Recently, many gardeners have been arranging so-called “warm beds” in their plots - tall, rectangular structures filled with compost, branches, leaves, and fertile soil. In the spring, arcs from a rod are installed over their sides, and the film is stretched. This design allows you to plant seedlings 2-4 weeks earlier than usual. Warm beds are usually made in the fall. However, if you wish, you can arrange them in the spring. The main thing is not to use fresh manure as a lining layer. So let's see how to make warm beds in spring.
The sides of such ridges are most often made of cut, rather thick (20 mm) boards. This material conducts heat poorly and is very easy to process. Sometimes, flat slate is also used for the sides. This material is more durable than wood, but it also retains heat worse. In addition, when using it, it is imperative to make a rigid frame of a thin shaped tube. Otherwise, when weeding or planting seedlings on the sharp edges of the sides, you can simply cut yourself. Both wood and slate both have their advantages and disadvantages. Of what material to make the sides - it is up to the owners of the site to decide. Sometimes the device is warm beds are made using more solid elements. For example, brick or stone. This is the most durable and reliable option. However, cost of stone or brick beds, of course, very expensive.
In the case of slate or wood, the profile pipe will also need to be prepared to support the sides. Arcs can be made from a metal rod with a diameter of 8 mm or from PVC pipes. Film for warm beds used standard polyethylene technical or intended for greenhouses.
Manufacturing of wooden sides
The question of how to make warm beds in the spring, is reduced, including to the correct choice of their size. The height of the sides of this design is usually 40 cm. In this case, the roots of the plants will receive enough heat. Yes, and handle the beds will be more convenient. Experienced gardeners are not advised to make the width larger than 80 cm. The optimal parameter is 60 cm. The length of the frame can be any.
Gathering beds in the spring, when the garden is still too damp, it is better not in place, but in a workshop or somewhere in the yard, in a dry place. Wooden sides are made as follows:
- The ends of the beds are going. They are made from pieces of board 60 cm. Two angular segments of shaped pipes are nailed to each from both edges. Thus make the ends of the boards for all the beds.
- Further sections of the profile pipe with a pitch of approximately 2 meters are screwed to future long sides.
- Then the latter are attached to the angular shaped tubes on the end elements.
- The resulting structure is transferred to the garden, set in the right place and level by level. Digging the ground under the frame or even remove the sod is not necessary.
Continue the device of the warm beds in spring by tightening the opposite profiles of the sides with a rod (in pairs). This will give the structure rigidity. If this is not done, the beds will simply be ripped off. In particular, the carrots and other root crops are “strongly bred”.
How to bend the rod
How to make a warm bed in the spring - now for you no question. In order for the seedlings to feel even better in it, the construction in April-May, before the establishment of stable warm weather, will need to be covered with a film. She pulls on the arc, which can also be made independently. To make such props tidy, you should first make a simple template. For this, an arc of the required radius and length is drawn on a piece of plywood. Further, according to the resulting contour, nails are filled (up to half). At the ends of the arc, they should be scored two at the same level. Then each rod is simply bent on the nails.
How to make the sides of slate
In this case, the frame is pre-assembled from the profile tube. Fastening is usually done with bolts. If the farm has the appropriate equipment, the frame can be welded. The pipe before mounting the slate should be painted.
Since the beds of this material are very heavy, it is better to move the welded frames and install them to the chosen place in the garden. Next to the structural elements attached slate itself (inside the frame). Fixing in this case is also bolted.
How to fill a bed
So, we figured out how to make warm beds in the spring. Now let's see what you need to fill them to get the best effect of heating the roots of plants. First of all, the beds should be properly positioned. Typically, prefabricated frames set in the direction from north to south. So the plants will be lit longer: in the morning from the east, in the afternoon - from above and in the evening - from the west. In the shade warm beds do not install. Otherwise, in the first year in the soil a lot of nitrates are formed.
Warm beds are filled (according to the rules of composting) in layers in the following order:
- Drainage is arranged from branches, rotten boards, logs, etc. First, large fractions are laid, then smaller ones.
- Organic is laid on the drainage. When laying, alternate carbonaceous (dry foliage, paper, old rags, split sunflower stalks) and nitrogenous layers (tops, grass, food waste, rotted manure, etc.). To speed up the process of decomposition is to pour the organic matter with special biopharmaceuticals. At the last stage, it should be tamped.
A week later, after the bed is well warmed up, garden soil is poured into it. In order for the roots of plants not to burn, its layer should be at least 25-30 cm. At this point, the device of a warm bed in spring can be considered finished. All other actions can only be aimed at improving its performance.
How to make a greenhouse
Part of one of the warm beds can be covered with a small mini-greenhouse. As a frame for this design is allowed to use a metal painted rod, timber or PVC pipe. The walls, door, vent and roof are usually made of polycarbonate. To bring down the frame of the desired shape will be easy. When fastening the same polycarbonate should follow certain rules. This material is able to expand with increasing / decreasing air temperature. Therefore, it should be fixed to the frame by means of special screws with thermal washers. Holes for them are drilled a little larger than the rods of diameter. The device of a warm bed with a hothouse will allow to plant seedlings even earlier. Time for its production will take a bit.
Constructions in the greenhouse
Usually warm beds are arranged right in the open air. However, you can make them in the greenhouse already installed in the garden. Collect such designs with the same materials. The question of how to make warm beds in the spring in a greenhouse is not technologically complex at all. The method of their manufacture completely and completely repeats the above. The only thing - the beds in this case must be made not too high (20 cm).
The device of a warm bed in the greenhouse will help to get an even earlier harvest. However, since the air temperature inside this room will be higher than outside, it is important to ensure that the roots do not overheat. When the soil temperature is 30-45 degrees, plant growth slows down. Also it is necessary to arrange in the beds drip irrigation.
What plants and how to plant
Since in the first two years a lot of nitrogen is accumulated in the soil of such beds, it is not recommended to plant culture-nitrate accumulators during this period. These include greens (dill, onion, lettuce, spinach, etc.), beets and radishes. In the first year it is best to plant a pumpkin, zucchini, tomato, pepper or eggplant on a warm bed, i.e. plants that require a high content of nutrients in the soil. In the second year, cabbage, celery or salads are usually planted in their place.
Many gardeners advise after harvesting early crops to sow warm beds with sideratami. This will replenish the supply of nutrients. Moreover, the soil prepared in this way does not require digging in spring. All that needs to be done is to deepen the remains of dead sideratov by loosening. How to make warm beds in the spring (photos of such structures can be seen on the page), as well as how to plant seedlings on them, you now know. What else should be done to facilitate the care of crops and accelerate the ripening of the crop? Read about it below.
Most often sawdust or straw is used for this purpose. It would be a good idea to close the soil under the plants with also mowed dried grass. Pre it should be chopped with a hatchet. Soil microorganisms begin to process the grass from the point of cutting. Therefore, such litter will decompose faster, while releasing carbon dioxide, which is necessary for garden crops. Mulching on warm beds, among other things, allows the soil to retain moisture longer. Also, a layer of organic matter or film will hinder the growth of weeds all summer long. And this, in turn, will facilitate the care of plants.
How to make warm beds in the spring, you now know. However, what to do if there is no material or time to make them, and you want to land the tomatoes early? In this case, you can try to build warm beds. The difference between them from the beds is primarily smaller. As bumpers you can use, for example, old car tires, put in three rows. Filling in this case is the same. In the middle it is necessary to stick a stake or rod. They will support the film in the spring.
Of course, many cultures on such flowerbeds will not fit. But a few tomato bushes, cucumbers, onions, pumpkins or squash grow on them is quite possible.
As you can see, the question of how to make a warm garden bed in the spring with your own hands, is not particularly complex. In the presence of high-quality material and skillful hands, ready-made structures will be convenient, reliable and last for a long time. Have a good harvest!
The advantages of warm beds
In order to understand whether it is worth setting up warm beds on your plot and wasting your own time and energy, you need to figure out the advantages of this method.
- The raised warm bed is especially good for wet, cold regions. The soil is warming earlier, it is possible to get the crop earlier. In the case of waterlogging plants do not soak. So even stone trees are planted to protect the root system from groundwater.
- Properly equipped garden will last about five years. Then it can be re-equipped, and the fertile land formed can be used for sowing other plants.
- Reduced water consumption. Organics retain water, so one or two times a week is enough for watering. And if you arrange drip irrigation or at least pave a leaky hose for irrigation, then labor costs are minimized.
- The decomposition of organic matter produces heat, which stimulates the germination of seeds. The resulting compost from the activity of microorganisms and earthworms is an excellent source of plant nutrition.
- There is no need for a compost heap, all the organic matter falls out directly on the garden bed.
- Install a warm bed can be on the street or in the greenhouse - it will bring the same effect. In open ground, it is sufficient to install the arcs and stretch the agrofibre to protect the plants from frost.
- After the precipitation, the crop remains clean, as the mulch layer covers the ground, and the spray of rain does not soil the vegetables.
- Weeds germinate with difficulty and in small quantities, are easily pulled out.
- Does not take a lot of place, it is convenient to process, does not create dirt and a disorder.
Council In the fall, add all the existing organic matter and leaf litter to the garden bed and cover it with cardboard so that the heat is preserved and the nutrients are not washed away by rain to the lower layers.
Rules of arrangement
With a close approach of groundwater, the bed is raised above the soil. In dry regions, on the contrary, are buried, making it flush with the soil or slightly higher. The raised beds are covered with various materials. The most commonly used wood or slate, less metal. Placed in the middle of a lawn, framed by a pavement of a tile, such a bed is pleasing to the eye and decorates the plot. Or they make it in the form of a meter hill without sides. In fact, a warm bed is a compost pile, folded in the form of a puff pie according to certain rules.
- Coarse organics that decompose for a long time are laid on the lowest layer: stumps and tree trunks, thick branches. Shed with urea. The larger the waste, the longer the bed will last. Wood retains moisture well.
- The next layer is laid smaller organics: the stalks of corn and sunflower, small shrubs. Paper and kitchen waste, foliage, straw can also be floated.
- To speed up the process of decomposition and warming, lay semi-mature manure or compost. Top turf grass down, and then a layer of mature compost.
- After that, seeds are sown.
The length of the beds can be any, the optimum width of about a meter. The depth will depend on the composition of the soil and the type of the selected bed. In-depth is done on 40 - 60 cm. The height of the raised beds up to 1 m.
The air remaining in the cavities between the large organic will provide breathing and fast warming up of the beds. You can speed up the process by spilling the soil with special bacteria.
The process of making beds
Consider the process of making a recessed bed with a small wooden side of an unnecessary board.
- Knock boards to get a rectangle.
- We mark the size of the bed on the ground and dig a trench about 60 cm deep.
- The cut turf and the upper layer of fertile land are thrown back in one direction - still useful.
- The bottom layer is reclined in the other direction.
- The sides of the trench can be further insulated with polystyrene foam sheets, and closed plastic bottles should be placed on the bottom.
- We fill the trench with branches, logs. Above we lay smaller material.
- We pour out several wheelbarrows of semi-prepared compost - it will ferment from useful microorganisms for processing and heating up organic matter.
- We lay fertile soil and turf grass down.
- Top fill with compost, a mixture of sand, peat and sawdust with the addition of trace elements.
- Well watered and covered with foil. After two weeks, you can plant seeds or seedlings.
- Covering the ground with dark mulch. Light mulch, such as straw or sawdust is better to make in the summer - it reflects the sunlight well and does not allow the roots to overheat.
What plants are planted in a warm bed
The organic container is quickly heated in the spring. Thermophilic vegetables in such a bed can be sown ahead of time, covered with foil for the first time. Having correctly calculated the time of planting and the distance between plants, you can first grow radishes and greens. Place a trellis in the center, plant cucumbers and tomatoes. After harvesting the radish, plant carrots, onions, beets. In the fall, plant radishes, salads and greens again.
Experienced gardeners who have been using warm beds for years have recommended planning the planting in this way:
- in the first year, when the beds are maximum rich in organic matter, sow pumpkins, tomatoes and cucumber with zucchini. It is these crops that will give the maximum yield,
- next year you can again plant the same vegetables as in the first year,
- tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, greens, beets, beans and carrots are planted for the third season.
The film can be tacked to the bottom row of the trellis with clothespins. Edge pin down loosely boards. So the bed will turn into a greenhouse. Air will be sucked from the bottom and out at the top. If you forget to uncover a bed in the afternoon, the plants will not burn. And if there are available funds, install a roof over the bed. It will save tomatoes from phytophtoras, and cucumbers from peronospores - these fungi germinate in water droplets on the leaves. Vegetables will stay healthy until frost.
Council The deep hole and large amount of organic matter keeps moisture well and gives off heat. Raised boxes with a small layer of organics dry up faster and lose nutrition.
Once, finding time and effort, as well as a sufficient amount of high-quality organic matter, and equipping a warm garden bed with a watering system, you will not only free up time to rest, but also get an early harvest of tasty vegetables. If in the open ground the vegetables ripen a month earlier, then a similar construction in the greenhouse will justify the work invested with interest.
What are warm beds
With this technology, organic residues, decomposing, produce heat, warming up the roots of vegetable crops. Plants tolerate spring temperature drops, ripen faster. The decomposition of organic matter forms nutrients, the vegetables are fed during the season, there is no need for additional organic fertilizers.
Principles of device
The basic principle of the device lies in the fact that dissimilar organics are laid in layers. Чем глубже, тем грубее должны быть слои – на дно размещают ветки, стебли и рубленные стволы. Этот слой будет «топливом», дренажом, обеспечивающим доступ воздуха.The next layers are smaller - newspapers, shredded branches, grass. Before placing the next layer, it is necessary to water the previous one so that the layers do not dry out. An important rule is that raw materials should not be affected by disease or rot.
Varieties of warm beds
There are four types of beds. If the plot is located close to the groundwater, you can construct a high bed - it is not afraid of spring flooding, if the plot is dry - buried - it less often needs watering. With the help of different types you can maximize the useful area of the summer cottage for planting vegetable crops. An important condition: the layers need to be watered frequently, since the work of microorganisms that process organic matter is possible only in a humid environment.
Garden, located on the ground, called high. Its height ranges from 50 to 80 cm. The basic principles of its device:
- turf removed (10-15 cm),
- the bottom is filled with a drainage layer with sand or rubble,
- the bed is enclosed with a wooden box impregnated with an antiseptic,
- coarse organic materials — branches, chopped tree trunks, etc. — are placed on the drainage layer,
- the second layer consists of small organics - tops of garden plants, weeds,
- the third layer is made up of residues that can decompose over the season - humus, foliage,
- each layer is good to water and tamp,
- the top is covered with fertile soil, its thickness must be at least 20 cm.
Warm garden bed
A variety of high beds can be considered a bed-hill or Holster's “hilly ridge”. The principle of layering is the same, only it is not enclosed with a wooden frame, and the edges are rounded. Outwardly, it resembles a mound, about 1 meter high. This warm garden bed is convenient because it increases the effective area of the garden: its surface is wider than its base. Filling:
- first layer (depth 30 cm): coarse organic residues. Experts believe that a warm bed of sawdust contributes to the soil looseness,
- second layer: crushed branches, leaves,
- the third layer: foliage, green organic residues, soil,
- the top layer is covered with straw.
Opposite in the device high - deep or trench, it is necessary at the difficult watering or in regions where the soil gets warm for a long time after winter. It serves longer high or hilly - about 8 years. For her, a trench is dug with a depth of at least 2 spade bayonets, sand is poured at the bottom of the trench, then layers of biofuel. Gardeners, in order to protect the layers from cold deep soil, suggest laying out the bottom with closed plastic bottles. Further filling of the buried beds is similar to the previous ones.
If the suburban area is located in the field of groundwater, you can build a combined bed. This is a shallow trench with a drainage layer at the bottom, on which the box is installed, so that a part of it is in the ground, and a part above the ground, 30-50 cm high. with sides of the box. Care and watering in all species are the same, except for one difference - the recessed water is less commonly used.
Warm beds with their own hands
This technology has deserved the love of gardeners by the fact that it is universal: with its help, the garden can be arranged anywhere. Even on poor soil, warm beds will produce a good harvest. An additional advantage of technology is that the beds of any type can be made with your own hands from the material at hand. They do not require labor-intensive care, and, subject to simple rules, they can grow any vegetable crops.
When to make a warm bed
This method can be used in spring and autumn. The time of year does not matter in the device, the differences are only in the composition of the biomaterial of the upper layer. If you make a warm bed in the fall, it will contain layers of fresh organic matter - leaves, small branches - any organic garbage. It is made after the harvest: in October, November - before the frost, so that in the fall and winter time to go through the process of decomposition. In the spring, after the snow melted, already rotten manure was laid, compost, the top fertile layer of soil, it is done a month before the seedlings of vegetables.
Where to do
This technology is successfully used in the northern regions with climatic conditions unfavorable for farming. Planted by this method, the plants are not afraid of temperature changes. They have beds in any convenient place of the plot, well lit by the rays of the sun. In the southern regions, this technology is ineffective, it is hot in the summer, sunny and there is no need for additional heat.
What to do
The convenience of the method lies in the fact that the layers are filled with any organic residues, the material does not need to be harvested or purchased. It can be:
- For the first layer - wood residues, removed turf (it is laid down grass), cardboard, newsprint, old clothes. Experienced gardeners are not advised to lay large trunks - ants can start there.
- For the second and third layers - vegetable tops, sawdust, straw, fallen leaves, humus, top fertile soil layer, food waste, weeds. In the tops should not be seeds, and the root system of weeds must be carefully chopped so that they do not go into growth.
- Making boxes is possible from scrap materials. Wooden sides are popular, but they can also be laid out of bricks, slate, plastic panels. You can make concrete, if the bed is arranged for a constant time.
- The bottom must be laid with a fine metal mesh, so that mice that like such structures do not start.
- It is important to ensure that the layers laid consist of healthy materials, without rot. For this reason, experts do not advise to fill the layers with foliage from fruit trees - they are prone to disease and insect attack.
What to plant in a warm garden
This bed works for 4 years. The first year, while the heat transfer and the maximum amount of nutrition, plants are planted, demanding to heat and the amount of fertilizer. In the following seasons - less demanding vegetables:
- first season - planting cucumbers, squash or pumpkins,
- in the second - cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage,
- the third season - growing peppers, tomatoes, beets, carrots,
- the fourth - unpretentious beans, peas or greens.
How to make warm beds
The disadvantages of this technology is called frequent watering and labor costs during construction. However, the complexity is paid off by the availability of materials and ease of maintenance:
- frequent weeding and loosening is not needed,
- no need to buy and fertilize,
- in the fall, after harvesting, it is much easier to clean the garden
- can be done on any place of the site, even on the most barren soil.
Warm beds in the fall can start planting in the spring almost a month earlier than in open ground. They differ from spring only in the amount of biomaterial:
- Prepare a place, depending on the type (deep, high, etc.) - dig a trench or, removing the layer of earth, enclose the sides.
- Lay out the drainage layer: branches, chopped trunks are good to tamp and pour. Under the drainage spread out the metal mesh from rodents.
- Next, lay the layers of fine organic material, tamping each and pouring warm water. Layer with fresh tops can be spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate to prevent the development of rot. It is not recommended to use tomato and potato tops, solanine contained in the nightshade prevents the decomposition process.
- The top layer is ground taken mixed with manure.
- Cover with straw or foil on top to start the “burning” process. By spring, the layers will be compacted, leaving room for fertile soil.
If you have not taken care of in the fall, you can make warm beds in the spring with your own hands, as long as they are ready for the beginning of the planting works:
- Do as soon as the snow melts.
- The principle of layering is the same as that of the autumn, with the exception of the top layer - instead of fresh manure, they take rotted or are covered with compost.
- Mix the compost with a layer of fertile soil and cover the top layer.
- Pour warm water and cover with foil. As the film dries, remove and water additionally.
- You can plant early vegetables in the ready bed in early May.
You can make warm beds in the greenhouse with your own hands. This will allow planting seedlings in mid-April, without fear of freezing the seedlings:
- In greenhouses, as a rule, they are combined, they do not require large areas. The optimum width and depth of 40 cm, length - as the size of the greenhouse allows.
- The principle of laying is identical to the previous one.
- After filling all layers cover the top with a film for 2-4 weeks. After this time, the film is removed, the soil is moistened, as soon as the earth settles, you can make holes and plant seedlings.
Features and benefits of warm beds
Warm beds are separated constructions filled with compost, straw, fertile soil and fertilizer. If it is set up in spring, then fresh manure should be abandoned. He is able to cause more damage due to its activity.
Such beds have certain features and differences in comparison with the usual ones, which in most cases are considered their advantages:
- the choice of location does not play a decisive role, since the plants receive a maximum of trace elements and heat,
- It is permissible to establish an early spring over the bed of the arc and make a greenhouse to get an early harvest. With an open cultivation method, the yield will be higher than on conventional ridges,
- during spring frosts the possibility of freezing is excluded,
- in addition to fertilize the plants do not need, everything you need is a network in the ground,
- abundant watering, even on hot days, is not required. Due to the presence of mulch, moisture evaporates more slowly, the plants do not dry out, and the roots get enough water,
- care is reduced to a minimum. Weed grass cannot grow from under a layer of mulch. There it dries out and oppression, creating an extra layer of organic fertilizer,
- fruits are not in contact with the ground,
- the bed can serve for several years with the alternation of grown crops.
Each gardener equips a bed for his needs, and therefore introduces additions and improvements. This is due to their great diversity. According to the type of deepening, they can be divided into two subspecies:
- Recessed The method involves preliminary preparation: the removal of a layer of earth. Equipped with a ridge with such an account that after filling it is aligned with the rest of the surface. This option is not recommended for soils with close groundwater flow, as well as for susceptibility to flooding in the spring.
- Elevated. It implies the construction of a box above the surface, in which the ingredients will be placed to form the ridge.
The second method is more popular because it runs faster, and besides, it makes it possible, if desired, to easily perform a greenhouse from above for an early period. But most importantly, such a bed warms up faster, which affects the speed of development of seedlings.
Recommendations for the arrangement of warm beds
To determine the size, it is necessary to understand for which crops it is intended and how much is the desire to plant. Focusing on the landing pattern and your wishes, it is necessary to outline the ridge area. It is worth considering the possibility of approach and it is better to make several long ridges with convenient paths.
The height also depends on the depth of germination of the roots of the planted crops. Often the bed can reach 1 m in height. At the same time, it will be necessary to remove a 40 cm layer of earth in order to give the final variant an acceptable appearance and to ease the conditions for maintenance.
You can make a bed according to this instruction:
- Dig a trench of necessary depth.
- Set the box height of about 60 cm. It can be made of boards, old slate or other scrap materials. If you plan for long-term use, you can build the sides of stone or brick. They will look more noble, although the method is quite expensive.
- At the bottom, you can lay a grid to prevent access of rodents.
- Lay a drainage depth of about 15 cm (stones, broken bricks).
- Lay the layers according to the chosen method.
Council For peaty soil, it is recommended to lay cotton cloth dipped in potassium permanganate (2 g per bucket) on the grid at the rate of 2 liters per 1 square meter.
In advance, it is possible to consider the possibility of installing arcs in order to construct a greenhouse covered with a film in the spring. To do this, you can dig small pieces of pipes of the desired diameter in the marked places.
After studying the recommendations on the order of filling layers, you can pay attention to their diversity. In fact, the ridge acts as an alternative to the compost pit, while plants receive high-quality feed and are warmed due to heat release due to the decomposition process, which contributes to faster growth.
Council The sod layer removed during the preparation of the ridge does not need to be thrown away. It can be laid in the second layer together with other plants.
General trends in the advice of experts are as follows:
- The lower layer should be made of materials that are characterized by a long process of decay and decomposition. It can be: branches, large wood chips, sunflower trunks, Jerusalem artichoke, corn.
- The second layer is made from organic matter: plants, tops, leaves, weeds, cleaning vegetables.
- The third layer is poured with special chemical fertilizers that promote decomposition. It is permissible to use ash, chalk, or lay a layer of newspapers and papers.
- If desired, the layers are repeated, only in this case the "woody" layer is formed from small chips and small branches.
- Then a layer of fertile soil is placed.
- The surface of the beds covered with a good layer of straw or leaves.
Above the bed you need to fill with plenty of warm water: up to 7 buckets per sq.m. Water the beds will often need, because microorganisms develop better in a humid environment.
Attention! In the bed should be well circulate the air, because it is necessary to alternate between raw components and dry.
On a similar principle, you can equip flowerbeds or sprouting seedlings. Having completed the flower beds of the original form, as far as imagination allows, you can make them a real decoration of the garden or garden.
What is better to plant?
It is possible to plant on a warm bed practically any cultures. It will serve a little more than 4 years, but usually not more than 6 years. It should be borne in mind that every year the number of trace elements and nutrients will decrease due to feeding plants. Therefore, first you need to choose a culture that requires a large amount of heat and water. It can be zucchini, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, eggplants, pumpkin.
In the 3-4 year is to plant such crops: cabbage, pepper, potatoes, beets, carrots, beans. After 4 years, stocks are significantly exhausted, and therefore it is better to choose unpretentious plants, for example, peas, greens, salads, celery.
Plants that tend to accumulate nitrates do not need to be planted in the early years. At this time, it is better to refuse beets, head of lettuce, dill, parsley, onion and radish.
If desired, two crops per season can be removed from the bed: plant greens and salads in early spring, and after they are harvested - tomatoes or cucumbers.
Why do we need warm beds in a greenhouse?
The principle of operation of the warm beds is quite simple. With a lack of solar energy in the spring, soil heating is very slow. Sufficient temperature for planting plants is reached no earlier than the end of April and the beginning of May.
If the soil was heated up artificially, it is possible to create favorable conditions for planting in March.
The roots of the plants at the same time immediately fall into comfortable conditions, quickly take root and begin to develop. Part of the heat in this enters the air and also contributes to its heating.
Creating warm beds in various ways
When asked how to make a warm bed in a greenhouse, the answer is simple. There are several options for heating the soil in the greenhouse:
The advantage of this option is the ability to fine-tune heating intensityand also control of the reached temperature of the soil.
To create an electrical cable is used, placed in a layer of geotextile, laid at a depth of 40 cm. The cable is laid in rows at a distance of 15 cm between them.
This heating is in the design of the thermostat, which allows you to automatically adjust the temperature. The relay is configured in such a way that the cable heats up to 25-30 degrees and then turns off.
AT hot period heating can be disabled, and use it again in the fall, to continue the period of fruiting plants.
It is based on PVC pipeshot water is flowing through. This system also plays the role of heating in winter, and the greenhouse can be used all year round.
To ensure the circulation of fluid in the system, a pump is mounted, and a water heater (gas or electric) is used for heating.
Warm beds in this case are created using biofuelslaid under the fertile soil layer. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing biofuel for the greenhouse with their own hands.
Pledged biological material during processing actively releases heat and warms due to this plant roots.
As filler is used manure и различные растительные остатки, опилки, обрезки древесины. Самую большую температуру даёт конский навоз, он способен держать температуру около 70 градусов полтора месяца.
Кроме конского подойдёт коровий навоз. But experienced gardeners are not advised to use pork and sheep manure as biofuel.
Preparing a filler for a warm bed
Beds with the use of biological materials are the most environmentally friendly and at the same time economical. To warm the soil in such a bed does not need the cost of their device and maintenance.
In addition to the thermal effect, this option enriches the soil with nutrients and carbon dioxide. Plants are in warm soil, get enough nutrition. At the same time they become resistant to diseases.
The ideal bedding filler is a layer of rotted manure. Various plant residues, foliage, cut branches are mixed with it.
If there is no manure, the freshly cut grass mixed with food waste and potato peeling can serve as a filler.
You can fill a garden bed with straw bales that are watered with a solution of chicken manure or Baikal dressing.
Last year's tops mixed with fresh humus can also be laid in the garden from autumn.
The traditional compost heap created on the surface has a large number of disadvantages. It is laid in autumn with a rather high layer and freezes through the winter. In the icy layers, the process of decay does not go on, which means that decomposition does not occur and the summer resident does not receive ready-made compost by spring.
Moreover, such a high layer will thaw out in the spring later than the use of compost will be necessary to use. Another disadvantage of such a heap is its maintenance in the summer.
Unpleasant look and smell, periodically watered mud, gives a lot of discomfort. Flies fly over the heap, magnets begin to crawl along the edge, such a phenomenon gives a lot of inconvenience not only to you, but also to your neighbors in the area.
An expedient way to prepare this biofuel is to create a compost trench-bed. It is dug to a depth of 40 centimeters, the top layer is deposited, and the pit is filled with plant residues. By the fall, falling foliage is laid in the same trench.
To start the fermentation process, vegetable compost filler is spilled in slurry or herb extract. The surface of the trench can be covered with roofing paper or a piece of linoleum. They are best placed on the pole for air access.
For the winter, the compost trench is filled with a layer of sawdust and covered with a layer of snow to avoid strong freezing.
In the spring, the trench becomes a source of efficient biofuel for laying in a warm bed.
Compost from foliage
Falling foliage is an excellent material for creating compost - biofuel. To obtain compost in a greenhouse, you can use two options for generating heat:
- Compost heap of foliage for heating greenhouses.. The foliage is laid on the surface of the soil, a certain amount of ready-made compost is added to it to start the decomposition process.
Top pile covered with straw or sacks. This is necessary so that the foliage does not dry, but rot. The composting process takes place over two years. Pile periodically watered. Compost pit. For its production in the ground rumbles a two-meter-wide pit and a depth of 30-40 centimeters. The bottom is covered with film or roofing material.
The fallen leaves are laid in layers, each of which is spilled with a solution of saltpeter and sprinkled with a small amount of sod soil. The next layer is spilled with slurry.
Then follows a layer spilled by caustic soda. Next, lay a layer of foliage, sprinkled with wood ash. On top of this sandwich covered with straw, and then turf, laid grass down.
After a month, the pit must be loosened to access oxygen and mix all layers.
The photo shows: device warm beds in the greenhouse, heating the greenhouse with manure
The rules of the formation of the warm beds
Process making warm beds in the greenhouse begin at the onset of the first warm days. It is made in the form of a trench in which layers of various fillers are laid.
The main condition for the normal operation of the warm beds - her sufficient volume. The width of the bed is about 90 centimeters, in depth - 40 cm, the length depends on the size of your greenhouse.
Like any garden bed in a greenhouse, it is necessary to make a warm one using wood, metal or any other frame.
This will get required heightas well as prevent soil eruption and leaching in the process of growing vegetables.
- The bottom layer should contain the largest fractions for slow decay and longer heating,
- When using a layer of turf it is laid down grass,
- Each laid layer must be spilled with liquid, there should be no dry layers in it,
- It is impossible to lay plant bedding damaged by any disease. Only healthy plants are used.
The bottom of the excavated trench is laid drainage. The material of the drainage layer depends on the quality of the soil in your area.
On peat soils the bottom of the trench before laying branches should be covered with a thick cloth, and pour a layer of sawdust or chopped bark on it.
This technique will prevent excessive water seepage when watering. On the loam opposite you need to ensure outflow of excess moisturetherefore, the bottom is covered with large branches that remain when pruning shrubs.
The next layer is biofuel: manure mixed with plant residues or any of the fillers available. To accelerate decomposition layer spills biological product.
The biofuel layer is well compacted and covered with fertile soil. A mixture of peat, humus, soil and sand is prepared for nutrition. Also added superphosphate, wood ash, urea, potassium sulfate.
A layer of fertile soil should be at least 30 centimeters. All layers are spilled with hot water and covered with a black film to heat up. A week later, the bed is ready for planting seedlings.
Properly made warm bed in the greenhouse accelerates planting dates, and therefore increases the yield. Greenhouses with such beds do not need to be heated, there is no need to add additional fertilizers. The process of caring for plants is simplified. We hope you now know exactly how to heat the greenhouse with your own hands in the spring, as well as what is best to do.