches form an angle of 90 ° with respect to the trunk. The shoots have an average thickness, a rounded section and covered with fibers, the color of which varies from light white to light brown.
The size of the fetus compared with most other representatives of this species - medium. The average weight is about 100–120 g. The fruits are elongated, the skin is rather dull in color, carries a lot of roughness. The entire surface is rippled with a light brown tint. Coloring depends on the degree of maturity and the time that the fetus lay in a torn form. As a rule, during the period when the harvest is done, the color of pears is greenish with patches of brownish-red hue, and in the period most suitable for consumption, they acquire a yellow color with a slight reddish tinge.
The inside of the pears is white, has a pleasant, moderately pronounced pear smell with a hint of vanilla, very juicy, sweet and delicate in taste. The structure of the pulp is fine-grained, oily to the touch.
What to look for when buying seedlings
First of all, it should be remembered that in no case can one make a purchase on spontaneous markets, since the sellers for them are very poor or do not follow the species purity of their seedlings at all. In addition, in such markets, very often the roots of young trees are wrapped in plastic bags, which greatly damages them and has a very bad effect on their future survival. Even if you are lucky enough to get a viable seedling, the likelihood that this will be a wilderness will be very high. It is highly desirable that the seedling be grown and planted in the climatic zone, which would most closely correspond to the place where you intend to plant the young tree. This will facilitate rooting and contribute to the best growth and development of the future plant.
Pear seedlings of this variety are often grafted on seedlings of a different pear variety, which, however, must necessarily have greater resistance to droughts. It is not necessary to take pear seedlings that were grafted on cotoneaster, hawthorn, irgu and quince, because they do not have the proper level of severity of drought tolerance.
Choosing a place on the site
The best place for planting this type of pear will be a plot that is under the influence of sunlight for the longest possible time during the day, since the pear is a light-loving plant. It is also necessary to take into account the size of an adult tree, leaving for its development a plot of at least 4 × 4 m. The soil best suited for planting pears is black soil rich in various organic matter.
Preparatory work before landing
At first, the young tree will need well-loosened and fertilized with a large number of minerals soil. Therefore, it is necessary to lay a mixture in the pit intended for planting, which consists of 2 manure buckets, 2 sand buckets, 35 g of potassium-containing substances, and 20 g of superphosphate. Be sure to loosen the soil, which you intend to sprinkle a young plant, and also weed all the weeds in its habitat. It is worth taking care that all actively decomposing components and residues of other pear species were removed from the soil, since they may be infected with various parasites and diseases characteristic of this plant species.
Next is to prepare a sapling. To do this, they tear off all the leaves and remove the branches and parts of the roots that bear obvious traces of damage. After that, the seedling should be soaked in water, placing its roots in the liquid for at least 3 hours. Then you can proceed to the direct process of landing.
During the first 2 years after planting, it is necessary to strictly monitor the state of the ground area around the trunk: weed in time in a timely manner and shallow loosening of the soil (5–7 cm). In order to combat weeds, you can apply various solutions of herbicides.
After some time, some types of grass can be planted near the tree, for example, some kind of clover, red fescue or meadow bluegrass. These plants, after mowing, will serve as a very good source of mineral fertilizers for your pear. This variety of pears has a fairly high resistance to dry conditions, therefore, as a rule, does not require additional moisture. However, in conditions of excess heat, these trees recommend watering 2 times a day, at the rate of about 5-7 buckets of water for each adult tree.
Регулярное мульчирование приствольного круга проводят только в первые годы активного развития молодых груш, далее оно применяется лишь эпизодически при наступлении слишком засушливых условий, с целью предотвращения избыточного и слишком быстрого испарения влаги из почвы. Мульчирование проводят при помощи сена, гумуса, свежескошенной травы или опавших листьев.
Весной рекомендуют проводить 2 корневых подкормки: одну во время цветения и другую сразу после. Обе эти подкормки должны состоять из минеральных удобрений. For the first, a solution of nitrate is made in the ratio of 1:50 and further watering is carried out at the rate of 30 g of nitrate per square meter of the pear growing range. The second root dressing may be a solution of urea, at the rate of 180–220 g of substance per bucket of water.
This may be infusions of weeds, fermented and diluted 1:10 bird droppings or liquid mullein. You can also add wood ash at the rate of 1 cup per 1 square. m of soil. Mandatory for plants are only dressing conducted in the spring and autumn periods. Summer foliar applications are carried out based on the occurrence of the need for such plants, which can manifest itself in a change in the appearance of the tree or the quality of the crop.
Preventive spraying to save the crop from pests and diseases should be done at intervals of 1-2 weeks. You can use for this purpose solutions of various fungicides and insecticides, each of which has individual subtleties of preparations and methods of processing, which can be further refined on the packaging.
It is worth remembering that any processing of these substances should be carried out in rainy weather with no wind at all. The most popular and versatile treatment substances include Bordeaux liquid, 5% urea solution and 5% potassium permanganate solution.
Young trees need pruning, which is designed to form in their future lush crown. For this purpose, the young seedling is left within the 5 most well-developed branches and the trunk is cut off by ¼. Adults are prone to thickening of the crown. The image of mature trees is carried out with the beginning of spring and before the first autumn frosts strike. It aims to remove all small young shoots and damaged, dying branches. Conducting pruning pears, it is worth remembering that the crown should have a uniformly expanding downwards structure. If the central branches of neighboring trees are in contact, they should be properly shortened.
Protection against cold and rodents
The “Belarusian Late” grade pear has a fairly well-pronounced frost resistance, however, if the winters in your region are not snowy, there is a risk of freezing of the roots located in the surface soil layer. Therefore, in the winter, it is recommended to cover the soil around the trunk with sawdust or humus. The trunks of freshly transplanted trees can be wrapped in paper. In order to protect against various rodents, you can apply a cheap and reliable method - tying a tree trunk with conifers.
You can also use reeds or cut raspberry shoots. There are, in addition, various chemical compounds that have been specifically designed to fight rodents and have in their composition creolin or other chemicals designed to scare animals. We hope that this text has helped you in finding answers to your questions about pears of the Belarusian Late variety. Scrupulous implementation of all these recommendations will guarantee you a bountiful harvest. Good luck to you and your garden!