Experienced gardeners have repeatedly surprised everyone with the results on the cultivation of root crops that are uncharacteristic for regions with a harsh climate. One of these is garlic. It is quite possible to cultivate on the site, if you follow simple rules on disembarkation and care. In this review we will talk about the features of planting spring garlic in the spring and growing it in Siberia.
Terms for planting summer garlic in Siberia
Garlic belongs to frost-resistant plants, it withstands severe winters under a thick layer of snow and is not afraid of frost. But in a snowless season planting material can freeze out. therefore in Siberia, the Urals and the Leningrad region preference is given to spring disembarkation.
Spring garlic - cold-resistant culture, and return frost he is not afraid
Winter varieties must be planted in the period from September 15 to October 5. Sowing must be completed 3-5 weeks before the onset of frost, in order to have time to form the root system. It is important that the shoots do not have time to break through to the surface of the soil, otherwise the plant will die.
Spring disembarkation begins in late April - early May. The optimal temperature for the initial stage of the growing season is considered to be the range of positive values from 5 to 10 degrees. The duration of ripening and yield depends on the storage conditions of planting material.. Faster on the surface of the soil shoots are formed, formed from the cloves kept in a cold way (at a temperature of 0 ° -3 °). However, the heads are formed in small sizes, and during hot and dry weather, single-teeth are often formed. The yield of this method is no different. Garlic stored in a warm way (at a temperature of 20 ° -25 °) ripens 25-40 days later. The heads of such plants form large ones with large teeth. To accelerate ripening, it is necessary to prepare the planting material for planting: soak, germinate and plant.
The benefits of spring planting spring garlic
In temperate climates, autumn planting in open ground has advantages over autumn. For growing crops in Siberia, spring varieties are more suitable which must be planted in the spring after the establishment of the daily positive temperature. This approach is due to the reduced risk of freezing of planting material due to severe frosts and the absence of a snow layer. In addition, the plants are less demanding of the soil, you can get a good harvest on light and medium loamy soil types.
In Siberia, spring garlic begins to be planted as early as possible, from the end of April
Undoubtedly The advantage of spring planting is the high resistance of summer garlic to bulbous plant diseases and pests.. Yes, and shoots are formed friendly with approximately the same development. Also excluded bald spots on the beds, resulting from the freezing of individual teeth.
Preparation of planting material: soaking and processing
The quality of garlic as onion depends in particular on the preparatory work, so planting material should be selected responsibly. When choosing garlic, you should pay attention to whether the head belongs to the winter or spring variety. How to distinguish them? Head winter to the touch elastic with a dense shell. In the middle there is a rod around which the cloves are located. The shell of the spring variety is thin, resembling parchment. The cloves are arranged in rows without a central rod. The exception is the variety Gulliver, which forms an arrow.
Difference of spring garlic from winter
Preparation consists of the following steps:
- head separation on separate teeth,
- selection of whole and large, without signs of damage to the specimens,
- wrap cloves in a damp cloth for germination (for several days a lump can be sent to the refrigerator on the lower shelf),
- dunk in warm water for 10-12 hours,
- drying after soaking.
How to prepare the soil in spring and autumn
The soil before planting must be prepared. To do this, it is necessary to fertilize the site with humus and mineral substances in the fall (40 g. Of superphosphate, 20 g. Of potassium chloride per 1 m2). If there was no opportunity to carry out the autumn work, need 1-2 weeks before the landing to dig the ground, enrich it with humus or compost, well loosen clods rake. A couple of days before disembarking, place under the beds should be treated with saline.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting garlic in the same place, it is necessary to give a break of 3-4 years. It is better to choose areas in the garden where Zucchini, cucumber, pumpkin were grown last season.
Proper landing in open ground
Culture planted according to the scheme:
- interval between rows - 20-25 cm,
- distance between teeth - 6-10 cm
It is not necessary to dig deep the garlic, 3-5 cm is enough. In the opposite case, the shoots may germinate slowly or not appear at all on the surface of the soil. The bottom of the tooth should be placed at the bottom of the hole, the root system will be formed from it. Before planting, the material germinated, so do not force it into the ground, so as not to damage the shoots.
Do not deepen the teeth too much into the ground, as this will slow down the formation of the root system
After deepening the teeth, you need to fill the bed with soil and introduce fertilizer. The most commonly used ammonium sulfate, which not only enriches the soil with nutrients, but also protects young shoots from pests.
Post-planting care and cultivation
Even an unpretentious plant needs proper care. This helps to increase yields and get high-quality roots with a long shelf life. For this, first of all, it is necessary to adjust the watering. Moisture is a major factor in the growing process, however, its oversupply may cause the onion to rot. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully rely on the recommended rate of irrigation, taking into account the amount of precipitation, humidity, and soil type.
In the first phase of development, spring garlic builds up a green mass, so watering should be abundant
The average rate of water consumed for irrigation is 8-10 liters per 1 m 2 . 20-25 days before harvesting root crops, watering stops completely.
Fertilizers and bait are introduced twice during the growing season.. Their quantity depends on the fertility of the soil. Practically does not need enrichment chernozem. Other types of soil have less nutrients, so they need fertilizer.
The first bait is introduced after germination. If ammonium sulfate was not used immediately after planting, then after sprouting, it is time to protect them from diseases and pests. In June, complex mineral fertilizers are used in quantity, according to information from the instructions. It is also allowed to use a mixture of urea and potassium chloride (the components are taken in equal proportions).
Periodically beds with garlic need to loosen and remove weeds.
To enrich the soil with oxygen it is necessary to loosen. It is often combined with weeding, because weeds are a danger to culture. The abundance of shade and thickening of the beds become a place for the settlement of insect pests. Yes, and excess moisture can cause head rot. During the vegetation stage, 2-4 procedures of loosening and weeding are carried out.. Reduce labor costs by mulching beds. For these purposes peat or sawdust is used. They are covered with a tight bed, as a result of which weeds make their way to the surface not so intensively, and the soil does not dry out.
An advance plan of activities will ensure the timely care of garlic, which ensures the removal of a good harvest.
Requirements for the landing site
Vegetable demanding ground and land for planting. Garlic prefers:
- loam, sandstone and black soil with a neutral or slightly acidic pH level,
- open and lighted terrain
- protected, windswept place
- high beds without stagnant water that minimize the risk of fungal infection.
Garlic is not planted on the site after:
- onions and beets,
- carrots and tomatoes,
- eggplant and radish,
- potato and pepper.
It is desirable to cultivate a vegetable after:
When spring garlic is planted in the Urals in spring, the soil is prepared in autumn. Deeply dig up the soil, loosen, remove weeds.
For balancing the soil composition make peat in clay and sandy soil. Peat soil is diluted with sand (10 kg). It is necessary to fertilize the land, contributing to 1 m2 of area:
- humus (6 kg),
- nitrophoska (1 tbsp. l.),
- superphosphate (1 tbsp.)
- dolomite flour (250 ml glass).
It is recommended to disinfect the landing site with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate.
The experienced gardeners cover the site with agrotextile or film before starting work.
Spring garlic multiplies in a vegetative way. For growing
take healthy bulbs. The harvest of full heads is expected in the first year of planting a vegetable. The quality of the crop is affected by the seed.
Attention! Systematic improvement and updating of planting material will allow to get a high yield.
To prepare the chives for planting on open beds, calibrate the sev. The seed is stratified, soaked for disinfection and growth promotion.
Proper seed treatment guarantees friendly sprouts:
- Dried garlic heads are divided neatly into slices, leaving a whole, intact shell. Then calibrate the garlic, choose large and intact cloves.
- Teeth soaked before spring planting in stimulants that contribute to the appearance of roots:
- soaking garlic in tepid liquid for at least 10 hours,
- using salt solution: 1 tbsp. l 1 liter of fluid, the procedure takes a maximum of 2 minutes,
- the use of chemicals: Green Bud, Zircon, Appin.
- Garlic cloves are disinfected by immersion for 1-2 minutes in blue vitriol: in a bucket of water 1 tbsp.
Suitable for antimicrobial treatment:
- weak pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- infusion of woody sludge: 450 g. on 5 l of liquid, boil for 30 minutes, dip the garlic teeth into the cooled solution for 2 hours, thoroughly wash it with tepid water before planting,
The processing process takes half an hour.
Planting spring garlic
For a month, when planting spring garlic in Siberia, planting material is placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or taken out to the stratification in the basement, where the air temperature is + 1 ... + 3 ° C.
The day before the planned planting in spring in Siberia, garlic is taken out and left to lie indoors.
Garlic is sown in rows at a distance 20-25 cm. The distance between the teeth depends on their size, on average, the parameter is 10 cm.
It is important that the teeth are landed. vertically. The depth of insertion of teeth is no more than 2-3 cm. This indicator for the winter variety is doubled in order to protect the seed against freezing.
For the speed of germination of seed material, it is not good to ram the ground near it strongly. Teeth sprinkled on top of the soil, and then equate the surface of the beds.
The cultivation of spring garlic is like an autumn planting of winter varieties, however there are differences. If the weather is favorable, gardeners will take advantage of the occasion and plant spring garlic on time.
The planting of spring garlic in spring in Siberia is determined by regional climate patterns. When the earth warms up, the teeth will be planted to + 3 ... + 5 ° С, they are not afraid of weak frosts. Usually in middle Russian latitudes, including Moscow region, the landing takes place in the middle of April or the first decade of May. In the southern and eastern regions this moment falls at the end of March or the beginning of April. The time when planting garlic in Transbaikalia in spring or when spring garlic is planted in the Urals falls on the last decade of spring.
On a note. It is unlikely that summer residents will grow a high yield by using low-quality material for planting: teeth, which are doubled between them. They talk about the degeneration of garlic.
When planting a vegetable and choosing a planting date, gardeners resort to the lunar calendar. They open the calendar to find out the optimal time for planting garlic.
During the growing season is required to properly watering garlic. Intensively watered the culture in the first stage of development when building green mass. About scanty or infrequent moisture indicate yellowness or drying of the tips of garlic feathers.
Moderately moisturize the soil in the second half of the growing season: an excess of moisture will cause the heads or phytophagia to blot out. When it rains, watering stops. After precipitation or watering, the garlic area is loosened.
In order to get a good harvest, it is important to feed in a timely manner because of the underdeveloped roots of garlic and the poor ability of nutrients to digest from the soil. To accumulate in the ground the required nutrients will allow the garlic mineral fertilizers and organic matter.
When the garlic rises, feed with nitrogen. When garlic feathers reach 10 cm in length, make any additional feeding using:
- ammonium nitrate: 15 g per 10 liters of liquid,
- liquid bird droppings in a ratio of 1:12:
- urea: 1 tbsp. l 10 liters of water
- a mullein diluted in water at a ratio of 1:10.
On a note. It is forbidden to fertilize the planting of garlic with fresh manure.
At the beginning and in the middle of the summer season the vegetable is fed with infusion of herbs. At the stage of head formation, it will be necessary to add potash-phosphate fertilizers, an infusion of ash, which is prepared from 200 g. Of funds per 10 liters of liquid. Fertilizing a vegetable, excessive efforts are not welcome - the search for nutrients leads to cracking of teeth.
Fight against diseases and harmful insects
The specific aroma of garlic does not become an obstacle for some phyto-diseases and parasites. If early symptoms of the disease appear, take action immediately.
Garlic is subject to attacks:
- covert and onion fly,
- thrips and wobblers,
- root and garlic mites,
- moths and stem nematodes.
Vegetable culture is susceptible to:
- black mold,
- white rot
Compliance with agricultural practices and preventive measures provide reliable protection. It is required to apply high-quality seed during planting. After harvesting, inspect the bulbs, reject the sick and damaged. The regularity of loosening the soil, fertilization contribute to improving the resistance of the culture. Threaded thickened planting garlic.
The appearance of garlic sprouts is a signal to plant control. It prevents the appearance of pests in the feed by ammonium sulphate at the rate of 20 g per 1 m2. The procedure is repeated in the second decade of May. Cultures infected with parasites or disease are not pulled out, but dug up, and the roots are checked.
Signs of a fungal disease include:
- yellow and drying feathers,
- dying roots,
- the appearance of spots on the foliage.
Manifestations of bacterial lesions are:
- brownish ulcers on the teeth
- change color husk,
- putrid odor.
Treating garlic beds from fungi means:
- Alirin-B: 1 liter of liquid 1 tablet
- Hamair-TM: for 1 l of water 2 tablets.
Fight with thrips, mites and other parasites using biological products:
- Lepidotsid: on a bucket of water of 50 ml,
- Bitoxibacillin: 5 liters 35 ml.
It is more difficult to fight the stem nematode that feeds on garlic juice. It causes shrinkage of the root system of garlic and cracking heads. A harmful insect threatens to harvest. To protect the garlic from parasites, chicory or calendula is planted between the rows.
If the lower feathers and roots dry out en masse, the stems lie down, the tips of the upper leaves turn yellow, this signals the beginning of the harvest in both Novosibirsk and Minsk. Indicate the ripening of garlic:
- color uniformity of the head,
- flat surface scales,
- the elasticity of the pulp of the teeth.
You can dig up one garlic head, clean it from the ground and carefully examine it. The ripened fruit is different husk. The removed shell will open juicy and fragrant pulp.
Features varieties, soil, the weather determines the timing of harvesting.
Lodging and yellowing of 2/3 feathers - it's time to clean the garlic, usually in the middle of August. The main thing is not to overdo the vegetable in the ground, otherwise you can get a low-quality product with decaying cloves, cracked shell and sprouted bottom.
Stop watering garlic a couple of weeks before harvesting vegetables. 2 days before harvesting vegetables, the area is cleared of plant waste when there are sunny days in order to facilitate the extraction of garlic. Garlic dried in the open air for 5 days. In bad weather, the heads are transported under a shed or in a shed.
The garlic is dried with a feather, after the roots of the heads are cut to 3 mm, the leaves are cut, the stem is reduced to 10 cm. Then the vegetables are sorted and prepared for storage:
- weave braids,
- knit bunches,
- put in tights or nets,
- put in canvas or paper bags,
- placed in wicker baskets or boxes of wood.
Bulbs that are stored in plastic and glass containers are poured with large table salt to absorb moisture.
Store valuable food in a dry ventilated area.The storage period for spring garlic reaches 10 months.
Providing family with a vitamin product for the winter will be allowed to garlic spring planting and care. It is advisable to follow the rules of agricultural engineering and take care of the quality of planting material.
For winter varieties characterized by earlier and rapid maturation. Garlic is planted in the ground in the fall, and by the end of spring you can enjoy the fruits of your work. But, use it, in most cases, for cooking. This species is stored badly.
Winter varieties throw arrows, and will have to spend extra time removing them. But, having done such a simple manipulation, you will get large and fragrant heads.
The spring version is planted in the spring, along with all other vegetables and root vegetables. The heads are formed in such a way that the extreme teeth are much larger than those in the middle. Such garlic is stored for a long time, until the next harvest. To do this, you just need to put it in a cool place.
Each of these species has its advantages, positive and negative sides, but in our article we will focus on planting garlic in the spring in open ground.
How to prepare the beds?
Many gardeners believe that garlic is an unpretentious plant, and wherever you plant it, it will grow. This is not so; in order to get a good harvest, you need to carefully prepare the soil for planting an aromatic vegetable.
At the preparation stage, you should take into account these simple tips:
It is strictly not recommended to grow garlic on the same bed for more than two years in a row. It is better to give the site a rest for at least four years. So you get the best harvest.
Since garlic does not form seeds, it multiplies either with its own teeth, or with the help of a small bulb that appears at the top of the arrow.
For planting garlic in spring in open ground, teeth must first be prepared:
- Carefully move the teeth. You need to choose only the largest, without damage and signs of rotting. Even if there is one sore tooth in the head, all the others are also not suitable for landing. This is very important, especially if it is planned to plant garlic in the spring in the open ground in the Urals, where the soil does not differ in plant benefit.
- To protect the seed from the fungus, it needs to be soaked for a few minutes in Fitosporin. If there is no such drug on hand, the usual weak solution of potassium permanganate will do.
- To improve yield, soak every tooth in the liquid from the ash. For its preparation, you need to take 500 grams of ash, pour it with a liter of water, and boil for half an hour. Then cool. This solution is an excellent fertilizer for the plant.
Separate tines and carry out all manipulations right before landing. If you do this in advance, the cutting will dry out and the root system will not develop.
When to plant garlic?
Many gardeners argue when planting garlic in open ground. The best time for sowing is the end of March and the beginning of April, when the warm spring sun begins to heat the earth and the cold winds stop blowing.
But, these are general characteristics, and each owner should be guided by climatic conditions. So, planting garlic in the ground in Siberia occurs somewhat later than in the southern regions. But, as soon as the snow completely disappears, and the earth dries out a little - you can get to work.
Rows are best located from north to south. So the plants will be evenly illuminated by the sun. The distance between two cloves of garlic should be at least 8-10 cm, so that they can fully develop, and not interfere with each other.
Plant care after planting
After the spring planting of garlic in the open ground, you need to wait for the shoots, the first two leaves. Then you need to loosen the aisles to give the root systems an influx of oxygen, and also to pee or peat humus.
Watering should be abundant, if the root crop suffers from a lack of moisture, the heads will be small or they may not form at all. Therefore, if spring and summer in your region are sufficiently dry, then watering should be ensured every day. For example, planting garlic in the spring in open ground in Transbaikalia provides for the start of watering from the time that the earth dries out.
At the end of June, the moistening of the soil should be stopped, and the heads should be allowed to dry well for harvesting. At this time, active growth ceases, and the root system dies off. When the top is dried, the vegetable can be harvested.
Harvesting of the root crop starts depending on the variety, but most often this period covers the end of July and the beginning of August. It is enough just to slightly pry the head with a shovel, put it in a basket, and place it in a cool place.
If you do everything right, then planting and caring for garlic in the open field will not cause you difficulties and troubles, and the harvest will be the best reward for your work.
What garlic is planted in spring
For spring cultivation, special varieties of spring garlic, adapted to specific climatic conditions, are selected. It has significant differences from the winter counterpart, oriented for planting in the autumn period before winter.
In the spring species, the teeth covered with soft husks are smaller and chaotically arranged. The head does not have a central rod, which is present in winter crops. It is this seed that should be planted in the spring season, after disassembling the bulb into separate slices and carrying out the necessary pre-planting activities. Sometimes they practice spring planting of a larger winter type of garlic.
If you plant such cloves, they will sprout, but you will not be able to get a quality crop. The heads will grow small and not very tasty. Recommend in such situations, cut off the young feathers for making salads. To correct the situation will help the germination of "winter" teeth in a cool place and very early planting in the ground.
Optimum spring planting dates
In some regions, in the Urals, in Siberia, when planting garlic, spring planting is preferred, since winter varieties may freeze, especially during the period of snowless, freezing winters. The landing time depends on the spring weather, since it is necessary to wait for the soil to warm up to 6 ° C.
Usually in the Leningrad region, as well as in the Moscow region, garlic is planted in the second or third decade of April. In Transbaikalia, in the Siberian and Ural territories, landings are most often practiced in May — in its first week. This procedure should not be postponed to a later date in order to allow the culture to start developing on the most favorable days when the soil is maximally supplied with moisture.
Competent spring preparation of spring garlic for planting involves the consistent implementation of the following procedures:
- Separating garlic heads into individual teeth. Carry out this action very carefully, trying not to damage the thin husk.
- Rejection. Remove damaged, dried, rotten, overly small slices.
- Calibration. Sort the material by size, putting in a separate package large slices. If there are not enough seeds, then a medium sized cloves will be collected in another package. At each garden place the same size garlic cloves.
- Stimulation of growth. Sorted teeth are wrapped in a wet textile flap and placed in a refrigerator for four days. They are then immersed in slightly warmed water for 12 hours. It is possible to soak the lobules in special growth stimulants to activate growth processes. Prepare a solution in accordance with the instructions.
- Disinfection. Copper sulfate is used, dissolving 0.5 tablespoon in five liters of water. Dents stand for 2 minutes and laid out on paper towels for dripping moisture.
If you prepare spring garlic, adhering to the proposed algorithm, the shoots are obtained amicable, which facilitates care and allows you to get a good harvest.
Choosing a place
To ensure a good harvest of garlic culture pick a well-lit area. However, light shading is allowed. Spring garlic grows best on a well-fertilized medium or light neutral loam. Low damp places will not approach.
It is recommended to annually change the place where it is planned to break up the beds for garlic culture.
Zucchini, legumes, cucumber, tomato and cabbage will be good predecessors of the culture. It is not recommended to place garlic beds after carrots, onions, peas, strawberries. Bad impact on the growth of garlic and the neighborhood with these plants.
Preparation of beds
For spring garlic crops, a bed is prepared from autumn. Dig up the soil, choosing the roots of weeds and removing stones. To ensure the required fertility, they make up 20 g per square meter of salt, 30 g of superphosphate, as well as a bucket of rotted compost.
For sour soil you will need to add a glass of dolomite flour. In the spring bed loosened with an iron rake. You can use a flat cutter for this operation. For the purpose of disinfection spill the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Cover with foil, leaving it until the landing work.
Step by step landing instructions
Spring garlic when planting requires caution. It should be borne in mind that the lobules should not be pressed into the soil by analogy with the winter variety. The following sequence of actions is observed:
- On the leveled surface of the bed mark grooves with a depth of 3 cm, keeping a distance between them from 20 to 25 cm.
- If the soil is dry, carefully water the grooves.
- Lay out the teeth with an interval of 10 cm (for large planting material) and 8 cm (for segments with medium sizes). Orient them strictly vertically pointed tip up.
- The grooves are covered with loose soil flush with the bed surface.
The second method of landing involves marking the rows. In them at the desired distance with the help of a tube or a cylindrical stick they make holes with a depth of no more than 4 cm. Place the teeth in them and level the surface, filling the wells with soil.
After planting, dilute a tablespoon of urea or ammonium sulfate in a ten-liter bucket of water. Treating the beds, hoping that for every square meter you will need three liters of solution. In order to preserve moisture, landings with dry peat or a well-rotted compost layer no more than 3 cm are mulched.
Spring garlic must be provided with comprehensive care throughout the growing season with the inclusion of basic agrotechnical techniques. Watering at the green mass formation stage should be abundant. Do not allow excessive drying of the soil. At the stage of formation of the heads, the amount of moisture introduced is reduced. It is important to focus on weather conditions, not conducting irrigation measures after rain. Two weeks before the intended harvesting of garlic, watering is stopped completely.
An important technique is the timely loosening of a dense surface crust formed after the earth dries. In parallel, weeds are removed.
Feeding is carried out systematically. After the appearance of germs contribute organic. Dilute a kilogram of mullein in water (10 liters will be required) and incubate for 4 days. Dilute the resulting infusion in half with water and water the beds. Repeat this type of dressing when the plants have already formed heads. Additionally, once a decade, superphosphate and potash fertilizers are used, dissolving a tablespoon in five liters of water. This volume is calculated per square meter.
In order to prevent diseases, thinning is necessary if the plantings are thickened. Timely remove the emerging arrows. Contributes to the protection of the germination of garlic from pests spring treatment of ammonium sulfate beds.
Harvesting and storage
Spring garlic rarely forms arrows, therefore the degree of its maturity is determined by the state of the foliage. The signal to start cleaning is the yellowing of two thirds of feathers. Waiting longer is not worth it, as the heads begin to disintegrate into separate teeth, they have sprouting of the bottom and cracking of the scales, which reduces the quality and makes the vegetables unsuitable for being stored.
For collecting garlic choose a dry sunny day. Do not pull the heads out of the ground. This leads to mechanical damage and reduces shelf life. It is necessary to dig up garlic lines with a pitchfork and remove the bulbs. They are scattered on the beds and left until the evening to dry. Then garlic is placed in a ventilated room or under a shed for a week. In well-dried heads, the stem is cut to 10 cm and the roots are shortened. Put dry garlic bulbs in boxes, mesh bags or woven containers, then to install them in a dry place with good ventilation.
The temperature should be in the range of 16-21 ° C. If plastic boxes are used, garlic is poured with salt of a large fraction, which will absorb moisture. In such conditions, it will successfully continue until the next harvest.
Varieties of spring garlic for Siberia
On sale spring garlic is common for planting rarely. But if it does, then usually no more than one or two varieties. When choosing, it is advisable to give preference to proven, well-known varieties that have been cultivated by gardeners for many years.
- Abrek - not streamed mid-season grade. The growing season is 120 days. The average yield is 0.7 kg per 1 square meter. Bulbs of a rounded flat form, weighing up to 30 grams. The flesh is white, tangy to taste. Under favorable conditions, well kept in winter.
- White Lotus - large-fruited varieties of spring garlic, domestic breeding. The main qualities are stable and high yield, large onions and cloves, long-term storage without loss of taste. The white juicy pulp of gentle taste, will be pleasant to many gardeners.
When planting spring garlic in open ground
To determine the timing of landing in Siberia, first of all, look at the weather. A positive temperature was established during the day, and at night only slight frosts - it means that it is time to plant garlic on the bed. Spring landing begins in early May.
Determining the landing time, often guided by the lunar calendar. It is advisable to plant garlic, like other root crops on a decreasing moon.
The yield and duration of ripening of the bulbs, depends on the method of storage. Faster cloves germinate, which were stored in a cool room (about 0 degrees), but the yield is lower. The heads grow small.
Higher quality planting material that is kept warm (about +20 degrees). Large bulbs are formed with huge teeth. But at the same time, garlic ripens longer than that which was stored in the cold. The growing season is increased by 40 days.
When to plant summer garlic?
Spicy vegetable refers to frost-resistant plants and in snowy winters can withstand freezing temperatures. However, if there is little snow in winter, it can freeze out. Therefore, in the Urals and Siberia, most gardeners prefer planting garlic in the spring.
Garlic is planted in the spring time from the end of April to the beginning of May. The roots and leaves of the plant grow and form at air temperatures from +4 to +10 degrees. At higher temperatures, the bulb does not form, so it is not recommended to linger with the planting of the vegetable.
Winter varieties are planted on the beds from mid September to early October. The plants must have time to form a root system, so they need to plant have time before the onset of frost.
Spring planting garlic in temperate climates has its advantages:
- When planting plants in warm soil shoots are obtained amicably. But the teeth planted in autumn can freeze in winter.
- Summer garlic is highly resistant to pests and diseases.
- Plant garlic in spring can be on almost any soil. It will grow well even in medium loamy soil.
It is recommended to plant spring garlic after spicy herbs, cereals, legumes and pumpkin crops, cabbage, zucchini, cucumbers. After garlic, onions, potatoes and carrots a spicy vegetable can be planted only after three years.
It is not recommended to plant a plant near the beans, peas and cabbage. Garlic is depressing these cultures. But since it is scared away by many pests, its neighborhood will be useful for strawberries, onions, tulips, roses, gladioli and various fruiting shrubs.
The plot for spring garlic is selected protected from the north wind and well lit. The soil should have a neutral reaction and be fertile loamy or sandy.
It is recommended to prepare a bed in the fallby adding to each square meter of soil:
- compost or humus - ½ buckets
- complex mineral fertilizer - 15 grams,
- wood ash - 3 cups.
In the spring the area is leveled and garlic cloves are planted on the bed.
Features care for spring garlic
Caring for a spicy vegetable is timely watering, feeding, weeding and loosening the soil.. When plants grow greens, watering should be abundant. With a lack of moisture in the ground begin to turn yellow and dry tips of the feathers.
In the second half of the growing season, the frequency of watering decreases. Избыток влаги в почве в это время приводит к выпариванию луковок и к различным болезням. Если летом дожди идут регулярно, то посадки можно не поливать. После дождя или полива грунт очищается от сорняков и рыхлится.
When the first leaves come out of the ground, the plants are fed with mineral nitrogen fertilizers, humus, herbal extract, a solution of bird droppings or mullein.
Two weeks later spend another liquid feeding with a nitrogen content. When chives begin to form, spring garlic is fed with infusion of wood ash. Fresh manure as a fertilizer can not be used. Feed plants recommended until mid-August.
Garlic harvesting and storage
When two thirds of the foliage turns yellow, garlic can begin to remove. This usually happens in the middle or end of August. It’s impossible to keep a spicy vegetable in the ground for a long time, as its bottom starts to grow, teeth break up, and scales crack. Such onions for long-term storage will be unsuitable.
Two weeks before cleaning soil is pissed off from the heads, and irrigation stops. This procedure will help the onions to ripen and dry.
Vegetable harvesting should be done on a dry and sunny day. Onions need to be undermined with a fork, pulled out of the soil and spread out on the garden bed. If it does not rain, then vegetables should be dried in the open air for about five days. If it rains, the plants are placed in a well-ventilated dry room.
When the onions are well dry, the leaves are cut off completely, and the stem is shortened to ten centimeters. It is also recommended to shorten the roots.
Garlic should be stored at air temperature from +16 to +20 degrees. The room should be well ventilated and dry. For storage, you can use wooden boxes, wicker baskets, mesh bags. If the farm has only plastic containers, then the onions will need to be poured with coarse-grained salt. It will absorb moisture and vegetables will not rot.
Garlic Pests and Diseases
Despite the fact that the spicy plant scares off many pests, it can be affected by four-legged garlic mites, horse mites, stem nematodes, hoverflies, hidden proboscis moths, thrips, onion flies. The hardest thing to get rid of stem nematodes. These pests, in the form of small worms, feed on the juice of the onions, with the result that the fruits crack and the plants dry out completely. Nematodes multiply rapidly and are able to destroy the entire crop. To protect the plants from these pests, chicory or calendula are planted on the same bed of garlic.
For the destruction of other pests, you can use the biological product Bitoxibacillin or Lepidotsid. From them prepare solutionswhich are processed landing.
From diseases of the spring garlic can affect white rot, downy mildew, peronosporosis, bottom powder, black mold. Fungal diseases are manifested by blooming on the bottom of the onions and between the scales, the death of the roots, the appearance of yellow spots on the green, yellowing and drying of the feathers. The treatment is carried out using treatment with the drug Namair-TM or Alirin-B.
In order for plants not to be affected by pests and diseases, it is necessary to observe the agrotechnology of culture and to carry out preventive measures. It is possible to protect planting pests from spring and summer feeding in the form of ammonium sulphate. If the onions were planted too close, then the plants should be thinned. Affected specimens are pulled out and destroyed.
Selection of varieties of spring garlic
Properly selected variety is the key to a good harvest.. In terms of ripening varieties of spicy vegetables are divided into late, mid-season and early. Popular varieties of spring garlic:
- Degtyarsky - bred by Ural breeders, the variety is distinguished by its sharp, white flesh, pink leathery scales, reddish outer scales with violet strokes, and bulbs weighing up to forty grams. Each head consists of fifteen - eighteen teeth. Stored bulbs up to ten months.
- Ershovsky is a non-shot, disease resistant, semi-sharp variety with bulbs weighing up to thirty-five grams. The heads consist of twelve teeth and are stored for no more than seven months.
- Moscovskiy is a low-sharp, high-yielding, mid-season, non-shot variety with bulbs weighing up to fourteen grams. Multi-tooth round heads are characterized by high keeping quality.
- Abrek is a mid-season variety with a sharp-tasting pulp and heads weighing up to twenty-five grams. Each onion consists of thirteen to sixteen cloves. They are stored up to seven months.
- Victorio is a semi-sharp, fruitful, mid-season variety with heads weighing up to forty grams, which contain about thirteen teeth. The storage life of garlic varieties Victorio - up to eight months.
- Permyak is a medium-ripening, non-streaked variety intended for planting and cultivation in the northern regions and contains many essential oils, which is why it has a rather pungent taste. Head weight up to thirty-four grams. It consists of about fifteen teeth.
- Sochi 56 - resistant to cold conditions and diseases, productive, early ripe variety is distinguished by heads with strong white scales. Onion weight is about forty-five grams. They contain sucrose, due to which garlic of this variety has an excellent taste. Bulbs can be stored for up to eighteen months.
- Yelenovsky - unraveled, productive, resistant to diseases, frost-resistant variety with proper storage can retain its taste and useful properties up to two years. Its dense heads consist of seven - nine teeth and weigh up to thirty-five grams.
- Aleysky - intended for cultivation in Siberia, the variety has a sharp taste. Head weight reaches twenty-five grams. The minus of the variety is its instability to the fungal disease Fusarium.
- Gulliver is a mid-season, disease-resistant, high-yield variety with large onions that can weigh from ninety-five to one hundred and fifteen grams. With good care and cultivation in nutrient soil bulb can gain weight up to two hundred and fifty grams. The heads covered with gray scales consist of only four or five teeth with a sharp taste.
- Flavor is a middle-ripening variety popular in Western Europe with a not very spicy taste. Its heads weighing up to eighty grams are distinguished by pale pink scales and pastel-cream small teeth, which are arranged in two rows. On one onion can form up to twenty cloves.
- Kledor is a productive, mid-season, elite foreign variety with heads weighing up to fifty five grams, each of which consists of sixteen to twenty cloves. Onions are covered with a pink shell. The variety is valued for its high resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases.
Choosing the right variety for your area, proper planting and care will allow you to get a good harvest of tasty and healthy garlic in the summer. Creating storage for heads necessary conditions, until next summer you can enjoy dishes with the addition of spicy vegetables.
How to plant garlic in the spring in the open ground
Even an aspiring gardener can handle the planting of spring garlic. There is nothing complicated. Soil preparation and planting rules:
- The chosen place on the site, dug up with a shovel to a depth of 15-20 cm. The earth is loosened with a rake. To increase the fertility of the soil, make a little compost or humus.
- Garlic grows well on loamy soils. 10 kg of river sand, 5 kg of peat and 5 kg of humus per 1 square kilometer are added to the clay soil. meter. Sandy soil is saturated with clay soil and humus. In the peat soil for loosening, make 10 kg of river sand and 6 kg of humus per 1 square. meter.
- Garlic grows well in moist soil. Dry soil is pre-moistened. By planting garlic start after the water is fully absorbed into the soil.
- Grooves are drawn on the garden at a distance of 20 cm. Prepared garlic cloves are placed in the grooves, observing an interval of 7 cm. Plant garlic to a depth of not more than 2 cm.
- Level the soil in the garden and plentifully watered. When a crust appears on the soil surface, gently loosen the soil. Before the emergence of shoots, maintain moderate soil moisture.
After what crops are planting garlic on the garden bed? The best predecessors are the squash, squash, cucumbers, pumpkin, peas, beans, mustard, Phacelia, clover, alfalfa, berries.
Summer garlic care
Unpretentious plant also needs care. Proper care greatly increases the yield and improves the taste of garlic. Subtleties of care:
- Moisture provides growth and development of plants. In the first phase of development, garlic builds up a green mass. During this period, spend abundant watering. In the middle of summer, conduct moderate watering. The average water consumption for irrigation is 8 liters per 1 square meter. 3 weeks before collecting the bulbs, stop watering completely.
- Provides growth and development of bulbs, regular feeding. At the beginning of summer, plants need nitrogenous fertilizers, therefore they water it with slurry or herbal extract. 1-2 months after germination, fed with ash, which is a source of phosphorus and potassium.
- It is also important to regularly loosen the topsoil. Often loosening combined with weeding. It has long been known that weeds are a danger to crops - they take away nutrients and moisture. On the beds overgrown with weeds, the bulbs grow small.
- Soil mulching protects garlic from weeds. In addition, the mulch retains moisture in the soil and creates favorable conditions for growth and development. Peat, old sawdust or straw are used as mulch.
When to remove spring garlic in Siberia
Terms of harvesting fluctuate between the end of August and the beginning of September. The speed of ripening depends on weather conditions. Yellowing leaves is a signal of ripening garlic.
They clean in dry weather in the early morning or in the evening. Using pitchfork hook the bulbs out of the ground and dry in the garden. The bulbs cleared of the ground, transferred under a canopy and dried together with foliage. After a few weeks, the leaves are cut and the heads of garlic are placed in boxes.
There are two ways to store the crop: cold and warm. With the cold method, the bulbs are placed in a cool, dry place with a stable temperature from 0 to +5 degrees. Warm is very popular. It consists of the following: the bulbs are placed in tissue bags so that oxygen is available. Fold in a dry, dark place.
How to grow garlic properly is described in the video:
With proper planting and care for garlic, even in Siberia, plants will thank for a good harvest. With a stable indoor temperature, garlic is stored for at least 8 months.