Peanut (ground nut) Arachis hypogaea L.
Annual herbaceous plant of the legume family, 20-60 cm tall. Stem branched, upright in some varieties and creeping in others. Leaves complex, pinnate, pubescent, on long petioles, 3–11 cm long.
The flowers are bright yellow or orange, moth, in the axillary racemes. The flower is one-day, dying off after fertilization.
The pedicle with a fertilized ovary descends due to growth and penetrates the soil by 8-10 cm, after which the fruit develops under the ovary.
Fruit - unopened bean, cylindrical or cocoon. Seed in a bean 2-4. The root system is powerful, extends up to 1.6 m deep and up to 1 m to the side. Peanuts are drought-resistant, light-requiring. It blooms from mid-June to frost.
Homeland - Brazil. The main areas of cultivation: the Caucasus, the North Caucasus, southern Ukraine and Central Asia.
Harvest seeds in the fall and sometimes the grass in June and August.
Seeds contain proteins (up to 37%), organic acids, vitamins B, (especially in the peel of seeds) and B, as well as fatty oil (44-60%), which contains glycerides of acids (arachidic, lignoceric, lauric, myristic, behenic , ecosenoic, cerotinic), carotenoids. In the cake there are liquid alkaloid arahin, as well as betaine and choline. Amino acids found in the grass.
Peanut butter is used as a basis for the preparation of various ointments and emulsions.
Peanut beans are used as a dietary product. for diabetics and for people with a weakened bodyespecially for children. Beans are also used in the food industry for the preparation of various sweets.
I usually begin my sowing campaign on April 1 - 5. I put nutrient soil from a mixture of garden soil, peat chips, sawdust into the cups.
For peanuts, it is important that the ground is very loose. Then I sow the nuts one by one in cups, sealing them to a depth of 3 cm. I water and put the cups on the windowsill, closer to the heat.
For the germination of peanuts, it is necessary to maintain a constant temperature in the range of 14-24 degrees Celsius. Within 10 days, seedlings appear - powerful cotyledon leaves. At this time, I feed the plants with a solution of wood ash: 2 tablespoons per liter of water. In early June, developed bushes planted in the ground.
If the soil is well warmed, then you can land earlier. For a migrant, you need to prepare in advance a “good apartment” - a garden bed.
I usually dig it up well, bring in a bucket of humus, a liter jar of wood ash, some potassium sulfate and superphosphate. At the same time I mix everything well, I make the soil fluffy. Planted plants at a distance of 25 cm from each other, depending on the peanut variety, 8 row and 50-70 cm between rows. After 10 days after planting in the axils of the plants, yellow flowers are formed.
After fertilization, the ovary grows into a small, thickened at the end of the tube, called gonyfory.
Gonifora leaves to one side and, falling, buries itself in the ground, where the fruit is formed - the bean. Gonyifory, remaining on the surface, dry up.
That is why, as soon as the peanut begins to fade and gonyfory appear, the plants need to be well-spud — 2-3 times a season, making large ground grooves around the bushes. Beans love loose soil. Good varieties for growing in the South of Russia are:
- Krasnodar-13. Shrub up to 25 cm tall, fruits - beans with 5-7 oblong-oval seeds, beige in color, crust with cracks.
- Krasnodar-14. Plant up to 35 cm tall, fruits - beans with 3-6 elongated-rounded seeds, beige. High-yielding variety.
- Vikar The plant is powerful, up to 50 cm tall, beans up to 7 cm long, in beans up to 7 seeds of elongated and oval shape with red seed coloring. Loves space and clean beds.
In the same period, good watering is required. Then you can switch to moderate watering - once a week.
But if it rains, watering should stop. It is important to monitor the cleanliness of the beds; success depends most of all on it: there should not be a single weed on the peanut beds. Harvesting begins in September, after the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow. From each bush I collect 300-500 grams of nuts. I dry them and put them in cardboard boxes. About. I don’t need to tell how to use peanuts, I hope everyone knows about it. The scope of application of peanuts is enormous: roasted peanuts, peanuts in salads, biscuits, sweets, halvah, kozinaki.
In addition to the seedling method, peanuts can also be grown by sowing beans or 8 seeds of soil. The best time for sowing is May.
Peanut: Botanical Reference
The plant belongs to the family of legumes, so it is not entirely correct to call its fruit nuts. The annual plant is a grassy bush with a height of 30 to 70 cm. The leaves are elliptical in shape, slightly pointed at the top, paired. Flowering begins at the beginning of summer, the ensuing fruits bend down to the ground and buried in it for ripening. The pericarp resembles pancake multi-seeded beans, covered on top with loose mesh shells. Each bean contains from 2 to 5 nut kernels. Ripening peanuts in open ground by the end of September or in October.
The benefits and harm of ripe nuts
People have noticed the beneficial properties of peanuts long ago, modern studies have confirmed that the kernel of groundnuts contains 20 essential amino acids, 12 of which are irreplaceable. It is enough to use a handful of peeled nuts every day to get the daily need of the body needs minerals and vitamins.
Vitamin nut kernels half consist of butter, contain coarse fiber, proteins (up to 30%) and carbohydrates. Nuts are rich in potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
Due to the rich composition of microelements and vitamins, peanuts are useful for the treatment and prevention of various diseases:
- Cardiovascular - the use of nuts helps to reduce cholesterol levels, which helps prevent the development of stroke and vascular disease. A small amount of nuts consumed daily inhibits the development of heart attack and Alzheimer's disease.
- Oncological diseases - the risk of developing cancer tumors (including in the intestines and stomach) is markedly reduced when eating roasted peanuts (peanuts).
- Rejuvenation of the body - vegetable oils and trace elements allow the use of peanuts nuts to reduce obesity, rejuvenation of the whole organism. Peanut butter applications for the skin have an extraordinary effect, the skin is smoothed, fine wrinkles disappear.
- Men's health - the benefits of peanuts for men in fact, the B vitamins and natural minerals found in nuts help build strength, serve as an excellent preventive measure for the prevention of prostatitis and other male age-related diseases.
Growing a peanut is not at all troublesome, the plant is well established in the open field, planting is possible in balcony boxes, pots and containers. It is especially interesting to grow nuts on the window for children, because the plant itself is not poisonous, does not have thorns, so there are no negative factors.
The technology of growing peanuts in the open field
Before planting peanuts in open ground, it is important to remember some of the features of this culture:
- If you grow nuts in dark soil, then the oil will get a dark shade.
- It is not recommended to grow crops after peas, beans and other legumes, which can trigger an outbreak of infectious diseases.
- The best precursors for culture are cereals, cucumbers, and nightshade (tomatoes and potatoes).
Otherwise, when planting beans in open ground, it is worth adhering to the agrotechnology of growing peanuts (peanuts).
The composition of nuts: trace elements and vitamins
Ground nuts, or peanuts, are a real source of vitamins, minerals and other organic compounds. The chemical component of a peanut crop includes:
- Vitamin complex of group B.
- Vitamins E, A, C, D.
- Aminocarboxylic acids that promote better digestibility of calcium and regulate the normalization of cholesterol in the blood.
- Nicotinic acid, involved in the fight against the aging process of the dermis and acting as a preventive measure against Alzheimer's disease.
- Folic acid improves liver function and regenerates tissue at the intracellular level.
- Magnesium is an element that strengthens the musculoskeletal system, promoting the removal of intoxication products from the body.
- Cellulose of plant origin, normalizing the digestive system as a whole.
Due to the existing composition, peanuts in moderation are indicated both to adults and toddlers, as well as to women in position.
In what form is it preferable to eat peanuts?
Depending on the individual characteristics of a person and his predisposition to certain diseases, peanuts, both raw and fried, may be contraindicated for use.
Roasted peanuts, of course, endowed with a more intense aroma and pleasant aftertaste than raw. Moreover, roasted peanuts contain natural antioxidants - polyphenols, which are able to resist the formation of malignant cells. And the husks from the heat-treated nuts are removed more easily.
But, on the other hand, the increased calorie content of fried products and the salt present in it can have a negative effect on the body and lead to the accumulation of excess kilograms.
Important! In this type of nuts significantly increased shelf life and there is no predisposition to mold.
In its raw form, peanuts are supplied with certain enzymes that affect the digestive processes by improving the digestibility of nutrients entering the body.
Raw nuts help brain activity by improving the blood circulation of the brain, and enrich the body with a whole range of useful substances.
It happens that after eating raw peanuts in large quantities, some people experience allergic reactions and all sorts of stomach disorders.
Therefore, this product, like others, should be used in moderation, listening to the reaction of your body.
Is peanuts useful or not?
Peanuts are very fat, and therefore a nutritious product. At 100g. walnut, accounted for 50 grams. fat, or 551 kcl. Also in 100g. This product contains almost 30% of the daily iron fraction. For those who care about their vessels, ground peanuts are safe because they contain no cholesterol. But it is perfect for vegetarians, as a substitute for animal protein. Rich in peanuts and vitamins.
Contains other vitamins, as well as micro and macronutrients - silicon, magnesium, phosphorus, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, chromium and zinc. In peanuts there are about 20 essential and non-essential amino acids.
It is an indispensable product for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. This is a very strong antioxidant, is on a par with strawberries and pomegranate. Positive effect on the nervous system and maintains potency. In women, a positive effect on the skin. But there are also harmful properties.
First, peanuts, or rather its peel - a very strong allergen. Therefore, it is better to use it fried and cleaned. It can be a reaction, up to anaphylactic shock. But in this form, it can cause intolerance.
It is necessary to limit the use of peanuts in people with thick blood and problems with veins. Peanuts are very high-calorie foods and therefore contribute to weight gain.
But, strict prohibitions on the use of peanuts, if there is no allergy, does not exist. The main thing to comply with the permissible dosage. Approximately 15-20 nuts per day will be useful. This dosage is safe even for those who watch their figure.
Few have seen peanuts growing. No wonder his name is groundnut. After pollination, its ovaries fall into the ground, where fruits are formed. To date, there are about 30 species of this annual plant. The peanut looks like a small bush, with a lot of shoots. In height, they reach 40-75cm. Creeping species are also known, their shoots are about 20 cm long. The root has the form of a rod and goes into the ground at 2 m.
Peanut bloom looks very curious. The flower lives only one day. By lunchtime, it fades and dries out and falls off within a few days. It is during these half days that pollination should occur. Moreover, only lower flowers bear fruit, located closer to the ground. Upper absolutely fruitless. Flowers have a bright yellow color. The long pedicle after the death of the flower, with the ovary formed on it, gradually descends closer to the ground. Then it is immersed in it, and fruits are formed there.
Fruit - bob in the form of a cocoon with a constriction. It has inside from 3 to 5 seeds. Color of skin of seeds - from pink, to dark red. The fruits themselves are white. In addition to food for humans, the stems and fruits are excellent food for pets.
In addition to peanuts, there is a plant whose fruits are formed in the ground. This is an earthen almond (chufa). On this, however, the similarity ends. Unlike peanuts, earthen almonds are a herbaceous plant. But they both belong to the oilseeds. The homeland of these plants is different. Chufa comes from Africa, and peanuts from America.
Earthen almonds - a perennial plant, up to 90 cm high, although as a culture it is grown annuals. The composition and nutritional properties of less fatty than peanuts and contains sugar. Agrotechnics is similar to caring for peanuts, they also pile up, plant only after warm weather has been established, and dig it out with the first frosts. The food is eaten boiled and fried.
How to grow peanuts?
Many gardeners want to grow something overseas. If it is a peanut, then the main thing to remember is nothing complicated about it. If the temperature is not below +20 ° C, then the peanuts will easily grow. If suddenly the temperature is lower, then this thermophilic plant will have to be covered with a film. If you do not want to take risks, you can grow it in a greenhouse. For normal growth and ripening peanuts require about 140 days without cold and frost. In the northern areas it is recommended to grow peanuts seedlings.
Frosts will destroy all shoots. Therefore, we pay attention to the possibility of return frosts (in the middle lane they are around May 25, therefore, it is best to disembark at the beginning of June).
The place chosen for landing should be as sunny as possible, without shade and without cold northerly winds. The soil should not be too soft, but quite loose. Be sure to make calcium, since the lack of this mineral has a bad effect on growth and fruiting. If the soil is too acidic, it is worth it to zap.
Does not like peanuts and salted soil. Ideal - black soil or soil with a clay content of about 15-20%, (not more), necessarily with a piece of sand. Prepare the soil for planting should be in the fall. Be sure to perekapat and add humus. In the spring they dig up again. The soil acidity for planting should be 5.8-6.2.
The neighborhood of tomatoes has a beneficial effect on planting, and this neighborhood is also useful for tomatoes because peanuts supply the earth with nitrogen, which has a very positive effect on a tomato. You can not plant peanuts after legumes, so as not to transmit common diseases. Good predecessors - cabbage and cucumbers.
To work not to be in vain, you must install a stuffed bird or another bird scarer. Check the absence of moles, which can spoil the seedlings and damage the beds.
Preparing Peanut Seeds for Planting
Peanut seeds can be purchased in stores or on the market. It is necessary to take into account why peanuts are planted, as they use different varieties to create butter and for simple consumption. It is clear that you should not plant it fried or salted. Also, quality seeds should not be damp or moldy. Buy peanuts for planting only raw and peeled; the ideal option is to find the seeds right in the box and keep them so until planting. A day before planting, it is advisable to put seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate, for the prevention of various diseases.
There are several of the most common varieties, they differ in smell, color and use.
- Virginia - the largest variety, it is most often seen in the packaging of salted nuts.
- Valencia - has bright red fruits, in America it is preferred to boil and fry. A pod usually has three cores.
- Spanish is a good grade for making butter.
- Tennessee - has stalks of green-brown color, otherwise similar to the Valencia variety.
- Spanish - used to make nuts in chocolate, and as a raw material.
Basically, all these groups of varieties have their own subspecies and various hybrids, each of which has unique properties. Each gardener himself is determined with the grade for his plot.
In central Russia to produce a crop, peanuts are grown in a seedling manner. This is done because of the long growing season, otherwise the peanuts will either freeze or will not have time to yield.
For this, a simple plastic cup for 2/3 is filled with light loose earth with humus and sand. At a small depth plant a nut, without a shell, but in the peel. При посадке не стоит поливать, чтобы орех не отсырел. Орехи не должны быть переувлажненными, иначе сгниют.
После появления всходов контролируем отсутствие сквозняков. Растение может от них погибнуть. Когда погода и температура будет позволять — высаживаем растение в открытый грунт.
You can land both in squares and rows. The optimal distance between the seedlings is about 20 cm, and between the rows - 60 cm. The depth of the hole - 10cm. pulling a lump of earth out of a cup, do not shake it in order not to damage the roots.
Peanuts care is not difficult. It is important not to pour it. Watering is done once a week with separated warm water, and finish a few weeks before harvesting. If it rains often, do not water.
It is also important to prevent the rapid growth of weeds, otherwise there will be no good harvest. Weeding is very important, but it is worth noting that weeds are dangerous only before the period of closure of the leaves, then peanuts do not allow them to break through.
Peanuts require hilling, this is the most important point in the whole agricultural technology. The first need to spend about 20 days after the start of flowering, and then a few more times every 10 days. The principle is the same as when hilling our potatoes. All ovaries should be in the ground.
If peanuts are not spudding, there will be no harvest, because after flowering the ovary sinks into the ground, there are fruits. It is not recommended to water after hilling, it will harm the plant.
When the leaves become noticeable yellowish shade - it's time to remove the nuts. To be sure, one nut must be dug out and oriented according to its appearance. This usually happens when the first frost. The plant is dug together with nuts, gently shake off the ground, and stored in this form for 10-14 days.
Then it is necessary to separate the fruit from the bushes. To taste at this moment the peanut does not resemble itself. Spread it on a flat surface, tray or tray, and dry on a warm surface. Be sure to interfere with the fruit. A week later, the nuts are stored.
Whether nuts are prepared is determined visually and by ear. When a fracture is heard, a characteristic sound is heard, and if you shake it, you can hear the nuts pounding, and then the familiar taste appears. You can store as a whole, and freeing the nuts from the shell.
Storage is carried out in fabric bags or dry crates, indoors with minimum humidity. With the right agrotechnology, it is really possible to collect about 180 nuts (about 100g) from one bush.
Consider the most common problems in the independent cultivation of peanuts.
The main diseases of peanuts are powdery mildew, dry rot, viral diseases. Mealy dew is a fungal disease, when it leaves the leaves a light patina, and then turn brown. Dry rot is characterized by the appearance of narrow brown spots below the leaves. For prophylaxis, it is necessary to clean infected plants and regularly treat them with fungicides.
One of the most common viral diseases is dwarfism. The first sign is the yellowing of the leaves and the appearance of underdevelopment in the plant. The disease is contagious and is not fully treated, so the best option is to destroy the diseased plant.
The most important thing is to protect the peanuts from birds. If you do not pay attention to it, then all plants can be destroyed. Aphids like to settle on the underside of leaves, feed on peanut juice and can lead to both a reduction in yield and the complete destruction of the plant. When plants are treated for aphids, it is worth thinking about the destruction of an ant, since they are the carriers of aphids.
There are enough chemicals on the market to kill insects. If you do not get rid of ticks, they can damage flowering. That, respectively, will reduce the harvest. Also caterpillars from which ash helps wonderfully can attack plants.
Causes of poor germination
This may be a bear, very often they destroy seedlings and seeds for a couple of birds. If planting was done with seeds, then dry seeds may be the cause of poor seedlings. And of course, the temperature of the soil.
You can find tips on growing peanuts in the following video:
It must be said that in our country, more and more, growing peanuts becomes not just a fascinating occupation, but turns into a profitable business idea, especially since competition is insignificant so far.
Observing simple rules, everyone will be able to enjoy a nutritious and healthy product, surprise friends with an exotic plant and delight loved ones with unique dishes with peanuts.
Places of growth
The peanut is an annual grass plant of the legume family. In many countries, it is an important crop. Grows predominantly in warm regions with a temperate climate. Commercially grown in South and North America, Africa, India, Spain, China. Place of origin - South America. Thanks to the ideal weather conditions, even perennial wild species can be found here.
In our climate, growing peanuts in the open field is possible only in the southern regions of Russia. For more northern latitudes planting plants in greenhouses. In order to create ideal conditions for the growth of culture, it is necessary to ensure good watering and temperature conditions not lower than + 20 °. Such a factor as the lighting in the greenhouse is important, the ripeness of the fruit depends on it. For the emergence of sprouts, the soil for planting should be wet and loose.
The optimum temperature for growing peanuts is in the range from +20 to +27 degrees. It should be noted that the period of ripening of the fruit is 120−160 days and depends on the particular variety and climate.
The plant has a branchy structure and reaches 25−40 cm in height. Blooms bright yellow flowersand exactly one day. After pollination, the flowers are in the soil and a long process is formed and the fruit is covered with a crust. Harvesting is a lot like picking potatoes, because the fruits also ripen in the ground. Therefore, it is sometimes called peanuts. But peanuts should not be considered a nut, as it belongs to the family of legumes.
Useful and harmful properties
Peanuts are very healthy and high in nutrients. In their composition they contain a high content of protein, carbohydrates and fats, they are a source of vitamins of group B, C, iron, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and antioxidants. They can be found in the menu of meat eaters and vegetarians. This is not surprising, because the nuts are distinguished by excellent taste and benefit. Daily use of peanuts has a beneficial effect on the immune and cardiovascular systems, improves digestion, and speeds up metabolic processes.
Not everyone knows that the fruits of the peanuts are a natural source of the hormone serotonin. It is synthesized from tryptophan amino acids.included in peanuts. Due to this, regular use of peanuts in the diet not only improves the emotional background of a person, but also helps to cope with anxiety, phobias and depression.
The possible harm to the body can be caused by the use of raw peanuts, which have not undergone heat treatment. As well as peanut kernels can cause disruption of the digestive organs due to the large amount of fiber. To avoid this problem, it is not recommended to eat the product in large quantities.
It is worth remembering that the surface of the nucleoli of nuts must be clean and dry, without mold. Toxins that are extremely dangerous for humans can be found in the affected nuts. If the nucleolus is light - this is a sign of fresh nuts. With proper storage, peanuts retain their beneficial properties and are not susceptible to the development of mold fungi. Still it is necessary to be afraid of allergic reactions which people with individual intolerance of a peanut can feel on themselves.
Due to the high fat content, this product is high in calories, so you need to limit its amount in the diet for people who are overweight.
Peanut growing features
The technology of cultivation of groundnuts is simple and even a beginner can master it. The good news is that it does not take a lot of effort and resources to get a harvest at your summer cottage. For a start it is worth finding out peanuts cultivation in your climate zone and prepare a greenhouse or plot of land for planting.
- The soil for planting should be loose and wet. For this purpose, black soil or sandy loam is great. Clay soil is not suitable for growing peanuts because of its dense structure.
- After purchasing the seeds of a particular variety. It is important to take into account the maximum height of the peanut bush.
- Before planting, seeds are soaked in germination water. Then the kernels with sprouts or seedlings are placed in the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
- Peanuts are planted in beds, keeping the gap between the bushes in the range of 15−20 cm. It is important to remember that grown plants should be spud in the same way as potatoes.
- After flowering shoots are formed, which eventually grow into the soil. This will indicate the beginning of ripening. At this time, bushes spud so that the ovary easily fell into the ground.
- Peanuts can be harvested three to four months after planting. At this time, the leaves of the plant acquire a red or yellow color, this suggests that the bush is old and the fruits are ripe.
Care and watering
Caring for peanut shrubs consists of watering during the absence of rain, loosening the soil or hilling and weeding the plants from weeds. Watering is carried out when the topsoil dries out. Abundantly peanuts irrigate during flowering, and during ripening, on the contrary, avoid excessive soil moisture. In hot weather it is necessary to additionally spray the shrubs to avoid the appearance of spider mites. If necessary, plants are treated with fungicides against pests.
Making sure that the peanuts are ripe and the shells are easy to clean, you can safely begin harvesting. It is usually produced in late summer or early autumn, before the onset of the first cold weather. The beans are dug out of the ground and collected in small sheaves of plants, hung down with a rhizome and dried in a dry room. This is how full maturation occurs and the nuts get more nutrients.
After 1-2 weeks break off all the fruits and washed under high pressure of water. Then heat drying is carried out, after which the shell becomes dry and brittle, and the kernel of the nut acquires its characteristic taste. It is necessary to store the crop in a warm and dry room, avoiding excessive moisture and direct sunlight.
The varieties of peanuts are more than 70 species. Typically, cultivated peanuts are divided into groups of varieties, such as:
The Spanish variety Valencia or Redskin is distinguished by large kernels and a characteristic pink-red shell. Shrubs are quite tall and can reach one meter in height.
Fruit varieties runner large and with excellent taste characteristics. Used everywhere for cooking peanut butter, and in general.
Spaniel Spanish has a small kernel size and is used to make peanut butter and butter. Fruits are the ideal raw material for the product due to its high fat content.
Selected virgin walnut varieties are more commonly used in the food industry for making confectionery products. Adult shrubs of medium height, do not exceed 50 cm.
This species is popular in the USA and is similar in characteristics to Valencia. Divided into Texas Red and White varieties by core color. Most of the fruit is used to make peanut butter.