At present, almost every summer resident has a whole plantation of different varieties of tomatoes in his garden. This is not strange, because there are practically no particular difficulties in growing crops, and all care is in adhering to the basic rules. The plant gives a good harvest even in our latitudes, which deprives people of the need to buy greenhouse products at space prices in the supermarket.
How to plant tomatoes. Varieties of varieties by time of maturation
Asking the question: "How to plant tomatoes?", Consider a number of important points, including climatic and geographical features of the area. It is impossible to disregard the type of variety due to ripening, since for home cultivation are used:
Representatives of the three groups differ from each other only in terms of ripening, which vary within 5-15 days.
- Early varieties have the shortest growing season from sowing to flowering. For this reason, they give the most productive and tasty harvest. Planting early seedlings allows you to get delicious vegetables, however, the action itself consists of many complexities and efforts,
- Medium varieties begin to bear fruit in high season. Their fruits are very tasty and healthy. As for the ripening terms, they are really longer than that of the representatives of the first group,
- In turn, late tomatoes begin to bear fruit in the second half of summer, and the season lasts until late autumn. If the weather is warm enough, the vegetables retain their freshness until frost. Late tomatoes have the longest growing season.
Early tomatoes are considered a pleasant delicacy to the table, after a long and cold winter. Representatives of the second, mid-season group are added to food throughout the season. As for the last, late ripening varieties, they are used for conservation and processing.
How to plant tomato seedlings. When is it better to land
If you intend to plant seedlings on a window sill, it is better to opt for the very early varieties that are sown in the very early spring.
This will allow you to get good planting material in a short time. When the return frost ends, the seedlings can be planted in open ground.
Too early landing threatens with many unpleasant consequences. First of all, tomatoes will start to grow very quickly, and due to low temperatures and the inability to cover them with film, the culture will become fragile, pale and sick. She will not be able to resist various diseases, and fruiting will not be sufficiently effective. Late planting can lead to the formation of small, undeveloped seedlings. The exact time of planting is determined by the weather conditions of the region where the tomato will be planted. In most cases, the cultivation of tomato seedlings occurs within 1.5-2.5 months.
By type of growth, tomatoes are divided into two large groups:
- Weak-borne (determinant),
- Vigorous (indeterminate),
If you intend to plant tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, it is better to give preference to tall and vigorous varieties that are characterized by increased growth productivity in closed conditions and excellent yields. For growing tomatoes in open ground, it is better to use low-growing varieties, which practically do not lend themselves to the danger of drawing and growing. The culture will be able to form squat durable bushes that can resist any pests and form normally without tying to the trellis or stakes.
How to plant seedlings of tomatoes in room conditions
To prepare good seedlings for further planting of tomatoes, you should choose a good planting material, high-quality soil and containers for planting. It is important to responsibly observe the temperature range and watering.
When planting, healthy calibrated seeds are used. Any feeble and damaged individuals should be discarded. Today, gardeners use two methods of sowing seeds:
- in the general capacity with further pick,
- in individual pots or cups,
It is known that tomatoes respond well to picks and interchange eventstherefore, in order to save money and space, they can be immediately planted in boxes or suitable containers. As a result, at the first picking, the seedlings are transplanted to a greater distance, after which they are transplanted into separate containers, where they are formed before transplanting into open soil.
The second option involves sowing seeds in cups. In the process of developing seedlings, you need to choose weaker individuals and pull them out. This method is characterized by increased costs, and sprouting seedlings will take up a lot of space, which will deprive you of the opportunity to grow a large number of seedlings in residential conditions.
For disembarking, it is better to use any container that does not soak. Beginning gardeners use ordinary boxes of wood and sometimes cardboard, covering their bottom plastic wrap. You can also use cups, disposable containers from sour cream and yogurt, juice boxes and others as individual containers. It is important that the packaging used is pre-cleaned of all product residues. Otherwise, the plant may rot, infecting the land with dangerous pests.
When choosing ways to properly plant tomato seedlings, consider such a feature as the high demands of culture for lighting, temperature and watering. If the humidity of the air is too high, you will have to thoroughly ventilate the room, but it is important to avoid any temperature difference and the appearance of drafts that could lead to the death of the plant. It is impossible to carry out spraying, since this procedure increases the likelihood of developing fungal diseases and other troubles.
Sowing tomatoes is carried out in trays or boxes, in the process of which the seedlings are powdered with a nutrient mixture and sprayed abundantly.
How to plant tomatoes. Detailed guide
If you encounter a question: "How to plant tomatoes? "- Be prepared to give him enough time and effort.
Ready planting material is sold in specialized stores, but the summer resident will be able to get much more pleasure when growing seedlings on his own. If you have never done such a thing before, it can give you a lot of trouble.
After all, the successful implementation of the procedure is in keeping many subtleties, such as:
- seed preparation
- correct watering
- additional feeding activities
- dive seedlings
In the process of planting, you will need to stock up on tomato seeds, seedlings, soil mixture, water and mineral supplements.
The best time to implement landingIt is considered to be the period from February to April. The exact dates are determined by varietal characteristics. For example, planting tall varieties is better at the end of winter, and undersized - only in March. Before you start planting tomatoes, determine which seeds are suitable and which are not. Damaged product has atypical color, small size and dubious appearance. In the process you need to leave only large and full seeds, which are characterized by excellent viability.
To increase the germination try to put the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour. The optimal ratio: 1 gram of potassium permanganate per 100 milliliters of water. Instead of a solution of potassium permanganate, phytosporin or other growth stimulants can be used.
When choosing a soil composition You can dwell on ready-made mixtures for seedlings, or prepare a suitable solution yourself. It consists of equal parts of peat, humus and sod land. Another recipe is to use one part of rotted humus, one part of sand, and one part of forest or garden soil. Before placing the soil in a container, be sure to sift it through a 5-cm sieve. Then it remains to level the ground and carefully tamp it.
How to plant tomatoes
Planting tomato seedlings is much easier than it seems initially. It is enough to follow the established instructions and take into account the advice of experienced gardeners.
And so, after the acquisition or preparation of seed material should be selected suitable soil and capacity. Depending on the regions, the exact dates of sowing may vary.
It is known that at the time of planting seedlings should be at least two months. Before planting in open ground, gardeners carefully study the weather forecast and calculate the best time when the weather will be stable. Sowing time may be different and depending on the varieties. For example, if the planting of ordinary mid-ripe tomatoes occurs in May, the early varieties need such action in the middle of March. In turn, it is better to plant representatives of the late ripening group at the end of February.
If you are not sure that you have chosen suitable time period, ask for help from experienced colleagues. Also, it would not hurt to carefully study the instructions that come with the seeds.
When choosing suitable containers, you can use home-made containers, or special products from garden stores. Among them are all kinds of wooden and plastic boxes, dishes from under dairy products, different cups and so on. Experienced specialists use purchased designs with a transparent lid, where small cassettes for planting or peat tablets are placed. In this case, the closed fixture will be a good artificial greenhouse.
Concerning substrate, you can buy it in the store, or prepare it yourself. It is important that the soil preparation be done in advance. It is impossible to use the land on which other members of the Solanaceous family used to grow. It is best to buy a ready-made version of the universal type, which includes all sorts of feeding for nutrition. Seedlings grown in such constructions do not need additional feeding.
An important step in the proper preparation of seed is to check the seeds for germination. For this you need to fill them with salt water and see which ones float and which ones drown. If you bought the material in the store, it is not necessary to carry out further processing.
Disadvantages and advantages
Among the disadvantages of growing seedlings are the following:
- time and effort
- the inability to grow large volumes due to the lack of space and a large amount of lighting,
- seedlings can grow weak and sick - it will not give a good harvest.
However, this procedure has its advantages:
- the agronomist will be confident that the seedlings are grown without adding any chemicals,
- if you can grow the seedlings correctly, you can get a high yield.
How to determine the time of sowing tomatoes?
Usually tomatoes are sown 55-65 days before planting in open ground. Saplings appear quickly - literally in a week. Therefore, the seedlings will be indoors for about a month and a half.
Approximate dates of planting seedlings:
- in the south of the country - from the third decade of February to the middle of March,
- in the central regions of Russia - from March 15 to the beginning of April,
- in the northern parts of the Russian Federation (Siberia, the Urals) - from the beginning to the middle of April.
To accurately determine the timing of sowing tomatoes in your area, you need to know the specific date of the end of frost. It is from this figure that you need to take 55-65 days.
If the grower plans to move the seedlings not into the open ground, but into the greenhouse, then the sowing begins 2-3 weeks earlier.
The soil for planting seeds is best to buy ready-made in a flower shop - it is the most suitable. However, if the grower took the land from the garden plot, it needs to be disinfected so that the seedlings do not die. Here are the main types of tillage:
- Roasting in the oven for a quarter of an hour. The oven must be heated to 180-200 degrees.
- Warming up in a microwave (power must be put on 850).
- Boiling water treatment. To do this, place the soil in a container with holes at the bottom and thoroughly spill it with boiling water. After that, the water should drain completely and the soil should be dried.
- Disinfection with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. Method of application is the same as with boiling water.
You can use several methods at once to get maximum benefits.
Immediately after processing the soil can not be used. The soil should be watered with ordinary water and held at a temperature of 8-10 degrees Celsius for two weeks. Thus, beneficial bacteria will develop in the substrate.
Seed preparation and planting
Before sowing, it is necessary to process not only the soil, but also the seeds.
To get rid of existing infections in planting material, you can use one of the following methods:
- Potassium permanganate solution - 1 g diluted in 0.1 liter of clean water. In a solution, moisten any natural fabric and put seeds there for a third of an hour. Exposure time should not be increased, as this may lead to a decrease in seed germination.
- Soda solution. 0.5 g of soda dissolved in 0.1 liter of water. In such a tincture keep the seeds for a day. Such a manipulation not only disinfects crops, but also reduces the time of germination.
- Tincture on aloe juice. Dilute with water in a 1: 1 ratio. To withstand the seeds need for 12-24 hours. Such tomatoes have high immunity, high yields and overall quality of tomatoes.
- Phytosporin solution - for this, one drop of the drug is diluted in 0.1 liter of water. Seeds should be in the solution for only a couple of hours.
In the planting container (it can be a peat cup or any plastic containers) pour the prepared moist soil. Then in the soil furrows are made to a depth of 1 centimeter. The distance between the furrows should be approximately 3-4 centimeters.. Retreat from the seeds need 1-2 cm and even more.
Moisture soil should be probed daily.. If the substrate is dry, it needs to be watered, but this can only be done with a spray bottle. Otherwise, the seeds can be washed. If the situation with humidity is reverse, and the soil remains wet for a long time, you need to open the film for a while and wait until the earth dries out.
It happens that excessive moisture can cause the formation of a layer of mold. Therefore, you need to get rid of mold manifestations manually, and then treat the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate or an antifungal agent (for example, Fundazole or Fitosporin).
As soon as the seedlings grow a little, and the film is gone, you need to increase the frequency of watering, as the grown seedlings absorb it faster. It is better to water the seedlings every morning before the sun takes off.so as not to form a crust.
Temperature conditions during cultivation
In order for the seeds to grow, they must first be kept at a temperature of 25-30 degrees above zero. The first shoots will appear within a few days - during this period, the temperature should be maintained at 23-27 degrees Celsius. A week later, the temperature drops to + 20-22 degrees. And after seven days and all other days, the seedlings should grow in the air, heated to + 12-15 degrees.
The first leaf plates of seedlings appear already on day 10 after germination. If the seeds are planted too thickly, at this time it will be necessary to plant the seedlings in separate containers. Tomatoes are well tolerated seating, but nevertheless, it should be done with extreme caution.
Transfer the seedlings to the pot with a lump of soil on the roots. There is no need to pinch the roots, because after this the seedlings may die.
Vases for the first transplant should be approximately 0.2 liters. After 15-20 days after the first transplanting, you need to change the pots to larger ones. Optimal volumes - one-liter pot per plant.
We offer to watch a video on how to properly pick picking tomato seedlings:
Fertilization after picking
As soon as the tomatoes have been dived, top dressing should be applied to the ground.. And then they are made every seven days. More often it is not necessary, since such a procedure can lead to the development of plant diseases. The most suitable fertilizers are organic - manure or droppings. If you choose among the means of purchase, it is better to give preference to tools based on guano or biohumus.
We offer to watch a video about fertilizer application after picking tomato seedlings:
Without good lighting it is impossible to grow healthy seedlings. Therefore, as soon as the first shoots appeared, the containers should be put on a well-lit place. If the process takes place in February-March, natural lighting will still not be enough, so you will need to use phytolamps. If there are none, you can use ordinary fluorescent ones.
It should be noted that the absence of a hardening procedure will lead to the withering and death of the transplanted plant.
Hardening should be carried out 10-15 days before disembarking to a permanent place. You need to start with a short period of time - about half an hour. By the time of planting tomatoes quenching period should reach 10-12 hours.
Такая процедура поможет не только улучшить иммунитет помидоров, но и их вкусовые качества. К тому же закаленные томаты могут находиться на участке до первых осенних заморозков.
Предлагаем посмотреть видео о том, как правильно производить закаливание рассады помидоров:
Инструкция по высадке
Далее расскажем, как же правильно посадить помидоры рассадой. Расстояние между рядами томатов в открытом грунте должно составлять примерно 30-40 сантиметров. Best of all, before planting, you need to add peat to the soil (well, if this is black soil) (it can be replaced with purchased peat soil).
For transplanting seedlings, you need to choose a cloudy, cool, windless day. Planted seedlings need a depth of several centimeters. After 2-3 days, additional roots will appear on the roots, then the root system will strengthen and become more powerful. There is another way of landing.
You can not shake off the roots of earthen coma, and plant with him in the open ground. Then a hole is prepared for the seedling, the dimensions of which are slightly larger than the volume of the root itself with the soil.
We offer to watch a video on how to properly seed a tomato seedling:
Overview of fit and care
- Landing. To sow the seeds for seedlings need in the second half of March. Depending on the variety, seedlings are planted in open soil 45–60 days after the appearance of seedlings.
- Illumination. Needs plenty of bright sunshine.
- Priming. It should be warm, loose, saturated with organic matter, moderately moist and slightly acidic or neutral.
- Predecessors. Bad ones are members of the Solanaceae family, for example: tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, eggplants, etc. Good ones are carrots, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, legumes.
- How to water. Watering should be systematically drip way. On 1 bush is taken 1 liter of water.
- Hilling. The first time you need to pile up after 8-12 days after transplantation into open ground, when the tomatoes are watered. Repeatedly, this procedure should be performed 17–20 days after the first hilling.
- Masking. 20 days after transplanting seedlings into open soil.
- Mulching. You need to use organic: peat, grass or sawdust.
- Garter. It is necessary to tie up to the trellis or stakes, first at the level of the first leaf plate, then at the level of the second brush, and later at the level of the third brush.
- Fertilizer. The first time 10–12 days after transplantation of seedlings into open soil, the Second - half a month after the first, the third - 15 days after the second.
- Harmful insects. Tomato can be harmed: scoops, thrips, wireworms, slugs, bears, gall nematodes and sprout flies.
- Diseases. The plant can infect late blight, brown, brown, white and black spot, white, gray, apical and stem rot, verticillis, tracheomycosis, strick, bacterial cancer and virus mosaic.
The rapidly forming stem branched system of tomato roots goes 100 cm deep and more, and grows 150–250 cm wide. The peculiarity of this plant is that additional roots can develop on any part of the shoot. In this regard, tomatoes can be propagated by seed, as well as cuttings and stepsons. An erect or slaying branching stem can have a height of 0.3–2 m and even more. Single-pinnate leaf plates are cut into large lobes, in some varieties they are similar to the foliage of potatoes. Clustery inflorescences consist of small unsightly flowers, which can be painted in different shades of yellow. The flowers are bisexual, each of them has male and female organs. A fruit is a multi-berry berry that can have a different shape, namely: ellipsoid, round and cylindrical. Fruit weight can vary from 30 to 800 grams. Depending on the variety, the fruits are colored orange, raspberry, greenish, rich yellow, brown, almost black, pinkish, rich red, white, yellowish, golden yellow or purple. Small and flat seeds are pointed at the base, they are painted in different shades of yellow, with pubescence on their surface, which gives them a pale gray color. Seeds remain viable for 6–8 years. Tomatoes in the botanical sense are berries, but in 1893 by the United States Supreme Court, and in 2001, the European Union decided to consider tomatoes as vegetables and not fruits, like all other berries.
Growing tomatoes from seeds
Tomatoes in middle latitudes grow exclusively through seedlings, since if the seeds are sown in open soil, they will not have time to fully ripen in a season. To grow tomato seedlings must begin in the winter, it should be borne in mind that after 4 weeks after the second pick, they should be planted in open soil.
The timing of planting tomato seeds for seedlings is directly dependent on the climatic conditions of each region. However, it should be borne in mind that in any case, if all the necessary conditions are met, the seedlings will need to be transplanted into the open ground, depending on the variety, within 45–65 days from the moment of sowing the seeds. For example, in mid-latitudes, the sowing of tomatoes on seedlings is performed on March 8–20. If tomatoes are grown in a greenhouse, the seedlings can be transplanted into it after 30-35 days after their appearance. It should be borne in mind that in regions with a short summer in the open soil it is recommended to grow large-fruited varieties of tomatoes, so if their fruits do not have time to fully ripen, they can be plucked from the bush brown and dosed. If you add small-fruited tomatoes, the fruits will become sluggish and lose their taste. And large-fruited varieties even after ripening in room conditions will be very tasty, sweet and juicy.
Seeds need preplant preparation. To do this, within 48 hours, they should be heated at a temperature of 30 degrees, then for 72 hours they are kept at a temperature of 50 degrees. Then, seed for 30 min. immersed in a solution of manganese potassium, which should have a pink color. Then they should be rinsed for 10 minutes. in running and clean water and for several hours to keep in the solution of the drug, which stimulates growth. For sowing seeds using a universal soil mixture, for example: which includes peat and sand (1: 1). For the cultivation of such seedlings you can use the soil mixture, which consists of sawdust, peat and sod land (0.5: 7: 1). Also, the seedlings grow very well in the earth mixture, which consists of humus, mullein, peat and sawdust (1: 0.5: 3: 0.5). Any substrate must be disinfected, for this it is calcined in a microwave or oven, while a half month before sowing the seeds it must be shed with a solution of EM-Baikal (1%). To sterilize the substrate, you can use the method of freezing. To do this, the container with the soil mixture is transferred to the street in the first winter weeks, while in the springtime it is brought into the room, and when it warms up well, it will be possible to sow the seeds.
Rows must be at least 10 centimeters high. If there is enough space, then it is necessary to sow the seeds sparsely, and if possible it is recommended to use peat tablets for this purpose, reaching 3.3–3.6 cm in diameter, 2 or 3 seeds are put in each of them, in which case the seedlings will not need swoop down Seeds do not need to be buried deep in the substrate. They are evenly distributed over the surface of the moistened substrate, then they are covered with a thin layer of vermiculite or substrate, and the thickness of the layer should be from 0.3 to 0.4 cm. Cover the crops from above with a paper sheet or film.
Growing tomato seedlings
If you care for seedlings of tomatoes well and correctly, it will have a beneficial effect on the quantity and quality of the crop. Before seedlings appear, crops should be provided with an air temperature of about 25 degrees. After the sprouts appear, and this should happen after 5–7 days, the shelter should be removed from the tank (it is recommended to do this in the second half of the day), then the seedlings are transferred to a well-lit place with diffused light, and within 7 days they should to provide the following temperature regime: at night - 8–12 degrees, and at daytime - 10–15 degrees. A week later, the following temperature regime should be established: on rainy days - from 18 to 20 degrees, on serene days - from 20 to 25 degrees, and at night - from 14 to 16 degrees. The room is systematically ventilated, but do not forget to protect the seedlings from drafts. Watering crops should be well-settled water at room temperature, for this use a fine spray. Watering is carried out only 1 time in 7 days. But it should be borne in mind that after the seeds have been sown in a moist substrate and before the first true leaf plate appears, it is not necessary to water the crops. After the plants have formed 5 true leaf plates, they are watered only once every 3-4 days.
In some cases, the seedlings will need to provide additional coverage, since in order for them to develop normally, they will need a light day lasting 12-16 hours. In the absence of the opportunity to organize additional lighting, the seedlings will need additional feeding, for this they use potash fertilizer in low concentration. After the tomatoes grow up, it is necessary to pour a layer of substrate into the boxes, the thickness of which should be from 10 to 20 mm, thanks to which the seedlings will be more stable.
Dive shoots are necessary during the development of their second true leaf plate. On whether to dive seedlings of tomatoes, gardeners have different opinions. Whether a picking is necessary for a seedling can be found out empirically, for this it is necessary to leave half of the tomatoes in the seedling box, pour the substrate into it, and the rest of the plant should be transplanted into individual cups, the volume of which should be at least half a liter, if you take a smaller capacity, then you have to transplanted 2 times. Thanks to this experience, it will be possible to understand in which case the plant will grow faster and better.
Before you start picking up seedlings, the substrate in the seedling box must be watered very well. Dive the seedlings in separate cups can be 1 or 2 pieces. If 2 seedlings are planted in the tank, then when their length reaches 10–15 centimeters, their stems must be very tightly tied to each other, for this they use a synthetic thread. After the accretion of two stems into one, the thread must be removed, as a result you will have a bush with two root systems and a strong stem.
Dropped out plants for 7 days should be provided with the following temperature regime: on fine days - from 25 to 27 degrees, on rainy days - from 20 to 22 degrees, and at night - from 14 to 17 degrees. A week later, you should return to the previous temperature. Half a month before transplanting tomatoes into open ground, they need to start preparing for new conditions. To do this, you will need to gradually reduce watering, every day for a short time they should be transferred to the street under the direct rays of the sun, and the seedlings will need additional nutrition with a nutrient mixture consisting of 1 liter of water, 7 grams of potassium sulfate, 1 gram of ammonium nitrate and 4 grams of superphosphate, and another preventive treatment with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) from harmful insects and diseases.
Growing tomatoes on the windowsill
Various vegetable crops are suitable for growing under room conditions, for example: cucumbers, bitter peppers, tomatoes, sweet peppers, etc. Tomatoes are light-requiring, therefore they are recommended to be grown on a window sill located in the southern part of the building, since they need very good lighting, and straight lines they do not need the sun's rays. In the autumn and winter, the daylight hours are very short, therefore, in order for the tomatoes to develop normally, they will need lighting, for this they use a fluorescent lamp or an agro-lamp. For growing at home it is recommended to choose undersized or dwarf varieties, for example: Little Florida, Oak, Pearl red or yellow, Pinocchio, and even hybrids: Balcony miracle, Bonsai and Bonsai micro.
Take a glass and fill it with a soil mixture containing sand, turf ground, peat or humus, they must be taken in equal shares. The substrate in the tanks needs to be shed with freshly boiled water, then you need to wait for it to cool completely, and then distribute the seeds over the surface. If the seeds are germinated, then in each cup you will need to put them in 1 piece, and when sowing non-germinated seed material - 2 or 3 pieces. In the substrate the seeds need to be buried by only 20 mm. For germination, the seeds are placed in a moistened cloth, where they will stay for several days until they see small sprouts. However, before the seeds must be checked for germination, for this they are placed for a quarter of an hour in a pinkish solution of manganese potassium. After the allotted time, germinating seeds should swell and sink to the bottom, while the non-viable will emerge. Then containers with crops need to be cleaned in a warm place (from 25 to 30 degrees), on top of them cover with film or glass. After 3-5 days after the seedlings seem to be, the cups should be removed on the window sill, on which the device for additional lighting should be installed in advance.
Watering is carried out only after complete drying of the upper layer of the soil mixture. Watering the plants should be done with the help of a rubber medical pear; to do this, use well-settled water at room temperature, which should be carefully inserted between the walls of the container and the substrate. Thanks to such irrigation, it will be possible to avoid the smearing of the substrate, and also the overmoistening of its upper layer. Also for watering tomatoes, you can use the method through the pan. Older plants will need to transplant into larger containers. If the plants are stunted, then for their transplantation, you can use containers with a volume of 3-5 liters, while the vigorous will need pots from 8 to 12 liters. At the bottom of the tank should make a good drainage layer, which is filled with a two-centimeter layer of sand. After that, a seedling, taken together with a clod of earth, is transplanted into the tank by the method of transshipment, then so much substrate is filled into it that it is full and does not have voids. Deepen the plant in the soil must be on the seedbed leaf plate.
Over time, it will be necessary to systematically conduct the pinching of the bushes; for this, those shoots that grow in the leaf sinuses should be removed. They need to be broken out by hand, while the remaining stump should be about 1–2 cm long. This stimulates the growth of the main shoots, as well as increases the yield of the bush. During the day, tomatoes are recommended to provide a temperature of about 28 degrees, and at night - 15 degrees. They are watered 2 or 3 times in 7 days, for this they use well-settled water at room temperature, and you need to be very careful not to blur the surface of the substrate. To feed tomatoes must be 1 time per decade, for this purpose they use organic or mineral fertilizers, remember that it is necessary to monitor the concentration of the solution, otherwise active growth of greenery may begin, which adversely affect the fruiting. If the stem of the bush has become unstable, it should be tied to the support. To accurately pollinate the flowers, you need to gently shake the bushes a couple of times every 7 days. After the majority of the fruit is formed, experts advise, cut the tops of bushes, as well as blooming brush. A home-grown tomato, if provided with proper care, will produce fruit for five years, but as a rule, the first 2 years are the most fruitful.
What time to plant
Planting of seedlings of tomatoes in open soil is carried out in June after the return spring frosts are left behind, while the weather should be warm. The seedling by this time should have a developed system of roots, 7–8 leaf plates and stems 25–30 centimeters high, and it should begin to form brushes.
To grow tomatoes, you need to choose a sunny and well-heated area, which should be protected from the wind. It should be noted that cabbage, legumes, onions, carrots, beets, turnips and other root vegetables are good predecessors of this crop. The area on which the crops belonging to the Solanaceae family grew, such as eggplants, peppers, or potatoes, can be used to grow tomatoes only after 3 years.
Tomatoes are recommended to be grown in a soil saturated with organic matter. It should be taken into account that such plants rapidly select all nutrients from the soil; therefore, compost or humus (per 1 square meter of land from 4 to 6 kilograms) and mineral fertilizers, namely, 20 grams of phosphate and potash, are introduced into it in advance. fertilizers that should be applied to the soil in the fall during digging 6 months before planting tomatoes, and another 10 grams of nitrogen fertilizers in spring in the year of planting tomatoes per 1 square meter. Organics are applied to the ground in October during the digging of the site, while you need to try so that the clods of earth are large, in springtime the soil should be loosened to a depth of 10 centimeters, while nitrogen fertilizer is applied to it. Если каждый год в почву вносить органические удобрения, то один и тот же участок можно использовать для выращивания томатов 2 либо 3 года подряд, однако затем делается перерыв, который должен длиться не меньше трех лет.
На подготовленном участке нужно сделать посадочные ямки, глубина которых должна быть равна высоте стаканчиков, в которых растет рассада. Затем их необходимо хорошенько пролить водой. Меж ямками следует соблюдать дистанцию от 0,3 до 0,4 м, а ширина междурядий должна быть около 0,5–0,6 м. Если высота кустиков около 0,3 м, то их сажают в ямки под прямым углом. At the same time, the seedlings of vigorous varieties, and the still stretched bushes should be planted at an angle, with the top of the plants directed to the south, and the stem should be buried поч or 1/3 of the soil. After planting tomatoes in the ground, it is tamped and watered abundantly. It is necessary to install pegs near the bushes of vigorous varieties, in the future they will be used as a support. The following number of bushes are planted on 1 square meter of land:
- hybrids, and also vigorous varieties - 3 or 4 pieces,
- varieties that form 2 or 3 stalks on a bush - from 4 to 6 pieces,
- varieties forming 1 stalk, as well as with a limited growth of the main stem - 6-10 pieces.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
In the greenhouse planted tomato seedlings should be in the first decade of May. It should be noted that at the end of spring at night it is still quite cool, in connection with this the greenhouse must be covered with two layers of film, while the play between them should be from 20 to 30 mm. When warm weather sets in (as a rule, this happens already in the first days of June), it will be possible to remove the top layer of the film. It is also necessary to take into account that growing tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse is prohibited. The fact is that cucumbers need higher humidity and air temperature in comparison with tomatoes, and also they have significantly different ventilation modes. Also, tomatoes need a large amount of light, and if they are at least a little shaded by tree branches or shrubs, it will have a very negative impact on the harvest.
Tomatoes grown in the greenhouse beds are not recommended after any predecessor. If there is no possibility to change the entire substrate, then it is necessary to at least change its top layer with a thickness of 10 to 12 centimeters, this will avoid the defeat of the bushes with anthracnose. Then it is necessary to disinfect the soil with a freshly boiled solution of 1 bucket of water and 1 tbsp. l copper sulphate or 2 tablets Oxyhoma. Preparing the soil for planting, it should make 1 tsp. carbamide or potassium nitrate, 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate, 3 tbsp. l double superphosphate granules, 1 tbsp. l Kalimagnezii and 2 tbsp. wood ash.
Planting seedlings of standard size in the greenhouse is carried out in the same way as in open soil. Overgrown or stretched seedlings are planted as follows: in the bottom of the planting fossa it is necessary to make another hole, its size should be equal to the size of the tank in which the plant is grown. In this hole it is necessary to plant a plant with a peat pot or with a clod of earth. After that, it is necessary to fill the bottom hole with soil, while the top should remain completely open. After half a month after full adaptation of the planted seedlings, it will be possible to fill the upper hole. If the overgrown bush is buried to the required depth immediately, then it will immediately begin forming additional roots, and since the bush spends almost all its strength on it, then it takes root much longer and worse.
The bushes planted in the greenhouse can not be watered for 15 days, after that they produce a garter of seedlings to the support, the height of which should be about 200 cm. After that, single-stem bushes are formed, on which there should be 7 or 8 brushes. At the same time, it is necessary to cut out all the forming stepchildren, from which short hemp (10–20 mm) should remain. To be sure that flowers are accurately pollinated, it is necessary to gently shake flower brushes, and then water the soil or moisten the flowers using a fine spray. After 2 h after that, it is necessary to reduce the level of air humidity in the greenhouse, for this purpose it is aired. Remember that when arranging a greenhouse with side vents and doors in it you need to make ceiling vents that prevent condensation from accumulating on the film. Otherwise, excessively high humidity in the air and soil may cause the fruit to become watery and sour to taste.
Before the formation of buds begins, it is necessary to water the tomatoes 1 time per 5–7 days, while 4 to 5 liters of water are taken per 1 square meter of land. As soon as the bushes bloom, with their watering on 1 square meter of the site will need to take from 1 to 1.5 buckets of water. In order for them to grow well, the temperature in the greenhouse should be around 20-22 degrees.
During the growing season, tomatoes will need to feed 3 or 4 times the root method. After 20 days after transplanting seedlings in greenhouse beds, it should be fed for the first time, for this purpose, a nutrient solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 0.5 l of liquid liquid mullein and 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski. After half a month the bushes need to be fed again, for this they use a solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. l full mineral fertilizer. The third dressing is carried out after another 15 days, for this you need a nutrient solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and 2 tbsp. l wood ash. On 1 square meter of land is taken from about 6 to 8 liters of nutrient mixture. In order for the fruits to ripen (poured) more quickly, they will need additional feeding in the period of full fruiting, for this they take a nutritional mixture of the following composition: 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. l liquid sodium humate and 2 tbsp. l liquid superphosphate, with 5 liters of this mixture being taken for 1 square meter of bed.
When growing tomatoes in open ground, they must be systematically watered, fed, weeded, loosened the surface of the ground and protected from diseases and harmful insects. More bushes need to spud and shape. It is necessary to loosen the soil surface between plants and bushes several times during the growing season (1 time in 10–12 days), which will allow to timely destroy the crust formed on the soil. Together with the loosening of the soil you need to pull out all the weeds. Spillage bushes for the first time should be 8–12 days after transplanting tomato seedlings into open soil, this should be done the next day after watering. The second hilling of the bushes after watering is carried out 2.5–3 weeks after the first.
It is also necessary to carry out the shaping of tomatoes. In regions with a relatively warm climate, such a crop can be grown in several stems. However, if the climate is cool enough, it is recommended to grow tomatoes in 1 stalk, while leaving 2 or 3 flower brushes on it, and do not forget to cut out all the stepchildren, otherwise a large amount of tops will have a negative impact on the crop. The first pruning of side stepsons is carried out 20 days after transplanting seedlings into open soil after their length is 50–70 mm. Vigorous varieties need not only to stick, but also to pinch the growth point, which is carried out in the first days of August. When growing climbing varieties in the bushes, it is necessary to cut all the lower leaf plates, this is a good prevention of fungal diseases, and thanks to this, the access of air and sunlight to the plant will improve. This will contribute to the fact that the crop will be higher and earlier.
How to water
Tomatoes that are cultivated in open soil should be watered systematically. Water should be poured into the wells, while 1 liter of water is taken for 1 bush. Watering is recommended in the afternoon or on a cloudy day. Obligatory watering should be carried out before proceeding with loosening, during the flowering period of the first and second flower brushes, and even after the dry fertilizer has been applied to the soil.
It is best to water these plants drip way. Due to this, the liquid enters the soil rather slowly, in connection with this there is no abrupt change in air humidity, which has an extremely negative effect on tomatoes. In addition, there is no stagnation of liquid on the surface of the soil, and this is a good prevention of fungal diseases.
It is recommended to soil the surface of the soil around the bushes with black covering material, due to this the growth of weeds stops completely, and the preservation of moisture in the soil is also observed. If the surface of the plot is to be mulched with organic matter (for example: sawdust, grass or peat), this will contribute to the attraction of earthworms, which loosen the soil and produce humus in the course of their livelihoods, and tomatoes greatly need it. But it should be borne in mind that moles can live on a plot with a large number of earthworms.
For the garter of tomatoes, you can use the trellis or stakes. It is recommended to install the stakes from the northern side of the row, while keeping a distance of 9 to 11 centimeters between them and the shoots. To make a trellis, you will need stakes that are set every 4 meters, then between them you should pull the thread or rope. Garter bushes carried out in 3 stages:
- after transplanting seedlings to the ground at the level of the first leaf plate,
- at the level of the second flower brush,
- at the level of the third flower brush.
Top dressing of tomatoes
The first time to feed the seedlings must be 10–12 days after its transplantation into open soil. To do this, use a nutrient mixture consisting of organic matter and mineral fertilizers, for its preparation it is necessary to add 1 gram of superphosphate to 1 bucket of mullein solution (slurry and water, taken in the ratio 1: 8 or 1: 9). On 1 bush undertakes 1 liter of such a mixture. The second time the plant is fed half a month after the first feeding, and the third time after the same period of time, mineral fertilizers are used for this in a dry form, they are evenly distributed on the bed surface: 10 grams of ammonium nitrate, 20 grams of superphosphate are taken per square meter and 15 grams of potassium salt. Then the surface of the soil must be loosened to fertilize the fertilizers, after which it is well shed.
If the ground will lack any element or it will be too much, it may affect the appearance of the bushes. For example, if there is little sulfur in the soil, the foliage on the bushes will turn red or yellow, and the shoots will become very fragile. If there is a lack of boron in the soil, the shoots at the growth point will turn black, the cuttings of young leaf plates will become brittle, and specks of brown color will form on the surface of the fruit. If molybdenum is missed, the leaf plates will turn yellow and wrap up, also because of this, the bushes can be affected by chlorosis, as well as with iron deficiency, when the color of the foliage changes to almost white, while the tomatoes do not ripen, and their growth stops. If there are signs of a shortage of any of the elements, the bushes will have to arrange dressing on the foliage, and you must use a mixture containing the missing element.
In regions where the climate is quite cool, in some cases, tomatoes do not have time to ripen. To save the harvest bushes can be treated with a special mixture, which will accelerate the ripening of fruits. To do this, you need young shoots of pine, which you need for 7 days to put on the shelf of the refrigerator. They should be cut into small pieces and mixed with water in a 1: 2 ratio. The mixture should be brought to a boil, after which it is tormented on a slow fire for 5–10 minutes. Cooled and filtered broth must be diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3. During the formation of buds, process the bushes with this mixture.
Tomato pests and diseases
Most common in tomatoes are diseases such as brown, brown, black and white spots, mosaic (because of which plants fall off), tracheomycosis, bacterial cancer, southern and common late blight (the bushes begin to dry out), white, stem, gray and apical rot, verticillus and strick. Each of these diseases has its own symptoms and methods of treatment. However, we must remember that if you strictly adhere to the rules of prevention and agrotechnology of this crop, then you will be able to avoid infecting the plant at all.
Most often, thrips, germ flies, bears, scoops, wireworms, slugs and gall nematodes settle on tomato bushes. It is recommended to fight against such harmful insects by folk remedies, namely: herbal infusions and decoctions that have a fungicidal, insecticidal and anti-fatigue effect.
Collecting and storing tomatoes
20 days before the harvest of tomatoes, it is necessary to remove all flowering stems and buds, thanks to which the shaped fruits will ripen faster. Gather the fruits selectively, as the tomatoes ripen to brown, pale yellow, pink or milky. Such fruits ripen well for 7-15 days, while they remain sweet and tasty. If you collect green tomatoes from the bushes, then after ripening, their taste will be lower. All fruits should be collected until the temperature starts to drop to 8 degrees at night, as this temperature increases the risk of plant damage from various diseases. Most gardeners recommend harvesting the entire crop before the “cold dawn”, otherwise it may die. But it should be noted that the ripening of each of the varieties occurs in due time. For example, the collection of early ripening varieties is carried out in the second half of July, the average ripening period - in the last days of July, or the first - in August, later - in August or September.
Ripe tomatoes must be laid down with their noses, for this purpose plastic boxes or cardboard boxes are used, the bottom of which must be covered with paper sheets, and no more than 12 kilograms of tomatoes are placed in each container, otherwise the pressure on the bottom row will be excessively strong.
Ripe tomatoes should be stored no more than 7 days before canning, processing or eating fresh. Pink and brown fruits, which were placed on ripening, ripen much faster than green or milky white. It is recommended to dispense and store non-injured and large tomatoes, which are plucked from the bushes along with the stems. At the time of dispensing, the fruits are put in cardboard boxes, which should be surely covered with lids. In the middle of the box is laid 3 or 4 ripe fruit, which produce ethylene, contributing to the acceleration of tomato ripening. If you put the fruit in plastic boxes or wicker baskets, then they are covered from the top with dense material, such as sacking, it will prevent the volatilization of ethylene. In a warm room the fruits ripen much faster. Fully ripened pink fruits will be in about five days, brown - after 7 days, and in the degree of milk maturity - after 1.5 weeks.
So that the fruits could be preserved until the second half of December, then paper sheets should be laid between the layers. They need to be cleaned in a cool place, for example, in a dry cellar, on a glazed balcony or on a cold veranda. If the fruits are stored for a long time, you should systematically sort them out, which will allow you to promptly remove rotten copies that can rot all the other tomatoes.
Types and varieties of tomatoes
There are several types of tomato classifications. The classification of the American scientist C. Rick divides all tomatoes into 9 species. In Russia, the traditional classification is adopted, according to which all tomatoes are divided into 3 types, namely Peruvian, ordinary and hairy tomato. To date, hybrids and varieties of tomato ordinary, there are more than 70 pieces, and these are only those tomatoes that are intended for cultivation in open ground.
Another such plant is divided into non-standard, standard and potato-shaped plants.
- Standard Tomatoes. They are represented by compact shrubs, which have very thick shoots, as well as medium-sized corrugated leaf plates located on short petioles. This group is quite numerous, it includes dwarf and medium hybrids and varieties that form a small number of stepsons.
- Neshtambovy tomatoes. Their foliage is large and slightly corrugated. Thin shoots, and they lie under the weight of tomatoes. This group is represented by dwarf and vigorous varieties, as well as hybrids. To date, there are semi-shtambovy tomatoes, which are something between the standard and non-standard types.
- Potato Tomatoes. Large leafy plates are similar to potato ones. There are such species infrequently.
More varieties are divided according to the type of growth of bushes on deterministic (low growth) and indeterministic (tall). Also in this group are superdeterministic and semi-deterministic varieties. However, this classification is used only by experts.
Tomatoes are also divided by ripening into early ripening, medium ripening and late ripening.
Early ripe varieties
- Irma. Large or medium-sized fruits ripen in 100 days. The height of the bush is from 0.5 to 0.6 m, it is not necessary for pasynkovanie. The variety has good keeping quality. The fruits are suitable for autumn salads, canning in their own juice and whole-fruit freezing.
- Highlight. The height of the bushes varies from 0.5 to 0.8 m. Heart-shaped dense tomatoes have a red color, they weigh about 100 grams. The pulp is watermelon sweetish and very tasty. The fruits are suitable for preservation and for the preparation of salads.
- Butuz. Высокоурожайные кустики в высоту достигают от 0,5 до 0,6 м. Бочонкообразные красные плоды весят от 100 до 200 грамм, лежкость у них отличная, как и вкус.
Лучшие сорта среднего срока созревания
- Бычье сердце. Сочные и мягкие томаты бывают средней и большой величины, они обладают красно-розовым окрасом, тоненькой кожицей и прекрасным сладковатым вкусом. Сорт отличается прекрасной урожайностью, но такой сорт обладает низкой устойчивостью к бурой пятнистости.
- Дамские пальчики. На полуметровых кустах, не формирующих пасынков, имеется сравнительно небольшое количество листвы.Red tomatoes have a pear shape and solid dense flesh. Perfect for preservation.
- Königsberg. The height of a bush of such a vigorous variety is from 150 to 200 cm. Red elongated tomatoes have a shape similar to eggplant. They have a great taste and weigh about 0.3 kg.
Best late ripening varieties
- De barao. The height of strong bushes is about 400 cm. Smooth plum-shaped fruits with dense, very tasty pulp, they weigh about 70 grams. The variety is resistant to cold and shade. Fruits are suitable for canned wholegrain, for fresh consumption and for long storage.
- The finish. Plant height is about 0.75 m. Very tasty red-orange fruit weighs about 90 grams. This variety is productive and resistant to Verticillus.
- Cherry. This is a very popular variety with excellent taste and decorative qualities of sweet small fruits that weigh about 30 grams, they are collected in brushes. For preservation they are used with a branch. The variety is grown on the balcony, in the open field and in the greenhouse.
There are also interesting and rather unusual varieties.
- Banana Tomatoes. The fruits have an unusual shape and taste. The varieties are very popular: Jersey Devl, Auria, Uncle Stepa.
- Ribbed tomatoes. The variety is distinguished by its yield and large fruits, which are similar in shape to the peeled orange with very convex lobules. Popular varieties: Tlacoloula, American ribbed.
- Orange tomatoes. They contain a large amount of lycopene, sugar and beta-carotene, as compared with conventional varieties. They are recommended for people allergic to red fruits. The most popular variety is Persimmon.
- Yellow tomatoes. Golden tomatoes have a rich taste. They contain many carotenoids and lycopene. These fruits are good for allergies. Popular varieties include: Golden domes, Honey drop, Wonder of the World, Goldfish.
- White tomatoes. Fruits have an unusual taste, they contain a large amount of sugar and completely absent acid. Popular varieties: White Snow, White Bull Heart, Snow White.
- Black tomatoes. Fruits contain a greater amount of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and other vitamins compared with all other varieties. These varieties are also appreciated for their unusual taste. However, such hybrids have a low yield and low resistance to frost. Fruits ripen very late, so these tomatoes are recommended to be grown in open ground only in regions with warm climates. Popular varieties: Raj Kapoor, Gypsy, Black Prince, Blue Sky.
- Green tomatoes. Fruits never turn red, they have a unique taste. Popular varieties: Emerald Apple, Swamp.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing seeds
- 3.2. Seedling care
- 3.3. Picks
- 3.4. Growing up on the windowsill
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. Priming
- 4.3. How to land
- 4.4. Growing in a greenhouse
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Watering
- 5.3. How to tie
- 5.4. Top dressing
- 5.5. Treatment
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 7. Collection and storage
- 8. Types and varieties
Planting and caring for tomatoes (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - from mid to late March, transplanting seedlings into the ground, depending on the variety, in 45-60 days.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: loose, warm, moderately moist, rich in organic matter, neutral or slightly acid reaction.
- Predecessors: good - carrots, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, legumes, unwanted - tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, eggplants and other solanaceous plants.
- Watering: regular, drip. Consumption - 1 liter of water per plant.
- Hilling: 8-12 days after landing in the ground, after watering, then 2.5-3 weeks after the first hilling.
- Masking: 3 weeks after planting seedlings into the ground.
- Mulching: organic material - grass, peat or sawdust.
- Garter: to stakes or trellis at the level of the first sheet, then at the level of the second brush, then at the level of the third brush.
- Top dressing: 1st — 10-12 days after planting the seedlings, 2nd — two weeks after the first feeding, and 3rd — two weeks after the second.
- Pests: scoops, thrips, wireworms, slugs, bears, gall nematodes and sprout flies.
- Diseases: late blight, brown, brown, white and black spot, white, gray, vertex and stem rot, verticillis, tracheomycosis, strick, bacterial cancer and viral mosaic.
Vegetable tomato (tomato) - description
Tomatoes have a highly developed, rapidly forming, branched rod root system, extending one meter or more in depth and expanding by 1.5–2.5 m in width. It is characteristic that, under good development conditions, additional roots can form on any part of the stem, therefore not only seed propagation of tomatoes is possible in culture, but also vegetative - stepchildren or cuttings. The stem of a tomato is branching, dodging or upright, reaching a height of 30 to 200 or more centimeters. Opposite-leaved leaves of tomato are cut into large lobes, in some varieties they resemble potato leaves. The flowers collected in a brush are inconspicuous, small, of varying degrees of yellowness, they are oboepoly - there are both female and male organs in one flower. Fruits are polycallous berries of different shapes - round, ellipsoidal, cylindrical. Fruit weight can be as low as 30 g, and can reach 800 g. The color of ripe fruits depends on the variety: it can be pale pink, orange, bright red, raspberry, white, light green, light yellow, bright yellow, golden yellow, brown, purple and almost black. Tomato seeds are flat and small, pointed at the base, of different shades of yellow, with pubescence, giving them a grayish tint. They do not lose their germination from 6 to 8 years.
In a botanical sense, tomatoes are berries, but in 1893 the United States Supreme Court, and in 2001, the European Union decided to consider tomatoes not fruits, like all other berries, but vegetables.
Sowing tomato seeds.
Growing tomatoes in the open ground through the seedlings, because when sowing seeds directly in the ground for the season fruit do not have time to ripen. Growing seedlings of tomatoes begins in the winter in such a way that in a month after the second pick, it can be planted in open ground. In each climatic zone, the planting of tomatoes for seedlings is done on time, but in any climate, subject to all necessary conditions, the period from the time of sowing the seeds to the planting of seedlings on the bed, depending on the variety, is 45-65 days. For example, in the middle lane, seeds are sown for seedlings from March 8 to 20. If you are going to grow tomatoes not in the ground, but in the greenhouse, the seedlings will be ready for transplanting to a greenhouse in 30-35 days. By the way, in areas with a short summer in the open ground it is better to grow large-fruited varieties of tomatoes: even if they do not have time to ripen, they can be dosed by removing brown from the bush. When ripening, small-fruited tomatoes become tasteless and dull, and large-fruited tomatoes, even after ripening, remain juicy, sweet and tasty in the room.
Before planting seedlings of tomatoes, the seeds are heated for two days at 30 ºC, then another three days at 50 ºC, then soaked for half an hour in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, then rinsed for 10 minutes in clean running water and kept for several hours growth stimulator.
For planting seedlings of tomatoes, any universal soil, including consisting of equal parts of sand and peat, is suitable. It is possible to grow tomato seedlings in a substrate consisting of seven parts of peat, part of sawdust and one part of sod land. Seedlings grow well in the soil of three parts of peat and one part of humus with the addition of sawdust and mullein in part. Whatever soil you prefer, you definitely need to be sanitized in an oven or microwave, and two weeks before sowing the seeds, also shed a one-percent solution of the Ba-Baikal preparation. You can also sterilize the soil by freezing: expose the container with the ready soil for seedlings to frost at the beginning of winter, and bring it in the spring, let it warm and proceed to sowing.
Boxes for growing seedlings of tomatoes should be at least 10 cm high. If you have enough space, try not to sow the seeds thickly, and even better to use for sowing peat tablets with a diameter of 33-36 mm, spreading 2-3 seeds into them, and then it will be possible to avoid picking of shoots. Do not cover the seeds too deeply: sow them on moist soil and sprinkle them on top with a layer of soil or vermiculite 3-4 mm thick. Cover the crop with film or paper.
When to plant tomatoes in the ground.
Planting tomatoes in the ground is carried out in June, when the danger of frost is over and warm weather is established. By this time, seedlings develop a root system, flower brushes appear, the number of leaves reaches seven or eight, and the stem grows to a height of 25-30 cm.
The site for the further cultivation of tomatoes should be well lit and warmed by the sun and be protected from the wind. It is good if cabbage, legumes, onions, carrots, beets, turnips and other root vegetables were grown as predecessors on it. If on the site grew pepper, eggplant or potatoes, that is, representatives of the nightshade, then you can grow tomatoes on it no sooner than three years.
Soil for tomatoes.
Tomatoes love a rich organic soil, while they have the ability to quickly choose from it all the nutrients, so the soil for tomatoes must be applied in advance humus or compost in the amount of 4-6 kg per m², as well as mineral fertilizers: phosphate and potash 20 g six months before planting tomatoes under the autumn digging and 10 g of nitrogen fertilizers in the spring of planting. In October, the year before the planting of tomatoes, the soil was dug up with organic matter, and the bigger the clods are, the better, and in the spring of the planting year, two loosening of the soil up to 10 cm in depth with the incorporation of nitrogenous fertilizer is necessary. Subject to the annual application of organic matter to the soil, tomatoes can be grown on one site for 2-3 years, after which a minimum three-year break should be taken.
How to plant tomatoes in open ground.
Before planting in the open ground, seedlings in the area dig holes with a depth of a glass in which the seedlings are located, and spill them well with water. The wells are placed in a row at a distance of 30-40 cm, between the rows they retain an interval of 50-60 cm. Seedlings 30 cm high are planted in the wells at a right angle, sprouting specimens or seedlings of tall varieties are slanted with the top to the south, plunging a quarter or even third of the stem. The soil is compacted, watered, near a tall tomato stick a peg, which the plant may need as a support. Approximate plant density per 1 m²:
- - tall varieties and hybrids - 3-4 bush,
- - varieties with limited growth of the main stem, as well as those that form only one stem - from 6 to 10 bushes,
- - varieties that form 2-3 stems on a bush - 4-6 plants.
How to grow tomatoes.
Like any other vegetable crops, tomatoes in open ground need loosening of the soil, weeding, watering and dressing, protection from pests and diseases. Hilling and the formation of bushes are also necessary measures for caring for tomatoes.
Loosening the soil between the bushes and between the rows should be carried out several times per season - every 10-12 days, in order to destroy the crust formed on the surface. Simultaneously with the loosening of the plot, weeds that have appeared are removed. The first hilling of tomatoes should be done 8-12 days after planting the seedlings in the ground, the next day after watering. The second time they water and spud tomatoes two and a half or three weeks after the first.
And do not forget about the formation of bushes. In the conditions of Ukraine or Stavropol, for example, you can grow bushes in several stems, but if you have a cool climate, it is better to grow single-stem tomatoes, leaving 2-3 brushes on them and removing stepchildren, otherwise instead of a harvest of tomatoes you will grow a harvest of tops. The first time the side shoots are removed 3 weeks after planting the seedlings in the ground, when they reach a length of 5-7 cm. Tall varieties are not only stepsons, they also pinch the growth point in early August. And in climbing varieties, the lower leaves are removed, which reduces the risk of fungal diseases and provides light and air access to the plant, and, therefore, guarantees an earlier and higher yield.
Growing tomatoes in the open field provides for regular watering of plants. Tomatoes are watered into the wells, consuming up to 1 liter of water for each plant. It is better to do this in the afternoon or in cloudy weather. Be sure to water the tomatoes before loosening, during the flowering of the first and second brushes and after making dry fertilizers. The best way to water the tomatoes is drip. In this case, the water enters the soil slowly, so there is no sharp fluctuation in the humidity of the air, which can harm the plants. In addition, water does not stagnate on the surface of the site, but is absorbed into the soil, which reduces the risk of fungal diseases.
The soil on the plot with tomatoes can be mulched with black covering material - this measure inhibits the growth of weeds and retains moisture in the soil. Mulching with organic matter (grass, sawdust or peat) will attract earthworms, loosening the soil and producing the humus necessary for plants in the course of their life. However, make sure that after the worms at the site did not appear moles, for which earthworms are food.
How to tie a tomato.
You can tie up the tomatoes to the stakes or to the tensioned trellis. Stakes are better placed on the north side of the row, keeping the distance between them and the stems 9-11 cm. To make a trellis machine, the stakes are hammered every 4 meters, and the ropes or threads are tensioned between them. Tying is carried out in three stages:
- - immediately after the planting of seedlings into the ground at the level of the first leaf,
- - at the level of the second brush,
- - at the level of the third brush.
In a cold climate, tomatoes sometimes do not have time to ripen. How, in this case, to save the crop, which was spent on the forces and hopes? How to process tomatoes to accelerate their ripening? We offer you this simple way: young pine shoots, kept in the refrigerator for a week, chop, pour water in a ratio of 1: 2, boil and simmer on low heat for 5-10 minutes. After the broth cools down, strain it and dilute with water in a 1: 3 ratio. This composition should be sprayed bushes during the formation of buds.
Early varieties include:
- – Irma - medium-sized and large-sized tomatoes, ripening in 100 days, on a bush 50-60 cm tall, not requiring pasynkovaniya, with good keeping quality - the variety is ideal for canning in its own juice, for autumn salads and whole-wheat freezing,
- – Highlight - bushes 50-80 cm high with dense red fruits of a heart-shaped form, weighing about 100 g, excellent taste - with sweetish watermelon pulp. Good for both salads and canning
- – Butuz - the height of the bush is 50-60 cm, the yield is high, the mass of red fruits of barrel-shaped form is 100-200 g, the taste and keeping quality are good.
From mid-ripe tomatoes such varieties are popular:
- – Bull heart - soft, juicy fruits of large and medium size pink-red color with thin skin and excellent sweet taste. The yield is good, but the variety is susceptible to infection with brown spot,
- – Lady fingers - a shrub about 50 cm high, not forming stepsons, with a small amount of leaves and pear-shaped fruits of red color with dense, firm pulp - ideal for canning,
- – Königsberg - tall variety, reaching from 1.5 to 2 m with elongated red fruits in the form of eggplant of excellent taste and weighing up to 300 g
Late varieties of tomatoes, which are worth growing:
- – De barao - powerful plant up to 4 m high with plum-like, even, dense fruits weighing up to 70 g of high taste. The variety is cold resistant and shade-tolerant, intended for fresh use, whole-canning and long-term storage,
- – The finish - a bush up to 75 cm high with fruits of excellent orange-red taste, weighing up to 90 g. The variety is distinguished by its yield and resistance to verticillosis.
- – Cherry - the well-known and well-loved variety with excellent decorative and high taste qualities of small sweet fruits weighing up to 30 g collected in a brush. They can be canned right with a branch. They are suitable for cultivation in the open field and on the balcony or in the greenhouse.
We offer you a description of several unusual varieties of tomatoes, information about which may seem interesting to you.
- – Pepper Tomatoes, which are also called banana-shaped, differ not only by their unusual appearance, but also by their unusual taste. Popular varieties: jersey Devl, Auria, Uncle Stepa.
- – Ribbed tomatoes large-fruited and fruitful, they are similar in shape to a peeled orange, but with convex lobules. Grades: Tlacolou, American ribbed.
- – Orange tomatoes, containing more sugar, lycopene and beta-carotene than regular varieties are shown to people allergic to red fruit. The most famous variety is Persimmon.
- – Yellow tomatoes имеют насыщенный вкус и золотистый, радующий глаз цвет. В них содержится ликопин и большое количество каротиноидов. Эти помидоры также подходят аллергикам. Лучшие сорта: Золотые купола, Медовая капля, Чудо света, Золотая рыбка.
- – Белые помидоры отличаются необыкновенным вкусом – в них много сахара и нет кислоты. Сорта: Уайт Сноу, Бычье сердце белое, Белоснежка.
- – Black tomatoes - leaders in the content of ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and other vitamins, they are valued for their extraordinary taste, however, unfortunately, these hybrids do not have high yields, in addition, they are not cold-resistant and at the same time matured in open ground only in warm climates. Grades: Raj Kapoor, Gypsy, Black Prince, Blue Sky.
- – Green tomatoes, who never blush, have a unique taste. The most famous varieties: Emerald Apple, Swamp.