Gladiolus is considered the birthplace of the African and Asian continents. You'd be surprised if you find out what flower they call the sword. Right, this is gladiolus! It is difficult to believe that such a noble plant was once just a field weed. Cultivated plant "Gladiolus" appeared in the Middle Ages. Now there are up to 5,000 of its varieties and hybrids, bred specifically for various zones, including those that differ in cool climatic conditions.
Selection of planting material
Gladiolus bulb for planting can be either grown by yourself or bought in specialized stores. When buying in the first place you should pay attention to the state of corm. If it is large, flabby, has a wormhole, then this is not the planting material that will bring you pleasure over time and should not be acquired. This is an old onion. Pay attention when buying small young “babes” who are not in this year, but in the next 4 years, will delight you with lush flowering.
Only a healthy planting material, with no signs of any diseases can be chosen for planting. In addition, it is necessary to clarify: this variety of gladiolus is zoned to the region of your residence or not. Otherwise, you can be left without flowers. This is especially true of the northern regions, where cultivation in open ground is associated with certain risks. A flowering Dutch bulbs in general is focused on a period of not more than 1 year.
Growing conditions and choice of planting site
In order to create the best conditions for plant growth, it is necessary to take into account that gladiolus does not like lowland soils with stagnant moisture. Oversaturation with moisture contributes to the rotting of the bulb. The slopes with bumps will be unacceptable. Only an even dry place, which will not only be well lit, but also protected from the wind, will be suitable for planting gladioli. But it is also impossible to overdo it, since complete calm can contribute to the development of fungal diseases.
Partial shade areas suitable for growing only early varieties of gladioli.. If you plant late varieties of a flower in such a place, they will not bloom at all. And the reason will lie in the lack of coverage. It should also be borne in mind that this is a very thermophilic flower.
Before planting, remember what culture was cultivated on this plot of land last season. If these were flowers from the dahlia, marigold or leguminous plants, strawberries and tomatoes, then feel free to use this piece of land to grow gladioli. Treat with care the area where potatoes, carrots or cabbage grew in the past season, as well as all those plants that were fertilized with manure. But it is very important that every 2 years the gladiolus is transplanted to a new place.
Preparation of soil for planting gladioli
When planting gladiolus in open ground in spring. Planting and care photo
For gladioli, the structure of the soil is very important. Therefore, sandy or loamy soil is quite suitable for planting. With a planned flower transplant (and this every 2 years), the soil must also be changed.
- The optimal pH-environment for soil is slightly acid, it should be in the range from 6.5 to 6.8. Too acidic soil adversely affects flowering plants. The appearance of a disease such as fusarium (the fungal nature of which is manifested by yellowness on the leaves, root rot and thinning of the stem) is also associated with increased acidity of the soil.
- The alkaline nature of the soil will cause the leaves to turn yellow due to the slow formation of chlorophyll. This results in the intake of insufficient amounts of iron from alkaline soils.
To prepare the ideal soil for the growth of gladioli, it is necessary to add sand to the clay soil, that is, dilute the alumina with sand. Once you have decided on the site for planting - dig it. The soil in a more arid region should be prepared in the fall, digging it 15 centimeters deeper than if you did this procedure in spring. At the same time, apply dry fertilizers (potash and phosphate). Such an approach will allow to preserve moisture as much as possible and before planting the gladiolus it will only be necessary to loosen the soil.
Inspection and preparation of gladiolus bulbs before planting
At the initial stage, all bulbs are subjected to thorough inspection. The scales that covered the corms, you must carefully peel off so as not to damage the young shoots. In case of bulbs damage with scab or sclerotinia, it is necessary to remove the affected area (cut off) and cauterize the cut formed with green paint. This operation is done 1 month before landing. Prepared bulbs are simply left in a small pan with sprouts up in a warm place, so that they sprout a little.
- Before planting the bulbs are subjected to antifungal treatment. They are placed in a solution of potassium permanganate for a couple of hours or in a solution of base compound for an hour.
- Biennial (so-called juvenile) bulbs with pronounced root tubercles, the diameter of which does not exceed 8 mm, are subjected to special treatment. Putting them in a single layer, put under diffused light.
- Immediately before planting, the onions are placed and kept in a solution of potassium permanganate for 9 hours.
- The planting material prepared in this way is transferred to peat pots, which help to avoid breaking the tender root during transplantation. And also it is a very convenient container for transferring the plant to a cooler place, if you notice that the flower began to grow ahead of time. This is especially true of early varieties of gladioli. If for one reason or another you are not stocked with peat pots, then you can use simple containers.
Planting gladioli in open ground
How to plant gladiolus when planting gladiolus photo
How to plant bulbs of gladioli in the spring? Some rules will help to avoid frequent mistakes and protect plants from disease, strengthening their vitality and sending them to abundant flowering.
To gladiolus did not fall
- It is necessary to take into account the structure of the land before landing, to know how deep to plant gladiolus. If clay prevails in the soil, then the depth at planting should be no more than 3 bulb diameters. If the bulb is too deep, then the gladiolus simply does not bloom.
- For a lighter, sandy soil, the depth of the bookmark should be four onion diameters. In this case a lack of bulb budding can cause the plant to slope to the ground and the need arises his garters.
Anyway do not mix planting bulbs of young and adult gladioli. The reason lies in one thing: large corms will take food from younger ones, depleting them. Therefore, it is better to plant young growth separately.
Planting bulbs is very simple: a groove of an appropriate size is dug out, the bottom of which is sprinkled with sand or lined with sphagnum, all this is moistened and the bulbs are placed on this base. The distance between them should be at least 15 cm. Sphagnum will keep moisture and prevent fungi from developing. Everything is lightly covered with earth. As soon as the sprouts begin to germinate and appear on the surface of the soil, you should once again sprinkle them with earth.
How to water
Gladiolus after planting should be watered every other day in order to fully form the peduncle. To do this, you need 8-10 liters of water per 1m². If dry weather is established, watering should be done at least once a day in the evenings.
After that, it is advisable to break the earth in order to accumulate moisture inside and prevent it from evaporating quickly. In the case of the opposite, that is, when establishing rainy weather, watering is either stopped completely or limited to 2 times a week. Water should be well settled. Pouring it directly under the bulbs is not worth it, as it contributes to their decay. It is necessary to pour in the aisle, then the soil near the roots is moistened. Gladiolus leaves tolerate spraying.
- When sprouts reach 10 cm in length, it is necessary to fertilize the soil around the plant with humus. This is done in order to protect the soil from overheating and reduce the amount of evaporated moisture.
- During the formation of the first 3 leaves, fertilizing with mineral nitrogen is necessary. These fertilizers include urea and ammonium sulfate. Bring it at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 1m² in order to form the green mass of the plant.
- Then they feed twice with a mixture of complex potash-phosphate fertilizer: the first stage falls on the period of appearance of 5-6 leaves, the second - on the moment of budding. During the potassium phosphate dressing, you can add a few peas urea.
Four times over the entire growing season, organic fertilizers can be applied to the plants during watering.. It is better to use bird droppings for tincture (animal manure should be excluded) at the rate of: 1 litter bucket for 2 buckets of water. Organic fertilizer is infused for a decade, then diluted in a ratio of 1 to 10, where 1 share falls on infusion and 10 on water. From the regularity of feeding depends on the quality of the flower. Usually fertilizers are applied after watering, which is repeated after fertilization.
Simple disease prevention
For gladioli cultivated on sandy beds, it is good to conduct foliar feeding, the essence of which is reduced to spraying the leaves with a special solution. For 1 liter of water take 0.15 grams of potassium permanganate or 0.15 grams of boric acid or 0.2 grams of Bordeaux mixture. This solution is used as a prophylactic against diseases and insects.
The treatment is carried out at least 3 times during the whole vegetation period: the first - during planting, the next - during the appearance of the arrow and during the formation of buds. If soap is added to the solution and the gladiolus leaves are processed on both sides, this will be a very useful procedure for it in the fight against the spider mite.
Soil loosening and weeding
The roots of absolutely all plants, including gladioli, love oxygen. Loosening will help ensure its access. To avoid the appearance of a crust on the surface of the soil, loosening should be carried out after watering. If you do not weed a bed of flowers, the weeds will take nutrients from the soil, which will negatively affect the quality of the gladiolus flower. Therefore, 1 time per decade weeding is a must.
How to tie up gladioli
Garter is necessary for those varieties of gladioli, which in length reach more than 1.5 meters. To provide support to the stalk, which eventually begins to bend, you can attach a peg to each single flower.
Many gardeners use a different method: pull the wire along the row with gladioli and
each flower is carefully tied to it. In this case, the stems spud, to give them even more stability.
How to cut a flower
In order not to damage the plant, the bulb of which will still be in the ground for some time, and to ensure that the stem is cut to a decent bouquet, the following rules must be observed: leave a part of the stem with 4 leaves above the ground so that the bulb does not deteriorate. Cut the flower can only be in the case when the bottom 3 flowers will be completely dissolved. The ideal varieties of gladioli are those whose ability to dissolve up to 10 buds at once is the norm. Cutting flowers is best done in the evening or in the early morning. The remaining peduncle stem is hidden deeper in the leaves.
When digging gladioli
Kids Gladiolus Bulbs Photo
To dig up the bulbs, and then send them to storage until next year, you need to be sure that they are ripe. Therefore, consider the time: dig out the bulbs in September-October, in warm, dry weather. At least a month is needed so that the bulb free of the peduncle accumulates the necessary juices in order to safely endure the winter. But it is better to give even more time, up to 45 days.
When digging up gladioli, remember that they give babies, and try not to damage them. The sides of an old corm can be literally covered with small "children", which of course we want to grow and plant in the spring.
Preparation of bulbs for storage
How to store gladiolus in winter photo
- First, dig out the bulbs only in dry weather. Begin with corms of early varieties. When cutting the stem, it is necessary to leave a stem 2-3 cm long from the beginning of the bulb.
- Shaking off the ground and cutting the roots, you must carefully inspect the bulbs to exclude those specimens that may be carriers of the disease.
- The bulbs of each variety are individually washed under running water, dried and subsequently treated twice with antifungal solution of basezol.
- Further drying is carried out in the sun, in a well-ventilated place for a month.
How to store gladiolus bulbs in winter
How to store gladiolus bulbs in winter photo
After drying, each bulb is separated from each other (this applies to the old, new replacement and “kids”), wrapped in storage paper and a grade is signed.
- All the bulbs are folded in a cardboard box and kept closed to keep the maximum amount of moisture during the winter.
- You can store them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Small “babies”, with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm, are stored in paper bags under the same conditions as their parents.
- During the rest period, and these are the first 1.5-2 months, there should be no problems with the bulbs at all. After this time, gladiolus bulbs are beginning to look after in order to avoid early germination and prevent the occurrence of diseases.
- Garlic cloves are added to the bulb containers, which act as a natural air disinfectant and place them in a well-ventilated, cool place.
Diseases and pests
Diseases of gladioli can occur both by themselves due to inattention of the host, and due to the spread of infection from other cultures. Common diseases: botrytis, rust, septoria and fusarium. All of them have a fungal nature, which begin to fight even during the processing of the bulbs with a foundation.
- The preparation "Chorus" and "Falcon" is used at the stage before the flowering of the plant in the presence of 3 formed leaves.
- Against insect pests such as the onion mite, thrips are used "Balazo", "Agrovertin", "Aktara", "Confidor-Maxim". Only regular inspection will help prevent serious illness. Attentive attitude to gladioli will be rewarded with its unique lush flowering.
Gladiolus varieties with a photo and description of the color of gladioli of Russian breeding
Gladiolus is a very popular flower among those that are pruned. It looks amazing in a bouquet, perfectly tolerates transportation and for a long time pleases the eye when it is in a vase. Due to varietal diversity, you can choose it of any shape and size, color and petal structure, flowering time and cultivation features. For example:
Variety Annushka can reach a height of more than 1.5 meters. Delicate, with reinforced corrugation, flowers of orange-pink unsaturated color can reach up to 13-15 cm in diameter. After planting the first flower is expected in 2.5 months.
Orange-yellow gladiolus Annushka flowers photo
Variety Arina - with corrugated, delicate in color, but dense in structure raspberry-lilac flowers. A distinctive feature of it is a rich-bright crimson-colored spot in the middle part of the flower.
Pink gladiolus Arina flowers photo
Variety of Eternal Call. It grows up to 140 cm and also applies to large plants. The main color of the petals is pale pink, in the middle part there is a spot of red color. Originality to petals is given by their gear structure at the edges, structure embossed with veins and texture density.
Orange and White Gladiolus Eternal Call of Flower Photos
Sort Blue Butterfly speaks for itself: the delicate blue color of a dense, large petal with a more saturated blue border around the edge not only attracts attention, but also makes this variety of gladiolus a leader in both exhibits and sales. It should be added that the flowering of 145 centimeter plant begins 2-2.5 months after planting.
Gladiolus Russian breeding variety Blue Butterfly photo of flowers in the garden
Grade Sky and Stars. Very easy to grow and beautiful in a bouquet. It has a large (up to 14 cm) corrugated blue-violet flower. Each petal of a flower is penetrated by white rays and, like a star, spots, which gave the name to this variety.
White-Purple Gladiolus Sky and Stars Flowers Photos
Variety Snow Maiden possesses small, but strongly corrugated boiled white flowers. Looks amazing in a bouquet after cutting. Also blooms on 80-85 day after planting.
White gladiolus Snow Maiden photo of flowers
Variety Spartak refers to the medium-early, the height of its stem reaches 160 cm. The flowers are brown-red large with a smoky-dark tint. At the bottom of each petal is a moire pattern in white. Горлышко имеет серебристое напыление.
Красный гладиолус Спартак фото цветов
Сорт Золотая десятка с ярко желтыми крупными соцветиями из махровых цветков поражает воображение. Прекрасное украшение любой клумбы и роскошные цветы на срезку.
Yellow gladiolus Golden dozen photo of flowers in the garden
Preparation of planting material
Cook the corms 20 - 30 days before landing in the ground. I advise you to remove dense scales, without touching the germs. Get high-quality planting material, be sure to sort it out! Sick bulbs discard, if you use them for planting, they will become peddlers of rot.
After cleaning the planting material, place it in storage (sprouts should be on top). I recommend putting corms in one row. For the quickest germination of the shoots, store them in a warm place. Gladiolus planting material should receive a sufficient amount of light. It is exposed to pests!
Before planting the bulbs in open ground, they should be treated with chemicals, they will ensure the prevention of fungal diseases.
Make a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, soak the planting material for 1.5 hours. You can also use a weak solution of foundationol. To gladiolus well caught in the open field, it is necessary to properly handle the daughter bulbs.
2 weeks before planting, the sheath must be removed from the buds, which have grown by 7 mm. I advise you to store daughter bulbs in a dry, bright place. After some time they will germinate, you will need to perform decontamination. Hold the bulb in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 9 hours (1 g of potassium permanganate is designed for 900 ml of water).
Landing on the garden
Novice gardeners should be aware that gladiolus makes high demands on the garden bed. She must be:
Flowers need warmth, they take root in light drained soil. If you plan to place gladioli in the north, remember that the site should be as lit as possible. Flowers under the shade of trees grow worse.
If in your area there are deposits of groundwater, refuse planting gladioli in open ground, the plants may not survive! Gladiolus feels well on a slightly bent garden bed, in this case excess water flows down. The flower makes special demands on the soil, it prefers slightly acidic with a pH level of 6.5.
If possible, do not plant the gladiolus in more acidic soil, otherwise it will get sick. A flower planted in “salted” soil grows poorly, its leaves turn dark, and some specimens undergo fusarium. I do not advise planting a plant in alkaline soil, the leaves may turn yellow.
If, however, in your garden plot sour soil, dilute it with chalk or eggshell. Add 1 cup to 1 square. m. Chalk and egg shells contribute to digging. Lightweight loamy soil diluted with sand.
If the soil is sandy, add clay with a small amount of humus. I recommend planting flowers in a heated area, first dig it to the depth of the spade bayonet, loosen the ground. Gladiolus grows well after vegetables, legumes and perennial herbs. But I do not advise to plant it after asters!
So, how to plant bulbs? The width of the beds should be within 1 m. Before planting, enrich the soil with dry compounds. Use 90 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. m
After making such a fertilizer, dig a bed. If you wish, deposit funds without chlorine, I fertilize the soil with them in early spring.
Gladioli are planted from the twentieth of April until May 15. Terms also depend on climatic conditions. I advise you to place large bulbs in the ground by 12 cm, small ones - by 8 cm. The distance between large specimens should be 14 cm, between small ones - 8 cm.
Observe the distance between the rows of 25 cm. Before planting gladiolus in open ground, a weak solution of phytosporin should be added to the wells, then pour a small amount of sand to the bottom. Instead, you can use Sphagnum moss. Thanks to him, the plant will be protected from root rot.
How to care for miracle flowers
Growing gladiolus involves regular care of them. After you see the seedlings the size of 8 cm, perform mulching using humus. Layer thickness should be within 5 cm. Thanks to the mulch, the plant receives moisture longer. I recommend to make water 1 time in 7 days. I water gladioli in the evening, spend a bucket of water on 1 square. m
Remember that gladiolus is a moisture-loving plant. It should be watered properly, water should not fall on the leaves and buds. Early in the morning it is not forbidden to spray a flower from a spray bottle. After watering, loosen the soil and 5 cm, try not to damage the roots.
Do not forget to pile up gladioli. I loosen the soil once a month. If the weather is hot, bring water every 3 days.
Having found the buds on the arrows, perform the garter of the peduncles to the peg. To gladiolus grow well in the open field, remove dried flowers and leaves.
If it is wrong to care for the plant, it will waste energy on the seeds. Weeding is especially necessary when shoots appear. Weed grass can simply overwhelm them. If there are a lot of weeds on the bed, the risk of developing diseases increases, gladioli can attack slugs.
Flowers respond well to mineral compounds. When you see 3 pairs of strong leaves, add nitrogen preparations. I use urea: 20 g per 1 square. m
Instead, you can use ammonium sulfate (the same dosage). If the plant lacks nitrogen, its leaves turn pale. An excess of this trace element is also harmful because it leads to the growth of foliage and delayed flowering.
The second feeding is done when the plants form 6 leaves each. I recommend using 15 g of superphosphate and the same amount of potassium sulfate per 1 sq. Km. The third time fertilizers are applied before the formation of buds. After you see the flower stalks, add 30 g of superphosphate per square meter. m
Gladioli respond well to organics. I feed them with bird droppings. Thirty liters of organic products infused in 10 liters of water for 11 days. The resulting solution is diluted with water in an amount of 10 liters. It is used for watering, after which they loosen and pile up the soil.
What else you should know about growing gladioli
Follow the simple rules.
- Replant plants 1 time in 2 years, at the same time try not to injure the roots. Dig gladioli gently, with corms. Compliance with crop rotation is important!
- Replanting flowers, choose a soil with a different composition, remember that they do not take root well in the soil with deposits of groundwater, over-wetting the roots is unacceptable. If the flowers grew in sandy soil, after 2 years plant them in loam.
- Choose a variety, given the characteristics of the climate.
- Dutch planting material is one-year, but with proper planting and proper care, it will delight you with beautiful flowers.
- Small onion should be planted separately from the large ones, because they will have a depressant effect. As I said, remove the weeds in a timely manner. If you have chosen very large bulbs for planting, place them on a separate garden bed, but remember that trees should not prune future flowers.
- Follow all landing rules. If you dig deep the onion, it will not be able to germinate.
- In order for the daughter bulbs to germinate better, it is necessary to remove the scales and 30 minutes after planting, add water.
- Late varieties have special requirements for lighting. If you allow at least minimal shading, they will not bloom.
- Place the flower on a ventilated bed, timely fertilize. This will help avoid fungal diseases.
- Gladiolus love foliar dressing. Thanks to such procedures, flowers and leaves grow better.
- In the summer, make water once a week. Water the flowers abundantly, then carefully remove the weeds.
Care and planting gladioli should be correct. Be sure to keep the distance between the specimens, in time to make water and healthy fertilizers. Gladiolus needs your attention!
What is gladiolus
Another name for flowers - skewers. They belong to the family of iris or kasatikovyh. If you look closely, you can see that gladioli look something like irises. Translated from Latin, gladiolus is a sword. Leaves of the sword knife look like pointed swords pointing upwards. In ancient Roman legends it is said that in the bulbs of the skewers there is a great power that protects from many misfortunes.
Before you learn how to plant and care for gladioli in the open field, study the plant varieties. There are about 5,000 varieties of gladioli. Many of them grow in Madagascar and South Africa. Over time, some species degenerate and new varieties come to replace them. By varietal characteristics of the plants are divided into 2 categories:
- Decorative: there are varieties with different lengths of inflorescences, the number of buds in them. Varieties differ in color, size and shape of flowers.
- Household - such crops have a long flowering period, low sensitivity to transportation. Plants are considered very practical.
When buying bulbs, keep in mind that each variety is assigned a three-digit code, the first digit in which is the size of the inflorescence, the second — the color, and the third — the saturation of the hue. If we talk about the size of the blooming flowers, the varieties are divided into:
- small flowers,
Elegant look culture with small flowers (up to 6 cm) with bright colors. Equally attractive are gladioli with large velvety flowers of 20 cm in size. The shape of the edges of flowers is smooth, corrugated, fringed, folded. The color is completely different: there are both pale and saturated shades. Based on the location of the buds in the inflorescence, the cultures are divided into single, double row, zigzag.
Skewers are divided into very early, early, medium early, medium, medium late, late, very late. In central Russia, there are early and middle varieties. Plant height is different: there are low, low, medium and high growth cultures. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the choice of plants is huge. Many gardeners try to get the most luxurious specimens with original color and irregular shape of inflorescences for their plot.
How to prepare for planting in the spring
To get excellent results, find out how the cultivation of gladioli occurs in the open field and the preparation of bulbs for planting. If the "kids" are bought, then carefully study their appearance. The bulbs should not be too large. Quality planting material is not flabby, there are no wormholes on it. Remember that the smaller the bulbs, the more time they need to ripen. In other words, using too small "babies", do not count on a quick flowering: often the buds appear next year.
When buying planting material, specify whether the variety is suitable for cultivation in your area. If you miss this moment, there is a risk of being left without flowers. Consider the region for which the variety is intended, especially if you live in a harsh climate (Perm Territory, Amur Oblast, Republic of Buryatia, and other areas) where growing crops is very difficult.
In the spring, prepare the bulbs for planting. The following actions are performed:
- A month before landing, carefully inspect the bulbs. Remove the husks, get rid of the missing planting material. If there is damage, mold, rot, they are scraped or cut off (this will prevent rotting of the whole corm). The wounds are disinfected with a solution of zelenka, treated with wood, activated carbon.
- Tubers must be vernalized on the principle of potato germination: bulbs are planted for sprouting in a row on sawdust or paper bottom up. For the germination of "kids" requires the presence of light, the air temperature of 20-25 degrees. Remember that when jarovizatsii planting material can not be wet, otherwise it activates the growth of the roots. It is important that, as a result, shoots and rudiments of roots (tubercles) appear around the donuts in the tubers.
- Before planting, the tubers are pickled, soaked in stimulating mixtures.
It is important to properly disinfect the planting material, to increase its level of protection against diseases and pests. As a rule, the following events are held:
- Tubers are soaked for 2 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or for an hour mixed with fungicidal agents (Fitosporin will do). It is necessary to protect against fungal infections. Against thrips, apply spraying drugs of the type "Karbofos." Before planting, it is recommended to perform antifungal treatment once more: put the tubers in manganese solution for 9 hours.
- Heat treatment is carried out: for 15 minutes, the bulbs are placed in hot water (temperature +54 degrees), and then cooled.
- Soaking in a solution with stimulants is performed (add fungicides: “Vectra”, “Fundazol”, Bordeaux mixture, “Maxim”, “Oxy”). Experienced gardeners note that the culture develops better after using the biostimulator Epin.
Each variety differs from the other colors, the size of the flowers, the structure of the inflorescences, the nuances of growth, the characteristics of care. If we talk about the universal recommendations for growing, they are as follows:
- Observe the crop rotation rule. Do not plant gladiolus on the same bed for more than two years. In the third year, transfer the onions to a new bed.
- When transplanting do not take the soil from the old beds. Prepare fresh soil composition. If earlier "kids" were planted in clay soil, then transfer them to sandy soil.
- For planting choose high-quality bulbs, adapted to grow in a particular region. Buy babies from trusted suppliers. Keep in mind that a rare Dutch flower will be able to please you with its magnificence one year. This is explained by the fact that often seedlings brought from afar poorly tolerate the difference in climatic zones.
- Plant small bulbs first, then large ones. It is not advisable to have “babies” and “adults” nearby, because the latter will suppress the former. The largest copies are planted separately.
- The bulbs are planted at a distance of 15 cm.
- For irrigation, use warm water: heat it in the afternoon to the sun.
- After planting, water the bed every other day.
- Water the plants at the root, do not fall on the leaves.
- Watering is abundant in the summer, every 4-5 days. When it is hot outside, organize daily and moderate watering: it is advisable to saturate the earth with moisture after sunset.
- After watering, when the topsoil dries, be sure to loosen it.
- Timely destroy weeds.
- To preserve moisture, soil structure, saturation with useful substances, use mulch: cover the basal zone with peat, compost, grass. The thickness of the layer of mulch from 5 cm.
- Do not plant tubers in lowlands, in places where water stagnates, high groundwater flow. Keep in mind that gladioli do not like wet land.
- Remember that gladioli are very fond of light. When buying a late-flowering variety, do not plant it in the shade. Places without bright sunlight are suitable for early varieties. Keep in mind that in the shade they are late with flowering.
- To avoid the occurrence of fungus, plant the sword in ventilated places.
- In the presence of sandy soil, fertilize with irrigation of the ground part of the plant - the leaves.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom. From the first summer weeks (early varieties) to the beginning of the autumn period.
- Landing. In the spring time.
- Digging bulbs. From the beginning to the middle of autumn.
- Storage. In a cool place (from 5 to 10 degrees).
- Illumination. Needs bright sunlight.
- Priming. Sandy loam, structural black earth or light loam. The soil should be slightly acidic (pH from 6.5 to 6.8).
- Watering. They water on average 1 time in 7 days very abundantly (per 1 square meter of land from 10 to 12 liters of water).
- Fertilizer. Use liquid mineral fertilizers and organic. Feeding on the foliage is carried out at the beginning of the growing season and during the formation of buds, and root: the first - during the formation of 1 or 2 true leaf plates, the second - during the development period of 5 or 6 leaf plates, the third - before the buds begin to form.
- Breeding. Seed and vegetative (corms and kidneys).
- Harmful insects. Thrips, meadow mites, cabbage scoops, wireworms, bears, slugs.
- Diseases. Fusarium, gray mold, sclerotinia, septoria, bacterial scab, cancer, penicillis, curvularia, smut, viral diseases.
Basic rules for growing
Before you start growing gladiolus in your garden, you need to familiarize yourself with the 11 most important rules that will help you grow healthy plants with beautiful flowers:
- At the same place to grow such flowers for more than 2 years is impossible. In the third year, a different place is chosen for their landing.
- During the transplantation of gladioli you should try to choose such a site, the soil of which will differ in composition from the previous one. For example, if the flowers were grown in light black soil, then they can be planted in sandy soil.
- Acquire planting material that has been adapted to the climatic conditions of your region. This results from the fact that these flowers extremely negatively react if from a warm climate they get to damp and cool. Приобретая посадочный материал из Голландии, помните о том, что такие гладиолусы будут пышно и очень эффективно цвести, но только один раз.
- Большие луковицы нельзя высаживать неподалеку от деток, так как они будут их угнетать. Высадку рекомендуется проводить по порядку: от небольших луковичек к крупным. Опытные садоводы рекомендуют, выбрать самые большие клубнелуковицы и высадить их отдельно.
- It is very important to plant corms to the correct depth. In heavy soils, the onion is planted to a depth that is equal to its 3 diameters, and in light - four. If you bury the bulb in the soil very deeply, then this may cause a lack of flowering. And if it is deepened to an insufficiently large depth, then an arrow garter may be needed.
- When, before planting of the onion subsidiaries in the open soil, there will be 3-5 days, it will be necessary to remove the thick scales from them, otherwise the shoots may not appear. When they are planted, they are watered 1 time in 2 days.
- This is a photophilous plant. If the late variety is grown in a shaded place, then you can not wait for its flowering. However, early varieties, if desired, can be grown in a shady or semi-shaded place, but in this case the bushes will bloom much later.
- The area where the flowers grow, must be ventilated, otherwise the bushes can infect fungal diseases.
- If the flowers are grown in sandy loam, they should be regularly fed to the foliage.
- In summer, the bushes should be watered about 1 time in 7 days, but it is quite abundant. During a prolonged dry period, they are watered daily in the evening, after which they loosen the surface of the ground, spud the bushes and pull weed grass.
- Digging up corms and storing them must be properly, and this should pay special attention.
Preparation of bulbs for planting
When, before planting the gladiolus bulbs in the ground, there will be 20-30 days left, they should be prepared. To do this, they carefully remove the thick covering scales, trying not to injure the tender growth. But for a start, planting material is sorted out, removing all partially sick or diseased erythrocytes. If they are not sick with a scab or sclerotinia, then they can be left, but at the same time it is necessary to carefully cut the affected area, and the sections should be processed with green paint. Prepared onion need to be placed in a well-lit and warm place, for this they are laid out in 1 layer with sprouts up, as they will have to grow well.
Before planting onions in a flowerbed, they are treated for the prevention of fungal diseases and thrips, for this they use a solution of potassium permanganate (0.3%), in which they are kept for 1 to 2 hours, instead they can be immersed for 1 h in Fundazol solution (0.3%). If after processing, gladioli will be planted immediately, then they can be for 30 minutes. immerse in a solution of manganese potassium (0.5 grams per liter of water), the pulled out bulbs are planted in the wells (no need to wash).
Children also need preparation before boarding. When it remains 1.5–2 weeks before landing, choose those buds that are 0.7–0.8 cm in diameter (smaller children can be taken from medium-sized varieties), and each of them should have a distinctly visible root bumps. From them it is necessary to remove the hard shell. After that, the children lay in cardboard boxes in 1 layer, which put in a well-lit place, but the light should be diffused. After they grow, they are placed for 9 hours in a solution of manganese potassium (1 gram per liter of water).
The site for growing such a flower is chosen very carefully, while taking into account all its features. This culture is heat and light-loving, so the chosen place for planting must necessarily meet these requirements. It is best to choose a sunny area with well-drained soil, which has reliable protection from drafts. The cooler the climate in the region, the more light these flowers need, and if the site is at least a little shaded, it will have an extremely negative impact on flowering and growth of bushes. Areas where groundwater is very close to the soil surface are not suitable for growing gladioli. When cultivated in more southerly regions, shading of the plot is allowed at noon. The surface of the soil can be ideally even or have a slight slope of 5 degrees to the south, which will allow excess liquid to drain.
Pay special attention to the acidity of the soil, as it is very important when cultivating such a plant. It grows best on weakly acidic soil (pH from 5.6 to 5.8). If the soil is more acidic, then at the leaf plates of the plant the tips will become dark and begin to dry out, at the same time the disclosure of flowers slows down, and the bush itself can strike fusarium. The iron contained in alkaline soil does not dissolve, and therefore it is not absorbed by the root system of the gladiolus, which helps slow the production of chlorophyll in the foliage of the flower, as a result of which it begins to yellow. In order to correct the acidic soil, dolomite flour, chalk or eggshell should be added to it during digging from 150 to 200 grams per 1 square meter of land.
Such a culture grows very well on a soil that has such a structure as that of a structural black soil, and it also develops well in sandy loam or on light loam. In order to fix a heavy loam, sand should be added to it under digging, and clay, along with rotted manure and humus, should be introduced into sandy soil.
A well-heated area is subjected to digging right before planting gladioli. If, however, prolonged droughts are often observed in the region, in order to preserve more water in the soil, the main digging is carried out in the autumn time, while in the spring, before planting gladioli, the surface of the site is slightly loosened. The best precursors of such flowers are legumes and vegetables, as well as perennial herbs. And the area where asters and root crops were grown was the least suitable for planting such a flower.
The ridge should be approximately 100–120 cm wide. If you decide in autumn, the area where gladioli will grow next year, dry potash is recommended (30 square meters to 40 grams of potassium chloride per square meter ) and phosphate fertilizers (per 1 square meter of a plot of 100 grams of superphosphate) fertilizers, followed by digging. Before digging the site in the springtime, chlorine-free potash fertilizers, such as potassium magnesium or potassium sulfate, are recommended to be applied to the soil. In spring time, digging is not carried out as deep as in the fall (approximately 10 centimeters less). Bulbs are planted in open ground from the last days of April until the second half of May, but remember that it is necessary to make an amendment to the weather and climate.
The corms when disembarking are buried to the following depth: small ones - from 8 to 10 centimeters, and large ones - from 10 to 15 centimeters. At the same time, the distance between small onions should be from 7 to 8 centimeters, and between large ones - about 15 centimeters. Row spacing - from 20 to 25 centimeters. The prepared planting groove is shed with a solution of Fitosporin or pure water, then a layer of sphagnum is placed on the bottom or a layer of river sand about 20 mm thick is poured. Only after that they spread onion in it, which they then dig in. Sphagnum is able to prevent the appearance of rot and retain water in the soil, so that it will not dry up even on hot days.
In order for gladiolus to grow normally and bloom magnificently, he needs good care. After the sprouts that have appeared in the flowerbed reach a height of about 10 centimeters, the surface of the soil is covered with a layer of mulch (humus), while its thickness should be about 50 mm. It is able to protect the soil from overheating and overdrying, and during watering the bulbs will receive additional nutrition.
On average, watering is carried out 1 time in 7 days in the early morning or in the evening, while from 10 to 12 liters of water are used for 1 square meter of land. Before watering between the rows, it is recommended to make furrows with a depth of 30 to 50 mm, into which water is poured, in this case liquid droplets will not be able to get to the surface of the foliage. After watering, the soil around the bushes is loosened to a depth of 50 to 60 mm, which will prevent the appearance of a crust on its surface. After that, the bushes must spud. To loosen the soil should be at least 1 time per decade, it does not matter how many times during this time it rained. In the sultry dry period, the frequency of watering is increased to 1 time in three or four days, if this is not done, the peduncle will be sluggish, and the flowers in the upper part will dry before the disclosure.
After the buds are formed on the arrows, it is necessary to carry out their garter to the pegs (if necessary), also remember that it is necessary to pick the flowers that began to wither in time, in this case the bush will not spend its strength on the formation and maturation of the seeds.
The area on which gladioli grows, you need to weed out in a timely manner. As a rule, for 1 season flowers are weeded 3 or 4 times. Pay special attention to the cleanliness of the site during the emergence of sprouts, because if weed drowns them, then the bushes may not bloom. And also remember that a large amount of weed in the area is often the cause of the appearance of pests or the destruction of gladioli by various diseases.
At different stages of growth, these flowers are fed with various mineral fertilizers. During the formation of the first 2 or 3 true leaf plates, fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizer is carried out, namely, 25–35 grams of ammonium nitrate are introduced into the soil, or 25 grams of ammonium sulfate, or 25 grams of urea per 1 square meter of land. If the bushes will feel a shortage of nitrogen, this will lead to the fact that the color of the foliage becomes faded. However, if there is too much nitrogen in the soil, then because of this, the greens will grow very actively to the detriment of flowering, and the bushes will become more susceptible to fungal diseases. The second time to feed the gladioli should be potassium-nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer, this is done after the formation of 5 or 6 leaf plates, for this you need to make 10-20 grams of ammonium sulfate, 15-20 grams of superphosphate and 10-20 grams of potassium sulphate in the soil 1 square meter plot. Phosphate-potassium fertilizer is used for the third time, and feeding is carried out before the formation of buds, as soon as the peduncle appears, for this, 15–20 grams of potassium chloride and 30–40 grams of superphosphate per square meter should be added to the ground.
Even such flowers need organic matter, which should be introduced into the soil in a liquid form, since in this case nutrients will get directly to the root system of the bushes. At the very beginning of growth, if desired, the bushes can be fed with the infusion of bird droppings; to prepare it, 40-50 liters of water should be combined with 30 liters of litter, the mixture is drawn for 10-12 days. The finished infusion is diluted with water (1:10) and sheds grooves made in advance between the rows, then the surface of the ground is loosened, and the bushes are spud.
Bushes should be fed with mineral fertilizers every 15–20 days, but with the onset of mid-August, all feeding is stopped. Horse manure can not fertilize this crop. However, it responds well to fertilizing the foliage with the use of a solution of mineral substances, thanks to which the bushes will bloom earlier, and it will also have a positive effect on their decorative effect. A solution of copper sulfate (per gram of water 0.2 grams), boric acid (per liter of water 0.15 grams) or manganese potassium (0.15%) is perfectly suited for this. During the season, you can spend 2 or 3 foliar dressing, as a rule, this is done at the beginning of growth and during the formation of buds, while before spraying the solution should be mixed with a small amount of soap and try to mix the mixture on both surfaces of the leaf plates.
It is imperative to cut the flowers correctly. Cutting is done with a very sharp knife in the evening or in the early morning. After cutting, the rest of the peduncle should be deep between the remaining leaf plates, of which at least 4 pieces should remain on the bush, this will allow the bulb to continue to grow and develop normally.
What time to dig the bulbs
Digging onion gladioli is necessary in the autumn, when after the end of flowering will take from 35 to 45 days. The bulbs that are ready for digging have surface root scales, while their children are also covered with dense scales, while they themselves are effortlessly detached from the parent corm. For digging gladioli should choose the day when the weather will be dry. First dig early varieties, and then later. Last but not least, they are planting babies and small onions. In the event that signs of damage to the corms were found to be brown or black spot, then they will have to be dug out early, thanks to which it will be possible to avoid them being damaged by other diseases. To make it easier to dig gladioli, they can be pre-mowed, but if desired, the stems with foliage can be cut with shears already from the dug onions. Also cut and roots. After that, with the corms carefully shake off the remnants of the soil, and then carry out the separation of children. After that, they are put into special boxes with a mesh or fine-grate bottom, each grade separately, then they are thoroughly washed under running water. Then they must be disinfected, plunging for this for 20-30 minutes. in a solution of Fundazol (1%), then they are taken out and washed again in clean running water. Then they are subjected to treatment with a solution of manganese potassium (3%) and laid out for drying for two or three days. Dried onion folded in boxes, the bottom of which is lined with paper sheets, and stored for storage in a warm place (from 25 to 30 degrees), while not forgetting to turn them systematically. After 1.5–2 weeks, they are removed to a cooler place (from 18 to 22 degrees). After another 1–1.5 months of corms can be cleaned and sorted. They remove the dirty topmost scales, and still carry out the separation of children.
How to properly prepare for storage kids? To begin, they should be sorted by size and varieties. Large children in the diameter range from 8 mm and more, and the average - from 6 mm. After that, they are folded into paper bags and stored at a temperature of no more than 5–6 degrees. If they are deposited in a warmer place, it is likely that they will not grow in the spring. If there is no other place, then they can be stored on the shelf of the refrigerator.
The basic rules for the storage of bulbs
The duration of the natural rest period of gladioli is about 35–40 days, at this time there will not appear sprouts on the bulbs, whatever the conditions they are. However, when this period ends, the likelihood of sprouting increases, but this should not be allowed, since it is still very far from landing on the ground. In order to preserve gladioli before the onset of the warm season, they are stored in a cool room for storage (no more than 5–10 degrees), while the level of air humidity there should be from 60 to 70 percent. In order for the onions to be better preserved, it is necessary to put a few peeled garlic cloves into the box where they are located, while at the same time planting material is inspected at least once every 4 weeks, removing garlic onions, and at the same time replacing garlic. The best room for storing such colors is considered to be a ventilated cellar or a cold basement, and it is recommended to stack them in boxes with a mesh bottom, since the bulbs can breathe normally in them. It is possible to make boxes on the rack, it is not only convenient, but also will save the useful area. Also for the storage of planting material, you can use bags, for the manufacture of which you can take dimensionless tights.
If you have to keep gladiolus in the refrigerator, then select the bottom shelf for vegetables, while placing them in sealed containers that will prevent them from becoming dehydrated during storage. However, each of the onions is pre-wrapped in a paper sheet. At the end of winter, corms begin to "breathe", while moisture is released, so at this time they are pulled out and unfolded, and when they are completely dry, they are again wrapped in fresh paper sheets and put away in the refrigerator, but in a colder place.
In regions with a mild climate and warm winters, winter onions are stored on a warmed balcony or loggia in winter, and they are pre-packed in boxes or drawers that make up a stand made of boards. If cooling is expected, the bulbs are covered with an old fur coat or a blanket. In extreme cases, gladiolus can be stored in room conditions, while they are laid out in 1 layer so that the onions do not come into contact with each other. By spring, they will dry out, so before planting, it is recommended that they be kept for a while in a solution of a drug that stimulates growth. And if such shrubs are well cared for, they will grow and bloom within the normal range.
In general, science knows more than two hundred types of gladioli, and the number of varieties bred by breeders has already exceeded five thousand. Another name for this flower is “sword”, it is caused by the acute form of the stem and flowers of the plant.
В основном гладиолусы выращиваются для использования в букетах. Окраска цветов гладиолуса бывает самой разной, в том числе красной, сиреневой, белой, розовой, желтой и даже близкой к черной. Все это помогает создавать красочные цветочные композиции. Среди видового разнообразия гладиолусов можно выделить:
Сорта и виды гладиолусов
Византийский гладиолус очень привлекательный вид, имеющий средней высоты стебли и привлекательные цветки пурпурного цвета.
Гладиолус Мюриэл Double-colored flowers appear on the light-green bushes of this species - the middle is dark crimson, and the rest of the petal is white.
Gladiolus Maya Plisetskaya a species whose stems are thickly covered with large, voluminous flowers of pale yellow color.
Grade gladiolus Oscar has very large, as if covered with velvet, bright red flowers.
Gladiolus amber baltic variety with flowers of rich peach color, closer to the center of growing into red.
Gladiolus black velvet Of course, the flowers of this species are not completely black, but have a rich dark shade, casting red or purple, depending on the variety.
In addition to the above types are popular Malika, summer garden, young, sphetophore, priscilla other.
Gladiolus planting and care in the open field
For those with gladioli grown for a long time, planting and caring for them is not a problem, but in general the cultivation of these flowers has some peculiarities.
Planting gladiolus begins with the processing of the bulbs or their children. They clean the scales from the tubers so that the shoots remain intact. Damaged tubers are thrown away. You can leave them only if the scab or sclerotinia only slightly hit them. In this case, the site of infection is cut and smeared with green paint.
After these procedures, the material is kept in a warm and bright place until they begin to germinate.
Starting planting, the bulbs need to be treated with a means that will help them fight thrips and fungus. To do this, you can soak the material for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate and, without washing, to land.
Children also need preparatory measures. Two weeks before planting, they remove the shell from the kidneys and spread it under diffused light before germination. When this happens, place the material for nine hours in the manganese solution.
To land gladioli, you need to choose a very well-lit area, which can be illuminated even by direct rays - gladioli tolerate heat very well. It is impossible that the landing site was low, as the roots of the plants rot.
Soil for gladioli
Gladiolus needs a soil of weak acidity, about 6.5 pH. In other cases, gladioli begin to hurt. Also requires a nourishing soil, they grow well on black soil. If you live in an area with less nutritious soils, then you will need to enrich them.
We advise you to perform planting gladioli in places where vegetables and leguminous plants were grown. But in the field of cultivation of root crops and asters, it is strongly advised not to do this.
It is better to choose a place for planting in the fall and fertilize it with dry phosphate and potash supplements. Gladioli are planted around the beginning of May, but deviations of a couple of weeks are possible due to the climate of your region.
The furrow rushes into which the tubers deepen. If the ground is light, then the deepening is carried out on 4 diameter bulbs. If heavy, then by 3. The gap between the rows of plants is about 20 cm.
At the bottom of the furrow spread river sand, but it is better to use sphagnum, as it keeps the soil damp and helps to fight rot.
Care for gladioli requires care. With the achievement of young plants 10 cm, you need to cover the area of 5 cm with a layer of humus (to grind it).
Watering gladiolus is done every seven days in the morning or late in the evening. You need to water a lot, about a bucket per square meter. Try to keep the water flowing directly on the soil and do not fall on the stems and leaves. On hot days watering is increasing.
After watering, loosening the area. This procedure must be performed once every 10 days. If the flower stalks do not support the weight of the buds, then it makes sense to make supports for them.
Watch the flowering and do not leave sluggish and dry flowers on the shoots, so that they do not leave nutrients.
Also several times over the summer period, the plot will need to weed from weeds. This is especially important at the beginning of the growth of gladioli, when weeds can simply stifle not yet strong shoots. In addition, in the neglected area, the plants often get sick and suffer from slugs.
Gladiolus cleaning in the fall and storage
With the arrival of autumn, you need to think about saving gladioli for the next year.
Around September tenth (but if your gladioli bloom for a long time, then later) you need to dig up the bulbs, separate the babies from the mother tuber, destroy the diseased specimens and process those that can still be saved.
Shoots are cut with shears, after digging. The collected material is washed with running water and disinfected with a base solution, followed by washing again, followed by treatment with manganese solution.
After that, the tubers are dried for a couple of days and put into boxes. The first 15 days of storage take place at a very warm temperature, the thermometer column can rise up to 30 ° C. Next, the temperature is reduced to 20 ° C and so it will remain until the spring cleaning. Do not forget to turn the bulbs throughout the winter from time to time.
Children, collected after digging, also left. They are stored at 5 ° C, as higher temperatures adversely affect germination. Allowed to store children in the refrigerator.
Also worth mentioning are some additional tips on growing these flowers.
- You can not grow plants in one place for more than 2 years.
- When transplanting to a new location, a change in the composition of the soil has a good effect on flowers.
- It is worth buying bulbs that are designed for growing in your climate.
- Do not plant a number of babies and tubers, as the latter will suffocate the first.
- Try to plant the bulbs and babies at the correct depth, because if the recess is insufficient, the stems will fall, and if planted very deep, then there may be no flowering.
- When grown in sandy forests, the foliar fertilizers are more necessary for the plant than on other soils.
- Beds with gladioli should be well ventilated to avoid the appearance of fungi.
Planting and caring for gladiolus (in short)
- Bloom: from the beginning of summer (early varieties) to the beginning of autumn.
- Landing: in the spring.
- Digging: first half of autumn.
- Storage: at a temperature of 5-10 C.
- Lighting: bright light.
- The soil: slightly acid (pH 6.5–6.8), structural black soil, sandy loam or light loam.
- Watering: very abundant (10-12 l / m²), frequent (1 time per week).
- Feeding: liquid, organic and mineral. Root: 1st — in the period of appearance of 1-2 leaves, 2nd — at the stage of development of 5-6 leaves, 3rd — before the start of bud formation. Foliar: at the beginning of growth and during budding.
- Breeding: seeds, buds, corms.
- Pests: thrips, meadow mites, cabbage scoops, wireworms, bears, slugs.
- Diseases: fusarium, gray mold, sclerotinia, septoria, bacterial scab, cancer, penicillis, curvularia, smut, viral diseases.
Preparation for planting gladiolus bulbs
3-4 weeks before planting need to be careful clean the corms remove dense diseased bulbs from thick covering scales without damaging the germs. You can leave only the bulbs, slightly hurt sclerotinia or scab, cutting out the lesion and treating the sore spot with green. After scaling and processing the slices, the gladiolus bulbs are spread in a single layer with a sprout up and kept in a warm, bright room to sprout. Before planting, corms are treated with chemicals for neutralization from thrips and fungi, immersing them for 1-2 hours in a 0.3% potassium permanganate solution or for 1 hour in a 0.3% solution of basezol. If processing is carried out immediately before planting, then soak the bulbs in the solution (0.5 g of potassium permanganate per 1 l of water) for half an hour and then, without rinsing, immediately plant.
Children of gladioli also need to be prepared for planting. Days 10-15 before planting, select kidneys with a diameter of 7-8 mm (if the variety of gladiolus is not large, you can take smaller parts) with noticeable root tubercles and remove the hard shell from them. Then place in one layer in boxes and place on diffused light. Sprouted children in order to disinfect hold 9 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 liter of water).
How to store gladiolus in winter
The period of natural rest in gladiolus is 35-40 days, and during this time the corm will not germinate even in the most favorable conditions. But after this period, there is a risk of sprouts prematurely appearing, and it is winter outside! What to do to gladioli in the winter did not germinate? How to save gladiolus until spring? Store gladiolus corms in a room where the temperature is not higher than 5-10 ° C, and the humidity is about 60-70%. To keep them better, place several peeled garlic cloves in the box and at least once a month inspect the bulbs and remove spoiled ones if they appear, and also at each inspection, change the old garlic to fresh. The most ideal place for storing corms is a cold basement or a cellar with ventilation, and the most convenient capacity is boxes with a mesh bottom, in which air circulates, allowing the bulb to breathe. It is best to keep the drawers on the shelves: it is convenient and saves space. It is also very good to store corms in bags made of dimensionless stockings.
If you have to keep gladiolus in the winter in the apartment and if you have a “no frost” refrigerator, use the lower shelf of the refrigerator for storage: just fold the corms into airtight containers so that they are not dehydrated during storage. But be sure to wrap them in paper. Closer to spring, the bulbs begin to "breathe", releasing moisture, then you will need to get them out of the refrigerator, unfold, dry, wrap in another paper and again put in the refrigerator, but in a cooler place. In relatively warm climatic zones, gladioli for the winter can be brought to a warmed balcony or loggia by folding the tubers into boxes or boxes and placing them on a plank stand. With a cold snap, you can wrap the box with a blanket or an old coat.
If you still have to store corm in room conditions, try to arrange them in one layer so that they do not touch each other. Corms, of course, over the winter will greatly decrease in volume, shrivel, but if you plant them in a growth promoter before planting and then take good care of gladioli on the garden bed, then it is likely that they will bloom no worse than other gladioli.
Influence of plant biology on agricultural technology
It would seem, he studied in detail how to plant gladioli, did everything according to science, looked after both small children, and did not impress the result. Or even if in the first, second year everything turned out as it should, after a while the flowers begin to ache, shrink, degenerate. To prevent this from happening, one should not only blindly follow the recommendations, but also understand the plant biology.
The peculiarity of bulbous cultures, including gladiolus, is a two-year development cycle. In the first year, the bulb is formed as a subsidiary and lays the organs of development, in the second - it gives life to a flower and a new corm, and dies itself.
During the vegetative period, phases of development are distinguished, when one or another plant system is formed more intensively, nutrition and moisture are used unequally, and consequently, emphasis is shifted in care.
Consider the basic rules for the cultivation of gladioli in open ground in conjunction with their biological characteristics. This approach will help avoid common mistakes.
- The value of planting corms of gladiolus is not in size, as many people think, but in age.
The highest quality is the material obtained from the tubercles and never gave a flower. This is easily identified by the absence of a dried flower stalk and a small neat bottom. Such bulbs are called juvenile and give the largest decorative flower. Further, it will be renewed, but the optimal period of its use is 2-3 years. Anything older will hurt, degrade flowering, fall out during storage. Conclusion - planting material must be regularly replaced, supplemented, rejuvenated.
- For gladiolus, the most favorable early landing. In the recommendations, when planting gladioli, you can find information about the displacement of terms in the warm period, to get a later flowering, for example, by September. But this is contrary to the biology of the flower. When the soil temperature is 4–15 ° C, the root system intensively develops, the plant is powerful, it blooms earlier and more abundantly, and in time forms a large replacement bulb. At a temperature of 15–18 ° C, the vegetative part grows faster (stem, leaves), and the roots lag behind, and the gladiolus turns out to be weaker. Conclusion - for stretching flowering, use early, medium and late varieties.
To get gladiolus by September 1, plant medium-late varieties such as Gold, Symphony, Fiery Lace, Uzhgorod Beauty
Site selection and soil preparation
When choosing a place for the future flower garden, consider the following points.
- Gladiolus is a flower of the South African prairies, it loves light and solar energy. The farther north you live, the more meticulous you fulfill this requirement. In the southern regions, early varieties feel good in shading, but with later ones it is better not to risk it.
- Corms do not tolerate zamyanka, begin to rot, become covered with mold. If there is a risk of flooding the garden with groundwater, choose a place on the hill for planting flowers, perhaps in the spring you will need drainage.
- High peduncles under the influence of the wind can fall, break. Consider the wind rose for your region and provide a natural barrier to at least the strongest and most destructive of them.
If the place is determined, proceed to the autumn soil preparation. The first thing you need is a deep digging, so that by the spring the earth would be saturated with moisture, spread out.
Next, go to improving its quality. We presume that gladioli prefer a neutral or slightly acid reaction of the soil environment, i.e. alkaline soil will have to acidify, and acidic - alkalinize. The acidic environment is more dangerous, since plants have Fusarium in it. Neutralize the negative reaction with lime, dolomite flour, which contribute to the digging. Approximate consumption rates - 150–200 g / m².
For cultivation of gladioli in open ground, the optimal structure of the soil is fertile black soil or loam. It is possible to improve the composition of sandy soil with the help of peat compost, humus, and river sand and peat will help loosen the clay. Note that the last component acidifies the earth.
To enrich the soil, fertilizer fertilizers are applied under the autumn digging:
- compost, better vegetable, because manure accumulates fungal diseases - 15–20 kg / m²,
- granular superphosphate - 100 g / m²,
- potassium chloride - 30–40 g / m².
Вместо разных минеральных удобрений, можно взять комплексные туки, типа нитроаммофоски, нитрофоски.
Предпосадочная подготовка клубнелуковиц
Вопрос, как подготовить гладиолусы к посадке весной, наиболее частый у начинающих цветоводов. Алгоритм действий следующий.
- Approximately one month prior to planting, inspect the stored bulbs. They are cleaned of dry covering scales, rejected missing planting material. If the damage is minor, mold, rot, scraped, cut out. The wound is disinfected with green paint or crushed with wood, activated carbon.
- Corms jaroviziruyut. The principle is the same as for the germination of potatoes. The bulbs are laid out in one row on paper, sawdust (it does not matter) ground down and left in a warm (20–25⁰ C), bright place, for example, on a cupboard in the kitchen.
Important! In no case can one wet the planting material during vernalization. Moisture stimulates the formation of roots, and it is important for us to wake up the apical bud. Correctly vernalized tuber has a small sprout and rudiments of roots (tubercles) around the bottom.
The task of these activities is to decontaminate planting material, to increase its resistance to negative factors of the soil environment, diseases, and pests. What and how to use - we give examples.
- Soaked for several hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, preparations of fungicidal action - this is against fungal infections. It is good if the drug used is active against thrips.
- Conduct heat treatment. The bulbs are immersed for 15 minutes in water at a temperature of + 54 ° C and then cooled.
- Soaked in a solution of microelements and stimulants (can be dislodged with a fungicide). Experts note an improvement in the decorativeness of the flower after the application of the biostimulator epin.
When planting gladioli in the ground, depends on the climatic zone, adjusted for the weather conditions of a particular year. It is more correct to determine them by the temperature of the soil at a depth of 10–15 cm - optimally 9–10⁰ С. In the colder ground, the bulbs will not germinate anyway, they will start to ache, they may even rot.
In the middle zone, gladioli are planted from mid-April to 10 May. In the southern regions (Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region) - 2-3 weeks earlier.
Folk marker for disembarking bulbs - birch. When the leaves of this tree grow in the size of a nickle, you can plant gladiolus. By the way, the same omen works with planting potatoes.
To achieve early flowering of the culture, you can use germinated bulbs. The second option - an earlier landing. What is needed for this?
The plot, intended for a flower garden, is mulched with peat compost in the fall, and covered with a film in March. Under the influence of the spring sun, the soil warms up to the desired temperature 1–1.5 weeks faster.
Gladiolus can be planted in different ways - it does not affect the development of the plant or the onset of phenological phases. What are the landing patterns?
- 20x20 cm - an option for amateur gardeners. It turns out quite a dense flower bed, with a sufficient area of food for each flower.
- 20x30 cm - more distance allows you to grow large specimens for cutting.
- 20x15 cm - a dense planting scheme is practiced if you need to propagate the corm. Peduncles cut to dissolution.
An important question is how to plant gladioli so that they do not fall. The best option - a bouquet or curtain, so that they support each other. In addition, planting depth is affected by planting depth - the smaller it is, the higher the probability of lodging, stems curvature.
Important! Plant together corms of approximately the same size so that strong plants do not oppress weak ones. When making flower beds of varieties of different heights, in the center or on the north side plant tall gladioli, on the edges or on the south - the lowest. Everyone should get their portion of the sun.
Another secret of cultivation is related to the depth of planting gladioli. According to the generally accepted rule for bulbous cultures, it is determined from the height, for gladiolus, from the diameter of the corm.
If the ground is loose and light, plant large planting material to a depth of 4 diameters - that is, roughly speaking, a spade bayonet. In loams the depth can be reduced to 3 diameters, but not less. The same rule works with tubercles.
Dig the grooves in advance. Wet the bottom with a layer of sand (1–1.5 cm), if you haven’t fertilized since autumn, add vegetable compost, mineral tuki. Place the corms, just put it down, pour it with water, and after soaking up pour out the rest of the earth.
On the photo - planting gladioli in spring.
Watering and mulching
The first tier of gladiolus roots penetrates to a depth of 40–45 cm, providing escape with moisture and nutrition. From the moment of formation of the roots on a young bulb, it is necessary to ensure that the surface layer of the soil is wet. In June it is enough to water the seedlings once a week at the rate of 2 buckets / m². The need for moisture increases during the period of budding, flowering, the establishment of hotter weather - at the same rate, the multiplicity of watering is increased to 2-3 times a week.
Water the plants under the root, trying not to fall on the leaves, water heated during the day in the sun. Do not forget to loosen the soil after the top layer dries.
Mulching will help to retain moisture and soil structure - covering the root zone with a layer of peat, compost, grass not less than 5 cm thick. Mulch, except that it retains moisture, feeds the plant with beneficial substances that are released as the organic matter decomposes.
Fed gladiolus usually three times per season.
- At the seedling stage (2–4 leaves), nitrogen fertilization is given. From organic fertilizers, the flowers respond well to a solution of dry chicken manure (1:15), horse manure (1: 7). But the mullein is better not to offer. Nitrogenous fertilizers take 25–30 g / m².
- The second feeding is complex, so that, in addition to nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are included. Make it in the phase of 5-6 sheets. Dose - 50–60 g / m².
- The budding phase is the time of the third feeding. At this time, the plant needs phosphorus and potassium. You can use special systems for flowering or superphosphate (30–40 g / m²) and potassium chloride (15–20 g / m²).
When growing gladioli in the open field, you need to take care of their protection from any misfortune. Sometimes it is enough to pickle the corms before planting. But if there is a whitefly on the plot, she will not miss her. Against it, you can use any insecticide.
Another common garden flower problem is thrips. If there are yellow spots on the leaves, dry bald spots, urgently spray the plants with insecticides with an acarcidal effect (karbofos, metaphos, etc.)
Tall and unstable stems are tied up. To do this, use a strong coarse mesh - it is stretched over the seedlings before forcing the peduncles, as they grow, they are passed into the cells. The second option is individual pegs or special supports (as for orchids).
Gladiolus - cut culture. As soon as the first flower has opened, the arrow can be sent to a vase, where it will dismiss every last bud. This is also useful for corms, as they have more time to accumulate nutrients and dope.
The support helps to keep the peduncle upright
Planting tuber buds
For reproduction, when digging, the largest tuber seeds with a diameter of at least 1.5 cm are selected. They are stored together with the bulbs.
Before planting children, gladioli in the spring in the ground they are cleaned of a tight "shirt" and disinfected. Do it like this. Children are put in a gauze bag and placed in a solution of phytosporine with microelements and a growth stimulator for several hours, it is possible up to half a day. Tuber need air, so take a little fluid, so that it only slightly covers them.
The children are sown separately from the corms on well-lit, fertile ridges in the tape method with a row spacing in the grooves of 5–6 cm. The depth of planting of calibrated tubers (ø2–2.5 cm) is not less than 5–7 cm. The groove is plentifully shed with water, dried on top. ground or peat.
They take care of plants in the same way as ordinary gladioli. If some big babe throws out the inflorescence, it needs to be broken out.
There is a desire to do a selection of handsome garden? We will tell you how to grow gladioli from seeds.
From mid-March, seeds are sown in peat pots or tablets, paper cups to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Seedlings are transferred to the open ground with the onset of steady heat. And they do not transplant, but drop in with a pot. Caring like crops of babies. Under favorable conditions, by the end of the season, many tuber buds will grow on each seedling. Calibrated kids can be landed next spring. Usually grown from seed gladiolus bloom for 3-4 years.
Subtleties growing gladiolus: