Description of the Serbian spruce (picea omorika) and its varieties


The Serbian spruce will be the best options for decorating your country plot. It attracts summer residents not only with its own external features, but also with its durability. In addition, it is very easy to care for her. However, are these advantages enough to outshine all other applicants?

Botanical description

The Serbian spruce, whose scientific name is picea omorika, is a member of the Sosnovyh genus. The homeland of this tree is considered to be Serbia.

The height of such a plant is about 15-20 meters. There are exceptions when the tree grows to 50 meters in length. The width of the spruce varies from 3 to 4 meters, and the diameter of the trunk is no more than one meter. Annual growth of spruce in height can be up to 35 centimeters, and in width - up to 15 centimeters. Age - within 300 years.

At first it has dark purple bumps, although during ripening it turns into dark brown. The length of the cones is 4-7 centimeters. The ripening period is August. This type of conifer is extremely resistant to cold, wind, shade, smoke, diseases and pests. But the tree has its weak points - this is susceptibility to the invasion of aphids and spider mites.

Varieties of spruce

In total, there are 16 species of Serbian spruce in nature.. The most popular ones are:

Consider each variety in order:

  1. Spruce "Karel" stands out among others for its tiny volumes and the highest level of frost resistance. The permissible temperature range ranges from -23 to -29 degrees. Height of an adult plant is about 60-80 centimeters. The diameter of the crown is up to 1.2 m. The annual increment is 7 centimeters.
  2. The description of the “Nana” tree is not very different from the previous one. All the same compact dwarf sizes (from 100 to 120 centimeters), resistance to frost (can withstand temperatures from -35 to -40 degrees), as well as annual growth (about 10 centimeters). The only pronounced difference between “Nana” and “Karela” is adaptation to absolutely any type of earth and air. Therefore, this type of tree is used for gardening of huge settlements.
  3. Spruce "Pendula" is often used in the design of different park areas, gardens, estates and so on. Such a demand for this variety exists due to an unusual twisted trunk, giving the tree elegance and originality. The height of the spruce reaches 10 meters. The crown is quite dense, so its diameter is small - only 1.5 m. The “Pendula”, like the above mentioned spruces, has a good level of frost resistance.

How to choose a place

You will not need to wrestle with your head over the choice of location for a long time, because Serbian spruce adapts to virtually any conditions. Among the exceptions, there is only landing on saline or marshy land. They can cause yellowing of the needles. Completely unprincipled is the choice between the solar and the shadow territory. As for watering, in the summer, one spruce can take 20 liters of water a week.

Landing technology

The first step is to dig a landing hole. Its depth should be within 60 centimeters. The upper diameter must be 40-60 centimeters, and the bottom - from 30 to 50 centimeters. For mass planting, the distance between Serbian spruces should be 0.5-1 meters. If we are talking about trees of average size, we recommend an interval in the range of 3-5 meters. For large trees - more than 5 meters.

If the soil is heavy or its soil water is high, you need to put a drainage on the bottom of the pit, which includes broken brick with a layer of sand 15-20 centimeters wide or crushed stone. Then, so that the growth of spruce was as fast and productive as possible, it is necessary to prepare an earth mixture. For its preparation you will need humus, peat, fertilizer "Nitroammofoska" and sand. This mixture is poured on top of the drainage layer of the pit and filled with 5 liters of liquid.

Now you can proceed to the planting of the seedlings. The first step is to get the plant out of the container. It is better to have a lump of earth in the root system. Otherwise, it will often be exposed to diseases or not take root at all. It is necessary to place the future spruce in a hole in such a way that the trunk is located exactly vertically. As for the root collar, it should not be submerged in the ground. Ideally, it should be on par with the soil. Arrange the tree according to the instructions, cover it with earth and tamp it down a little.

Having done the main work, you just have to water the tree. The volume of water depends on the size of the seedling. If there is a need to fix the seedlings, they can be tied up with two stakes. Remember that the best time to plant the Serbian spruce is spring (late April) and autumn (early September).

Watering and mulching

Watering the plant in the summer must be once a week. At the same time about 10-20 liters of water are spent, depending on the size.

Only young plants need mulching. Sawdust or peat (a layer of 5 centimeters) will be excellent to replace various mineral supplements throughout the year.

There are two types of trimming:

In the latter case, pruning should be carried out immediately after landing. In this way, you can make the root system and the crowns commensurate with each other. This type of pruning is best done in the spring, because if you do it during the growing season (the time when the tree grows and develops), there is a big risk of exposing the spruce to various diseases.

The second kind of taming spruce - this is sanitary. Traditionally, it is customary to refer to it when the branches:

Sanitary pruning can be done at any time of the year. For comfortable cutting, it is recommended to use a hand saw or special scissors. These devices will assist you in creating the most thorough cuttings, as in the case of inaccurate and rough cuts there is a high probability of getting infections.

Diseases and pests

As mentioned earlier, the main enemies of the Serbian spruce are spider mites and aphids.

For the prevention of aphids should be sprayed with infusions of insecticidal plants, for example, onions, or potash oil. For the manufacture of infusion you need 200 grams of onion peel. It must be placed in warm water (10 liters) and left for 5 days, and then filtered. The resulting liquid should be sprayed spruce 3 times in 5 days.

Spider mites occur in case of violations of the rules for plant care. The most effective method of protection against this pest is avoiding a prolonged drought. Among other methods of prevention it is necessary to emphasize the most effective:

  1. Spraying wood with colloidal sulfur,
  2. Sprinkle with garlic infusion.

Prepare garlic brew easily enough. You will need the following ingredients:

  • Garlic teeth (one liter jar),
  • Refined vegetable oil (0.5 liters),
  • Liquid soap (30 milliliters).

From the jar should get the teeth, then grind them. Put this mixture back into the container and immediately fill it with vegetable oil. Insist one day.

Before spraying we dilute the garlic tincture in water, following these proportions: 2 teaspoons of garlic infusion per 0.5 liters of water. It remains only to add to the jar of liquid soap, shake well - and your infusion is ready!

In order for the spruce tree to remain in its former appearance after the winter, it is necessary to observe a number of rules:

  1. First, it is necessary to provide the tree with an enormous supply of moisture, which helps it to transfer the winter. This should be done before the cold weather, namely: at the end of November. If the spruce is small, then 2-3 buckets of liquid will be enough for you. In the opposite situation, when your tree is large - the volume of liquid must be at least 5 buckets.
  2. After a heavy snowfall, the branches should be cleared of snow. As a tool, use a broom or a special brush. It is necessary to clear from the tips of branches to the trunk.
  3. There is another attack - freezing rain. It is not possible to clear the branches from the stuck drops, they just need to be tied up. Over time, the ice will melt and the tree crowns will no longer require support.
  4. Even in winter, beware of burns. Often this problem appears in early February, during the thaw. To avoid it, you need to cover the fir with sacking, and then secure with a rope.

Features of the Serbian spruce

Serbian spruce or Picea omorika is a coniferous plant with a beautiful and interesting crown shape. It grows quite quickly and can grow up to 40 cm in a year. The maximum height of this tree is about 15 m. It has very beautiful and interesting needles, which have a dark green or light blue color on top and two white stripes below. . It is on this basis that the tree is easy to recognize.

The crown of such ate is very lush and thick. But if the trees grow close to each other or in dense areas, the spruce can bare its trunk, lose its pomp and become less attractive. Therefore, often to each other to plant such trees is not worth it. Serbia is the birthplace of Omorica. Nowadays, it has become very popular in Europe.

This tree has very beautiful and bright cones that are dark purple in color. When the buds ripen, they become larger and reach a size of 6 cm. And also they change their color and become brown. Cones ripen in late August and seeds appear in them. Here is a brief description of the Serbian spruce.

Unlike other conifers, the Serbian pine has a number of advantages, which include the following:

  • unpretentious,
  • frost resistant
  • It does not require special care,
  • can grow both in the shade and in the sun,
  • has a beautiful decorative appearance
  • tolerates severe air pollution,
  • has many varieties.

Thanks to these properties, this tree has become very popular among gardeners and landscape designers. Serbian spruce can often be seen in the alleys, near private houses and in hedges. Nor does it require pruning, so even inexperienced gardeners can consider it. Such a tree can grow, practically, on any soil, for example, sandy, acidic or podzolic. But it does not transfer abundant moisture very well.

For the Russian climate, such a plant fits just fine.

Varieties of Picea omorika

In nature, there are more than ten varieties of Serbian spruce, and each of them has its own characteristics, appearance, and size. Therefore, before buying such a tree, it is necessary to take into account its features. Since one option would be good to look at a small area, and the other, on the contrary, would require extensive territory. The most popular variants of this plant are the following varieties:

  1. El Pendula. She looks good in group plantings. Such a tree has an interesting curved trunk and can reach a length of up to 10 meters. It can often be seen in parks, alleys or gardens. The crown of his not very fluffy, but thick, and the branches themselves tight to each other.
  2. El Pendula Bruns. It grows medium size, but not more than 5 meters in height. The trunk of such a plant is straight, and the crown is very narrow.
  3. El Nana. It is small in size and can only grow to a height of 4 meters. Despite this, the tree is very popular, as it looks good in small areas. It grows slowly, his crown is fluffy and abundant. On hot days, this plant requires good watering.
  4. Spruce Freya. It is completely unpretentious and can grow in almost any conditions. But it is best to plant it in a sunny place. The tree grows very quickly and reaches a height of 20 meters.
  5. El Karel. Such a plant has a small size, but at the same time it is frost-resistant. And well maintains temperature to minus 30 degrees. During the season, under favorable conditions, the tree grows by 5 cm, and its height reaches 80 cm. It has found wide application in landscape design.
  6. El Aurea. This is a fairly tall tree that reaches a height of 12 meters, and it also grows rapidly and intensively. In the year the pine can grow by 30 cm. Such a plant looks beautiful in single plantings and attracts the attention of yellow-green needles.

Planting and breeding plants

Planting a Serbian pine is a snap as it doesn’t need to have any special skills. But the general rules are better, of course, to observe. For example, this tree grows poorly in swampy soils, as well as near groundwater. In this case, the needles of the spruce may even turn yellow.

The pit for planting needs to be dug up so large that all the roots fit into it freely. But it should not be very deep, so that the root collar remains at ground level. Before planting, it is necessary to make a drainage layer, which may consist of sand or small broken bricks. The soil around the tree should be loose. Young plants are best planted in the shade or partial shade, but not under the scorching sun. But large plants, on the contrary, like sunlight.

Fertilize in the soil where the tree grows, preferably every year. Planting Serbian fir omorika is best in the spring and after that it should be watered abundantly. Such a tree is not very fond of dry days, so during this period it should be watered at least once a week.

As a fertilizer, you can use regular peat, it should be laid out next to the barrel, but so that the root neck is not covered. And with the help of peat, you can cover the roots of the tree during frost.

Serbian spruce propagated by seed. This is the easiest and most affordable way. Decorative forms of this tree are usually grafted or grafted. The cuttings should be carried out in the spring, in which case they take root well and quickly.

Cutting of wood can be carried out at will. But even without such procedures, it usually grows beautiful and well-groomed. If dry or yellowed twigs appear on spruce, then they should be removed. If you want to give ate an interesting decorative appearance, then it is best to do it during planting, and not during the growing season. In this case, the tree will grow slower and worse, and may also get sick.

For an adult plant, it is advisable to clean it once a year, and cut off all diseased and broken branches. This should be done not only for aesthetic purposes, but also for the tree to grow better and not hurt.

Preventive measures against pests

Despite the fact that the Serbian pine is unpretentious, pests can appear on it. And if you do not start to fight with them in time, they can seriously damage the tree and spoil its appearance. The main pests of this plant are aphids and spider mites. It's not hard to notice them. Usually such pests appear if all the rules for the care of spruce were not followed.

For aphid prevention You can make onion tincture and spray the plant with it. To make it, you need to take 100 g of onion peel and pour it with 5 liters of warm boiled water. This mixture should be infused for five days. Onion tincture needs to be processed three times all branches in five days.

To prevent spider mites, you should water the tree and its branches abundantly on hot days. If it still appeared, then you need to buy any insecticide for plants and treat them with spruce.