In nature, the homeland of camellia is the eastern countries of Japan, Vietnam, China. This evergreen shrub of the tea family is especially delightful during flowering. Flowers, resembling roses, against the backdrop of dark green shiny foliage look fascinating. In areas with mild climatic conditions feels great in open spaces. But also with the right care, it survives remarkably and blooms in the conditions of an ordinary apartment. Room camellia, it is a decorative camellia, needs some peculiarities of cultivation, on which it is worthwhile to dwell in more detail.
The specifics of the microclimate for the successful growth of ornamental camellia
There are many varieties and varieties of this amazing and beautiful plant. The main competitor in the pomp and appearance of flowers can be considered, perhaps, only a rose. The variety of types will impress the most fastidious flower growers; they can be double and ordinary, classic white (for example, white camellia), pink, red, pale blue flowers. The variety of colors is truly limitless. Three varieties are predominantly grown at home: netted, Japanese and mountain camellias. Already from them many hybrids have been bred, to the joy of flower growers, more adapted to home conditions. But the successful cultivation of this flower depends on the fulfillment of certain criteria:
- Maintain moderate summer temperatures and freshness in winter.
- It is useful to provide high humidity in microclimate conditions.
- Plant the plant in a highly nutritive peat-containing substrate.
Provide protection from direct exposure to ultraviolet rays and drafts
Simply put, with respect to the decorative type of camellia, home care and cultivation is reduced to creating a microclimate close to the natural growth of this undoubtedly beautiful plant. If all the recommendations could be executed correctly, the flower will be comfortable, and it will surely please with colorful blooms for several months.
If you look at the flower Camellia: frost resistance to minus 5 degrees, flowering at +10 degrees, stunningly decorative, practically permanently, it may be thought that the plant is unpretentious and does not require special care. But this is far from the case. The problem lies in a difficult task, creating the necessary conditions in a regular room. It is important to remember that the opening of the buds occurs in winter, the growth of leaves in springtime, and for this you need a well-lit room. A reasonable question arises: how to care for camellia at home?
Proper care of the camellia plant
Camellia needs light at least twelve hours a day, but negatively perceives the direct exposure to the sun. Therefore, on windows facing south in the summer, it is necessary to provide easily darkened lighting. Being on the north side will be completely unfavorable, and will manifest itself in very elongated branches, faded and small foliage. Westerners are optimalas well as eastern window openings for the entry of light. In the seasons when light day decreases, additional specialized lighting is needed.
Camellia is also demanding for temperature conditions; in spring and summer, room temperature will do; in autumn and winter it is better to move it to a loggia or balcony with insulation on a thermometer, should be +12 - +15 ° C. Amazing fact - then the camellia will begin flowering in the winter despite even the small negative readings of the thermometer to minus 10 degrees.
Proper watering and fertilization
As mentioned earlier, the successful cultivation of the camellia flower, home care should be reduced to the reproduction close to the natural conditions in its habitat. It grows in a humid climate zone and, naturally, is demanding for irrigation.
In the warm months will require multiple generous watering, vital for a dynamically developing plant. And also in warm weather, evaporation increases, creating the necessary microclimate. But it is necessary to water wisely, without fanaticism, avoiding excessive moisture, leading to the appearance of rot of roots, pests and harmful bacteria.
In the cold season, despite the flowering, the frequency and volume of watering should be reduced. The earth needs only a little moisturize as it dries..
Water for irrigation must be separated, boiled or thawed. Sometimes it can be dissolved in water with acetic acid or citric acid. This shrub loves acidified soil and does not tolerate high content of alkalis and calcium salts.
Do not forget about the need to create high humidity in the habitat of the flower. Achieve this as follows:
- If possible, use a humidifier.
- Spray the foliage of the room miracle from the sprayer with warm water, preventing moisture from entering the soil.
And now let's figure out how to properly and at what time you need to feed the plant. Fertilize the flower should be in the spring, this is due to the beginning of active growth of shrubs. As a rule, this procedure is carried out from two to three times a month until the end of July. It should be noted that fertilizing is produced by both organic and mineral fertilizers. Complete the feeding procedure shrub in the second half of August, it was at this time that the camellia begins to form flower buds, then the buds.
The effect of transplantation on the successful cultivation of camellia
Garden camellias, quite large plants, growing them in indoor conditions is quite a difficult and problematic task. In order for the plant to delight you with its flowers, they should be regularly transplanted as they grow. This requires moving the shrub to a larger pot and adding fresh soil. Young camellias can be repotted every year, larger flowers no more than once every three years. It is worth noting that they are not afraid of moving to new conditions in the fall and even in the winter. In the period of abundant flowering plant You can safely expose the procedure of transplanting.
A flowering plant is quite capricious not only to air temperature, but also to its humidity. To make it easier to care for the flower, the most suitable light soil is selected, which will allow the plant to get enough nutrients from the soil. It should be borne in mind that the acidity of the substrate should not exceed pH 5.5. The required soil can be made both independently and you can buy ready-made land for azaleas. At the bottom of the pot drainage is laid, then a small amount of substrate is poured, on which a shrub with straightened roots is placed, it is undesirable for the soil to fall asleep to the root neck.
Tinting and cropping
Kolovka is an important condition for good growth and abundant flowering for camellias growing in indoor conditions. To do this, it is necessary to remove not only time-affected, diseased branches, but also, possibly, to simultaneously form a crown. After such care, the bush becomes more compact and fits well into the interior room. The crown of the shrub is formed, while the plant is already fading, and there are no new buds. Pruning the bush to be madebased on plant variety. Sometimes it is necessary to remove shoots up to half their height. Fans of these plants due to pruning and shaping the crown get beautiful trees from these shrubs.
Elimination of unnecessary shoots and pinching contribute to tillering, hence: after the above care, the camellia will bloom more brightly and more abundantly than will please the eye. But you need to evaluate the strength of the plant at the stage of conception of buds, and change the number of future flowers on the shoots. The bush is not able to hold a large number of open rims.
Timely and correct set of measures for the care of a gorgeous plant, a pledge of rapid flowering. Cap red, blue, white and other bright colors will delight the eye in the cold months of the year. - It looks exotic and elegant.
Description of appearance, origin, most popular varieties
This flower came to Europe thanks to Jesuit monk George Kamel, after whom he was named. Ladies of the 19th century decorated their hair and hats with camellia flowers. World famous plant provided Alexander Dumas in his novel "The Lady of Camellias." Marie Duplessi was very fond of Camellia for its subtle aroma and refinement. In the wild, shrubs and camellia trees are found in Japan, the Philippines, China, and Vietnam.
The leaves of the camellia are rich green with a glossy sheen, the stem is erect and branched (in shrub forms), the flowers are terry, bright, resemble roses. For growing camellia need conditions that resemble a tropical climate: heat and moisture. To grow a flower in our climate, preferably at home.
Breeders bred a lot of varieties. The photo shows the most popular.
- Japanese camellia in the wild tropical climate can reach 15 m in height. The color of the petals is pink, red, motley. Flowering begins in December and ends in April. At home, prefers penumbra and temperature from 18 to 20 ° C.
Planting, breeding, benefits of seed breeding
Tropical beauty can multiply by seeds and cuttings. Seed propagation is as common as grafting. A plant derived from seeds will only bloom for 5-6 years.
It is better to sow fresh seeds, since during prolonged storage germination is lower. The composition of the seeds include oilseeds that are able to evaporate and the seed dries. For sowing, prepare a soil mixture of sand and peat in a 1: 1 ratio. The optimum temperature for seed germination is + 20-22 ° C. The first shoots should appear after 3 weeks. Next, we dive seedlings, transplanted into separate flowerpots with the same soil. Camellia likes moist soil, but to prevent root rot, ensure good drainage. Seed propagation has its advantages:
- plants quickly adapt to the microclimate
- adapt well to adverse conditions
- less prone to disease.
For propagation by cuttings, it is necessary to choose only matured shoots. At the end of the summer, choose a branch with 4-5 leaves, cut, dip in a phytohormone and immediately plant in the ground (sand + peat). The soil should be constantly wet and warm (if necessary, provide heating). The stalk must be moistened to prevent rapid evaporation. Rooting should end in two months. You can graft to adult plants.
Features care, the creation of conditions for the flowering of the camellia
Camellia is capricious and demanding of the microclimate. For growing requires a constant temperature of about + 20-25 ° C. Therefore, it is better to contain camellia from the south or east side. "Capricious lady" loves the sun and moisture. Indoors, you can install a vessel with water to maintain high humidity. You can spray the plant or purchase a humidifier.
Attention! When spraying, make sure that the water does not fall on the flowers and buds, otherwise they will die. For the full growth of the flower is also necessary soil with good drainage. The soil can be prepared by yourself.
Connect the same ratio:
- leaf soil,
- coniferous soil
- bark of coniferous trees.
Or buy azalea soil that suits your flower. Camellias love sour soil.
The young plant is transplanted each year in the fall in a larger pot. Camellia can be transplanted in winter during flowering. Once in 3 years, it is desirable to change the soil. For abundant flowering must comply with all conditions.
Council For large flowers, shoots with flower stalks are cut, leaving 3-4 flowers per branch.
Watering, feeding, fertilizer types, diseases and pests
The first fertilizing with nitrogen or complex fertilizer seedlings is carried out in the spring, to increase the green mass of the plant. Adult plant is fed 1 time in 3 weeks. For fertilizing apply complex fertilizers or special for orchids and azaleas, which can be purchased at a flower shop.
For dressing camellias concentration of such fertilizers is reduced by half. Complex make at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter. Do not conduct dressing during the rest period. Camellia loves moisture. You need to water often and gradually. Care must be taken that the soil does not dry out. Watering is carried out with settled or filtered water. In winter, reduce watering.
Improper care leads to plant disease:
- the appearance of rot,
- cucumber mosaic,
- Root rot is formed when the soil is wetted. Brown spots appear on the leaves. The plant should be immediately transplanted to another soil and ensure drainage of the soil.
- When infiltrating phyllostiktosis will help the treatment of leaves and shoots with copper sulfate, reducing the humidity. Affected leaves are cut off.
- With the defeat of oidium, which can be recognized by the gray bloom on the leaves, processing plants with soapy water will help. Against the cucumber mosaic will help drugs "Aktelikt", "Aktara."
Overcome camellia and pests. The skosar loner is able to destroy the horse's horse system. When it appears, shoots and soil are treated with insecticides. Wiping with warm water helps from aphids and shield insects. If most of the plants are affected, pesticides are used.
Spring mood in winter can give you this noble flower. The usual flowering time for camellia is December. But in order for camelia to rejoice in the brightness of its colors, it is necessary to be patient. Planting and care requires skill and constant attention. With the help of decorative pruning, you can get any shape: a spherical bush, a small tree.
Varieties of room camellias
Decorative types are really very good. These are tall plants, covered with many large flowers of different colors in the autumn-winter period. Often it is called the Chinese rose for the similarity of colors in appearance and smell. The camellia leaf is dense, with a glossy surface, so the decorative qualities of the plant are high not only during flowering.
In an apartment with good, attentive care, it grows up to 4 meters in height. There are many varieties, but not all of them are suitable for an apartment. The best varieties for growing at home are the following types:
- Japanese In nature, it is widespread in Japan, China, and Korea. The highest variety, which is a full-fledged tree up to 15 meters high. Japanese camellia is interesting with pointed glossy leaves that are so smooth that they glare in the sun. Ornamental varieties of Japanese camellia form a rather compact shrub or tree.
- Mountain. No less beautiful shrubs with upright or hanging shoots. Ovate leaves with slight pubescence on the underside. It blooms from early autumn to mid-winter, the flowers exude a delicate fragrance.
- Mesh The camellia flower net in diameter reaches 20 cm. In some varieties of flowers have multi-colored strokes and play. They are called chimeras.
- Chinese In another way they call tea bush. Ellipse-shaped leaves with serrate edge. It is a lot of flowers - on 2-3 pieces in a bosom.
Separate attention deserve Williams hybrids, bred by crossing two types - net and Japanese. Their distinguishing feature is resistance to negative factors.
Features and rules of cultivation
The camellia houseplant, despite its beauty, is not very common. This is due to the difficulties of growing it at home. Inexperienced growers often face the death of a flowering and seemingly healthy plant some time after purchase. For proper growth of the plant, you need to create the appropriate conditions for it:
- Lighting and location. It is a light-loving plant, but it must be protected from the direct sun. It grows well on window sills facing west, east or on the floor next to them. The frame or pot with camellia is periodically turned to evenly form the crown.
- Temperature. The main difficulties in growing arise due to the need to maintain an optimal temperature. Without this, it will simply disappear. For each season, growers recommend sticking to a certain temperature. In summer, the optimum temperature is from +20 to + 25 ° C, in spring from 13 to + 17 ° C, in winter from +5 to + 8 ° C, in autumn from +15 to + 16 ° C. To create such conditions is possible only in the presence of a glazed balcony in the apartment.
- The soil. Soil for Camellia is better to choose sour with pH values of 4.5-5. The recommended composition is one part of humus and peat and half the size of fine sand. You can use ready-made soils for rhododendrons or directly camellias consisting of peat, perlite, crushed bark and fine sand.
- Watering. Recommended regular, but moderate watering. Excess moisture is not allowed. It is better to take soft water - snow, rain or settled for 1-3 days. In summer, during the period of budding, the frequency and intensity of irrigation is limited.
- Влажность. Цветок благодарно отзывается на увлажнение воздуха. Его рекомендуют систематически опрыскивать из пульверизатора, используя для этого мягкую воду. Есть и другой способ — горшок помещается на поддон, наполненный керамзитом, декоративной галькой и небольшим количеством воды. Цветущие растения опрыскивают аккуратно, избегая попадания воды на цветы. The purchase of a humidifier will simplify the task of maintaining high humidity.
- Feeding. Feed the plant during the period of active growth, using mineral and organic fertilizers. Camellia responds well to watering a very low concentration of chicken manure. Top dressing completely stop during the formation of buds.
- Pruning and crown formation. Forming allows you to get more beautiful and neat bushes by thinning the crown or stimulate the growth of the kidneys in the sinuses. Pruning is recommended at the end of the flowering period.
Due to the advanced root system, camellia needs to be transplanted into a larger container once every 2-3 years. The soil for planting should be light and sour. The use of heavy soil will lead to difficulty in breathing the root system, its rotting as a result of high humidity. Calcareous and alkaline soils are unsuitable for growing camellias - the plant dies quickly in them.
In order not to damage the roots, the plant is rolled over into a larger pot along with a lump of earth, filling up fresh soil mixture into free space. The first days after transplanting camellia need to be sprayed daily and monitor the soil moisture. Adding a small amount of hydrogel to the soil will help maintain optimal moisture, avoiding rotting of the roots.
Regarding the terms of transplanting opinions at florists diverge. Some believe that the optimal period is the end of flowering. Others prefer to replant camellia during flowering. The second option has a drawback - flowers will inevitably suffer. Prohibited transplantation of camellia in the period of active growth, which begins in April and ends in the fall.
Camellia is usually propagated by cutting. This is the easiest, but effective way to get a plant with constant signs of variety. In addition to grafting, seed planting and grafting are sometimes used.
- Reproduction by seeds. Camellia can be grown only from seeds that are sold in specialized stores. When Camellia propagates with seeds independently collected from the plant, it will lose the original characteristics of the variety. Sowing seeds produced in boxes, laying them on the surface of a light, moist soil. On top of the seeds need to lightly sprinkle the soil mixture. To speed up germination, the boxes are covered with plastic or glass and placed in heat. Seedlings dive into separate pots with the appearance of these leaves.
- Cuttings. The apical stiff cuttings are taken from adult plants in July or January. The optimum is the length of the cutting 6-8 cm with 3-5 leaves. The cuttings are briefly soaked in a heteroauxin solution, and then planted in a moistened mixture of sand and peat. For fast rooting a temperature of about 20-23 ° C is required. Approximately 2 months later, the individual pots are planted.
Diseases and pests
Camellia is a capricious plant, with inappropriate care it suffers and suffers from pests.
- The appearance of brownish spots on flowers and black and gray on the leaves indicates a fungal disease. To combat it, fungicides are used.
- Chervets and aphids can completely destroy the young shoots of the plant. To get rid of them spend processing insecticides.
- The appearance of brown spots on the leaves in summer speaks of sunburn.
- Leaf fall indicates a deficiency or an overabundance of moisture in the soil.
Camellia requires constant care, but time costs are fully paid off with a very beautiful and long flowering plant.
The most common varieties of camellia
Camellia (camellia) is known since the time of the Japanese samurai. Interest in a bright flower does not fade until now. Proper cultivation of camellia in the home ensures lush bloom in winter. There are such types of flower:
- Camellia oleifera is an oil-bearing evergreen tree up to 10 m high, which is conveniently located along river banks and in the wooded area of China at an altitude of about 500-1400 m above sea level. seas. Often they are grown specifically to extract useful oil from the seeds. Flowering occurs from September to the second half of October with luxurious white flowers. After this, seed boxes appear, and you can collect seeds from them.
- Camellia sinensi- Chinese tree with fragrant buds up to 10 m in height. It begins to bloom in August, and in October tricuspid, slightly flattened boxes appear in place of flowers. Due to the fact that his foliage is brewed like tea, the plant received the second name, the tea plant.
- Camellia japonica- this beauty grows up to 15 meters. Lives in Korea, Japan and China. Abundant bloom lasts from December to April. Flowers are double, simple and semi-double, reaching 4 cm in diameter.
- Camellia sasanqua - mountain camellia from the islands. Bushes about 5 m high with thin branches and slightly red shoots. The fragrant flowers of white, pink and red appear from November to the end of January.
The garden camellia habitual in the middle latitudes of Europe and domestic varieties common among our compatriots were bred on the basis of the Japanese variety.
How to care for homemade camellia
For the cultivation of room camellia should examine in detail the conditions that prefers a naughty flower. Even a small deviation from the norm can cause it to start dropping leaves and flowers.
Important! This flower is not for the lazy, so be prepared to pay due attention to the care of the room beauty.
Indoor flower requires some lighting:
- The optimal place for perennial breeding is a well-lit winter garden. The flower prefers lower temperatures in the cold months.
- The optimum illumination brightness is at least 3000 lx, and the desired length of daylight is at least 12-14 hours. That is why in the winter flowers must be dosvechivat. For these purposes, gardeners use fitolamps, which you can read more about here. In the absence of the necessary light, the plant will not bloom.
- For camellia during the formation of buds it is strictly forbidden to rotate it relative to the light source. If you do not heed this requirement, she will simply fold the buds.
- Camellia in open ground is also common, but even a flowerpot with a home flower can be safely carried out in the summer to a balcony or garden, and also to change the place of its dislocation. At the same time, greens will not react in any way to changing the place of cultivation.
Important! Saturated green foliage requires protection from direct sunlight during particularly hot days. Therefore, it is better to place the pot in a slightly shaded place.
Competent temperature conditions
The camellia flower is winter-flowering, so the temperature of its cultivation, like many other flowers, is very different in the autumn-winter period.
- March-September - the temperature ranges from +20 to +25 degrees. As soon as the period of flower bud formation comes, reduce the temperature to an optimum +18 +20 degrees.
- December-February - the temperature is not more than +8 +12 degrees.
If there is a temperature violation, you may be beaten by such problems: the ovary will fall off or flowering will occur much earlier, but the buds will be small and inconspicuous.
Care camellia involves the complete absence of drafts and the presence of fresh air.
How to water the plant
Camellia loves moisture, but this process is also subject to clear rules.
- It is impossible to call watering consistently abundant or moderate. For the whole year, the degree of moisture required changes several times. In the summer - abundant watering, and in the winter - moderate.
- The soil in the summer can not be overdry, as the camellia can die. In winter, watering cautiously and carefully, as at low temperatures the moisture evaporates very slowly. With excessive moisture the flower may sour and die.
- Watering is carried out only with separated water. The liquid can be slightly acidified by dripping a few drops of vinegar into it.
Important! The flower prefers watering with settled water of average temperature. Water rich in lime can kill a sprout.
- Make a watering schedule. This will help monitor the frequency of hydration. Landmark - the degree of drying of the earth. If according to the schedule the period of watering came up, and the top layer of soil is still wet, set aside moisture for several days.
Optimum indoor humidity
The flower does not tolerate dry air in the room where it grows. You can ensure optimum humidity in the following ways:
- Next to the pot, put a saucer with water. The liquid will gradually evaporate, providing the plant with comfortable conditions. How to moisten the air in the room in other ways, you can read here.
- Install a humidifier in the room to maintain the desired level of humidity.
- Spray the leaves regularly, especially in summer. Be extremely careful during the budding period. Moisture should not fall on the flowers.
How to apply fertilizer
In the summer, the plant does not require active feeding, but for harmonious development it should still be carried out. For these purposes, buy a special mineral fertilizer, and in the absence of it, suitable substrate for roses or liquid fertilizer for azaleas. Fertilizers make the instructions no more than 1 time per month. In the period of the ovary of flowers, increase top dressing up to 2-3 times per month. Before fertilizing, be sure to pay attention to shelf life. Delay can only harm the pet.
Japanese beauty transplant
Perennial requires systematic transplants. The frequency of changing the pot depends on the age of the plant.
- Replace young flowers every spring. Take a large diameter container each time. When transplanting, the soil changes completely, and the flower’s neck should not be covered with earth. It is dangerous for the plant, and can lead to its death.
- Mature plants change the pot every 3 years. That's just the top layer changes every year.
- If perennial grows in a tub, then it is not transplanted, as it is very difficult. In addition to the inconvenience, you can cause irreparable harm to the plant. Therefore, it is sufficient to simply change the top layer of the soil. This will reduce the risk of disease and stimulate the development of buds.
Reproduction room camellia
Plant reproduction occurs in several ways:
- Seeds. Gardeners do not really like this method, as it does not preserve the quality of the variety. Some individuals have boxes with seeds. These seeds are transplanted into a container with a nutrient substrate and are grown until the first leaves appear, then a dive of the seedlings in different pots occurs.
- Cuttings The most popular way to maintain the quality of varieties. It is better to cut off the upper parts of ripe shoots. Their length varies from 3 to 8 cm. Cuttings are placed in a diluted heteroauxin. After this, the cuttings are moved to a box filled with peat and sand in half. Landing is left at a temperature of +20 +23 degrees until rooting.
- Grafting. This method is considered very time consuming, and is extremely rare at home.
What problems do gardeners meet?
On how to care for camellia, depends on its flowering. Mistakes in care are the main cause of disease and death of the plant.
- If the foliage falls, then you make mistakes with watering.
- Faded leaves - the plant lacks nutrients.
- If, as in the photo, brownish specks were formed on the leaves, then as soon as possible remove the pot from the window sill. These are signs of sunburn.
- Poor flowering is a sign of soil acidification.
- In the event of an attack by a scythe, mite or aphid, it is necessary to treat the foliage with special preparations, or with ordinary soapy water.
The video below clearly shows how to grow a camellia and make it the queen of the winter garden. Did you have experience breeding camellias? Write about the most important, in your opinion, in this process to readers.
Camellia - home care
Camellia is an amazing houseplant with special growing conditions. If you manage to provide this flower with the proper regimen, it will delight you with lush, fragrant buds. In fact, camellia is considered an unpretentious culture, but at home it needs to create an environment as close as possible to the natural one.
This article focuses on the cultivation of camellia at home from seed or cuttings, as well as the care of this unusual plant.
Care camellia at home
There are several ways to propagate this culture. At home, they most often cultivate cuttings and growing from seeds, but in specialized nurseries rare garden and room varieties are also propagated by grafting.
Let us consider in more detail the simple methods of reproduction from seeds and cuttings, since these methods are most suitable for home use.
Cutting is considered the most affordable way to propagate a crop. To do this, use apical shoots with a length of 6-8 cm, which are cut in July and January (Figure 1).
Note: Cuttings should not be lignified, otherwise they will not take root.
Ready cuttings should have 3-5 well developed leaves. The twigs are planted in a box with a light, breathable ground and transferred to a warm room with a temperature of + 20 + 23 degrees.
Figure 1. Preparation of cuttings for planting
As a rule, rooting of cuttings takes about two months, but if the procedure was carried out in winter, the period of formation of the root system will be longer. To speed up rooting, the cuttings can be treated with a solution of the root-forming drug, and after planting in the pots, seedlings should be watered and sprinkled regularly with water at room temperature.
Features of plant propagation by cuttings are described in detail in the video.
Seed propagation is a more complicated way, primarily because a full-blooming flowering plant can be obtained only after 5-6 years. However, when breeding rare varieties should use this method.
After collecting the seeds, they are immediately sown in small pots, and only one seed should be in one container. After the formation of two true leaves, the seedlings dive into larger pots (Figure 2).
It is worth noting that in some cases, when seeds multiply, the characteristic characteristics of the variety are lost, therefore, for particularly valuable ornamental species, it is still better to use the cutting method.
Growing camellia seed
To successfully grow a plant from seed, you need to know the details of this process. First of all, you need to choose the right seeds. Planting material collected from household plants does not have a high germination rate, so for the cultivation of a full-fledged plant, it is better to buy processed seeds in specialized stores.
Note: To preserve the germination of seeds they are stored in a sealed package in the refrigerator until planting. Before planting, they are soaked in water for the night, and just before sowing - carefully puncture the shell so that the seeds germinate faster.
Seeds are planted in small pots with a diameter of not more than 9 cm, filled with light soil. You do not need to push the seeds into the ground: just enough to slightly deepen them and sprinkle with a small layer of soil. Each container is covered with glass or film and transferred to a warm room.
Figure 2. Sowing seeds at home
In the future, you must ensure that the soil in the pots all the time was wet, but without stagnant water. Seedlings regularly air, raising shelter. Film or glass is removed only after full emergence. When the seedlings form 4 true leaves, and the height of the plants will reach 7 cm, they are transplanted to larger pots. Further transplantation, including in the open ground, is carried out only after the seedlings fully mature.
All stages of the preparation and sowing of seeds of culture are presented in the video.
Growing camellia from cuttings
The best material for growing is considered to be semi-woody shoots that have been formed in the current year. They may be half lignified, but by no means completely hard, since such seedlings do not take root in a new place.
When cutting cuttings should be selected strong healthy twigs with several internodes. The length of the finished seedlings should be from 3 to 12 cm.
Preparation of cuttings for rooting is carried out as follows. (Figure 3):
- All prepared branches inspect and cut off all the leaves in the lower part,
- The cuttings are treated with a root-forming drug, since camellia belongs to cultures with a long rooting period (about 3 months),
- If you do not have the opportunity to plant the cuttings in the ground immediately after cutting, you can put them in the water, but you should not postpone the time of planting,
- Pots and boxes for rooting cuttings must have a drainage hole, because the culture does not tolerate stagnant moisture,
- A light substrate consisting of equal parts of sand and peat is poured into the tank.
Cuttings deepen into the ground to a depth of one and a half to two centimeters at a slight angle. Next, the seedlings are watered, covered with glass and transferred to a room with a temperature not lower than +20 degrees. Стоит отметить, что, как и в случае с размножением семенами, саженцы приживаются достаточно долго – около трех месяцев.
Особенности выращивания камелии в домашних условиях
Камелия принадлежит к теплолюбивым культурам, а в дикой природе она встречается в теплых и влажных лесах Азии. Именно поэтому для выращивания этого необычного цветка дома, необходимо обеспечить условия, максимально приближенные к естественным.
First of all, the peculiarities of growing plants relate to the temperature and humidity conditions, but there are other recommendations that should be considered for beginners and experienced gardeners.
Air temperature and humidity
This is a plant of short daylight. In other words, a 12-hour illumination will be sufficient for full flower budding and flowering (Figure 4).
But the key role is played by temperature and humidity:
- In the room where the flower is located, maintain a constant temperature at 18-20 degrees. If this figure is lower, flowering will not occur.
- By reducing the length of daylight hours (less than 12 hours), the temperature is also reduced to a level of 8-10 degrees in order to activate the process of formation of flower buds.
- The flowering period lasts from December to February. During this period, it is better to transfer it to a cool room with a temperature of not more than +10 degrees.
When caring for the plant should not be allowed and a strong increase in temperature. This may lead to early completion of flowering or premature fall of the buds.
Figure 4. Ensuring optimum temperature and humidity
It should also be borne in mind that the culture is vital to high humidity. To do this, conduct regular spraying settled water at room temperature. During the flowering period, this procedure is carried out very carefully so that water droplets do not accidentally fall on the buds.
If you have a lot of plants in your home and it is too tiring to spray them, you can purchase a special humidifier or put the pots in the pan in wet peat.
In addition to sensitivity to temperature and humidity, camellias are very demanding of light. It is advisable to place them in a well-lit place, but without exposure to direct sunlight. Western or eastern windows would be ideal (Figure 5).
Note: If you put the culture on the north window or in the depth of the room, it will not bloom due to lack of light.
It is undesirable to place the flower on the south window, as from direct sunlight leaves and buds can get sunburn.
In addition to the correct location, it is advisable to rotate the pots periodically so that all sides of the plant are evenly illuminated by the sun and the bush is level. However, this procedure is strictly prohibited to carry out during budding and flowering, since a change in the position of the plant will lead to the fact that it will reset the buds.
Figure 5. Optimal lighting for camellias
In the warm season, pots can be put on the open balcony, but with the first cold snap, the flowers are surely brought into the room.
Watering and fertilizer
Despite the fact that camellia is a moisture-loving crops, it does not tolerate an excess of water in the soil. Therefore, watering should be regular, but not excessive. To determine whether a plant needs moisture, it is possible by an earth coma: it should be slightly wet, but not dry or wet.
Since camellia is an exotic crop for our climate, it needs special nutrients for normal growth and flowering. To do this, it is fed every three weeks throughout the year, using special mineral fertilizers at the rate of 1 gram per liter of water.
Transplant and soil for camellia
Young bushes are transplanted every year. It is necessary for plants to obtain all the nutrients for growth. Adult shrubs with regular flowering are transplanted only once every two years or as needed, for example, if the pot has become too close for the plant (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Camellia Transplant Steps
During transplantation, pinching of apical shoots is performed. This will create a more lush shrub.
The best time for transplanting is spring, and for planting you need acidic soil consisting of two parts of deciduous soil, two parts of peat and one part of soddy soil and river sand.
Camellia Balsam: seed growing with photo
Camellia balsam is a relatively new type of garden plant, which is valued for large and lush terry inflorescences. Despite the fact that the plant is essentially a balsamic plant, its flowers look like camellias, which is why the culture got its name (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Features of growing camellia balsam
This variety is grown in the garden of seedlings grown from seeds. For this planting material must be purchased in a specialized store. Seeds are sown in small containers about 3-3.5 months before the proposed planting in open ground. To do this, it is desirable to use a light soil, and the seeds are not deepened into the ground, but simply scattered over the surface and sprinkled with a thin layer of sand or peat.
Note: Sowing the seeds of culture is considered traditional: after placing the planting material in the soil, the soil is watered and covered with film or glass.
When the seedlings release several true leaves, they dive, and after each seedling has up to 4 leaves, they gradually begin to harden the seedlings, opening the shelters daily. When the seedlings are fully strengthened, it is planted in open ground at a permanent place.
Camellia originates from countries with a subtropical climate: it grows in Japan, Vietnam, China, and the southern United States. In our country, camellia can be found in Sochi. At home, it is an evergreen shrub or tree with dark green shiny leaves, as if varnished. In winter, luxurious white, pink, red flowers bloom on young branches. Camellia terry varieties resemble roses, often referred to as "roses without thorns." Camellia flowers are usually odorless.
Camellia - an evergreen shrub with dark green shiny leaves and flowers like roses
Camellia can grow and bloom in cool greenhouses, and in regions with a warm climate, it feels comfortable in the gardens. Camellia is not a houseplant, therefore, for cultivation in an apartment, it is desirable to have a glazed ventilated balcony (temperature from +5 o C to +10 o C, not lower than -10 o C).
The height of a camellia in nature ranges from 3 to 12 meters. Leaves are oval, glossy. Large, from 4 to 15 cm in diameter, flowers bloom in winter and do not wilt within a month.
Variety of species and varieties
More than 200 species of camellias are known, however, they all originate from four main species: camellias, Japanese (C. japonica), mountainous (C. sasanqua), netted (C. reticulata) and saluena (C. saluenensis).
The most popular types of camellia are:
Mountain Camellia is an evergreen flowering shrub that grows up to 3–4 meters. The branches of the mountain camellia are thin, the shoots are red, pubescent. The flowers are simple, white, red or pink. Flowering begins at the end of autumn and lasts until February.
Mountain Camellia - an evergreen flowering shrub with simple flowers of white, pink or red
Camellia Chinese or tea-plant is a tall plant, up to 10-15 meters, flowers are more often white. The variety is interesting in that young leaves and tops of the shoots are used for making tea, which contains tianin and caffeine.
Young shoots of Chinese camellia are used to make tea
Japanese camellia - shrubs or trees 10-12 meters tall. Flowering begins in early winter and continues until April. The flowers of this species are diverse in the degree of terry, have a rich color palette: pink, red, white, motley.
Japanese camellia is the most popular type of camellia.
The rarest variety of camellia is Middlebury pink. The most common type of camellia is Japanese; it has served as the basis for many varieties, such as: Adolf Adyusson, Alba Simplex, Betty Sheffield, Pink Perfekshion, Tammiya.
Table: conditions of detention
As can be seen from the table, it is important for Camellia to observe the temperature regime depending on the length of daylight hours, and the humidity at any time of the year is required to maintain an increased one. Camellia loves spraying the leaves with water at room temperature; water must first be defended. Camellia flowers can not be sprayed.
In winter, camellia needs a low temperature, high humidity and good illumination, and in summer it is comfortable in penumbra.
It would seem that the microclimate of florarium is optimal for a camellia, but they are not recommended to grow plants above 20 cm, and camellia is a tall plant.
How to replant camellia
Young camellia needs to be transplanted annually, and an adult needs to be transplanted a year later, the best time for a transplant is before the growth begins in the winter - from November to February. Camellia is transplanted after a set of buds or during the flowering period, this time it coincides with the rest period.
For transplantation, it is better to use the purchased land for plants of acidic soil (azaleas, camellias, rhododendrons). Drainage is required.
Watering and feeding
Water the plant should be abundant, but only after the topsoil dries. If the camellia leaves begin to fall, then watering is not enough. It is not recommended to pour it with lime water. For irrigation, you can use boiled cooled water.
Camellia - a plant undemanding to feedings. Fertilize should be in the spring, when rapid growth begins, complex mineral fertilizer. Breeders are advised to reduce the rate of fertilizer twice as indicated in the instructions.
When there is a set of buds, camellia is not fed.
Camellia will please with its bloom in winter, when it comes to a period of rest. At this time, it is important to protect the plant from temperature fluctuations, optimally - 8–10 ° C. The plant differs in long flowering: from one to three months. The blossoming buds need to be removed.
Trimming and Pinching
Pruning for camellia is optional, but possible if you want to get a lush bush. One-third of the camellia can be trimmed during transplantation; this will even be useful, as the roots damaged during transplantation may not cope with the feeding of the crowns, and the branches will dry out. If necessary, cut dried, weak and frayed twigs. A young plant can pinch the top, to do it better in October-November.
Florists face problems: blackening of leaves, dropping buds, and sometimes leaves. This happens, as a rule, due to plant care errors:
- Planting with the deepening of the neck of the plant. Even a small deepening of the point between the root and the trunk can lead to the death of the plant.
- Transplant at a time when camellia begins to grow actively, most often this period coincides with April. Such actions can stop plant growth.
- The use of heavy airtight soil. So, if you plant a camellia in the garden ground, the roots will rot, and it will die.
- Excessive watering. Prolonged waterlogging, especially with warm water, can also provoke root rot.
- Contents in a room with high air temperature. Camellia requires coolness, especially in winter, during flowering.
Sowing of seeds is carried out in breeding grounds, a distance of 5–7 cm is observed between the seeds. Rassatnye containers should be covered with glass and kept in a warm, bright place. Picks make after the appearance of two true leaves. Seeds should be fresh, as they quickly lose their germination.
Japanese camellia terry varieties do not form seeds, so this method is not suitable for her.
This method is used most often. For reproduction, it is necessary to cut off after the flowering apical cuttings with 3-5 leaves. The lower part of the cuttings, preventing drying, should be placed by one third for 15–18 hours in a root system growth stimulator, for example, Heteroauxin (0.1 gram per 10 liters of water).
Landing is done in boxes with a mixture of peat and sand in equal proportions. Rooting cuttings at a temperature of 20–23 ° C. Cuttings should be regularly sprayed and watered; after two months they can be transplanted into pots with a diameter of about 7 cm.
Reproduction Camellia cuttings
Propagation by grafting is suitable for experienced gardeners, this method is used in cases where the Camellia variety is difficult to propagate by grafting. The upper parts of the shoot are selected for vaccination, reproduction by vaccination should be carried out in January.
Useful reviews of flower growers on growing Camellia
Camellia is a famous capricious, but very good! The spectacular crown of dark green leathery, as if varnished, camellia leaves with wonderful flowers of a rich palette of colors fits into any interior, the openwork tree is beautiful and without flowers. Florists are especially pleased that the abundant long flowering of camellia falls on the darkest and coldest months of the year - from November to April. Elegant large flowers with dense "wax" petals are odorless.
Only for laying the flower buds of the Camellia you need a high temperature (20–25 degrees), for bud maturation — no more than 15 degrees, and an optimum temperature of 8–10 (not more than 12) degrees during the flowering period. When watering and spraying Camellia can not use lime water, only soft water is used. The soil in the pot with camellia should be evenly wet, you should not allow any over-drying or over-wetting of the substrate.
After the end of flowering, camellias grow (in April). At this time, it is too late to repot. In July, a second wave of growth occurs, when it is also better not to transplant. Camellia transplanted in winter. Although if the camellia is transplanted at another time, it is likely to survive. But camellia transplanted in the middle of spring growth can stop and come to a bad state.
I also met such information that it is better to replant camellia during flowering. But accurate handling at any stage of the plant should not harm. Camellia does not tolerate home conditions, so the leaves dry. Look for her place on the balcony, which will not freeze through in winter.
Camellia is really quite capricious. But at observance of cool wintering (up to +18) at home will blossom. Camellia is better at growing outside, if the absolute minimum temperatures are not below 15 degrees below zero.
Features camellia and flower care at home
The decorative varieties and varieties of camellias, of which there are several thousand in the world, are amazingly beautiful. They can not be confused with other cultures. And in its pomp and shape, the camellia flower competes only with a garden rose. Smooth leathery leaves of rich green color have a pointed-elliptical shape and are attached to the shoots with short, dense petioles. Flowers, depending on the species, can be simple or double, white, pale pink, rich crimson or even variegated.
Most often in home collections you can find three types of this plant:
- camellia japanese or camellia japonica,
- camellia or camellia reticulata,
- Camellia mountain or Camellia sasanqua.
They gave the world the greatest number of varieties and hybrids used by flower growers.
Seeing this miracle only once, it is difficult to give up temptation. But in order for the purchased flower not to die, it is necessary to arrange a special care for camellia, when it is grown at home.
This means that homely beauty is created like a natural climate, providing:
If all conditions are met, the maintenance and care of the flower is adjusted, the camellia, as in the photo, will respond with friendly flowering lasting from 2 to 4 months.
Conditions for growing camellia and home care
If you describe the features of the camellia flower, indicating that the plant can withstand temperatures down to –5 ° C, blooms at +10 ° C, has almost no rest period and is incredibly decorative for almost the whole year, you might think that there is no better culture for the home collection. But it is not. The difficulty of keeping a camellia is that it is extremely difficult to create such conditions in an apartment.
Without a bright closed balcony, loggia, terrace or winter garden, it is unlikely that you will be able to enjoy the flowering of camellia, as the plant opens its buds in winter, and the growth of greenery begins with the arrival of spring.
How to care for camellia at home? Throughout the year, camellia needs a long, light day, up to 12–14 hours, but does not respond well to direct sunlight. Therefore, in the south windows in the summertime shrubs provide shading. But on the northern side of the plant will be completely uncomfortable, as it signals the stretched shoots, pale and shredded foliage. With a decrease in natural light when autumn comes, camellias are given artificial light.
If in spring and summer, Camellias are kept at room temperature, then with the onset of autumn it will be harmful to be in a warm room to the plant. It is transferred to a glazed loggia or to a warmed balcony, to a terrace or to another place where the temperature will be around 12–15 ° C.
With proper care and maintenance, the camellia flower, as in the photo, will lay a lot of buds, and flowering will begin in winter, continuing even at small sub-zero temperatures down to –10 ° C.
Transplanting room camellia at home care
In nature, camellias are large shrubs. In home conditions, the flower also grows strongly, and therefore requires:
- regular transplants to a larger pot,
- добавления свежего субстрата.
Перевалку молодых растений проводят каждый год, а взрослые экземпляры – не чаще одного раза в 2–3 года по мере заполнения корневой системой всего объема горшка.
В отличие от других видов, которые переносят в новый грунт весной, комнатные камелии пересаживают в конце осени или зимой. Пышное цветение – не помеха этой процедуре. Бутоны и уже раскрывшиеся венчики не опадут.
The whims of camellia concern not only the temperature of the air at the time of flowering and its high humidity, but also the composition of the substrate. To simplify the care of the camellia flower, as in the photo, at home, he is selected the most structured light soil that provides the plant with good nutrition and does not interfere with the passage of water and air.
At the same time, increased acidity of the soil at a pH of 4.0–5.5 units is extremely important. If it is not possible to independently make the required substrate from equal parts of leaf and coniferous soil, perlite, top peat and adding a small amount of chopped bark of coniferous trees and sand to make the mixture looseness, you can purchase ready-made soil for azaleas.
A drainage is made at the bottom of the pot, a little soil is poured over it, on top of which a shrub is laid with a straightened root system. Substrate fall asleep gently, easily crushing around the azalea.
The soil should not be allowed to hide the root neck. The same rules for the care of camellias are followed if the surface of the soil is mulched with acidifying soil with shavings, sawdust or crushed bark.
Pruning and pinching a camellia in caring for a flower
Pruning is an essential part of caring for a camellia flower growing in a room. In addition to sanitary removal of weakened, damaged and dried shoots, it is necessary to form the crown, otherwise the bush loses compactness, grows and becomes unsuitable for maintenance in the house.
Formation of the crown of Camellia do in the period when the mass flowering is declining, and the plant does not form new buds. Depending on the type of indoor flower, camellia pruned up to half the length of the shoots. Places of large cuts process garden pitch.
Experienced flower growers from trimming and shaping produce elegant stem trees or miniature bonsai from camellias. Pruning and pinching help to intensify the branching, so you can expect that after such a departure camellia will bloom much brighter and more abundant.
But at the stage of formation of flower buds, it is worth assessing the strength of the plant and adjusting the number of future flowers on the shoots. If there are too many buds, they will weaken the camellia, and the shrub will not be able to keep the large corollas open for a long time.