The family of honeysuckle has about two hundred species of various climbers and upright plants. In wildlife, honeysuckle can be found in the Northern Hemisphere, but most of its species are found in Asia and the Himalayas. In modern gardens you can find the usual climbing honeysuckle, which is used as an ornamental plant, as well as the garden, which is needed not only to decorate the garden, but also to collect very tasty and healthy berries. For eating it is customary to grow two types of honeysuckle: edible and blue.
When to plant
Before undertaking the breeding of this plant, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of honeysuckle, planting and caring for it. The landing can be carried out from spring to autumn, but it is better not to choose such months as May and June for this. Because it is during this period that her shoot growth is activated. If you have chosen the spring period for planting seedlings, then this procedure should be carried out long before bud break, and take into account the fact that this plant has buds rather early. But it is better if you take the time to disembark at the end of September or the beginning of October. This is the most suitable period for the landing of many plants, including honeysuckle.
But before you make the seedlings, you need to prepare a place for planting and soil in advance. And also must first be dug holes for seedlings. The most comfortable honeysuckle will be in a bright place that would be protected from the wind and something like a swampy area. This may be a plot near the fence or surrounded by other shrubs. The most suitable fertile sandy or loamy soil. If the soil in your area is not too fertile, then it should be fertilized with organic matter, and the acidic soil should be diluted with chalk or dolomite flour. Pay attention to the seedlings themselves. Before planting, it is necessary to inspect it well, remove all damaged roots and shoots, and if the root system is too lengthened, then it should be shortened to thirty centimeters.
How to plant honeysuckle
Planting and care include the preparation of holes for seedlings. The hole should be dug at the rate of 40 to 40 and 40 centimeters. The distance from one bush to another is at least a meter, it can be more. It all depends on the selected variety and its ability to grow. A number of fertilizers must be applied to the pit:
- 10 kg of manure, well rotted (can be replaced with humus),
- double superphosphate - 100 grams,
- wood ash - 300 grams,
- potassium sulfate - 30 grams.
All of these components are well mixed with the ground, and then placed on the bottom of the fossa, forming a small mound. A sapling must then be placed on this mound. After that, sprinkle the roots of the plant with loose earth so that the root collar goes underground three or even five centimeters. The soil around the honeysuckle seedling should be well compacted and make a small side at a distance of about thirty centimeters. You should form a small platform where you should pour a bucket of water. After water is fully absorbed, this area should be mulched. For this you can use dry land, peat or humus.
Honeysuckle: cultivation features
The plant is not much different in demanding from other plants. Needs pruning, watering, weeding honeysuckle, planting and care of which are not difficult. It is necessary to periodically fertilize and provide protection from pests and diseases. A gardener should take into account that the better care he provides to this plant, the more beautiful the bush and the richer the crop will be. The first three years of care for this shrub is extremely simple. It will be enough to periodically water, spud in the spring, loosen the soil in the root zone and remove weeds. The young shrub does not need pruning.
As for watering, it should not be too abundant, but not too rare. However, in dry weather, the honeysuckle bush needs a lot of moisture. Otherwise, the entire crop is put at greater risk. And honeysuckle berries will be bitter. With moderate air temperatures and occasional rains, three or four irrigations per season will suffice. At a time, the bush requires at least ten liters of water. After each rain or artificial irrigation it is necessary to loosen the soil in the root zone, and at the same time remove weeds. Do not go too deeply because the honeysuckle root system is not deeply planted.
The first fertilizer is applied only after two after planting the plant in the ground. Honeysuckle needs top dressing only once a year, and organic is preferred. In the autumn period in order to fertilize the shrubs well, you will need:
- compost - 5 kg,
- ash - 100 grams,
- double superphosphate - 40 grams per square meter.
And during the period when buds begin to bloom in honeysuckle, ammonium nitrate must be added to the soil. For one square meter you will need fifteen grams of substance, and also one pail of water is poured under each bush, after having dissolved a tablespoon of urea in it. After harvesting the plant will also need to fertilize. This time you will need 30 grams of nitrophoska, which should be diluted in ten liters of water. Can be replaced with a solution with the addition of slurry in the ratio of 1 to 4.
Honeysuckle can be called an early plant, since both flowering and berry picking start very early. Already from the end of June, follow the berries of honeysuckle, as they quickly begin to crumble. As soon as they noticed that they acquired a dark blue color, you can safely begin harvesting. There are varieties of honeysuckle that do not crumble immediately, if you have one, then you can hold the berries on the shrub for another week, and if not, then put an oilcloth or fabric under the bush, shake the bush lightly, and all ripe berries will immediately crumble.
The fruits of this plant are very delicate, so you need to fold them in a very thin layer. In addition, they quickly deteriorate to keep them as long as possible, the berries are stored in the freezer. You can boil jam from honeysuckle or grind with sugar in a 1: 1 ratio. To enhance its healing properties, add raspberries or strawberries to the jar. Honeysuckle is very effective during a cold. And also from these berries very tasty liqueurs and tinctures are obtained.
In the first three years after planting the seedling honeysuckle pruning is not required. As the crown develops in the first years, the shoots begin to grow. The most suitable period for this procedure is considered to be autumn.
If you started to notice the thickening of the bush, then first of all get rid of the zero branches that are in the root zone. And also need to remove all dry, broken and short branches that will not bear fruit. They only thicken the crown and interfere with the development of healthy branches. It is necessary to thin the bush from the inside so that the sunlight could penetrate deep into the shoots and leaves.
Usually, year-long strong branches bear fruit, which during pruning is better not to touch at all. It is better to do a little pruning of strong branches, which for some reason have a bad growth. Need to get rid of old shoots that already bear little fruit. And of course, remove the branches that grow too low and are an obstacle when weeding and loosening.
Experienced gardeners can even rejuvenate old bushes. They simply remove almost all the branches, leaving only the young shoots that have formed around the stump. In the spring of sanitary pruning. Since after winter there are frozen, dried and broken branches that need to be removed.
Honeysuckle planting and care also provides for its reproduction. You can stock up on planting material for several years. To do this you will need toilet paper and ripe honeysuckle fruit. The berries are placed on a strip of paper at a distance of one centimeter, let them dry out and roll into a roll, on which you need to write a year. This stock can be stored for about two years.
If you want to plant seeds already this year, then immediately after harvesting, planting material is deepened by one millimeter into moist soil. The box with this planting material should be immediately covered with glass and ensure that the soil does not dry out. After three weeks, the first shoots will begin to appear. In late autumn, this box is carried to the garden and left there for the whole winter. Seeds planted in the fall are immediately placed in the garden, and there they undergo a natural stratification, and in spring they grow.
Saplings need regular watering, weeding and loosening the soil. In a year they can be planted in the ground, and in a few years the first fruits will appear.
Reproduction by cuttings
The cuttings are cut from one-year woody branches with a length of at least fifteen centimeters. Immediately after the onset of a thaw, they are planted in a greenhouse or in open ground. Each cutting should go deeper by ten centimeters. But make sure that there are two buds left above the ground. It is better to cover the cuttings with foil, so rooting will be a great success. The rooting process usually takes no more than one month.
Honeysuckle contains almost all the vitamins and minerals that you can imagine. It is very useful for the stomach, improves the digestive property of gastric juice. It is also an excellent diuretic and choleretic property; it is used as an astringent and laxative; it actively combats various fungi, viruses and bacteria. This berry is part of many folk remedies aimed at treating diseases of the stomach, cardiovascular system. Well reduces fever and strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Juice of berries against depriving is widely used, and also broths for instillation in eyes, rinsing of a mouth and a throat. Honeysuckle is used in dermatology. This is sometimes not just a healing, but a healing plant. Moreover, not only berries, but also bark and branches are used in the field of medicine. Honeysuckle reviews in medicine has only positive. It is part of many drugs.
Edible varieties of honeysuckle have no contraindications. But in the case of overeating, indigestion and skin rash were observed. Any product carries a risk of its excessive use.
Inedible species are also useful, but only specialists can prepare decoctions and infusions. If you do not know the exact technology of preparation of this or that medicine, then it is better not to undertake this business. And remember that there are only blue and black berries, and red and orange are dangerous to human health.
Types of honeysuckle varieties
Currently, breeders presented a lot of varieties of this crop, which differ in terms of ripening and decorative qualities. If several different varieties grow in the garden, the duration of the harvest will increase by several weeks.
Edible varieties of honeysuckle ripen much earlier than other garden berries. They are rich in vitamins and healing properties.
The most common varieties of honeysuckle are grown in garden plots.
This variety is a perennial shrub with straight shoots up to one and a half meters high. Crohn thick, has the shape of a ball.
Young shoots have slight crimson pubescence, in some places they are painted in a purple hue. Old branches are bare or partially pubescent; in some places, the bark may peel off in narrow stripes.
Leaves lanceolate, up to 7 centimeters long, elongated, slightly concave toward the center. The sheet plate is fleecy, dense to the touch, painted in saturated green color.
The flowers are yellowish-green in appearance resembling a bell with strong pubescence. The flowering period begins in late May-early June.
The Amphora variety is distinguished by rather large fruits, the mass of which, under favorable conditions, can reach three grams. The berries have an elongated shape, slightly reminiscent of a purple amphora. The berries have a dense flesh, odorless, with a delicate sweet-sour taste.
Honeysuckle fruit varieties Amphora are rich in fruit sugar and ascorbic acid. They are suitable for fresh consumption, as well as the preparation of juice, jams, stewed fruit and jam.
Fruiting honeysuckle variety Amphora begins in the third year after planting. Berries ripen together, for 10 days can be stored on the branches without shedding. They are distinguished by good transportability and long shelf life.
The Blue Bird variety is the result of the labor of scientists from the Siberian Horticultural Research Institute.
Erect bushes up to 1.5 meters. The shoots are long, thin, with a slight pubescence along the entire length. The crown is spreading, dense, leafy, oval. The leaves have an ellipsoid shape, slightly pointed to the tip.
The berries are oval, slightly pointed with a dense dark blue skin, covered with a waxy coating. The pulp is aromatic, juicy, tender, has a slightly tart sweet-sour taste, reminiscent of blueberries. The mass of one berry is up to 1.2 grams. The yield of one bush is up to two kilograms.
The Bluebird variety is deservedly popular with gardeners due to its unpretentious care, good fruiting, winter hardiness, resistance to disease and insect pests.
Honeysuckle Blue Bird demanding the choice of landing site. The plant requires light, sunlit areas with fertile, well-drained soil. However, when there is a shortage of moisture, shrubs can discard fruit, so in hot weather it is necessary to water the plantings and mulch the soil under the bushes.
For Honeysuckle Bluebird pollinators are required. Group planting should consist of 8−10 plants, planted at a distance of one and a half meters from each other. This will allow each year to get a good harvest of berries.
Features of growing and care
Honeysuckle is different from other fruit bushes in that it can grow in one place for more than 20 years. If necessary, shrubs of any age can be transplanted to a new place, and they will transfer it easily.
Honeysuckle bushes require well-lit places with diffused sunlight. They must constantly illuminate the sun.
In the shade, the harvest of berries is somewhat lower and its ripening dates come later.
Planting and soil
Honeysuckle must be cross-pollinated, therefore shrubs of different varieties should be planted on the site. As a result of cross-pollination, the taste of berries is significantly improved, they become larger in size.
Planting honeysuckle is carried out when the plant is at rest, that is, from late summer to late fall. By the beginning of the period of active growth the shrub must have taken root. Plant transplantation in the spring can cause him stress.
In order for the plants to be healthy and bring a good harvest, you should choose the right seedlings.
Experienced gardeners recommend:
- For spring and summer planting it is necessary to purchase potted seedlings. Seedlings must be purchased in nurseries or from trusted vendors,
- for planting should purchase seedlings of at least three varieties for cross-pollination. The young plant must be at least three years old
- the seedling should not have damaged branches, well developed leaves and buds,
- slight peeling of the bark is a varietal trait
- Honeysuckle has ornamental varieties that do not produce fruit.
Planting in spring is carried out after the threat of spring frosts disappears. Pre-preparing planting pit, the size of which must match the size of the root system. At the bottom of the pit should lay a drainage layer of small stones, expanded clay or gravel. A nutrient layer of compost and wood ash and mineral fertilizers is laid out on top of the drainage.
After that, planting is carried out. The land around the landing should be carefully shed and rammed. After that the mulch layer is laid..
Loosening the soil near the shrub should be done very carefully, because the roots are close to the surface.
When planting young plants in the fall, special attention should be paid to the garter of plants, since a layer of snow and wind can damage thin twigs and shoots.
During planting is not recommended to shorten the shoots. This may lead to a delay in fruiting.
The plant requires systematic moderate watering. The soil should be permanently wet, but crumbly. Do not over-wet the soil. A layer of mulch from leaves, sawdust and other organic materials helps to keep moisture around the plantations.
В жаркую погоду следует уделить особое внимание поливу молодых растений.
Внесение минеральных и органических удобрений осуществляется на третий после посадки год.
В период набухания почек вносят органическую подкормку в виде компоста и перегноя, в конце лета — древесную золу.
В течение сезона проводится три подкормки:
- весной — для увеличения плодоношения,
- in the summer - to restore plants after harvest,
- autumn - to replenish the supply of nutrients before the onset of winter.
As a top dressing you can use biohumus or grass infusion with chicken manure at the rate of one liter of fertilizer per bucket of water under each bush.
Three years after planting, sanitary pruning is carried out, during which diseased and damaged branches are removed. Usually it is carried out in late August-September..
After six years, non-fruiting shoots are located near the ground. And in 15 years the plant is completely rejuvenated.
Diseases and pests
Honeysuckle is practically not exposed to diseases, but may suffer from pests. Since the berries ripen very early, it is not recommended to use insecticides. To control pests, most gardeners use folk remedies: tincture of hot pepper or a solution of laundry soap.
If you compare honeysuckle with other cold-resistant cultures
... then the raspberry can withstand temperatures down to -32, strawberries die at -16.
Honeysuckle resistant to returnable frosts. The second indisputable advantage of this bush is its durability. The bush is able to maintain high yields for more than 4 decades. Rapid growth and precocity, another factor in favor of honeysuckle. Already in the year of planting you will harvest a small crop, and in the second and third year its amount will increase significantly. Honeysuckle berries ripen in the first half of June.
The name of this shrub in the scientific literature is blue honeysuckle (Lonicem caerulea). Under natural conditions, it is widespread in Siberia, the Far East, and Kamchatka, this is due to frost resistance.
What does edible honeysuckle look like
This shrub is upright, whose height can reach 2 meters. Most often has a spherical thick crown. The bark is yellowish or brown in color, on old shoots can be separated by narrow stripes.
Rod root system rod, branched densely. Most of the roots lie at a depth of about 40-50 cm. The leaves at the honeysuckle are simple, narrow, oblong, about 3-5 cm long. It blooms with yellow inflorescences. It starts flowering early, in April-May, and in June it is already producing fruits.
Berries grow in pairs. Fruits have an oblong / pear-shaped / oval, elongated shape, depending on the variety. Dina on average 0.5-1.5 cm., The surface of the berries is covered with a light wax coating. The skin of the berries is thin, and the flesh is juicy, red-purple. It has a sweet-sour — bitter taste. The berry contains small seeds, which almost do not feel the taste.
The varieties of edible honeysuckle are self-fruitful, for their fruiting it is necessary to cross-pollinate flowers, with pollen of other varieties. In order to get a stable crop, planting only one variety on your plot will not be enough. In order for pollination to succeed, you need to plant several different varieties of berries, at least 3-5 varieties.
Honeysuckle bushes are a wonderful honey plant. They attract pollinators to the site.
The best varieties of edible honeysuckle
In nature, there are more than 200 varieties of edible honeysuckle varieties.
Consider the best varieties.
- «Botanical". The advantage of the variety is that the berries do not crumble ripened. High taste.
- "Vasyuganskaya." You can use artistic pruning, which can become part of landscape design. Berries weighing about a gram each. From one bush you can collect about 10 kg of berries.
- "Vitamin". Small, compact bush. The berries are not large, about 0.7 gr .. The yield is about 1 kg per bush.
- "Fiant". Often found in the suburban areas. Summer residents love him for a powerful bush and dessert taste of berries.
- "Violet". Gives a crop of berries of an unusual form bluish-blue color with the pointed form. The berries are slightly curved, large.
- "Amphora". Gives a harvest of large, weighing more than a gram, sweet and sour berries. The form is pitcher-shaped, with an even roller at the top.
- "Bogdan". Fruits are oval. The taste is sweet and sour. Berries are large. One of the most productive varieties.
Planting edible honeysuckle
The best time for planting honeysuckle is autumn, the end of September / beginning of October. To get started, you need to pick a place where you plan to plant honeysuckle. Both lighted areas and light penumbra will do.
It is important that the place is protected from the wind. Honeysuckle is not whimsical enough and feels good on any soil. But the most favorable option would be loose and well-drained soil. Too dry soil will not be suitable.
On heavy wet soils, and on poor sandy ones, development will be slowed down and there will be practically no harvest. Groundwater level is important, it should not exceed 1 meter.
Before planting it is important to clear the soil from weeds. If the acidity of the soil is high, it is necessary to add 200 to 400 g of lime per square meter.
Healthy planting material - the key to the success of growing any plant. Saplings with a closed root system take root faster. In an open root system, there is a high probability that the roots can be dried out and the plant may die. Follow the rule of "golden mean". The roots should not be big and not small.
It is best to choose varieties from the region nearest to your selection.
Before planting, inspect the bush carefully. Remove broken and too long shoots. It is necessary to dig pits 40/40 cm. The distance between the pits should be from a meter to two. Add to the soil well-rotted manure, 300 grams of ash, double superphosphate 100 grams., Potassium sulfate 30 grams. All this is thoroughly mixed with the soil.
Next, place the honeysuckle bush in a hole and sprinkle it with loose soil. We deepen the root neck by no more than 3 cm. After planting, the plant needs to be watered at the rate of 10 liters of water per bush, but no more. Mulch bush with humus, peat, dry grass.
Honeysuckle care is not at all difficult. No more than any other plant in your area.
If you complied with all the rules of landing on your site, then care will not be difficult. Complex mineral dressing is carried out in early spring.
Approximate consumption - about 20 grams per square meter. Before flowering, another mineral dressing is needed, as a rule, it is carried out with liquid fertilizer such as Kemira Universal. 20 g per 10 liters. In autumn, wood ash is added to digging.
If a top dressing was carried out during planting, then the following two years should not be made.
Watering should be moderate. It is recommended only in dry weather. Watering is better by sprinkling.
Pruning the bush is not appropriate for the first time for several years after planting. If necessary, remove weak, dry shoots. But it is still better to do thinning pruning every three years. If the branches become cramped, then some of them must be cut. At one bush 5 most powerful and strong trunks are left.
The amount of harvest depends on how you took care of the plant. Berries ripen unevenly and they have to be collected in several stages. If the berry is not removed from the bush while it is showered. In this case, it is recommended to lay a dense fabric or polyethylene under the bush. From such a surface it will be easy to collect the showered berries.
Honeysuckle can be multiplied in different ways
Growing from seed. Seeds are obtained from the best, large berries. To do this, on a thin blotting paper crush the berries. Spread the seeds apart. The paper will absorb the juice, and dry the seeds directly on the same sheet. After drying, the seed paper is stored at room temperature until seeding.
Seeds remain viable for 3-4 years. The best germination in the year of collecting seeds.
Seeds are sown on wet ground. The soil should be light, loose. Seeds are sprinkled with a small layer of sand. The container in which you planted the seeds must be covered with a film or glass to create the greenhouse effect. You should not water it plentifully, and sprinkle a little with water from a spray bottle when the soil dries. Approximately in 3 weeks shoots will appear.
Green cutting. It is considered one of the most effective ways to reproduce honeysuckle. Green cuttings cut in summer. It is important to do this when the berries have not ripened yet. Cut cuttings about 10-15 cm in size. They need to be treated with a root-forming preparation. Planted them under an inclination of 45 degrees in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Regular watering and spraying is required. In the year of planting, the cuttings are left in place until spring.
Reproduction by horizontal layouts. In early spring, before bud break, last year's shoots of honeysuckle bend down to the ground, pinned and sprinkled with soil. The soil must be loosened and weed. Digging is usually in the fall, in October. Horizontal shoots are cut and dug. On the shoots already formed roots. Typically, the layering require rearing, but some gardeners dig them only in the spring.
Diseases of edible honeysuckle
If you see leaf diseases in honeysuckle, then most likely you have pests on your bush.
Honeysuck cereal. The leaves turn yellow and are covered with yellow spots. They can roll at different angles. Insect larvae are lemon yellow. Damaged plants can be sprayed with infusion of garlic, tobacco, pepper, onion. With a strong lesion, it is necessary to treat with drugs "Aktara", "Eleksar".
Shchitovka. Insects tightly attached to the bark and feed on the juice of the shoots. Severe defeat by the shield leads to the death of the plant. Understand that the plant is affected by the shield can be on the growths and mounds, inside which live parasites. Necessary measures - double spraying roggorom or aktellikom.
Leaf-eating insects. Several insect species infect honeysuckle leaves. The leaves of a bush spoiled by wreckers look unattractive and reduce decorative effect.
From spotty and powdery mildew sprayed Bordeaux mixture or drug "Topaz".
Rust Mushrooms promote the appearance of brown spots on the leaves on the leaves. In early spring, shrubs are sprayed with copper preparations.
Honeysuckle fruit is a real pantry of pectins, organic acids and a number of vitamins, the unique combinations of which made the use of these berries a highly effective weapon in the fight against anemia, heart and vascular diseases, and the gastrointestinal tract. The beneficial and healing effects of blue-gray fruit on the human body is recognized and traditional medicine. Perhaps that is why a rare garden plot does without such green healers.
Features of culture
Honeysuckle - a highly branchy shrub reaching a height of two meters, with very strong woody branches covered with thin exfoliating brownish-brown bark. Dark green small oval leaves appear at the same time as small flowers. Single elongated berries on the stalks, depending on the variety, can reach weight up to 3.0 g.
Honeysuckle frost resistance is amazing. It perfectly tolerates severe frosts down to -45 ° C. Its ovaries and flowers, which withstand short-term spring frosts down to -8 ° C, have an enviable resistance. The slow growth of the bush in the first few years is one of the features of the development of honeysuckle. During this period, it gains root mass. Therefore, yields from young bushes are insignificant, they become really tangible at 5-6 year. Gardeners noticed that in order to get more tasty and large berries during flowering and before the beginning of mass ripening, it is necessary to water the shrub several times intensively.
The shrub grows well and gives very generous yields on sunny and protected from the wind areas without close approach of groundwater. For a high-quality crop, two or three different varieties should be planted at one site. This will lead to the cross-pollination needed, since the flowers of the honeysuckle are self-infertile. Therefore, the more varied the set of varieties in the garden, the more generous the harvest. Planting several berries of the same species will lead to abundant flowering, but weak fruiting.
Varieties: decorative or edible
Today, a large number of varieties of garden honeysuckle are cultivated, including exclusively ornamental and fruiting species. Ornamental varieties are divided into two types - erect bushes and creepers. The “Alpine”, “Golden”, “Tatarskaya” bushes are distinguished by their excellent decorative effect; they are unusual and especially remarkable in the garden design of the “Kaprifol”, “Curly” creepers, “Telman's honeysuckle”, etc.
Of the edible species of honeysuckle, varieties of Bakchar breeders with a sweet-sour taste enjoy particular preferences among gardeners. It is believed that they are the most tasty, besides they have absolutely no bitterness.
Honeysuckle varieties are divided into several groups according to fruiting time: early (“Sibiryachka”, “Roxana”, “Silginka”), medium (“Narymskaya”, “Bakchar Giant”), and late maturation (“Bakchara”, “Yubileinaya”, “ Daughter of the Giant "). These are conditional separations, since honeysuckle is initially an early crop, and the difference between harvesting early (in May-June) and late varieties (in June) does not exceed 2-4 weeks. Nevertheless, the cultivation of honeysuckle of different ripening terms provides an opportunity to feast on fresh berries for a month.
Planting and care
With all its simplicity honeysuckle prefers light areas with fertile, well-drained soil. For a good culture development, it is necessary to add mineral nutrients - nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Autumn planting of honeysuckle is most preferable, shrub survival during this period is almost one hundred percent.
The best material for planting - biennial seedlings with a strong root system. In a prepared landing pit with a depth of up to half a meter they bring a bucket of humus, 100 g. superphosphate, 40 gr. potassium salt, mixed with the soil and have a seedling, carefully distributing the roots. To facilitate rooting the seedling is watered and then completed planting. The second time is well watered and mulch the soil plant residues.
Slow growth of culture in the early years should not be misleading gardener, provoking excessive feeding. Three seasons after planting culture is not fertilized.
From the fourth year honeysuckle begin to feed three times during the summer. The first feeding to enhance the growth of shoots and build-up leaf mass is done at the beginning of the growing season (April). Under one bush requires 20 g of urea. The second, summer top dressing is carried out after harvesting. It is necessary to increase the number of laid flower buds. The best food in this period is considered to be a real slurry solution (1/5) - 10 liters per bush. For the third time, honeysuckle is fertilized in the fall, adding 20 grams to tree trunks. superphosphate and potassium salt in the granules, not deeply buried. Autumn feeding to protect and strengthen the root system can be carried out in a year.
The necessary care for the plants consists in the shallow loosening of the soil under the shrub, timely watering and weeding, as well as the removal of old and broken branches, thickening the shrub.
This necessary activity is carried out on adult crops that have reached the age of 8-9 years, because the formation of honeysuckle fruits occurs on a one-year increase, and the formative pruning of a young shrub will necessarily lead to a failure in fruit formation and yield loss. Therefore, thinning bushes, stimulating the formation of a variety of annual stems, can be on plants that are included in the time of full fruiting. Proper care of the crop will ensure the annual harvest of excellent healing berries for 25-30 years.
Pests and diseases: how to avoid them
Very resistant to various misfortunes, honeysuckle still has its enemies. Shepherdites, leafworms and honeysuckle sawflies can inflict basic damage. Possible damage by powdery mildew and leaf spot. For the prevention of diseases, early spring spraying with Fundazol or Topaz is recommended. Pests will die after treatment with chlorophos solution.
The honeysuckle berry, which has recently become a part of the culture, has already become customary in Russian gardens due to the enviable simplicity and excellent fruit properties.
Why is it worth planting honeysuckle
Honeysuckle benefits not only the gardener, but also his garden. For this culture is to find a place on the site for the following reasons.
- Honeysuckle berries ripen early, the bushes of most varieties yield in June. If there is a desire to feast on this berry and in the middle of summer, it is worth planting mid-season varieties.
- Honeysuckle is a low-calorie product that even those who are on a diet should not refuse from. This is a very juicy, tasty and aromatic berry, a source of dozens of vitamins, fiber, natural sugars and trace elements.
- From the fruit is prepared jam, jelly, they are added to compotes. Thick dark red juice will give a rich tint to pastry cream and homemade jelly. Berries can be dried and cooked for future use; after freezing, they retain their taste and nutritional qualities, color and smell.
- In May, the shrub is covered with small white, pale pink, light blue, yellow flowers. Bees, flies and bumblebees swarm above the flowering garden. A large number of insects attracts to the garden birds that eat not only flies, but also caterpillars, butterflies and spiders.
- В природе кусты жимолости растут по берегам лесных речек и ручьев, селекционные сорта также любят воду. Сортовую жимолость не сложно культивировать, она не слишком отличается от дикоросов, в саду ее размещают по соседству с любыми плодовыми культурами, которые любят увлажненную почву.
- Designers willingly use honeysuckle bushes in landscape compositions. You do not need to be a professional in this area to create your dream garden using your favorite plants. Honeysuckle upright, decorated with flowers, large berries, will create a beautiful background for multi-level flower beds or alpine slides.
Plus all varieties of cultivated honeysuckle - good resistance to fungal diseases and the effects of insects (pests of fruit bushes). The minus of this culture is that the plant is self-productive. Self-pollination is not effective, in this case a small amount of berries are formed on the bushes, or the ovaries do not appear at all.
For successful pollination, several grades of honeysuckle are planted nearby (at least two). The experience of gardeners shows that fertilization of flowers can be brought up to 100% if you plant 4-7 plant varieties together.
Tomichka - srednerosly, mid-ripened honeysuckle with a compact crown and flexible, elastic branches that can bend to the ground under the weight of foliage and harvest. Jug-shaped, drop-shaped berries, peel coloring dark, purple with a bluish tinge, in some berries it is almost black, with a bluish-bluish bloom. In the juicy flesh bitterness is not felt, which is a plus for this honeysuckle.
Blue spindle - small early variety, bushes reach a meter in height. This honeysuckle has loose leaves and thin branches. The berries are dense blue with a gray-bluish bloom, fusiform, large. After ripening, fruits soon crumble. Minus varieties - in the absence of watering in drought, the berry pulp becomes bitter.
Moraine - tall, early honeysuckle, forming a strongly leafy shrub. The berries of this honeysuckle pitcher-like, bluish-blue, large. There is no bitterness in the berry pulp. The rind of the fruit pond is very tender. Plus Moraines - berries firmly hold on the branches and do not fall long after ripening.
Altair. This honeysuckle grows to 1.4-1.5 meters. The berries have a sweet taste, bluish color. The peel is dense, it is covered with a light bluish bloom. Crop ripens in July, ripe berries do not fall for 3-4 weeks.
Long-fruited - early ripe honeysuckle. The plant forms a voluminous bush with flexible, thin branches and lanceolate leaves. Plant height - one meter. Berries are cylindrical, long. Berry pulp is sweet with sourness, the skin of fruits is thin, violet-blue, with a light touch.
Cinderella . Cinderella bushes are well leafy, undersized, which provides easy access to the harvest. Ripe berries need to be collected on time, because after ripening, they can quickly fall off. The shape of the spindle-shaped berries, their color is dense blue with a pale wax coating. The pulp of the fruit is sour-sweet.
Bakchar giant. This mid-season culture grows to a height of two meters. The shrub is not covered with dense grayish-green foliage. Bakchar giant produces large berries (up to 5 cm in length). The berries of the Bokchar giant are cylindrical and elliptical. The skin color is dark, dense blue. On the peel bluish-gray patina.
Interesting facts about honeysuckle
Planting honeysuckle appeared in the gardens at the beginning of the last century, at the same time, agronomists began to work on the selection of the best plants and their selection. Now this shrub is grown in temperate latitudes of Europe and North America. Honeysuckle adorns parts of the inhabitants of Primorye and Siberia, it is cultivated in China and the mountainous regions of India.
- There are three types of honeysuckle - curly, creeping and erect. All breeding varieties grown for the production of berries belong to the upright species.
- In ornamental species, the berries are red, yellow, black or blue. Edible wild plants and cultivated species have blue, violet-blue fruits, their surface is covered with a light matte coating.
- The height of the bushes varies greatly. There are tall varieties reaching 2.5 meters or more in height. The strongest honeysuckle grows only 40 cm.
- Most of the species of honeysuckle gives bitter inedible fruits, among them are poisonous. So, the fruits of Wolfberry and Honeysuckle ordinary, growing in the forests of the middle zone, can cause severe poisoning.
- This culture was even brought to New Zealand, where the northern guest grows well and bears fruit.
Agricultural engineering rules
Each type of honeysuckle has its own cultivation features. There are general agricultural practices. The advice of professionals and experienced gardeners relate to the proper selection of the composition of the soil, the schedule of fertilization, the selection of healthy seedlings, loosening and watering.
Honeysuckle is grown on neutral soils. Good loamy soil, which is applied to humus, compost, synthetic mineral fertilizers .. On the acidic lands, the culture grows poorly, the foliage of the shrub loses its color and becomes gray. The plant does not like dry sandy and heavy, very dense soil.
The soil on the site requires frequent watering. But if the aquifer is at a depth of less than a meter, the roots of honeysuckle will begin to rot and the bushes will die.
How to choose a site
Honeysuckle feels good in the sun, but not blown by the winds, areas. High hills, unprotected steppe are not suitable for this shrub.
Honeysuckle also does not like thick shadow. It is not planted in the shade of large trees and high fences. With a deficit of daytime, few fruits are harvested.
Selection of seedlings
High-yield plants can be grown from seedlings purchased in the nursery. Planting material can be purchased from summer residents and farmers involved in the cultivation of honeysuckle. When buying planting material pay attention to the following factors:
- In saplings grown in boxes, containers, roots are reliably protected by earth. As a rule, they are well rooted.
- If you have to plant seedlings with roots, devoid of soil, pay attention to their condition. On healthy roots there is no rot, they are wet and elastic.
- The branches of a healthy seedling are flexible, there are many buds on them.
- Well tolerated transplant 2-year-old honeysuckle. On such a bush there are 2-3 twigs.
- The height of the planting material should be from 40-45 to 100 cm.
Saplings with roots, removed from the ground, it is best to plant in the ground at the end of the active growing season, in September or in October. The site is prepared in advance (remove garden waste, foliage).
- In the soil, dig square holes with a size of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m.
- The distance between the pits, depending on the variety, is 1.4-2.2 m.
- Drainage is poured at the bottom of the pit (river gravel, rubble, expanded clay). Layer thickness - 5-8 cm.
- Above the drainage pour nutrient mixture. It is prepared in advance (2 compost buckets (humus), 1 kg of wood ash, 0.05 kg of superphosphate).
- In the center of the hole form a slide.
- Put a bush with an open root system on the hill and straighten the roots.
- The root system is sprinkled with soil and slapped on it. It is impossible to deepen the root neck more than 4-5 cm.
- Bush abundantly watered, the soil is closed with any loose mulch.
If the soil is sandy, the amount of humus increases.
Honeysuckle seedlings grown in containers are planted not only in autumn but also in spring (the second decade of April). When transplanting soil from the container, the seedling is removed by cutting the container (or using a spatula). Drainage material, nutrient mixture is poured into the well.
In the nutrient mixture make a hole and put there a bush with a clod of earth. Then a lump is covered with earth and watered plentifully. The soil is mulched.
When planting a seedling from a container, the root neck cannot be covered with earth.
Caring for garden honeysuckle includes weeding the site, loosening the soil around the bushes, watering and pruning. Like any fruit shrub, it depletes the soil and needs feeding.
- Weeding done regularly, especially in a young garden. Weeds on fertilized soils grow quickly, they suck water and extract useful substances. Weeding is recommended to combine with loosening.
- Loosening Soils do 4-5 times in the summer. This work is carried out with caution so as not to damage the roots and their processes. The root system of honeysuckle is not deep, gentle basal shoots are easy to injure. Last loosening done in late autumn.
- Watering spend as the soil dries. Humidity of the soil is especially important for seedlings and young bushes with a rare crown.
- Pruning need for adult bushes. The first pruning is carried out three years after planting seedlings on the site. Krona thinned, cutting branches with shears. The second (anti-aging) pruning is done on 8-year-old plants. Cut and cut down old, dried branches (2-3), leaving only young shoots.
- Introductionorganic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer (humus, mature compost) is used every three to four years, in early summer. Around each honeysuckle bush scatter 6-7 kg of fertilizer. Nutrients come to the roots with rain and irrigation water. Instead of humus or compost, watering with bovine diluted in water (5-6 parts of water and 1 part of manure) or bird droppings (1 part of manure and 10 parts of water).
- Application of mineral fertilizers. Potassium-nitrogen, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the spring (30 grams per square meter) in a dry form (or by dissolving the granules in water according to the instructions). In the autumn they make a phosphorus-potassium mixture and ash (150–200 g per square meter).
Immediately after disembarking the plot, honeysuckle bushes cannot be cut off (only broken and dried branches are removed). Such pruning will slow down the development of the bush.
Reproduction by layering
Reproduction by layering is available for varieties with long strong branches.
It is carried out in the following order:
- Choose a young strong branch, bend it to the ground and secure with a metal stud.
- Place the clip sprinkled with soil, a layer of about 5 cm.
- In this position, the branch is until the autumn. It takes root and hardens in the ground.
- True to the branch pruned shears, getting a new plant.
A new bush of honeysuckle begins to bear fruit after 2 seasons.
Adult plants multiply by division. Shrub age should not exceed five years. Work is carried out in March or autumn, in September.
- Scrub digging, minimally injuring the roots.
- The root system is cut from top to bottom into several pieces. To do this, use garden shears or a sharp knife.
- Parts of the bush are planted in the holes with soil mixture and humus, sprinkled with earth and watered.
Garden honeysuckle - unpretentious plant. Compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering, attention to the advice of experienced gardeners in care and cultivation will help to get good yields of this tasty and very useful berries.
Varieties and types of edible honeysuckle
Honeysuckle belongs to the genus of creeping, climbing or upright shrubs of the family Honeysuckle. There are more than 200 species of this culture, most of which are poisonous or unsuitable for food. For example, a species of Honeysuckle Ordinary, known to us from childhood as “Wolfberry”, is dangerous to humans due to the content of toxic substances and grows in all regions of the middle zone. In total in our country there are about 15 wild species.
In horticulture cultivated species of Honeysuckle Edible. The botanical description of shrubs and fruits may differ depending on the type and specific variety. The height of honeysuckle is divided into three varieties: short, medium strong, tall. The height of low-growing bushes usually does not exceed 1.5 m. Mid-shrubs grow to a height of 1.6 m - 2 m, varieties above 2 m are considered tall.
Varieties of stunted honeysuckle
Nizhny Novgorod Early - a bush with a thick crown, the height rarely exceeds 1 m, the shape of the berries is pear-shaped, the taste is sweet and sour, the variety is valued for its early ripening,
Ramenskaya - height is about 1.4 m, the berries are oval of medium size, the taste is sweet without sourness, belongs to dessert varieties, differs in early ripening, but quickly crumbles.
Gzhel late - the crown is oval, the height is not more than 1.5 m, the berries are large, sweet with the presence of a little sourness, used to make desserts.
Varieties of medium honeysuckle
Bakcharskaya - a shrub with a rounded crown 1.6 m high, planted for decorative purposes, medium-sized fruits, slightly elongated, belong to the dessert variety.
Kubyshka - shrub with a spreading crown up to 1.8 m high, used for landscape design, fruits with a wide top, large size, belong to the dessert variety.
Gzhel early - shrub 2 m tall early ripening, fruits with flat tops, large and sweet, dessert variety.
Varieties of tall honeysuckle
Fortune - shrub with a round, compact crown, cylindrical fruit of medium size, sweet-sour taste, variety of early ripening, harvesting occurs in the second half of June.
Nymph - early ripening variety, crown dense, prone to thickening, spindle-shaped fruits, sweet-sour taste with pronounced bitterness.
Volkhov - shrub with a dense, rounded crown, used in landscape design, oval fruits with a blunt apical part, sweet taste with a pronounced strawberry shade, used for blanks and fresh.
Honeysuckle variety is chosen not only for the height of the bush and the shape of the crown. What matters is the taste of berries. In some species, it may have a characteristic bitterness or a pronounced strawberry flavor. There are varieties in which the berries are sweet or slightly sour. But the most important among gardeners is the yield indicator.
The most productive varieties of honeysuckle include:
- Moscow - 23 (average yield 4 kg),
- Kamchadalka (3 kg),
- Gourmand (3kg),
- Cinderella (3 kg),
- Wiliga (2.5 kg).
The beginning of fruiting in honeysuckle
The average lifespan of honeysuckle is 20 - 25 years. Crop yield depends on age and increases to fifteen years of age. The first harvest honeysuckle gives the age of 3 - 4 years.
If the honeysuckle is propagated by cuttings, then the first fruits can be obtained already the next year after rooting. The productivity of the shrub at the age of 7 years is just over a kilogram. Increasing the harvest almost doubled can be achieved if you plant a number of several varieties of honeysuckle.
Soil preparation and planting seedlings
Fertilizer must be applied to the site where honeysuckle is planted. A sufficient amount of nutrients will help rooting quickly and prepare the plant for the fruiting period. A mixture of mineral and organic fertilizers from 30 g of superphosphate, the same amount of potassium salt and 10 kg of humus per m² of plot is brought into continuous digging.
Fresh manure soil is filled only in the fall. In the spring, humus is used, which can be replaced by rotted vegetable compost.
Preparation of holes
Honeysuckle prefers drained, well-lit areas with low groundwater levels. Before planting for two weeks under the honeysuckle prepare the hole depth of about 40 cm.
The wells are filled with fertilizers. For this, the uppermost, most fertile soil layer is mixed with organic matter and agrochemicals. One pit will need up to 3 kg of humus, about 200 ml of ash and 30 g - 40 g of nitrophos. Next, pour 250 ml of hydrated lime solution (250 ml of lime / 10 l) into each well.
If the pits were prepared a few weeks before planting, they should be covered with a non-woven material against washing out the soil. Honeysuckle can be planted on the fourth day after filling the wells with fertilizers.
Honeysuckle planting pattern
Honeysuckle should not be in a single planting. The plant is self-infertile, it will need cross-pollination. To get high yields, honeysuckle planted in a group planting no less than three bushes.
Preparing the holes, make sure that the distance between them was about one and a half meters for medium-grown varieties, for undersized - 1 m, for tall species, a distance of 2.0 m - 2.5 m will be required.
Compliance with the planting pattern is necessary so that the honeysuckle has enough food and sunlight, the roots can develop freely, and the process of pollination is carried out.
Honeysuckle varieties in group planting
In group planting, it is recommended to plant several varieties of honeysuckle. The binding of fruits in the presence of two varieties of honeysuckle is close to 50%. To increase this figure should be planted three or more varieties.
To the stage of development of the bushes coincided, the purchase of planting material or its preparation is carried out simultaneously. A feature of culture is the slow development of the aerial part compared to the root system. The height of a two-year bush usually does not exceed 20 cm - 30 cm.
To increase the productivity, varieties are selected according to the principle of coincidence of the initial data. The following are the best inter-varietal pollinator options:
- Blue spindle + Blue bird (possible replacement - Kamchadalka),
- Nymph + Omega (replacement - Chosen),
- Kamchadalka + Parambelskaya (replacement - Nymph),
- Cinderella + Kamchadalka (replacement - Roxana),
- Berel + Kamchadalka (replacement - Blue spindle),
- Morena + Viola (replacement - Amphora),
- Blue Bird + Morena (replacement - Chosen One).
Varieties can be selected so that the ripening time is different. Picking berries will be more convenient, and you can enjoy the delicious fruits throughout the summer.
Immediately before planting, seedlings are inspected for damage, faded parts of the rhizome. Dry parts are removed with a disinfected instrument.
Перед посадкой в лунки наливают воду до тех пор, пока почва не перестанет впитывать влагу. Далее корни саженцев располагают в лунке, немного встряхивая и расправляя корешки.
Сильно заглублять саженцы не рекомендуется, в противном случае первое плодоношение отложится на несколько сезонов. The saplings are once again watered with a weak solution of mullein, the holes are covered with fertile soil, the surface around the bushes is mulched.
Care for edible honeysuckle
Like any plant, honeysuckle requires some care: regular watering, feeding, weeding, loosening, pest control and preventive measures against diseases.
In the first few seasons after planting the honeysuckle will need a large amount of moisture. The soil of the circle of the trunk should always be hydrated. Water the plant under the root and foliage. Watering the leaves is carried out only in the evening and morning hours to avoid burns. Under the root of the plant is watered daily at the rate of 15 liters per adult bush.
With the beginning of the vegetative season, the honeysuckle is regularly fed. The intervals between fertilization are at least two weeks. Nitrogen (30 g of urea / 10 l) is added to the first dressing to accelerate the growth of the vegetative mass. The main condition - nitrogen fertilizer is served before the beginning of the flowering phase.
Honeysuckle is a frost-resistant culture that can withstand temperatures down to –50 ° C. However, a surplus of nitrogen reduces the ability of plants to tolerate cold easily. Observe the dosage and follow the instructions of the applied agrochemicals.
After flowering and before the start of ripening of the honeysuckle berries, potash-phosphate top dressing will be required: 15 g of potassium sulfate / 30 g of nitrophos / 10 l. Under an adult plant 10 l are added - 15 l of solution, young honeysuckle is enough 5 l of top dressing.
In autumn, honeysuckle is fed with potash salt no more than once every 3 years at the rate of 15 g / m², the procedure is performed after trimming the shrub.
Organic matter has a prolonged effect, so it is not more often than once every 4 years. On sandy and sandy soils, the interval can be reduced and fertilizer applied in a year. It is advisable to use vegetable composts and humus. Fresh manure will cause root burns.
Caring for a circle
The root system of the honeysuckle is superficial, so in the first year the soil of the near-stem circle is not loosened. In the next two seasons, loosening is carried out to a depth of no more than 5 cm - 7 cm. In adult honeysuckle, the roots are located at a depth of 25 cm - 40 cm, therefore loosening is carried out without restrictions. Weeds are regularly harvested in the near-circle wheel, and in extreme heat, they mulch with grass against drying out of the soil.
Unlike other fruit bushes, honeysuckle does not prune during planting. This is due to the slow growth of the aerial part of the honeysuckle. Pruning will slow down the development of shrubs and postpone the beginning of fruiting.
In the spring, shrub, frostbitten, and damaged shoots are removed from the shrub. Sanitary cleaning is carried out in the autumn. Pruning subject to diseased or insect-damaged branches. The compacted crown is thinned to provide light and natural ventilation in the future season.
Spring pruning is carried out in March, before the start of active sap flow in plants. Autumn is carried out from late August to mid-November, more accurate dates depend on the region of cultivation.
Under the conditions of a short summer in the northern regions, pruning is carried out 15 to 20 days after picking the berries. In the southern regions, autumn pruning is carried out in the last decade of October - the first two decades of November. For the middle band, the optimum period for pruning will be September - the first decade of October.
Autumn pruning is carried out no later than one month before the arrival of the first frost. If the honeysuckle does not heal before the onset of cold weather, the plant will not be able to fully accumulate nutrients.
Rejuvenating pruning at honeysuckle is carried out with a decrease in yield. Usually this period falls on the age of 10 years or more. To rejuvenate the shrub, all branches are cut to the ground; wounds are treated with garden pitch or industrial antiseptics of similar effect.
Harvesting, storage and processing
The period of ripening of berries and, accordingly, harvesting depends on the variety. Approximately the cleaning period is in June - the first half of July. It is not easy to collect the fruits, especially in tall varieties. Berries grow on the side branches, and inside the shrub, but ripen unevenly. Usually the largest and ripe berries are located deep in the bush and on the upper branches. Fruits on the lower ripen a little later.
Phased harvesting - the best option for showered varieties of honeysuckle. If you wait until all the berries ripen, part of the crop showered on the ground. It is possible to manually pick berries that have already ripened, but it is easier to spread nonwoven fabric (film or agrofibre) into the tree trunk circle and shake up the shrub. Ripened fruits will fall, the rest will ripen.
Long-term storage of honeysuckle fruit is impossible. Even in the refrigeration chamber, the berries do not undergo damage of only 2 to 3 days. Transportation is also problematic. Even varieties with a dense skin are easily crumpled and quickly deteriorate.
For storage and transportation honeysuckle is laid in one layer and processed for several days.
Growing from seed
Honeysuckle seeds can be grown seedlessly and through seedlings.
It must be remembered that seedlings obtained by seedlings do not retain the varietal characteristics of the mother plant.
The seedless method consists in planting seeds directly in open ground or in a greenhouse. Preparation of the site and the soil is carried out as standard: organic fertilizers and mineral additives are added for digging. Small wells 2 cm deep are prepared for the seeds. The wells are made on a moist soil by the row method with a distance of 10 cm.
In each recess is laid one seed of honeysuckle. The wells are covered with a light soil substrate 1 cm thick. Next, the landing site is covered with polyethylene. Before the emergence of seedlings covering material removed twice a day for watering and ventilation. The earth is moistened with a spray.
From the moment of planting until the emergence of shoots, it takes at least 15 - 25 days. During this time, weeds have time to germinate, and watering, even with the help of a spray bottle, blurs the soil. It makes sense to install pointers in the places of planting seeds. They will help to carefully loosening, watering and removing weeds.
With the advent of germs, the film is removed. During the season shoots plentifully watered. In the autumn, the seedlings of weak seedlings are rejected, the other plants are warmed for wintering. In the next season, honeysuckle give rise and get stronger. Under plants make feeding, monitor watering, treated for the prevention of pests. Transplantation of seedlings to the main site is made a year later, after selecting the strongest plants.
For the cultivation of seedlings in a residential area in the fall prepare the ground: sand, fertile soil, humus in equal proportions, which then add 120 ml of wood ash. In February, the soil is disinfected by steaming in a water bath or frozen at low temperatures.
The soil mixture is placed in clean containers 15–20 cm deep. Further, on wetted soil, furrows are made 2.0 cm – 2.5 cm deep. It is desirable to leave a distance of at least 8 cm – 10 cm between the furrows. - 3 cm, sprinkled with soil, watered and covered with film.
The film is removed when the first shoots appear. By the time of transplanting into separate containers, seedlings should have at least 5 true leaves. Before transplanting into the open ground, young bushes spend two more winters in pots. To the development of honeysuckle took place in normal mode, feeding is made during the vegetative season. For the winter, special conditions are created: they reduce illumination, reduce temperature and watering.
Compared to seed multiplication, grafting has indisputable advantages:
- green cutting allows you to save varietal signs of honeysuckle,
- crop during propagation by cuttings can be obtained for the next season after planting, with seed production of honeysuckle first crop will have to wait at least four years.
The cuttings are harvested during the active growing season, during the period when the flowering has ended and the fruits have already formed. Earlier harvesting will affect the survival rate of cuttings - less than 60% of the volume of planting material.
Green cuttings are cut on a cool day from strong shoots of the current season with a length of 12 cm. A good cutting has a diameter of 0.5 cm, two knots and one interstitial. The upper cut is performed in a horizontal plane at a distance of no more than 1.5 cm from the kidneys. The lower cut make oblique, with an angle of 45 °. Leaf plates are completely removed from the nodes for better rooting.
Green cuttings are not stored, and immediately planted in a moist soil substrate of sand and peat in the ratio of 3: 1. The cuttings will be successful if the optimum moisture regime (at least 85%) and temperature (+ 25 ° C) is observed. Such conditions during the vegetative season can be created in film greenhouses or greenhouses.
With proper care, the roots of the cuttings will begin to appear within 10 days. At this time, the cuttings are quenched, increasing the time and amount of ventilation of the greenhouse. Caring for cuttings is normal and consists of watering, weeding, loosening and spraying in hot weather.
In the place of rooting cuttings grow further for several years. If the planting was thick, the next year the cuttings are planted and left for another year. Transplanted seedlings are transplanted in the spring, when the threat of recurrent frosts is over, between the end of April and the end of May.
Honeysuckle pests and diseases
In general, honeysuckle is a crop that is resistant to insect diseases and parasitism. But errors in planting or in care can lead to a decrease in plant immunity. Diseases and pest attacks will result.
The most common pests of the suckling honeysuckle family are the aphid, the sheathweed and some species of mite. Insects of the sheet rat family can also parasitize honeysuckle: sawfly, honeysuckle bug, miner, leafworm, moth.
Fruits are often affected by the small finger. It is extremely difficult to see this parasite, and it can be determined by prematurely fallen fruits with shriveled skin. Insecticides are used against pests, but they can be used only at the end of fruiting.
Since honeysuckle requires abundant watering, especially in the early years of development, fungal diseases can develop on the shrub. Fungal infections can be diagnosed by the appearance of dark spots on foliage, skeletal branches and young shoots of the current season.
Industrial fungicides are used to treat fungal infections during the growing season. At the end of the season sanitary cleaning is carried out with the removal of infected areas. In the winter, the plant is again sprayed with fungicides or sprayed with copper sulphate.
For healing properties, honeysuckle is second only to ginseng. Early ripening allows you to get a valuable product, when other cultures have just entered the stage of maturation. Honeysuckle is undemanding and responds to minimal care rich harvests.