Hornbeam - a tree is quite common, its powerful, spreading crown and original decorative appearance cause genuine interest among growers and developers of landscape parks.
Hornbeam is a deciduous monoecious plant of the birch family. In ancient times, it grew in Asian countries and China, but is now common in Europe, the Baltic regions, Russia, and Belarus. The height of the tree ranges from 5 to 25 meters, and sometimes reaches 30 meters, the crown width is 6-8 meters. Crohn thick, rounded.
The leaves are small, alternate, dark green with teeth on the edges. The length of the leaves is also different, 5-17 cm. The back side of the leaves is pubescent and has villi, and streaks are clearly visible on the front of the leaves.
It looks especially good in autumn, when the foliage acquires all shades of yellow, red and brown. On the trunk of a hornbeam - a smooth bark of gray tone with longitudinal ribbing and cracks.
In April - May, when flowering occurs, flowers of both sexes appear on it in the form of earrings. As soon as the first leaves bloom, the first inflorescences appear on the branches. At the end of flowering, it forms fruits similar in appearance to nuts. Small, brownish - brown shade 3-5 mm. Fruits appear on trees whose age exceeds 15-17 years.
It has a distinctive feature - light, translucent leaves, shaped like a heart. The height of grabnyaks (large thickets of hornbeam) is 12-20 meters. Places of growth are Korea, Japan, in the South and East of Primorsky Krai.
Eastern view is found on mountain slopes. In places where the hornbeam tree grows, the soil is held together on dry stony embankments in the mountains and is kept from slipping, moisture is saved. The shape of the tree is curved.
Planting rules seedling
For growing this tree is very convenient and unassuming. It has a high resistance to frost, quietly tolerates drought and high temperatures, little susceptible to diseases and pest invasion. The main thing is to observe the regime of watering, properly plant a young tree, carry out sanitary pruning and maintain the crown in the desired form.
The most important part in growing is planting, it is worth serious and careful consideration of this work. The most favorable time for this, experts believe autumn.
The seedling is planted about 30-40 days before the onset of the first frost. If you want to plant it in the spring, then you need to have time before the appearance of the kidneys, otherwise the plant may get sick for a long time and die.
It’s not difficult to pick up a landing site, because almost any site is suitable for it: from the sun to a place in the shade of tall trees. If a high grade with a spreading crown is chosen for planting, it is still better to settle it away from other ornamental plants.
Practically any soil is suitable for cultivation; even poor and depleted soil is suitable for planting. Any, except too wet and marshy. In such a soil will not take root, will not grow. But still, if gardeners and gardeners want to get a strong, healthy and fast growing plant, you should pay attention to the soil for planting: the soil should be loose, light, nutritious and fertilized. Before planting the hole is carefully prepared: they make it 50:50 in size, remove weeds and shed it in one bucket of water. In this form, the hole is left for 1-3 days so that it weathered, subsided.
On the day of planting, dry foliage and fertilizers are laid on the bottom, which are thoroughly mixed with the ground in the hole. Now the seedling can be placed inside, evenly distribute the roots and sprinkle all the free space with soil. The soil on top is slightly trampled down with feet, watered abundantly so that the seedling will take root faster.
It is desirable to mulch the soil in the circle around the wood shavings, grass, spruce mulch for slow evaporation of moisture from the soil. Other seedlings should be planted no closer than 30 cm, as young seedlings require space for growth and strengthening. If all planting work is done well, in 2-3 weeks new buds and young leaves will appear on the branches.
Agrotechnical recommendations for the care of hornbeam
Care is focused mainly on timely watering, controlling the appearance of diseases, pests, and pruning.
Pruning is necessary, as slow growth contributes to the decorative appearance. He can be given absolutely any shape and decorate your site. Often planted in parks, alleys to give it an interesting shape and ennoble territory.
It is imperative to cut in time dry, damaged, frozen in development and broken branches. Sometimes they remove those branches that take too much vitality: extra shoots with a lot of buds.
Fight against diseases and pests
Although the plant is resistant to adverse effects, it still sometimes gets sick and is attacked by pests.
- Heart rot. When suffering from this disease, black spots are clearly visible on the bark. If found and cured in time, it will not die. The best prevention is planting in open sunny places.
- Silkworm. These insects - pests feed on sap and leaves, fresh shoots, causing harm. The foliage begins to dry, roll up and fall off, the bark cracks. In this case, will help the treatment of special means of pests.
- Dying off, drying branches. Plants with a life span of more than 50-55 years are subject to this phenomenon. Having reached a given age, branches often die off, grow more slowly. This disease can be fought with timely pruning of dried branches.
The cutting sprout is selected from strong healthy shoots, cut from them by 15-18 cm. They are usually prepared in late autumn, wrapped in cloth and kept until spring at a low temperature. 30-50 days before planting in the soil, they are transferred to room temperature, treated with a solution of potassium permanganate from diseases (soaked for a day), and why put it for 2-3 days in clean water. Cuttings are initially planted in prepared containers with fertilized soil, carefully watered. And only after the appearance of the first 4-5 leaves, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
The best, but labor-intensive way is seed multiplication. They are collected at the end of September, stored in fabric bags or cardboard boxes at low temperatures. 30-40 days before disembarking, warmed at 20-25 degrees. Often carry out stratification of seeds. For higher germination rates, the nuts are soaked in warm water and then planted in prepared containers. The first shoots appear after 2-3 weeks, after the appearance of these 3-4 leaves, you can plant sprouts on the site.
Reproduction by layering
Unpopular way among gardeners. In it, when planting the mother tree, a trench for cutting is made nearby. This small moat is fertilized and moistened. It is best to press the young shoots, they tilt and sprinkle with earth. For quick rooting, an incision is made along the selected layer with a knife. From this incision will appear future roots. If the method was performed correctly, shoots will appear after 3 weeks and can be separated.
Where is the hornbeam tree used? It is used in many areas and industries:
- In the national economy
- In landscape design
- For decorative cultivation in pots
- In medicine
Wood is strong, durable, but difficult to process and polish. Therefore, it must be properly and well dried, and after dyeing it is necessary to treat it from the processes of decay.
Most often, wood is used for the production of cutting boards, gardening equipment, parquet floors and flooring, sports equipment and the manufacture of musical instruments.
In the livestock industry, the bark is used in the process of dressing hides, foliage and branches are used to feed livestock, nuts are used as food. And in cosmetology used essential oils that are isolated from the foliage.
Landscape designers have long fallen in love with hornbeam for the great possibilities of its use: they draw up park zones, alleys, gardens, make fancy hedges and spectacular solitary objects. And lovers of "Bonsai" plant it in pots and admire its unusual forms.
Widely used in medicine. Due to the tannins contained in the bark and leaves, caffeic, gallic acids, aldehydes, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, many medicines and infusions, decoctions for traditional medicine are produced.
- treating disorders and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
- fighting brain tumors
- improving the circulatory system
- treatment of infertility and complicated pregnancies
However, as in any medication, there are contraindications and side effects:
Rarely - indigestion
Deterioration of the urinary system
Therefore, consultation with your doctor is necessary.
Find out where the hornbeam tree grows in Russia, in which branches and for what purposes it is used, how to choose the right place for planting and how to grow it correctly when watching a video:
What is hornbeam
- Common Hornbeam - monoecious, self-pollinating plant. Female and male flowers blooms in April-May, earrings. The period of fruiting is September-October. Hornbeam fruits are small shiny, brown nuts, 3-6 mm in size. In 1kg nuts can be 30-35 thousand.
- In our latitudes, the hornbeam tree is not uncommon, it is found in parks and squares. If you wandered into the deciduous forest, the common hornbeam will most certainly come across as one of the first.
- The root system is close to the ground surface, strongly branched, large roots often come to the surface.
- Barrel ribbed with tubercles and longitudinal cracks. Even only in young trees, it soon becomes curved and cannot be considered valuable wood.
- The bark is nasty light gray. Krone hornbeam ordinary sprawling and openwork. Amenable to shearing.
- Due to the fact that the hornbeam can be given any shape, the tree is valued by landscape designers.
- Hornbeam leaves are jagged and dark green, depending on the type of their length is 5-15cm. Bottom sheets pubescent and fleecy, on top of thin veins. With the arrival of autumn foliage changes color, the leaves become bright: there are orange, yellow, scarlet and purple hues.
- Male and female flowers - earrings that appear on the shoots along with the first leaves. After pollination of earrings, they dry out and fly around, fruits form under branches on them.
Hornbeam wood gives smokeless flamesthat allowed in the old days to use wood in pottery workshops and bakeries. Wood is also characterized by durability and durability, so it is still today. Used to make the following items:
- an ax
- billiard cues,
- cutting boards,
- floor coverings
- machine tools
- everyday items.
Despite the strength and durability, without additional protection, the hornbeam quickly loses these characteristics. It is easy to treat with paint and other protective chemicals.
Grab is given miraculous properties: esotericists believe that it affects thoughts, prompts to do the right thing. Leaning against the trunk, you can recharge your batteries and remain energetic and cheerful for a long time.
The tree is unpretentious to light: it develops well in open areas and in the shade. But the soil needs a well-fertilized, quite wet. The frost-resistant and wind-resistant hornbeam perfectly adapts to the conditions of the city, suffers a lack of moisture, although in very dry periods it needs to be watered constantly.
There are more than 30 plant species in the world. Most grows in Asia. In Europe there are only two, and in Russia there are three. Widespread are:
- Caucasian. Often found in the Caucasus, Asia Minor, the Crimea, Iran. The height reaches about 5m, but there are instances higher. Often there are whole thickets of this tree. Neighbors are more often: oak, beech and chestnut.
- Seaside. The leaves at the base are like a heart. Height - about 10-20m. It is found in the southeast of Primorsky Krai, in China, Korea, and Japan. Prefers areas at the foot of the mountains with a height of 200-300m, occupies the second tier of shady mixed forests.
- Caroline. It grows in eastern North America, where it occurs near river banks and on the outskirts of marshes. It grows to a height of 5-6m, trunk diameter - 150mm. Often comes across a bushy form.
- Virginia. One of the subspecies of Karolinsky. Grows in southeastern North America. There are bushy forms of the species. The height of the bush is about 4 m, the diameter of the crown is about 4 m. As this tree grows slowly, it retains its decorative form for a long time. It tolerates transplants and haircuts. The plant will help to form hedges or sculptures, to create landscape paintings.
Growth and cultivation
- Hornbeam needs a loose, well-moistened soil, with a high content of lime. At the same time the tree does not tolerate abundant watering. The plant is shade tolerant, resistant to wind and precipitation. However, it still loves the sun and even soil.
- It can grow where flowers grow, on mountain slopes, in coniferous forests. Favorite place - well-lit glade with moist, soft soil. Soil tamping, compaction and salinization are unacceptable. In the city, the tree takes root, tolerates frost well, in the summer heat it requires additional watering.
- Culture is not capricious, it gets along with almost all its neighbors. If possible, a hornbeam is planted next to the beech or oak.
- In landscape design, the hornbeam fit jasmine and juniper. A beautiful, viable composition will well decorate the driveway or park avenue, the fences of the city square, and the backyard.
The tree propagates by seeds, cuttings and branches. Seeds are sown immediately after they are harvested in the fall, but can be planted the following year. Well kept in a plastic or paper bag for 2-3 years. In this case, preparation is carried out before landing. For the purpose of which the seeds are kept at a temperature of 20 ° C for 15-60 days, and after that - at a temperature of 1-10 ° C for 90-120 days. Next, the seeds are sown immediately or germinated at 20 ° C. So, seedlings are guaranteed. Cuttings take root quickly. To pests and disease hornbeam is quite resistant.
As the tree grows slowly, flowers and nuts can wait for 15-20 years. But seedlings are unpretentious, easy to care for and form the crown.
Sowing seeds is recommended in the fall. After their germination, they are transferred to the ground. Pruning begins when the seedlings reach a height of a meter.
- The bark and leaves contain a lot of tannins, caffeic and gallic acids, aldehydes, bioflavonoids, essential oils, coumarins and ascorbic acid. In the composition of the nuts are vegetable fats. In case of impaired blood circulation and brain neoplasia, infusions made from tree flowers are used. Young shoots are also an integral part of the medicinal collection used by complications during pregnancy and infertility.
- Infusion of leaves is used for diarrhea. There is a lot of organic matter and sugar in hornbeam juice.
The hornbeam tree often serves as a bright element when designing urban areas and personal plots. Recently, the tree is often found in summer cottages, as it makes the dacha area attractive. Since the hornbeam tolerates pruning, it can be planted separately or in group plantings. With the help of hornbeam landscape designers equip: alleys, hedges, city squares and parks. Due to the slow growth of the tree, it is often not necessary to cut it. Dwarf varieties can be grown in apartments and offices.
Hornbeam. Planting, care, breeding, varieties.
A hornbeam is a deciduous tree that reaches a height of more than 20 meters and spreads branches 4 or more meters. Musical instruments, piano keys, and billiard cues are made of hornbeam. Thanks to its durable and durable wood, furniture is made from hornbeam. But perhaps the hornbeam is most often used to decorate alleys, squares, gardens and parks.
It is better to plant hornbeam on sunny places, where the soil is well moistened, loose and contains nutrients. Before planting seedlings need to prepare a place. To do this, a hole is pulled out, 50x50 in size, so that the roots of the hornbeam fully fit into the hole. It is important to remove all weeds. At the bottom of the pit poured a bucket of water, and left in this position for several days. This is necessary so that the soil is slightly settled and moistened. Next to the bottom of the pit you can put dry leaves, a little fertilizer. All this is mixed with the ground, the soil should get loose and soft.
Next, a hornbeam seedling is placed in a hole and sprinkled with earth. In order for the roots of the plant to take root faster, it is necessary to water a hornbeam plentifully. To preserve moisture, the young seedling should be well overlaid with grass or tops. After a few days the soil needs to be watered. Если молодых саженцев несколько, то им необходимо пространство, поэтому между ними должно быть расстояние не менее 30 см. Граб довольно неприхотлив при посадке и быстро приживается на новых местах. Поэтому при правильной посадке, граб начинает свой рост уже через пару недель, а определить это можно по почкам.If a sapling has filled a bud and green leaves began to appear - the planting was successful.
Requirements for conditions (time, place and soil).
The most suitable time for planting hornbeam is autumn. Hornbeam is a rather unpretentious plant, but it should be planted in time one month before the onset of frost, so that young roots have time to settle in a new place. You can also plant young hornbeam seedlings in the spring. But here it is important not to miss the moment and disembark the hornbeam before the first buds and leaves bloom, otherwise the tree may take a long time to catch on, become ill and die. It is possible to plant a hornbeam during the whole summer, but when landing on hot and dry days, the hornbeam needs abundant watering. The time for planting a hornbeam can be any, the main thing, to properly care for a young plant during its first years.
It is very easy to choose a place for landing a hornbeam, because a hornbeam grows easily in all areas. A hornbeam will feel good in a light shade and under a big shadow of higher trees. The hornbeam will develop well in sunny places, it is not afraid of dry and hot weather. However, it should be remembered that some hornbeam varieties are very sprawling, so planting a hornbeam near other ornamental plants is not worth it. Large and massive branches of the hornbeam can simply overwhelm their neighbors.
Hornbeam prefers well-hydrated, loose soil, where there are various nutrients. The hornbeam is tolerant to all types of soil, it will successfully take root even on depleted soils, where there are few nutrients. But, without exception, hornbeam varieties categorically do not tolerate swampy or watery soils. Also, the hornbeam will not grow on saline soils.
Hornbeam pruning deserves special attention. Indeed, thanks to its slow growth and easy pruning, the hornbeam fell in love with gardeners. The hornbeam is specially planted in parks or gardens in order to make various figures and patterns out of its dense foliage.
But if a hornbeam grows on a normal garden plot, then its pruning is done in the simplest way. In the spring, it is necessary to cut frozen, broken branches from a hornbeam in order to give young shoots to grow. Also pruning of excess shoots, which rob the plant of strength to grow. It is also necessary to occasionally thin out the hornbeam, removing excess branches.
Diseases and pests.
Despite the fact that the hornbeam is quite resistant to various diseases and rarely die due to pests, however, there are a number of diseases and insects from which the hornbeam can suffer.
This disease can be recognized by black spots on a tree trunk. If the disease is not prevented in time, blackness spreads throughout the trunk and the tree dies. To avoid this, it is better to choose sunny places when planting a hornbeam.
Dry fulfillment and death of the upper branches.
This happens in hornbeam trees that are over 60 years old. Reaching a certain age at the top of the tree you can see dry branches, without foliage. Such branches are best removed as possible. they not only spoil the appearance of the hornbeam, but also take away the strength of the tree for its further growth.
Smoke and acid rain.
Without exception, all plants and trees are damaged by acid rain or smoke. No exception was the hornbeam. Hornbeam leaves become brighter and dull. The foliage is sluggish, spots appear on them, and they begin to fall rapidly.
Silkworm moths and caterpillars.
Among insects, hornbeam is sensitive to silkworm butterflies and caterpillars. These pests eat the leaves of the tree, feeding on their sap. Foliage rolls up into tubules, dead leaves fall. Also, butterflies and caterpillars damage the fruits of the hornbeam, young shoots and leaflets. They do not disregard the bark of the tree, laying their larvae in it.
Reproduction of hornbeam seeds is the most troublesome, but also the most successful way. Hornbeam seeds are collected in autumn. They must be stored in a cool place, wrapped in paper or cloth. A month before planting, the seeds must be heated at room temperature. For better germination, the seeds are placed in water for a couple of days so that they pick up moisture. Next, the seeds are planted in containers with loose earth. Seed germination at the hornbeam is high, so when properly planted, sprouts begin to appear after a few weeks. After the sprouts are strong, they can be planted in a permanent place. You can also plant seeds immediately in the ground. In winter, the seeds must be covered with a film so that they do not freeze. When seeds are planted in spring, warm earth is needed.
For reproduction of hornbeam cuttings, you need to choose strong shoots and cut cuttings from them 15-20 cm long. Cuttings are usually cut in the winter, wrapped in cloth and stored at low temperatures. A couple of months before planting the cuttings in open ground, they must be heated at room temperature. To protect the cuttings from diseases, they must be placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for a day, this procedure will help the cuttings to survive the planting. Next, the cuttings are soaked in ordinary water for a couple of days. Cuttings are planted first in containers or cut bottles. The soil should be soft, moist. Cuttings are placed in the ground, watered. After a couple of weeks, they will start releasing roots, the first leaflets will start to peck. After more than 3-4 leaflets have been formed on the handle, they are ready for transplanting into open ground.
Hornbeam reproduction by layouts is a rather unpredictable and difficult way. In order to propagate a hornbeam using cuttings, it is necessary to dig a small trench next to the mother bush, and the layouts will be placed in it. But in order for the hornbeam to take root precisely by this method, it is necessary to moisten the trench well, add fertilizers and mineral substances. Layers better take root from young shoots, which bend and pin. In order to make the roots more quickly give up the roots and become independent plants, a small strip is cut along the shoot with a sharp knife. It is from this cut that the roots will be formed. Next, the shoots are covered with earth and poured over with water. If the planting was carried out correctly, in a few weeks the escape will give roots and at the end of autumn it can be separated from the mother bush.
Common hornbeam is used to create a dense hedge, its foliage forms an impassable fence. The common hornbeam is a tall and sprawling tree, the height of which is rarely below 15 meters, with a smooth crown and a powerful trunk. The leaves are oval-shaped with pointed ends, dark green above, light green underneath. In the period of color, the hornbeam throws earrings up to 15 cm long. The common hornbeam is valued because of its ability to grow in the shade, to endure the most severe frosts, almost does not need additional care, and is resistant to diseases and illnesses. The common hornbeam grows very slowly, due to this property it lends itself well to decorative pruning and keeps its shape for a long time.
An adult tree reaches a height of more than 10 m. It grows predominantly on the banks of rivers or swamps. This variety of hornbeam grows in the form of a sprawling, lush bush, the branches of which can be several meters in length. The foliage of the Karolinska cultivar is light green in color; the crown is light brown and smooth. During the summer period, the color of the foliage varies from light green to lemon and purple tones. Favorably tolerates cold, can grow in the shade, but requires careful watering throughout the warm period of time. The hornbeam Caroline is able to do without dressing, does not require careful maintenance.
This type of hornbeam reaches a height of more than 30 m., Its branches reach several meters in length with a smooth and brown crown. The Caucasian hornbeam reacts badly enough to cold weather, young shoots often die from frost. The Caucasian hornbeam grows well in the shade, but loves the sun and moderate watering. The shape of the leaves of the Caucasian hornbeam resembles an oval, of a juicy-green color with pointed edges. The dense foliage of the Caucasian hornbeam perfectly amenable to decorative pruning and keeps its shape for a long time.
This variety of hornbeam is rarely found in Russian gardens, because his homeland is the Caucasus. But, nevertheless, this variety has successfully got accustomed to us. The Eastern hornbeam reaches a height of not more than 10 m. It looks more like a shrub, thanks to its branches with dense foliage. The eastern hornbeam grows very slowly, and the period of a tree’s life rarely exceeds 10 years. On the eastern hornbeam a thick foliage is formed, egg-shaped with pointed ends. The leaves are bright green in color, the color changes from yellow to burgundy shades by autumn. The crown of the tree is smooth, brown in shape, the oriental hornbeam forms many shoots, thanks to them the oriental hornbeam resembles a dense shrub in shape. Easily amenable to decorative cutting, long retains its shape. The Eastern Hornbeam tree is unpretentious, grows well in the shade, does not require much sun and self-care, loves watering, and is extremely afraid of harsh winters.
The height of the hornbeam is rarely less than 15 m. The crown of a tree is low-growing, spreading, dense foliage is formed. The hornbeam bark of gray, quickly grows young shoots. The shape of the leaves at the hornbeam is egg-shaped, the ends of the leaves are pointed, and small corners are formed along the edges of the leaflets. The length of the leaf is usually up to 12 cm; in spring and summer, it is bright green; closer to autumn, the shades of foliage change to reddish and red. A very cherubic hornbeam blooms very interestingly, forming elongated earrings up to 8 cm long, more like hop cones. Like other varieties, the hearty variety is unpretentious. Perfectly tolerates shady places, thanks to a sprawling root system it stably transfers strong winds and frosts. Not afraid of frost and does not require special care. Also, due to slow growth, it will maintain a decorative form for a long time. Its thin branches are easy to trim.
A tree of small size, more like a shrub not exceeding 6 m. This variety produces many branches with dense foliage. The crown of the tree is brown, young shoots of green shades. Young foliage of light-green tones, oval-shaped with small sharp points along the edges, 4-5 cm long. This hornbeam variety prefers to grow in the sun, but it will easily take root in the shadow areas. The growth of the hornbeam is also slow, it does not need special care. It is experiencing cold and bad weather.
Pests and diseases
Good news - uninvited guests in the form of insects affect only sick and weak plants. And then, you can meet only leaf or bark beetles.
Most often, the hornbeam tree is affected by cancerous growths, various rot, settling on the shoots. Occurs and the emergence of spots on the foliage. In case of detection of fungal diseases, the plant is treated with herbicides. If the crown is affected by spotting, then the whole plant is treated with copper sulfate solution. Fallen leaves are collected and then burned.
As for the stem cancer, which is formed when a tree is damaged by a marsupial fungus with the further formation of a cancer ulcer, in this case the plant cannot be saved. It is cut and burned.
Use in traditional medicine
The recognition of the hornbeam tree found in alternative medicine. So, healers use in the treatment of foliage, bark and even tree flowers. This is due to its rich chemical composition. Thus, the hornbeam crown contains: tannins, coumarins, bioflavonoids, aldehydes, gallic acid, caffeic acid. The seeds are rich in vegetable fats, and many essential oils and ascorbic acid are found in the cortex. Juice is also rich in healthy ingredients, such as sugars and organic acids.
All the mentioned parts of the plant go to the creation of medicinal medicines, which are used in the treatment of female infertility, tumors in the brain, diarrhea, with problems with the blood circulation of the brain. Also, the hornbeam is included in the fees applicable to abortion.
Maybe hornbeam is a medicinal plant, but you should not forget that official medicine does not contain drugs with hornbeam. Therefore, you should be cautious and not take drugs without first consulting a doctor.
Here we met with another interesting representative of the world of flora. Give your site a little charm and plant a hornbeam. In addition, he has no special requirements for care.
Hornbeam belongs to the breed of monoecious plants. The tree blossoms in April - May with male and female flowers in the form of earrings. It begins to bear fruit in October. On the branches appear small nuts, each of which has a lot of small nuts.
Its wood is very hard, which is actively used in many areas. The tree is absolutely unsuitable for construction, because in the process of growth its trunk is severely bent. Its wood is very valuable in the foundry, blacksmithing and jewelry. When burned, the wood does not produce smoke, which allows it to be used in bakeries and pottery. Robust and hardwood hornbeam is used to make the handles of axes and other tools, as well as for the manufacture of crests. Today, cues, cutting boards and floor coverings are made from hornbeam.
The use of hornbeam for the manufacture of various interior items or haircuts requires additional processing. Because without it, despite all the strength of wood, it quickly wears out and collapses.
Leaves and young shoots of plants are used for feeding livestock. The bark of the tree is used for tanning hides, and surprisingly useful essential oils, which are used in cosmetology, are obtained from the leaves. From the hornbeam nuts make useful oil, which is used to prepare various dishes.
Use of plants in landscape design
This plant is actively used in the design of urban areas and household farms. It is a peculiar bright element of the decor. But the scope of the tree does not end there.
Today, the plant is actively used to decorate the summer and garden plots, because the territory of the garden becomes more attractive under the influence of these amazing representatives of birch trees. The plant is well tolerated pruning, so it is allowed to plant both separately and in conjunction with other plantings. Hornbeams are used by landscape designers to decorate:
- city squares and parks.
Many people love him for the fact that it grows very slowly, so the plant does not need frequent cutting. Dwarf hornbeam varieties that can be grown in a room or office are in special demand. This tree will definitely appeal to plant lovers.
Rules for creating a hedge
From landings of hornbeam, you can create whole hedges, giving them the shape of walls or borders. With the help of any kind of trees you can create such a fence.
Curbs are created from plants of low growth, which grow no more than 0.5 meters. All dwarf trees have a crown width of not more than 30 cm and require very dense plantings. In order to maintain the beauty of the borders, the plants should be cut regularly. Similar borders perfectly will be suitable for decoration of beds and paths. But in this form they will carry only a decorative function. Hornbeam flowers never bloom on such a tree.
Hedges usually do not reach a height of more than 2 meters. They are used only to zone the area of the garden or plot. Special care from the owner of the site is not required, because pruning is carried out no more than once a year. If you build a fence from this amazing tree, then the cottager will be completely protected from dust and noise. And the fragrance of the flowers of the tree will delight the sense of smell of guests and hosts.
Larger are hedges in the form of a wall - they reach a height of more than 2 meters. This element is more in demand in parks, alleys and private homes. It is recommended to plant young trees at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other.
Often, hornbeam is used to create a living wall around the site. Use for this tall plants that require little maintenance and rare pruning. Most often used for this hornbeam ordinary. It has a fairly dense crown and creates a beautiful wall.
Useful properties of the plant
Often hornbeam is used in traditional and traditional medicine. In its leaves there is a large amount of nutrients, vitamins and essential oils.
The fruits of the tree have many fat. Infusions and decoctions are used in indigestion and other problems with the digestive system. High dose tannins helps eliminate these problems easily.
Made of hornbeam flowers infusions and decoctions to combat brain tumors and circulatory disorders. With infertility and complications during pregnancy should take the fruit of the plant. They have a healing effect on a woman’s body.
But the useful properties of the tree are not fully understood. It has a lot of negative effects on the body. In particular, it impairs the work of the kidneys and digestive tracttherefore, it is not worth taking infusions and decoctions out of it.
Граб является уникальным растением, которое наделено не только огромными декоративными качествами, но и пользой для организма человека. Сегодня из него можно приобрести множество предметов интерьера и других предметов, которые отличаются своими прочностью и красотой.
Древесину граба относят к заболонным рассеяннососудистым породам, не имеющим ядра. The cross section on it allows us to consider frequent thin annual ring marks, different in width and forming a chaotic speckled pattern. The light gray or whitish color of the fresh material turns yellow after some time in the open air. Layers of different ages almost do not differ in density, that is, the wood is single-pore. After processing, the hornbeam does not acquire luster, being a smooth smooth light surface with a weakly expressed texture.
The moisture content of fresh lumber is about 60%. The volumetric coefficient of swelling and shrinkage, depending on the type, is from 0.50 to 0.70%, the radial coefficient is 0.20-0.26%, and the tangial one is 0.3-0.4%. This means that hornbeam wood is a highly drying breed that can crack or warp during processing. Such capricious properties require the use of the mildest conditions. drying and special types of finishes. But competently processed material is highly stable and resistant to destruction during operation at low or moderate humidity of the ambient air.
The hornbeam has an extremely high density and is not easily machined by turning tools, and it is almost impossible to cut something out of it manually due to its high viscosity. On average, wood density is 790–820 kg / m³, which is not much less than that of white acacia - one of the most dense species. Brinell strength is 3.5 units. Hornbeam is resistant to stretching, squeezing, splitting and bending. Its mechanical characteristics are 30% superior to oak.
Before use of any kinds of fixture preliminary material drilling is required. It holds screws and nails perfectly, which is well suited for securing furniture joints and complex parts.
When using fresh wood in household products, it is recommended to cut and grind until the material is dried - in this form it is easier to process.
Despite the natural high density and wear resistance, hornbeam is considered to be a rather complex and not very practical breed, as it soaks quickly, prone to being affected by fungus and other biological pathogens. Without additional pickling and finishing, it does not apply, and is not suitable for external work. The twisted structure of the fibers and low bonding ability does not allow the use of the hornbeam as a structural construction material: plywood or laminated veneer lumber. It is not used for outdoor work. Indoors, the surface of the hornbeam should be covered with protective impregnations and thick layers of varnish. Do not use the material in rooms with high humidity.
Spheres and features of application
This wood finds its purpose where resistance to shock loads is necessary: in the manufacture of decorative elements, parts of mechanisms, sports objects. From it produce:
- golf clubs, billiard cues,
- weaving shuttles,
- agricultural tools,
- the bodies and elements of the neck of violins, guitars, details of pianos, other musical instruments,
- cutting boards, knife handles,
- caskets, toys, souvenirs, picture frames, panels and photographs,
- furniture, parquet, interior decoration details.
Due to the noble light pearl color and durability, hornbeam wood has a high artistic value and is used in the creation of mosaic designs, friezes and decorative elements.
Parts of propellers are manufactured from hornbeam in aircraft manufacturing.
On average, the price of 1m³ of wood, depending on the manufacturer, is 40000–46000 rubles.
It is believed that furniture or decoration from this type of wood eliminates fatigue, gives physical strength, helps to coordinate thoughts and actions, get rid of a bad mood.
The light structure of the tree with a little natural pattern makes it attractive for making various imitations. The black hornbeam is obtained by the method of dressing the material, which is similar in properties and appearance to ebony. For high-quality staining nigrosines are used - special mixtures based on aniline, nitrobenzene and hydrochloric acid, dissolved in water or alcohols. They give the material a pure bright color that is not afraid of exposure to direct sunlight. Professional etching involves the through painting of the entire thickness of the material, and not the surface application of paint. It is not recommended to self-dress wood, as when using self-made chemical dyes, it can lose strength, become friable or unevenly dyed. Masterfully made, imitated under eben, the black hornbeam has a very dark purple hue, which does not fade and does not fade with time, does not get dirty with a mechanical impact on the surface. Black hornbeam is sold in small batches in the form of small bars.
The so-called non-business low-grade hornbeam wood is used as a raw material in the hydrolytic production of the chemical industry, for the manufacture of charcoal, as a fuel material in everyday life.
If properly used, a hornbeam can become an element of a beautiful landscape, serve as a quality and exquisite material for the manufacture of interior items or jewelry.
Tree description and growing conditions
The height of the tree can vary in size from 5 to 30 meters, and in width the hornbeam grows up to 8 meters. Crown hornbeam has a different, it all depends on the type of tree: it can be thick, spreading or openwork. The leaves are dark green in color and turn yellow or purple in autumn. The bark is smooth and usually light in color. A hornbeam can bloom, and its flowers in the form of earrings are divided into male and female. Blossom tree begins when the leaves bloom in spring. After flowering small fruits are formed, similar to small nuts. But hornbeam begins to bear fruit after it reaches the age of 15-20.
Scheme ordinary hornbeam.
A tree called the hornbeam grows in Asia and China, but some species can be found in Belarus, Europe and even the Baltic countries. Its habitat is usually open forest edges, coniferous forests and slopes well-lit by sunlight. In the forests, the hornbeam coexists well with oak and beech. In artificial conditions, it gets on with jasmine and juniper. Although hornbeam loves well-moistened soil, but he does not like heavily flooded and watery terrain. The tree does not favor compaction in the soil. By drought, it is fairly stable, but in very hot weather hornbeam requires abundant watering. It is also resistant to frost. Under the conditions of the city survives perfectly. The hornbeam copes well with diseases or pests.
Usually for the hornbeam tree does not need very careful care. But during planting the soil must be prepared in advance and sufficiently moistened. The crown of the tree needs to be trimmed. It is easy to form, and due to the slow growth of the tree, the shape of the crown remains for quite a long time in a beautiful state. For hornbeam reproduction, seeds or cuttings are required, as well as cuttings. Before planting, the seeds must be stratified in two stages at different temperatures and periods. It is necessary to plant seeds in the fall so that the first shoots appear in the spring. You can store seeds for 3 years, putting them in a dry tightly closed container or bag. In the case of planting trees from cuttings, they very quickly take root.
Variants of wood design for hedge.
To create beautiful hedges you can use various forms in the form of borders or walls. Each form of a hornbeam fence is distinguished by its beauty and originality. Borders in the form of borders have the appearance of low green small plantings, growing in height to a maximum of half a meter. The width does not exceed 30 cm, and the plants are very close to each other. To form the borders was always the same, you need to care for her, regularly trimming. Fence in the form of borders can be created from small varieties of hornbeam. This type of fence is well used for the protection of flower beds, lawns or paths. In such a case, this ornament acts solely as a decorative fence.
From the hornbeam, you can create hedges of medium height, not more than two meters. This type of fence is used to divide the territory into small areas. Beyond the hornbeam, minimal care is needed, and because of its slow growth, it will be necessary to cut and shape the crown quite rarely. This fence is able to protect the area from noise, hide from prying eyes and help refresh the air with its fragrance.
The wall-shaped fence usually has a height of more than two meters.
Such walls are used to decorate and fencing parks, alleys and large areas of private houses.
Planting seedlings carried out in a row with a distance of about 30 cm.
A hedge in the form of a wall can also be created from a hornbeam. There are varieties of trees that grow tall, and the crown is equally easy to maintain and slow growing.
Using a hornbeam would be a great solution for creating a high living wall. The crown of this type of hornbeam allows you to make a solid wall that will cover the site from unnecessary glances.
The plant called hornbeam is an excellent option for creating hedges of various shapes and heights.
It is completely unpretentious in the care, perfectly survives in shady areas and in the hot sun, can protect from excessive noise and dust and is able to refresh and purify the air. Usually for fences hornbeam is planted in several dense rows (approximately 2-3 rows). Care for hedges created from the hornbeam, rarely required.
Little about varieties
In nature, there are several varieties of hornbeam. The most common is the hornbeam. This view is perfect for decorating the garden or the area near the house. It is often planted in forest parks, alleys and gardens. Very nice and unusual look hedges of a hornbeam. No less beautiful this tree looks in a single copy. Common hornbeam is such a tree that reduces the noise level in the city bustle.
The crown of the hornbeam ordinary by nature can be of different shapes. There are the following varieties:
Figure 3. Cardiac hornbeam combines well in the landscape with coniferous trees.
- weeping, whose branches are thin,
- pyramidal - is a straight tree and has a narrow crown,
- colonic - looks like a pyramid, but the crown is a bit narrower,
- oak-leaved, which has small leaves with broad teeth,
- carved, which leaves are narrow,
- purple, i.e. color-changing: purple leaves turn green over time.
In eastern North America, one more species of hornbeam can be found - Caroline. It grows on the outskirts of swamps and river banks. Loves moist soil. This type of hornbeam grows up to 6 m tall, but there are specimens up to 12 meters. If it suffers from low temperature, it begins to grow as a bush. This type of hornbeam blooms in May, and the fruits ripen by mid-September or a little later. When planting with seeds, germination is rather low, as with planting by cuttings.
The Caucasian hornbeam grows on the territory of the Crimea, Asia or in the Caucasus. Usually it can be seen in the mountains at an altitude of over 1000 meters above sea level. Often found in mixed forests, and hornbeam forests are created quite rarely. The Caucasian hornbeam reaches a height of 35 meters. Does not like frost, and if it is frosting, begins to grow with shrubs. This type of hornbeam can not bloom and has no fruit.
Another type of hornbeam - cardio. It usually grows in China, Japan or Korea, in Russia it is found in Primorsky Krai. Often it can be found in the mountains, he feels good in shady places. The heart-horned hornbeam is a very beautiful tree. It has interesting foliage and unusual fruits. It goes well with coniferous trees. (pic. 3)
This type of hornbeam has a low down crown, characterized by density. The tree has received the name because of the beautiful form of the leaves reminding heart. When the leaves begin to bloom, they have a light green shade, and by the autumn they become red. Fruits appear only by 20 years of existence. This species is very unpretentious to the quality of the soil, is not afraid of a strong wind due to the large root system. By the age of 50, he begins to dry up a little, but he can live for 200 years.