Juniper Cossack grade Variegata - PESTRY
Perennial, slow-growing dwarf bush form. At the age of 10 years, reaches 0.4 m in height with a diameter of 1 m.
Crohn loose, shoots spread, tops of the shoots curved with ascending, yellowish-creamy-white ends of the shoots and the same few terminal branches. Etiolated parts of the shoots in the summer heat and in the winter cold often brown. The needles are mostly scale-like.
General characteristics of Cossack juniper
Cossack juniper should be attributed to the family of cypress. This low-growing plant of creeping coniferous nature, has branches that can reach 1.5–2 meters in height. The plant is covered with unusual scaly needles, in some cases with special needle-like leaves.
Cossack-type juniper includes about 70 varieties that grow freely in the northern hemisphere of the country. The plant is rather light-loving, unpretentious to the soil mixture, drought-resistant, winter-hardy, can quickly grow to its optimum size, and can also grow in a permanent place for about 30 years.
Cossack juniper, which looks so effectively on any garden plot, can be perfectly combined with other plants or with the same plant varieties.
How is planting?
- In spring time It is best to start planting plants in open ground. The main rule in the process of disembarking is that the place where the plant will be planted must be completely dry and illuminated by the sun. In shaded places, the plant begins to quickly lose its decorative effect and change its appearance.
- Should be planted immediately several varieties of juniper, which will be different in their colors and structure. But it must be borne in mind that the distance between neighboring plants should be no less than 0, 5 meters.
- Before the process of landing it is worthwhile to prepare a high-quality earth mixture in advance. Dig a hole two or three times the size of the roots themselves. At the very bottom of the pits should put a layer of drainage (small pebbles, crushed old brick). If the soil is too acidic, then as a supplement it is necessary to place lime or dolomite flour in the pit. Next, the ground should be plowed, the roots of the plant, after being placed in an excavated pit, should be flattened out, covered with a large amount of soil, while leaving a small depression so that the water does not begin to flow out during the irrigation process.
The root neck with all this must remain fully open. After this, the left fossa should be completely filled with bark or individual sawdust. They will be able to protect the plant from excess weeds, as well as retain moisture.
Juniper Cossack ordinary unpretentious to the soil mixture and can grow well even in rocky soil. Juniper is also able to grow in fatty and acidic soil.
The process of transplanting juniper Cossack
- Perennial able to take root in rare cases, and often for a long time to adapt. But at the same time, if you follow all the rules and conditions - it will be quite possible. Before transplanting an adult culture, you need to carefully examine and check it for the presence of various diseases and injuries. With their presence in the new place of growth, the shrub may simply not survive and die.
- It should be in advance six months before the transplant, dig up the juniper, thereby contributing to incision of its rhizomes. Digging up the plant is the diameter of its crown, and it is even better to choose a larger diameter. The area where the juniper transplantation is supposed to be should be prepared in advance. The soil should be gnawed. It is better to transplant the plant into the acidic soil of fertile character.
The adult shrub should be dug out and immediately moved to some kind of trolley or bag. The root system together with the soil is watered with a special solution, which will contribute to the formation and development of new roots at the planting site.
When transplanting juniper should take into account the direction of the world in which it grew earlier. After landing it should be carefully treated various kinds of fertilizers for the best rooting and rooting in one place. In the process of watering the plant, excess water should not fall on the trunk or crown, as this can develop various diseases and difficulties in the process of growing the plant.
Juniper Cossack Breeding Process
At the moment there are several ways to reproduce a simple Cossack juniper. This reproduction through cuttings, layering or seed.
The process of breeding juniper Cossack.
Before you begin to propagate this plant with seeds, you need to be well prepared for this process. For this, it is worthwhile to prepare boxes for stratification in advance. Stratification is the seed aging process. for a long time under certain conditions for their rapid germination. Berry cones develop on the female branches and ripen throughout August and until October. Ripe shiko - berries begin to acquire a purple-black color, and then completely covered with a touch of wax.
In each such a cone is a pair of seeds. In order to speed up the process of germination of a plant, seeds should be removed from each cone, placed in an acid solution for half an hour, and then rinsed under running water. With the advent of the first snow Outside, seeds can be transplanted into pre-prepared crates, and then buried. In this state, they should be stored throughout the winter. In early spring, stratified seeds should be planted in open soil.
Those Cossack juniper seeds that have not undergone the stratification process will begin to actively germinate only after one year. Most often this is the breeding of junipers in the wild.
Plant propagation by grafting
To carry out the breeding of Cossack juniper with cuttings should be only in April or in August, in order not to carry out injury. In April, the plant is in complete rest, because at this time still there is no juice movement, and in August, growth begins to wood. Transplanted cuttings on an open area in cloudy weather. Thus, the scorching sun can badly affect the handle itself and the plant from which they were derived.
Cuttings should be cut with a piece of old bark 10–15 centimeters long and immediately put them in clean water so as not to lead them to drying out. Before the process of planting, the cuttings should be treated with a certain solution, namely, indolylbutyric acid, which will help the rooting of the stems. Cuttings should be placed in the ground to a depth of 5-7 centimeters. The time of their full rooting can reach up to three months. During all this time they should be regularly watered and sprayed well. If the sun's rays fall on them, the growers will create an additional shade.
Juniper propagation using layering
The creeping species of junipers during the growing season are propagated by cuttings. For this you need to take a young twig, which is located near the ground itself, a small incision is made on it, which for better rooting is worth sprinkling with a special powder to increase rooting. Further, such a branch should be tilted to the ground, strengthened, and then sprinkled with a layer of soil.
On layering roots develop within six months. After their development, the cuttings are cut with shears and planted in a pre-created hole. This method of breeding juniper Cossack is considered the most simple and most often used by inexperienced gardeners.
Cossack juniper how care is provided?
And although the Cossack juniper is a fairly unpretentious plant, but it requires for itself the most attentive care, which is quite simple and uncomplicated. On dry days, the plant should be well watered. To give the plant more decorative it is necessary to spray the crop over the entire surface of the crown, and during the hot summer days to remove from the sun's rays. Young shoots are not able to endure harsh winters, so in the fall they should be carefully covered. Dry branches during their development should be removed shears.
Cossack juniper grows best in acidic soil from 4 to 7 pH. The soil under the plant itself and next to it should be regularly loosened and removed from it all the weeds after each abundant watering.
Varieties of Cossack Juniper
Cossack juniper is considered the most popular and favorite plant among growers, as well as among landscape designers. Breeders were able to bring about 20 of the most different varieties. Landscape designers often use it to create flower arrangements. To do this, they use the following species of juniper:
- Juniper Cossack tamariscifonia. The shrub has a flat top, which grows up to one meter in height, and the plant can reach a width of about two meters. Its branches are spread with thick vertical shoots.
- Juniper Cossack Variegata. This type of plant was created by scientists back in 1855. It has a funnel-shaped and compact crown. In width can reach 1.5, and in height of 1 meter. The juniper itself has a green color, but at the same time a large number of branches are formed on it, which have a cream color. Juniper branches rather thick and curved in the shape of an arc. Juniper Variegata looks good in different rose gardens or rock gardens, together with different in color and shape stones.
- Juniper Cossack Rockery Gem. The variety was bred in Holland. The bush has straight branches, which are widely spread above the ground. After several years after a drawdown, the plant grows to a height of 50 centimeters, and more than 3 meters wide. The needles are rather prickly, have a rich grayish-green shade.
- Juniper Cossack Blue Danub. Juniper Blue Danub is considered a very lush bush, the crown of which is several meters high above the ground. Plant height varies from 30 to 50 centimeters, and the total width of 1-3 meters. The needles look like scales, straight in shape, slightly pointed upwards. The shrub has a gray-blue color.
- Juniper Cossack Erekta. Juniper Cossack Erect is considered upright, and also reaches a length of about two meters. Vertical branches on top form a kind of pyramid. The needles are presented in the form of scales, painted in dark green color. This type of shrub is not afraid of sunlight and is quite heat resistant, does not require abundant watering, unlike other varieties of this culture. It is possible to propagate a plant by cutting.
Common diseases of the Cossack juniper
The most frequent disease in the Cossack juniper is rust. Causative agent of such dangerous disease Gymnosporangium is considered a mushroom. Such a fungus is spread on two plants at once, on juniper and pear, for this very reason juniper bushes should be planted as far as possible from pear culture.
Finding rust on a plant is very easy. It looks like a little reddish tinder, which in length reach 0, 5 centimeters. They are common everywhere: on needles, cones and on the branches themselves. Seeing them, you need get rid immediately from such shoots, otherwise with the onset of spring, these disputes will be able to grow and blow the wind a long distance and infect other plants.
How does a juniper Cossack
The origin of this conifer plant is due to the cypress family. Under natural conditions, it grows in European, Asian mountains and foothills, sandstones, it is found in the Urals and in Siberia, that is, the temperate climate is favorable for its conditions for the plant.
The creeping shrub quickly grows in breadth, occupying free space. The height, depending on the variety, can be different, as 30-40 cm, and reach 2-4 meters, if the form is tree-like (it is much less common).
Needles, like all junipers, of two types - needle-like and scaly. If you rub it between your fingers, it smells characteristic. The needles are the basis of decoration, its fluffy, thick look resembles natural landscapes. The species includes varieties with green, bluish-blue and variegated (variegated) needles.
In spring and autumn small round cones ripen on the bush, they are almost black with a gray tint.
Important! Sprouts, juniper berries are poisonous, contain volatile resins, so when working with them you need to pay attention to safety and protection. Of course, do not let the children pick the fruits.
Cossack juniper - dioecious plant, but there are varieties that do not bear fruit, they are referred to the male type. A useful feature of juniper is the purification and disinfection of air, as well as it is undemanding to the state of the atmosphere, it easily transfers the pollution of the urban space.
Where better to plant
Juniper prefers sunny places with low groundwater, it does not tolerate moistening of the roots.
In terms of compatibility, this plant looks good next to other conifers, perennial flowers, ornamental shrubs, but not too massive. From these, you should still retreat a little, planting Cossack juniper.
Requirements for the composition of the soil
There is no particular preference, however, the soil is desirable neutral or weakly acidic.
If you have a lot of lime on the site, then when planting you should definitely make peat, sand, leveling the mineral composition.
Also, the Cossack juniper provide friability, permeability of the soil, so that water can easily seep through, and oxygen from the air has free access to the roots.
How to choose a juniper sapling
Planting material should be bought exclusively in specialized stores. When purchasing it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the root system is hidden in the substrate, and the plant itself has a healthy appearance. Some sellers implement both seedlings and cuttings.
Before planting, the pot with juniper must be shed abundantly with water, or it must be installed in a container, a pan with water for several hours.
- To dig a hole 70 centimeters deep, the coverage should be twice the size of the roots.
- At the bottom of the pit lay drainage - gravel or broken bricks and sand (20 centimeters).
- We remove the excavated soil with peat or humus, add 200 grams of any complex fertilizer and put the mixture back into the landing pit. We water plentifully.
- We put a seedling and sprinkle it with earth to the root collar, compact around.
- The landing site should be watered and ground with sand with peat or, for example, coniferous chips, crushed bark.
The landing step should be 1.5 meters, and if the formation of a hedge is planned, the distance is reduced to 50-100 centimeters.
This plant will not take much trouble, but you will not leave it unattended. On summer days, it should be watered abundantly, 20-30 liters of water should be brought in at a time under an adult bush. But only 3-4 times in the summer-autumn. In the heat you need to regularly spray the needles, 1-2 times a week, in the evening.
Moisturizing is especially important during the period of survival (root growth). You also need to attend to the fact that under the plant is always present mulch.
Another condition for the maintenance of decorative trim is adult bushes. This is a sanitary cutting of dry and spoiled branches in early spring, as well as formative removal of shoots in the fall or spring.
It is necessary to arrange the crown to give a holistic view, to get rid of branches that grow in an unnecessary direction or are far ahead in the growth of the rest of the plant. Cossack juniper easily tolerates pruning, it is also grown in the technique of bonsai.
Tip! Keep in mind that the annual growth of the plant does not exceed 10 centimeters, so do not shred it without a reason. Valid for better branching, cut 2-2.5 centimeters.
Fertilizers are applied once a year, you can use the Nitro-amfosku, which contains all the components necessary for fertilizer. The spring period at the beginning of the growing season is suitable for this purpose.
Sometimes, but very rarely, juniper is exposed to diseases such as rust, alternarioz, fusarium. It is recommended for prophylaxis and during the illness to treat the needles with fungicides, to destroy the affected branches.
For juniper we use Bordeaux mixture or simply copper sulphate, other copper preparations. Pests on poisonous, odorous branches are never observed.
To stimulate growth and prevent fungal and bacterial lesions, branches are sprayed with phytosporin, both the crown itself and the space under the bushes.
Укрытие на зиму можжевельнику казацкому не требуется, однако, первые 2 года молодые кусты лучше прикрыть лапником пихты и елок, а приствольную часть засыпать торфом.
Проводится строго весной, для чего острым ножом срезается часть полуодревесневшего побега с пяточкой (частью коры). Размер черенка 15 сантиметров. Нужно обмакнуть низ в любой корнеобразователь, и заглубить черенок на 3 сантиметра в смесь влажного песка и торфа.
Leave in the greenhouse for rooting, it is about three months or a little less. The root mass of the cutting grows long and weakly, so it is not recommended to plant such shoots in open ground until next year. Therefore, we leave the stalk to winter in the greenhouse.
It is undemanding to the soil and moisture.
Requirements for lighting - sunny places.
Decorative when planting in places protected from the midday rays of the sun and cold winter winds.
Recommended for limited use in all three zones of southern Russia. Cold resistance zone in Europe 4.
Description of juniper Cossack
Cossack juniper is a bush or small trees, reaching a height of 1-1.5 meters. It is able to grow uncontrollably, rooting the side branches, forms thickets. Much less often you can meet him in the form of a small tree with a curved trunk. Young needles 4-5 mm, needle-shaped. Older needles are flattened, tightly adhering to each other like scales. In the buds when ripe, small seeds are formed up to 4 pcs. in one fruit. Male and female flowers are on different plants.
Types and varieties
Juniper Cossack Tamariscifolia
Juniper Cossack Tamariscifolia, a wonderful alpine variety. In height, the plant almost does not rise. For 10 years of life will not exceed 30 centimeters, but in width its long, soft branches occupy an area of up to two meters. Long braided branches form a dome dotted with small needles, 3 pieces each in a bundle. There are several varieties with varying degrees of color intensity and different shades. Fruits are formed at the end of summer, in diameter from 5 to 8 ml, covered with a bluish bloom. Use for medical purposes can not be, as the fruits are poisonous. Thanks to the branchy root system is perfect for alpine slides, grows well on poor soils, frost-resistant look. Suitable for growing in urban environments, as it easily carries gas pollution.
Juniper Glauk is one of the Cossack juniper species. Its long graceful branches are able to occupy an area of up to 3 meters in diameter. At the same time plant height will not exceed one meter. Like all members of the species, prefers well-lit and drained places. In winter, the gray-blue needles acquire a bronze tint, adding spice to the winter landscape.
The Voronkov crown of the Mas variety with time acquires a wide-spread form, which can occupy an area of up to 8 meters in diameter. In height, the bush grows up to 2 meters, but often it is cut and does not allow to grow strongly. Needles in the wintertime get purple color, in the summertime blue-green. Feels good in open spaces and in partial shade. It will not take root in areas with close groundwater and in saline lands.
Juniper Cossack Variegata
One of the most compact representatives of Cossack junipers is Variyegata. The diameter of an adult plant is about 1.5 meters with a height of only 1 meter. The curved tops of the shoots resemble fountain sprays. The ends of the shoots are cream colored, the rest of the plant is green. View frost, undemanding to the ground and feels good in direct sunlight. Seed propagation is difficult, requires stratification, and seedlings will appear only after 1-3 years. In the first year of life the bush needs shelter in the winter. Despite the unpretentiousness and undemanding to watering, this species is better to be watered in dry seasons. In early spring it is necessary to apply fertilizers (nitroammofosku) from 20 to 50 grams per square meter, and in the autumn to mulch with sawdust up to 8 cm.
Groundcover representative of the Cossack junipers - Arcadia. In ten years, the plant will grow only by 30 centimeters, but will close around itself a space of one meter in diameter. It prefers sunny areas of the garden and watering in the dry season. Also, after planting, you must regularly water the young plant and be sure to mulch in the fall. In the evening, have a good sprinkling (spraying pine needles).
Juniper Cossack Blue Danube
Blue Danube is a juniper with a high growth rate. In one year, it can increase in diameter to 20 centimeters, but will not exceed 1 meter in height. Soft, scaly needles painted in a bluish-blue color. It will be great to grow in open spaces and in partial shade. Does not like dry air, needs sprinkling. In the first years of life for the winter it is desirable to cover. Perfect for the foreground of coniferous beds in combination with perennial flowers and rockeries.
Juniper Rocker Jam
Rocker Jam is a variety recently bred by Dutch breeders. With low growth, the plant can cover an area of up to 3 meters. On long branches there are both prickly and needle needles. It quickly grows in width by 20-25 centimeters. Survives and on poor soils, but fertile soil reveals all its qualities. Unlike other varieties, it feels great on well-moistened soils. It tolerates pruning, it will allow to form a groundcover from it.
Lozhnokazatsky - the species is found in the Alps in the wild. It rises on rocks and scree to an altitude of 4,000 meters above sea level. In the central part of Asia and Siberia, you can grow as an unpretentious garden plant, not demanding to the soil. The ability to tolerate hard frost and dry seasons, makes it an indispensable garden plant. Plant form - creeping shrub. The needles are soft, elliptical, green.
Juniper Cossack Hicksii
Hixie - variety with wide open crown up to 2.5 meters. In height, the plant does not rise above 1.5 meters. The needles are painted in dark green or silver-green color. It grows slowly. On loose and weakly acidic soils with bright lighting will feel better. Watering is needed in the first week after planting in dry seasons. For the winter, the ground around the plant is covered with peat meal or sawdust. Layer should be from 5 to 10 centimeters.
Juniper Cupressifolia is a low-growing variety, capable of covering an area of up to 4-5 meters around it. The type is winter-hardy, the temperature of up to -45 degrees does not harm the plant.
Erect - juniper from representatives of upright variety. Plant height can reach 2 meters. The crown shape of an adult plant is pyramidal, with upwardly directed branches. Soft, dark green needles of a scaly form. Not demanding plant to dry air, does not need sprinkling.
Planting and care
All members of the Cossack juniper family contain poisonous oils in the needles, so with caution it is worth treating them to those people who have children on the site. All work on pruning and the formation of the crown is best done with gloves.
Cossack juniper does not tolerate transfer to a new place, but it can live up to 30 years in one place. The place should be well lit, in extreme cases in light partial shade. In the shade the plant will become pale, lose the density of the branches and will often get sick. When planting should take into account the general view of the composition, take into account the rapid ability of juniper to grow. In any case, the distance between plants should not be less than 50 centimeters.
The soil can be any, even on stony soils juniper will grow well, the main thing is the presence of a drainage system. Stagnation of water, the close occurrence of groundwater will lead to the death of the plant.
The pit for planting should be twice the size of the coma with the root system, and if the plant is an adult, the pit can be 70 centimeters in diameter. Drainage from rubble, broken brick or expanded clay is placed on the bottom. The drainage layer can be up to 20 centimeters.
Next comes a layer of nutrient mixture of turf land (1 part), sand (1 part) and nitroammophos. Soil shed and give him time to shrink, it can take up to 2 weeks. The plant in the container is well spilled and taken out, not shaking the ground so as not to damage the small roots. Trees at the age of 3-4 years feel good during transplantation. You should not bury the plant - the root neck should be on the surface.
On hot days, juniper must be sprayed and watered after sunset. All representatives of Cossack junipers perfectly tolerate pruning. In the first years, cosmetic and hygienic pruning of dried branches is necessary. When the plant grows up you can give shape to the bush.
Diseases and pests: methods of treatment
Junipers are subject to diseases, especially fungi. More often than others on the branches can be found ocher growths, indicating rust infection. This parasite requires two hosts, one of which is a pear, apple, rowan, or hawthorn. To avoid infection, you can plant a hodgepot as far as possible from another host. All affected branches must be removed with a sterile pruner and after work the instrument is sanitized again. Without waiting for autumn, juniper and pear need to be treated with Topaz 2 times a month.
High soil moisture can cause such a disease as Brown shyutte. It looks like a gray, almost black web, enveloping the whole bush. Young shoots die off, then the whole plant may die. Strongly affected branches are removed, and the whole plant is treated with Bordeaux mixture.
To avoid contamination of plants with fusarium before planting, Bakofit is treated. If the plant is already infected, it can be watered with a solution of "Fundazol."
Insects are less likely to infect junipers, but still on their branches you can find a scutum or spider mite. The plant must be treated with Aktara, Fufa-nova or Fitoverm.
How to multiply?
The most difficult method of reproduction - seeds. As a result of reproduction, healthy plants are obtained, but, unfortunately, most seeds do not sprout. At the very beginning they can be checked by immersing them in water - empty ones will float.
Seeds ripen only in the second year on plants older than 5 years.
Seeds are sown thickly - per square meter up to 20 grams.
Pre-seeds can be soaked in a stimulator (for example, "Appin"). Change sprinkled nutrient soil no more than 1 centimeter. From September to November is the best time for planting seeds, the seeds planted in the spring should undergo an artificial stratification. Sprouts will appear only after 2-3 years. Emerging trees of the first year require a lot of attention. It is necessary to loosen the soil, mulch the plants and cover for the winter.
A more reliable method of propagation is cutting. In the spring, cuttings are obtained from an adult plant from the top. It must have a "heel", and be at least 10 centimeters in length. The resulting billet for a day stand in water with the addition of a stimulant. After that, they are planted first in the sand - part of the trunk, located in the sand, should be cleaned from needles. When roots appear, they are transplanted into the ground.
Reproduction by layering the easiest way. Most sprawling and creeping forms root themselves, forming thickets. Young shoots pressed to the ground with pins. The soil under the layers is loosened, supplemented with sand and peat. Over the next year, the plant will take root, at this time it is necessary to water it and loosen the soil around. When new vertical branches appear, the process can be cut from the mother plant.
Use in landscape design
Juniper Cossack love landscape designers. His evergreen crown will refresh the landscape at any time of the year, and in combination with the contrasting color of barberry bushes or perennial flowers is an excellent background. The ability to use it as a groundcover on scarce soils, allows them to decorate rock gardens, rockeries and borders, forming a contrast to the emerald green against the background of gray stones. This species can be grown not only in flowerbeds and in containers - some species are used for indoor cultivation, giving them a bonsai shape. Despite the fact that the plant is poisonous, as all conifers are able to secrete phytoncids and thereby clean the air in the room.
Cossack juniper - a beautiful view that does not require special care and is able to withstand severe frosts, which allows it to grow even non-professional. The variety of forms and the possibility of forming a bush makes it a favorite of landscape designers.
At any time, you can get a new seedling with the help of layering. We clean the bottom branch a little from scales, pin it to the ground with a bracket, sprinkle it with soil and water it. The end of the escape must remain above the ground.
A mound above the pin we pour and spud from time to time. In this state, we leave the layers to take root for a period of six months to a year.
This is a long process, but individual gardeners love to experiment and can achieve results. Seeds require mandatory stratification, so they are removed from the cones in the fall, planted in boxes with the substrate and buried in the garden for the winter.
Or left in the greenhouse. Shoots may appear in a year or three. Also, before planting, juniper seeds are treated with sulfuric acid for 10-15 minutes.
What are the varieties of the Cossack juniper
Frost-resistant horizontally growing shrub 30-40 centimeters high. Crown coverage reaches 1-1.5 meters. The needles are bright green and bright.
The bush has an adult height of 100 centimeters, its diameter reaches 200 cm. Blue-green needles acquire a reddish color in winter.
Juniper shrub grows to 1 meter and covers an area of up to 250 centimeters. Differs in needles of two shades: green needles are next to white and cream specimens. This species grows long.
Extremely winter-hardy, it lives for a long time, it grows very slowly. Interestingly, at a height of half a meter, it grows more than three meters in the neighborhood. The needles are blue-green, the young shoots are green, but the bark is of a reddish hue.
Place juniper Cossack in the landscape
In the landscape gardening ensemble, this plant is not the last place, with its help they create unusual compositions.
It will organically look in a Japanese garden or in rockeries, where it will wonderfully coexist with multi-colored heathers, dwarf firs.
Spirea, astilba, paniculata hydrangea, dwarf barberry shrubs will favorably emphasize the modesty and monotony of juniper.
If you planted a Cossack view on the lawn, do not be lazy to fill the space around with pebbles, granite crumbs, sand - this design is very impressive.