The plant is common in the Northern Hemisphere. Rarely found in Japan, Asia, North America. In the Ukrainian open spaces, this plant grows in the subalpine zone, and only the Carpathian rhododendron. But only there they call him in their own way “Chervona Ruta”. This species is listed in the Red Book.
Flower rhododendron grows in nature and in groups and single individuals. Occurs on the slopes of mountains in swampy areas and in the tundra.
Rhododendron is almost evergreen shrub plant or trees. The height of the miniature species ranges from 10 cm to one meter, and there are exceptions, the height of which is about 30 meters.
The leaves of a plant of various shapes and size too. The foliage is spirally. Leaf shape oblong oval with slight pubescence. Inflorescences are represented in the racemes or carapaces, sometimes by a single The corolla has a sunny or pinkish tint.
Fruits are formed in the form of boxes with many seeds. There are about 1300 plant species in their natural environment.
Varieties and types
Daurian rhododendron This is a deciduous species, reaching a height of 2 meters. The shoots of the plant are directed upwards. Foliage in shape of an ellipse about 4 cm in length and up to 1.5 cm in width. Single inflorescences, gently purple hue. Flowering begins in mid-summer, after the full appearance of the leaves.
Rhododendron yellow Accelerated shrub. The height of this type is about 3 meters. Foliage oblong about 12 cm long. Inflorescences are presented to 10 flowers in brushes and have a pleasant aroma. Flowering occurs at the end of spring.
Rhododendron katevbinsky This is an evergreen shrub with a lot of leaves in height reaching 4 meters, but to a greater degree the width of the bush exceeds its height. The leaf shape is in the form of an ellipse about 15 cm long. There are up to 20 flowers in the tassels. Corolla in the flower of purple hue. Flowering begins at the end of spring.
Rhododendron Schlippbach acceleration view of about two meters in height. The leaves are shaped like maple leaves and are located at the ends of the stems. Inflorescence pale pink with splashes, flower diameter about 10 cm.
Japanese Rhododendron This is a bush, about 2 meters high. The shape of the bush is decomposable. Foliage elongated about 10 cm in length slightly pubescent. In the autumn period has a yellowish-red hue. Inflorescence scarlet sun shade, about 8 cm in diameter with a pleasant aroma. Flowering begins in the last month of spring. Duration of flowering more than a month.
Deciduous rhododendron quite common. Due to the abundance of flowers, almost no leaves are visible. Height is about one meter. Inflorescence shaped bell. The shade of the flower is scarlet, yellow or pink.
This is not a large bush up to half a meter high. In adult plants, the bark is a shade of dark gray. The leaves of the species are elongated with a rounded end. Juveniles have an individually pleasant, but more sharp flavor.
Inflorescences in the species have a light pink tint, not having flavor. In the brush about 15 flowers. Flowering lasts the entire summer.
Caucasian rhododendron in height about 1 meter 20 centimeters. With a brown tinge of bark. Shoots have more razgonisty character.
The foliage is oblong in shape oval. From the inside the sheet is covered with hairs. Flowers knocked into shields of about 8 pieces. The diameter of the inflorescence is about 3 cm. The shade of the petals is light or pale pink. It blooms in spring and is a good honey plant. The hybrid view is quite demanding in the care and planting.
Rhododendron is golden not a large shrub. Spreading shoots. The foliage is alternate, about 8 cm in length, the surface of an olive-colored leaf, and on the inner side of a less distinct shade. Inflorescences on high legs, about 5 flowers on one. After flowering, the fruit is a box with small seeds. The aroma of the plant is similar with the smell of fresh strawberries.
Rhododendron Yakushiman not volumetric tree in shape resembling a ball. The foliage is narrowed, dense, glossy outside. The shade of the leaves is dark olive shade on the outside, and on the inside it has a chocolate shade with small fibers.
Inflorescences in diameter of about 7 cm. Starting flowering, the petals have a pale pink shade, and by the end acquire a rich white color. Flowering begins at the end of spring.
Rhododendron Roseum Elegance has a spherical bush. A hybrid plant from rhododendron Katevsbinskogo. Appeared in 1851. Plant height about 3 meters. Medium sized ellipse foliage. Inflorescences with a pink tint and scarlet spots. Flowering begins in late spring and lasts about a month.
Rhododendron planting and care
Place for landing should pick a little shaded. Preferably the northern part. It is preferable to plant rhododendron in early spring, in the first months of spring.
Rhododendron transplantation takes place in autumn before the start of frost. Also, transplantation can be performed at any desired period, only in advance before flowering within a month, or after the plant has faded in a few weeks.
Soil for rhododendrons
The soil for planting should be light, loose with a good drainage layer. It is important that the soil is acidic and with enough fertilizer. Suitable peat and loamy soil in the ratio of 8: 3.
It is necessary to avoid stagnation of moisture, otherwise the plant will die. To plant a plant is necessary in a prepared pit about half a meter in diameter and the same depth.
To acidify the soil for rhododendrons. It is necessary to add processed sawdust from coniferous trees or rotted needles of coniferous trees to the ground.
At home, you can check if your soil needs acidification. To do this, you will need to pour boiled water over currant leaves or cherries, and when the water has cooled down, throw a little earth. If the water changes color to blue, then the soil needs acidification, if it is red, then it is normal. And if you change the color to green, then the soil is neutral.
Plant care does not require special skills, just in time to loosen the soil and remove weeds.
Moisturize the plant preferably to ensure moderate. Water needs to be settled or, if possible, rain. The soil should be wet up to 30 cm deep. Determine whether you need to produce watering, you can, by the appearance of foliage, if they become faded and dull, then you need hydration.
Rhododendron loves sufficiently humidified air of about 65%, therefore it requires frequent spraying of the leaves.
Fertilizer for rhododendrons
Fertilize the plant, from early spring until the end of flowering in mid-summer. Make the feeding of cow liquid manure with water in a ratio of 1:15. Before fertilizing the plant must be watered.
The most practical fertilizer option is in the period of early spring mineral and organic complex fertilizers. During flowering cow dung.
Autumn fertilizers for rhododendrons are needed after flowering. For this suitable phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Cut the plant is required by the need to create the desired shape. Pruning is done in early spring, before the beginning of the growing season. Dry shoots are cut and old branches rejuvenate, which are about 4 cm thick.
Plants that are poorly wintered or obsolete, must be rejuvenated completely, cutting off all the shoots at a height of about 30 cm from the ground.
Shelter of rhododendrons for the winter
Plant cover is necessary if you have hot and frosty winters. To do this, cover the bush with dry leaves and sawdust. And the shoots themselves are wrapped with fir branches and warmed with sacking.
Warming must be removed after the snow melts in early spring.
Reproduction of rhododendrons by cuttings
To do this, cut the cuttings from large adult plants about 8 cm long. Place them in a growth stimulator for half a day. And then planted in a mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1, then cover with cellophane, making a greenhouse.
Periodically opening for watering and airing. Rooting occurs up to 4.5 months. After rooting, the cuttings are transplanted into a mixture of peat and pine needles.
Rhododendron seed multiplication
Seeds must be sown in a container with prepared peat, to a depth of about a centimeter. The container is covered with glass and periodically aerate and moisten the soil. The temperature for germinating seeds is about 15 degrees.
After the appearance of several pairs of leaves, seedlings are planted in separate containers, and in open ground in the second year after sowing.
Diseases and pests
- Before the onset of cold weather leaves at the plant begin to blush and crumble. In other words, the plant is preparing for wintering.
- Rhododendron does not bloom the reasons may be different, the soil may not correspond, there is little light, a lot of nitrogen fertilization leads to the growth of branches and leaves, and flowering does not begin.
- Yellow leaves at rhododendrons from excessive moisture in the root system, it is necessary to monitor moderate moisture.
- Rhododendron does not grow due to a lack of fertilizer, the soil is not acidic, or the sun shines unnecessarily, and the plant suffers from heat.
- Rhododendron sheds leaves This may be caused by dry soil, inappropriate land for planting, or your plant may be affected by pests.
- Rhododendron withers, and the leaves turn brown causes most likely are dry air and insufficient spraying. There may also be an excessive amount of direct sunlight.
- Rhododendron leaves are pale green. in low light, the leaves become pale and faded. The second reason is the lack of watering the plant.
- The buds of rhododendron did not open the reason for the increased air temperature, the optimum temperature for the plant in the room about 16, and on the street within 22 degrees.
- Rhododendron leaves are blackened the cause was the disease chlorosis, it manifests itself with a lack of acidity of the soil.
- When pests appear on the plant, it is necessary to treat the rhododendron shrub with an appropriate insecticide.
Exotic guest at your cottage
Like most of the magnificently flowering crops, rhododendron is rarely found in the Russian wild, and grows exclusively under the supervision of gardeners.
Many species take root and feel great only in southern latitudes, so they can be safely grown in the Crimea, Krasnodar region or in the Stavropol region. However, some varieties, such as Daurian or Canadian, are well developed in temperate climates, so if you live in the Moscow region, in the Urals, or even in the Siberian outback, rhododendron can also decorate your summer cottage with its magnificent flowering.
Literally translated from Latin, “rhododendron” means “rose tree” - and indeed, with its appearance, the plant is very similar to a rose, although it refers not to rosaceous, but heather.
You are certainly familiar with one of the types of rhododendron - this is a well-known home azalea, often decorating the window sills of city apartments. It is characterized by lush flowering and a variety of shades.
It is impossible to imagine how the relatives of this small plant can reach 25-30 meters in height, although in fact in the Himalayas, Japan, North America, some species grow to such gigantic sizes.
There are also low rhododendrons, which are individual bushes or creeping bushes that feel comfortable at the foot of the mountains and in coastal marine zones.
Mountain varieties are small and ideal for organizing alpine slides. For example, the Kamchatka rhododendron is unpretentious, grows only up to 35-40 cm in height and has a bright pink shade
Among annuals and perennials (a total of about 3 thousand species), you can choose a variety whose characteristics are suitable for growing in a particular region.
If you need a special shade - reddish, purple, white or yellow - this will also not be a problem, since the color palette of cultures is almost limitless. Flowering culture begins in early spring and continues throughout the warm period.
Thanks to the luxurious color palette, the garden azalea can be combined with various types of flowering crops and used for growing in columbariums, rock gardens, multi-tiered flower gardens.
Planting rhododendrons: time, soil, lighting
Following the general recommendations, planting can be done in the fall and in the spring, that is, during the growing season that is convenient for you, excluding flowering time and a short period after flowering - approximately 10 days. However, experienced gardeners still insist on spring planting, which continues, depending on the region, from April to 10-15 May.
The varieties planted before this period, by the May holidays are already covered in thick color - they look very impressive against the background of barely folded foliage and fresh grassy greens.
One of the early blooming rhododendrons is P.J. Mezitt is a lush plant with pink and lilac buds. The beginning of its flowering occurs in the last decade of April - the first days of May
It is important to choose the right landing site, as in a bright sun the plant will feel uncomfortable, and in a completely darkened place it will not give lush flowering.
A flowerbed with rhododendrons is best broken on the north side of the building, in a semi-shaded area, so that at midday, when the sun's rays reach maximum strength, the plant is completely closed from them.
The shadow barrier for the flower bed can serve not only the walls of the building, but also the fence or tall trees. Rhododendron perfectly gets along with trees whose roots go deep into the soil and do not interfere with the development of the plant - oaks, larch trees, spruces, and fruit trees - pears or apple trees
Flowers absolutely do not tolerate alkaline or neutral soil - it must be acidic, rich in humus, well aerated, without lime impurities. One of the best materials for growing is a mixture of peat and clay.
Rhododendron are planted in the following order:
- dig pits, shallow (35-40 cm) and wide enough (55-60 cm),
- the lower part of the drain sand-pebble layer (10-15 cm),
- they are filled with a mixture of loam and peat (high or sphagnum, with low acidity), while the peat should be about 2 times more,
- lightly tamp the soil inside the pit and make it a hole the size of an earthy sapling,
- they lower the roots of the seedling into the hole and cover it with soil mixture along the root root, which as a result should be on the same level with the ground surface,
- plentifully water the plant if the soil is dry,
- they produce mulching (to a depth of 5–7 cm), for which peat, moss, rotted needles, leaves, and crushed oak bark are suitable.
In order for the plant to settle down better in a new place, before planting the roots, thoroughly soak it with water - lower the seedlings into a container with water until air bubbles cease to appear on the surface.
Approximate scheme of rhododendron planting: 1 - garden soil, 2 - drainage, 3 - soil mixture of peat, clay or loam, 4 - layer of pine needles
There is another trick to promote better root development. In a flowering plant, cut off the most lush buds - this way the seedling spends more strength on rooting. Planting and further maintenance of rhododendrons are important steps, and if you follow them, you will achieve amazing results.
Making a planted bush is better to do in a couple of weeks - after its full rooting. You can give the plant a certain shape, and decorate the base depending on the style of landscape design of your site
The nuances of caring for flowers
The norms of proper care for flowering shrubs do not differ from generally accepted standards: it is necessary to observe the irrigation regime, produce weeding and pruning in time, feed the plant with suitable minerals and ensure that the pests do not start.
There are also subtleties, for example, a careful approach when loosening. The roots of the plant are very close to the surface, therefore, it is necessary to loosen the soil very carefully, and you should not dig at all. In no case, when removing weeds, do not use a hoe or garden knife, you can only act manually.
Mode and features of watering
The ratio of rhododendron to moisture is very interesting. On the one hand, it absolutely does not tolerate overwetting, on the other - it requires constant spraying and watering with specially prepared water.
Even during the selection of a landing site, check whether ground waters are not close to the surface. The fact is that with a large amount of moisture in the soil the roots simply “choke” and the plant will die. That is why a layer of drainage is necessary to drain excess water.
It is especially important to observe the mode of irrigation and atmospheric irrigation during the development of buds and flowering - the better the watering, the brighter and more luxuriant the inflorescences will be.
Watering is carried out regularly, pre-acidifying the water - for this, 12-20 hours before watering, 2-3 handfuls of sphagnum peat are put into a container with water. Water from the tap is better not to use, in extreme cases, it must be defended. Ideal - rain fees. Регулярность полива зависит от состояния растения: как только листья утратили глянцевый блеск и изменили тургор – пора поливать.
Когда лучше производить обрезку растения
Понятие обрезки весьма условное. Usually, the plant develops evenly and forms an abundantly flowering shrub of the correct shape, so lovers of lush flower beds do not need pruning. But sometimes you need to thin the shrub, make it a little lower or just rejuvenate.
Pruning is carried out in early spring, until the sap flow has begun. Choose strong, thick branches with a diameter of 3-4 cm, carefully cut off the ends with garden scissors and cut the sections with specially prepared garden pitch or pitch. About a month later, the renewal process will start, continuing throughout the year - new shoots will be blasted and dormant buds will begin to develop.
Special skill requires trimming frozen or old bushes: thick branches should be cut at a distance of 35-40 cm from the ground alternately for 2 years: part this year, the second - in the next
Rhododendrons are characterized by uneven flowering. If this year they have pleased you with a particularly violent color, next year expect more modest results. To prevent this from happening, remove the withered buds immediately after flowering, and then the plant will have enough strength to gather as many buds as possible in the second year.
Pest and disease protection
Branched bushes with dense foliage and a variety of buds - a great place to live for insects, half of which can destroy the beauty you have grown in a couple of weeks, so a number of measures must be taken to protect the shrub.
Thick trunks and branches - a favorite place of mollusks. Slugs and snails are harvested by hand. Beware of scythes, bedbugs, spider mites, rhododendron flies, and powdery worms. Process stalks and branches with 8% fungicide "Tiram", well helps "Malathion."
It is more difficult to remove bedbugs, ticks, and especially the weevil, to get rid of which diazonin is used. Remember, to say goodbye forever to the harmful guest, it is necessary to process not only the plant itself, but also the top layer of soil around it.
Along with insect pests, rhododendrons are threatened by diseases of the fungal type - rust, chlorosis, spotting. The reason lies in the lack of aeration and non-compliance with the irrigation regime. Yellowness resulting from chlorosis is treated with a solution of iron chelate. If rot appears, the affected shoots should be trimmed completely. For prophylaxis, seasonal Bordeaux liquid treatment is carried out in late autumn or early April.
Feed and fertilizer selection
It is necessary to start feeding rhododendrons with planting and throughout the entire flowering period. Superphosphate, potassium sulphate, potassium nitrate, magnesium sulphate or calcium, and ammonium are used to keep the acidic medium important for the culture of an acidic environment, but in minimal concentrations.
Early spring fertilizing is made up of fertilizers containing nitrogen (40–50 g of magnesium or ammonium sulphate per 1 cubic meter of liquid); it is also relevant in the period after flowering. In July, the dose of fertilizer should be reduced to 20 g.
The ideal fertilizer for rhododendrons is a liquid solution of natural fertilizers, such as hornmeal or cow manure. The rotted manure is diluted with water (1 part of fertilizer for 15 parts of water), insist 3-4 days and use during irrigation
1-2 years after planting, it is necessary to renew the topsoil. For this, peat is mixed in equal parts with humus or compost and sprinkle the area around the roots. Along with natural components, superphosphate, potassium sulphate or ammonium is added to the bedding (dry matter - 1 tbsp. Spoon). As a dry powder you can use Agricola for flowering garden plants. Remember that it is only necessary to fertilize carefully watered shrubs.
Breeding methods - which one to choose
Consider the three most successful ways of reproduction of rhododendron in garden conditions:
Growing plants from seeds is a long and laborious exercise. Dry, healthy seeds are sown in pots or boxes with wet peat, add a little sand, cover with glass lids and expose in a well-lit place. Within a month, it is necessary to moisten the soil and remove condensate from the glass.
The seedlings that appeared after 4 weeks are planted in a greenhouse with a cool climate according to the 2 x 3 cm scheme. Seedlings will grow for a very long time, and only after 6-7 years you will see the first flowering
Propagation by cuttings is also maintained by no means all gardeners. It is necessary to take shoots, half-stiffened, and cut several of them about 7-8 cm long.
The leaves are removed from the bottom, and the treated end is placed in a container with heteroauxin-growth stimulator, where it is kept for 12-15 hours
Then placed in a peat ground and covered, as in the case of the seeds. Depending on the variety, the cuttings will take root in 2-4 months, after which they are transplanted into boxes with peat-coniferous soil and taken to a cool greenhouse. The optimum temperature is 10ºС. They are planted in the spring along with other flowers, right in the boxes, and only after a couple of years they can be transplanted to the main place of growth.
The most convenient breeding option - pinning off layers. A flexible lower shoot is taken, a 12–15 cm deep groove is pulled out near it, and a process is laid into this groove.
So that it does not rise, the middle part of the stem is pinned down, and sprinkled with peat on top. The upper part must be brought out and tied to a support - a wooden peg stuck into the ground
They take care of the cuttings as they do the whole bush - they water it and spray it. When it takes root (late autumn or spring), it is carefully separated, dug out and transplanted to the place of permanent growth. This method is especially good for reproduction of deciduous rhododendrons.
The most popular cottage varieties
The 2-3 meter Daur rhododendron will perfectly live in the coniferous garden. It is characterized by abundant flowering of buds reaching 4 cm in diameter.
If the warm season is delayed, then the Daursky variety will surely please you with repeated autumn flowering, and next spring the winter-hardy plant will bloom normally.
Adams rhododendron is an oriental visitor accustomed to rocky mountain soils.
A beautiful plant with soft pink flowers grows up to one and a half meters in height. In our country is not common, and in Buryatia is listed in the Red Book
The low creeping Caucasian rhododendron is a real find for rock gardens.
The petals of the inflorescences of the Caucasian rhododendron are distinguished by an unusual pale yellow or cream shade that will remarkably dilute the more saturated, juicy colors of other varieties.
Japanese rhododendron is a magnificent deciduous variety with flamingo buds.
Japanese rhododendrons with delightful colors and picturesque foliage reddening in autumn are unpretentious, winter-hardy and reproduce well in any way - a great option for growing in central Russia
And finally - a short video about how to achieve a lush flowering of rhododendrons.
Planting and caring for rhododendron (in brief)
- Landing: from April to mid-May or from September to November.
- Bloom: in late April-early June for 2-3 weeks. Abundant flowering happens in a year.
- Lighting: penumbra or shade.
- The soil: well drained, loose, rich in humus, acidic.
- Watering: slightly acidified water should be soaked to a depth of 20-30 cm. A sign that the watering time has come is a loss of turgor leaves.
- Trimming: minimal, in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
- Top dressing: liquid organic matter (a solution of cow dung or horn flour) or mineral fertilizer solutions in a pre-moistened soil from early spring to the end of July.
- Reproduction: seeds, dividing the bush, grafting, cuttings and layering.
- Pests: aphid, mealybugs, bugs, weevils, spider mites, scale insects, rhododendral flies, snails and slugs.
- Diseases: chlorosis, rust, powdery mildew, leaf spot and cancer.
Flower rhododendron Description
Garden rhododendron is represented by shrubs with leaves of various sizes and shapes - annual, biennial and perennial, sessile or petiolate, alternate, entire, or serrate, ovate or obovate. The rhododendron flower is popular all over the world due to the decorativeness of its foliage, but its main advantage is the magnificent flowers of white, pink, red, purple, lilac color, gathered in shields or brushes, resembling a chic bouquet. Depending on the variety and type, the shape of the flowers may be bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, wheel-shaped or tubular. In some species, flowers emit a pleasant scent. The fruit of rhododendron is a multi-seeded five-leaf box with seeds up to 2 mm in size. The root system of rhododendron is compact, superficial, consisting of many fibrous roots, and it is precisely because of its superficial location that rhododendron transplantation is easy and does not cause much trouble to the gardener or the plant. Rhododendron is an excellent early spring honey plant.
Where and when is best to plant rhododendron.
In our climate rhododendrons in the garden it makes sense to grow exclusively winter-hardy. Landing of rhododendron in the ground is carried out from April to mid-May, and also from September to November. Actually, if necessary, this can be done in any time period of the vegetation period with the exception of the pores when rhododendron blooms, and within one to two weeks after flowering. It is better to plant rhododendron in the shade, on the north side of the building, in loose, well-drained, acidic soil rich in humus. If the groundwater in your area lies at a depth of less than one meter, rhododendron is planted on a raised bed. Rhododendron neighbors can be pine, oak, larch - trees with a root system that goes deep. Such tree species as linden, chestnut, alder, maple, willow, elm or poplar will deprive rhododendron of the necessary nutrition, since their roots will feed at the same depth as rhododendron roots. If it is not possible to avoid such a neighborhood, it will be necessary to protect the root system of rhododendron by digging roofing material, slate or polyethylene in the ground. Good neighbors for rhododendron are garden trees - apples, pears.
How to plant rhododendron.
A carefully mixed mixture of 8 buckets of top peat and 3.5 buckets of loam (you can replace the loam with two buckets of clay) is poured into the planting hole with a diameter of about 60 cm and a depth of about 40 cm. The mixture at the bottom of the pit is thoroughly rammed, and then a hole is dug into it, corresponding to the size of the root seedling. Before planting, lower the rhododendron saplings into the water and keep them there until no air bubbles are released. Then put the roots of the seedling in the hole, fill the hole to the top with the substrate, tamping it down so that there are no voids left. The root neck of rhododendron should eventually be at the level of the surface area. Give plenty of bush if you have planted rhododendron in dry ground so that the soil is wetted to a depth of 20 cm, and knead the tree trunk with peat, oak leaves, moss or pine needles in a layer of 5-6 cm. If the bush has many flower buds, the best part from them to remove, to direct forces on successful rooting, but not on flowering of rhododendron. For a single planting in a spacious area, so that the wind does not shake the newly planted plant, you need to stick the support, tilting it towards the direction of the most frequent winds, and attach a sapling to it. As soon as the bush takes root, the support can be removed.
Caring for rhododendron includes the usual procedures: watering, spraying, weeding, fertilizing, the formation of the bush and the fight against diseases and pests, if the need arises. To loosen the soil around the rhododendron, and even more so to dig it up, cannot be categorically because of the plant roots located too close to the surface. From the same considerations, weeds must be removed manually, without using choppers. Rhododendron needs soil and atmospheric moisture more than other plants, especially during the period of bud formation and flowering. Proper watering also affects the budding of flower buds next year. Watering is carried out with soft water - separated or rain. You can soften, and at the same time acidify the water for rhododendron by adding a few handfuls of top peat a day before watering. The frequency of watering is determined by the state of the leaves: if they become dull and lose turgor, then they are thirsty. When moistened, the soil should get wet to a depth of 20-30 cm. However, it is very important to water the rhododendron, not to flood the roots, because the plant is sensitive to excess moisture in the roots, but behaves when overwetting is the same as when it is dry, it lowers and collapses the leaves. . So that the rhododendron does not mislead you, in dry and hot weather, try, without increasing the amount of water during watering, sprinkle the rhododendron leaves with soft water as often as possible.
Pruning rhododendrons should be minimal, because their bushes themselves form the correct form. However, sometimes it is necessary to mow shrubs that are too high, remove frozen shoots, or rejuvenate old rhododendron. How to trim an adult bush? Pruned shoots in early spring, before the sap. In those places where the thickness of the branches reaches 2-4 cm, sections are treated with garden pitch. A month later, dormant buds awaken on the shoots, and the process of renewal begins, which takes place throughout the year. Very old or badly frozen bushes are pruned at a height of 30-40 cm from the ground: in the first year one half of the bush, the next year - the second.
Rhododendrons have one peculiarity: they bloom and bear fruit very abundantly in one year, and the next year both flowering and fruiting rhododendron are much more modest. To get rid of such a periodicity, you need to immediately break out the faded inflorescences immediately after flowering, so that the rhododendron will use strength and nutrition to form flower buds for the next year.
Even rhododendrons that were planted in the current year need to be fertilized, and the first top dressing is brought in early spring, and the last in late July, after flowering, when young shoots start to grow. Rhododendrons prefer liquid dressings from half-burnt cow manure, horn flour. Manure is poured with water at a ratio of 1:15 and is allowed to infuse for several days, and only then is used as a fertilizer. Before making the feeding rhododendron watered. Since rhododendrons grow in acidic soils, in order not to disturb the reaction of the medium, from mineral fertilizers it is preferable to use ammonium sulphate, superphosphate, nitrate, potassium sulphate or phosphate, calcium sulphate and magnesium in very low concentrations - 1.2: 1000, and potassium fertilizer solution can be even weaker. The optimal mode of fertilizing involves the introduction in early spring of organic or mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizers at the rate of 50 g of ammonium sulphate and 50 g of magnesium sulphate per 1 m², and after flowering, in early June, 40 g of ammonium sulphate and 20 g each g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate. In July, only 20 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added per 1 m².
Pests and diseases of rhododendron.
Of the pests most annoying rhododendrons are mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites, bugs, weevils, rhododendron flies, as well as snails and slugs. Gastropods are harvested by hand, and as a preventive measure, they use rhododendron treatment with an eight percent solution of TMTD fungicide, or Tiram. Spider mites, rhododendron bugs, and weevils are destroyed by treatment with diazinon, and in the event of a rhododendron being affected by the weevil, the upper soil layer will also have to be treated with insecticide. The remaining insects exterminate Carbofos in accordance with the instructions for the preparation.
Of the diseases most commonly pursued are rhododendrons, fungal diseases - leaf spots, cancer, chlorosis, and rust. They arise, as a rule, as a result of poor aeration of the roots. Blemishes and rust are destroyed by preparations of copper sulfate, in particular Bordeaux fluid. Chlorosis, from which rhododendron turns yellow, requires the addition of iron chelate to water for irrigation. With regard to cancer, it is necessary to remove diseased shoots or cut them to healthy tissue, in addition, you need to carry out preventive treatment of rhododendron Bordeaux liquid in early spring and late autumn.
Reproduction of rhododendron.
Rhododendrons multiply generatively (by seeds) and vegetatively - by dividing the bush, layering, cuttings and grafting. The easiest way to propagate by rhododendrons is layering, and we will talk about this method, as well as how to sow the seeds and conduct grafting. The seeds of rhododendron are sown in plates with well moistened heather or peat ground mixed with sand at the rate of 3: 1, the seeds are sprinkled with washed sand on top, covered with plates and placed in a bright place for germination. Уход за посевами заключается в увлажнении субстрата по мере необходимости, ежедневном проветривании и удалении конденсата со стекла. Ростки появляются обычно через месяц, а при появлении у всходов пары листьев их рассаживают свободнее по схеме 2х3 см, заглубляя в грунт по семядоли, чтобы формировалась корневая система сеянцев. Первый год всходы содержат в прохладной теплице, а на следующий год высаживают в открытый грунт на учебные грядки с садовой землей с примесью песка и торфа. Сеянцы растут очень медленно и зацветают лишь на 6-8 год.
Размножить рододендрон черенками не намного легче. Semi-woody shoots are suitable for this, from which cuttings of 5–8 cm long are cut. Lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, and lower sections are kept for 12–16 hours in a root growth stimulator solution, for example, in heteroauxin. Then the cuttings are placed in a mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1 and covered with a transparent dome. Rooting cuttings long and hard: deciduous species and a half months, and evergreen - 3-4.5 months. The cuttings are grown in boxes with a mixture of peat and pine needles at a ratio of 2: 1, for the winter they are brought to a cool bright room where the temperature is between 8-12 ºC, and in the spring they are dropped in the garden right in the boxes and raised another year to transplants to a permanent place.
Adding cuttings - the easiest and most natural way of reproduction of rhododendron. In the spring, a young, flexible escape from growing at the very bottom of a bush, bends down and placed in a previously made groove not less than 15 cm deep, with the middle part of the shoot pinned in the groove, and garden soil mixed with peat is poured on top of it. The tip of the shoot remains on the surface and is tied to a peg stuck vertically. During the whole season, the layers are moistened with the bush, and in the fall or next spring, the rooted branches are separated from the mother plant and transplanted to a permanent place. It is best to reproduce deciduous rhododendron in this way.
Rhododendron in the winter.
If you live in the middle lane, rhododendron bushes should be covered with burlap with the first frosts, having previously inserted spruce and pine branches between the branches and slightly pulling the bush together with string. Take off the bags on a cloudy day in early spring, as soon as the snow melts. In warmer areas, rhododendrons overwinter without shelter.
Daurian rhododendron (Rhododendron dahuricum)
grows in nature in Primorsky Krai, Northeast China, Korea, Eastern Siberia and Northern Mongolia, preferring coniferous forests and cliffs. It is an evergreen, medium-growth, high-branched shrub with a height of two to four meters with gray bark and upward-pointing branches. His shoots are thin, red-brown in color, closer to the ends, pubescent with short nap. Small leathery leaves up to three centimeters in length from the upper side of the plate are smooth, scaly from below - light green in youth, darker in maturity, and either brown or red-green in autumn. Leaves with the onset of winter not all fall off, many of them hold on to the branches throughout the winter. Abundant flowering of Daurian rhododendron, lasting about three weeks, occurs before the leaves bloom with large funnel-shaped flowers of violet-pink color, reaching 4 cm in diameter. Sometimes in the fall the Daurian rhododendron blooms again. This species is very winter-hardy, easily propagated by green cuttings. It has two varieties:
- - evergreen form with dark green leaves and purple-lilac flowers,
- - garden early hybrid, short, with abundant, bright, early blooming bluish-red flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. This form is not as hardy as the main species.
Japanese Rhododendron (Rhododendron japonicum),
as the name implies, originally from Japan, from the sunny mountains of the island of Honshu. This species is one of the most beautiful deciduous rhododendrons, representing a branchy shrub up to two meters in height with bare or silver-covered bristles of shoots. The leaf of Japanese rhododendron is green, oblong-lanceolate, with soft pubescence on both sides of the leaf plate. In autumn, the leaves turn orange-red. Fragrant bell-shaped flowers up to 8 cm in diameter, collected by 6-12 pieces in racemes, painted in orange and scarlet-red color. In the middle lane there is no species equal in beauty to the Japanese rhododendron. In addition, the species is winter hardy, well propagated by cuttings and seeds.
Caucasian rhododendron (Rhododendron caucasicum)
grows wild in the Caucasus, as its name implies. It is a low evergreen shrub with creeping branches. The leaves of the Caucasian rhododendron, leathery, oval, oblong, dark green, bare from the upper side of the plate and felt-red from the bottom, are located on long thick petioles. Fragrant funnel-bell-shaped yellowish flowers with green spots inside the pharynx are collected in 8-12 pieces in racemes located on hairy peduncles. The look has several decorative forms:
- - pink-white, which blooms earlier than the main species,
- - shiny with dark pink flowers,
- - golden yellow with yellow flowers, decorated with green specks,
- - straw yellow with yellow flowers with reddish specks.
Also described species in culture grown rhododendron Albrecht, Atlantic, vase golotsvetkovy, tree, yellow, stiff-haired, western, Staphylococcus, Indian, Kamchatka, Canadian, Caroline, karpatsky, carpal, adhesive, korotkoplodny, blushing, the largest, macrophylla, ketevbinsky, Laplandian , Ledebura, small-leaved, marigold, sea-buckthorn, spiky, dense, Pontic, attractive, Pukhansk, rusty, equilibrium, pink, sikhotinsky, lybivolistny, dull, rooting, Yakushimansky and m ozhestvo others.
- This is the name given to the combination of variety forms and hybrids of rhododendrons grown in culture. In other words, rhododendron hybrid is a garden rhododendron. The most popular varieties of rhododendron hybrid are:
- – German cultivar Alfredbred by crossing the Everestin variety with the Ketevbino rhododendron and representing an evergreen shrub up to 120 cm in height with a crown diameter of about one and a half meters. The leaves are oblong-elliptical, dark green and shiny. Bright purple flowers with a yellow-green spot with a diameter of up to 6 cm are collected in dense inflorescences of 15-20,
- – Blue Peter variety obtained by crossing the Pontic rhododendron. The height of the bush is over one and a half meters. Krone sprawling, up to two meters in diameter. Flowers up to 6 cm in diameter lavender-blue shade with corrugated edges and with a dark purple spot on the top petal,
- – Jackson - English hybrid between the Nobleanum variety and the Caucasian rhododendron. The bush is up to two meters high, the diameter of the crown is about three meters. There is a stunted form up to 80 cm in height. The leaves are oblong, leathery, dull green above and brown below. Collected in inflorescences of 8-12 pieces of flowers during blooming have a pink tint, and later become white with a yellow spot on one petal,
- – Rose Marie - a variety of Czech breeding, bred when crossing the variety Pink Pearl and rhododendron magnificent. The height of the bush 120 cm, girth of the crown and a half meters. The leaves are oblong-elliptical, leathery, the upper side of the leaf plate is a light green shade with a wax coating, the bottom leaves are blue-green, glossy. The flowers, on the edges of pale pink, and by the middle of a deep pink color with a purple tinge, are collected in compact spherical inflorescences of 6-14 pieces,
- – Nova Zembla - Dutch hybrid between the variety of Persona Gloriosum and Ketobbe rhododendron. Bush up to 3 m and loose crown up to 3.5 m in girth. Shoots grow almost vertically, the leaves are large, leathery, shiny. Large flowers up to 6 cm in diameter, red with a black spot, collected in 10-12 pieces in dense inflorescences,
- – Canningham - Scottish cultivar, the most popular variety of Caucasian rhododendron, reaching a height of two meters with a crown diameter of one and a half meters. The leaves are oblong, leathery, dark green, up to 6 cm long and up to 3 cm wide. White flowers with yellow-brown specks are collected in 10 pieces in dense inflorescences.
In addition to indisputable decorative qualities, rhododendron has healing properties that are widely used in folk and traditional medicine. Species such as rhododendron Dahurian, golden, Adams, Caucasian, contain andromedotoxin, ericoline, arbutin and rhododendrin. The leaves of rhododendron also contain ascorbic acid, the highest concentration of which in the plant is observed in the summer months. Due to the content of substances useful to the human body, rhododendron has antipyretic, analgesic, bactericidal, sedative and diaphoretic action. It removes excess fluid from the body, relieving shortness of breath, swelling, and frequent heartbeat, lowers arterial and venous pressure, and increases cardiac activity. However, rhododendron is far from harmless. During pregnancy and lactation, as well as patients with tissue necrosis and suffering from serious kidney disease, you should refrain from taking rhododendron-based drugs. And in any case, before taking such medications, it would be best to first consult with doctors.
Rhododendron in the Moscow region - features
Sometimes amateur flower growers, fascinated by a beautiful picture of advertising, light up the desire to grow in their garden a strange bush called rhododendron. But how often, despite the money spent, time and effort, they are disappointed - the bush on the site does not look like it does in the advertising booklet; moreover, it withers with each passing day and eventually dies. Is it possible to avoid such a sad ending and grow a heat-loving plant rhododendron in Moscow, for example? Is it possible to grow rhododendron in the Moscow region, in the Leningrad region and other areas of the middle zone? As they say, with the right approach, nothing is impossible.
Planting rhododendron in the suburbs.
First, you need to know exactly which species of rhododendron will be able to survive the winter outside Moscow, since non-cold-resistant species and varieties die from frost even under cover. It is best to plant, of course, deciduous species of rhododendrons: Japanese, yellow, Shlippenbach, Vazeya, Canadian, Kamchatka, Pukhansky. From semi-evergreen species suitable rhododendron Ledebour, and from evergreens can be grown rhododendron catawbiense (and its hybrids Alfred Abraham Lincoln, Nova Zembla, Canning White), rhododendrons korotkoplodny, golden, the largest and rhododendron Smirnov and his hybrids Gabriel, Dorothy Swift, Laika. The winter-hardy varieties Elvira, The Hague, Mikkeli, recently cultivated in Finland, have proven themselves well. The hybrids of the Northern Light group Rosie Lites, Pink Lights, Spicy Lights and others hibernate in the middle lane.
If you purchased a winter hardy rhododendron, then you need to be able to plant it properly. First, you need to do it in the spring, choosing a half-shaded place no closer than a meter from any other plants. Secondly, buy a special soil for rhododendron or make your own a mixture of garden soil, pine needles and peat. In the ground you need to add a complex mineral fertilizer. Thirdly, the pit for a rhododendron sapling should be twice as large as the container with the seedling root system, and if the soil in the area is clay, be sure to fill the bottom of the pit with a 15 cm thick drainage layer. Fourth, do not sink the root the neck - let it remain at the same level as in the container. After planting, be sure to water the seedling.
Care of rhododendron in the Moscow region.
Planting and caring for rhododendron in the Moscow region is not much different from growing this plant in regions with warmer winters, but there are still differences. We offer you a list of requirements, having fulfilled which, you can count on success, despite the cool climate of your area:
- - rhododendrons grow in acidic humus soils. In the zone where the roots take nutrients, there should be no dolomite, ash, lime and other substances alkalizing the soil,
- - mulching of pristvolny circles of rhododendron is obligatory, especially since it is impossible to loosen and dig up the soil around the bushes due to the horizontal location of the root system of rhododendron,
- - in the spring, organize the protection of rhododendron from the sun with a net, gauze or cloth,
- - the most important success factor is deep and balanced watering of rhododendron: it must receive moisture as much as it needs, no more, no less. In the dry hot summer watering is carried out twice a week.
Sometimes in early autumn, due to the warm rainy weather, rhododendrons begin to grow, but the young shoots do not have time to mature and die in winter. To avoid undesirable late growth of sprouts, spray a bush in dry weather with a one-percent solution of potassium sulfate or monophosphate from a fine sprayer - this measure will stop growth, stimulate the wooding of the shoots and the budding of flower buds for the coming year. However, after spraying should stop watering rhododendron, even if dry weather is established.
If you are still worried that your rhododendrons may freeze in winter, arrange a shelter for them by placing a wire mesh skeleton wrapped with spunbond around the bush, securing the covering material with a rope.
The genus of this plant has about 1000 species with a huge variety of varieties. The main part of rhododendron varieties in the wild grows in the east. The plant is an evergreen shrub or deciduous flowering species. The leaves of the flower have an ovate shape, large size and slight pubescence. Flowers have the form of a bell and can be smooth or double. The color of the inflorescences can be very diverse. After flowering, boxes are formed, in which numerous seeds ripen.
The site for planting rhododendron should be chosen carefully. The plant will not tolerate direct sunlight and drafts. Do not forget that during the flowering period this plant looks just great, so plant it necessarily in the accessibility of your eyes.
The planting pit in its volume should exceed the root system and the plant itself 2 times. Remove all soil from the pit. Make a mixture of humus, leaf soil, peat, garden soil and heather land. Pour the mixture into the landing pit, make a recess for the bush. When planting, compact the ground well so that air pockets do not form. If the groundwater is high, be sure to use a drainage layer. When planting is over, cover the top layer with peat mulch.
In the process of planting rhododendron must be abundantly watered. Moisture should penetrate to a depth of at least 30 cm. Subsequent irrigations are carried out in smaller volumes and only with acidified water. If you plant a plant with existing buds, most of them need to be removed.
Such a plant as rhododendron requires attentive care, especially after transplantation. In addition to moisturizing in the form of irrigation, the shrub also requires constant spraying, especially if the planting took place in late spring. To preserve the amount of moisture, do not ignore the mulch layer. As mulch, use components that can simultaneously increase the acidity of the soil.
Rhododendron has a root system in the form of very thin roots, similar to hair. Loosen the soil as a measure for the care of a plant is not worth it, but be sure to remove all weeds when it appears.
If the plant lacks moisture or vice versa, it will be too much, the bush will immediately let you know about it with its appearance. Water as necessary, but do not overfill the bush too much. To ensure the normal growth and development of rhododendron, it is necessary to conduct it and trim it. Bushes grow strongly and they need to be put in order. Ase place cuts greased garden pitch. If you can comply with these simple requirements, then soon your site will shine with beautiful rhododendron flowers.
In more detail about care of a plant in video:
In the first year, this plant already needs feeding. Fertilizers need to be in small portions and highly diluted. When the plant needs the next feeding, it will let you know about it by stopping in growth, changing the shade of foliage and dropping it. In addition, the bush will cease to form buds.
As an organic fertilizer, almost decomposed manure diluted in water is used. To increase the number of buds, double superphosphate should be used. The mixture should be just scattered in a wet ground. In addition to increasing the number of buds, you will also extend the flowering period of already opened inflorescences.
Choosing a landing site
A very important point - the right place for planting rhododendron bush. Rhododendrons dictate their conditions, and they are whimsical in choosing the light, the soil and neighbors - it is not always easy to enter a new bush in an already established plant community.
A place to plant rhododendrons should be protected from prevailing winds and direct sunlight, without stagnant water and with an acidic soil reaction.
All rhododendrons need the sun, but in varying degrees. Alpine dwarf especially sun-loving. Most large-flowered evergreens prefer to grow in partial shade. Some put up with periodic shading, but rhododendrons cannot stand a constant shadow - then they do not bloom at all or they bloom very little. Идеальным соседом для них считаются сосны – под ними достаточно света, а глубокая корневая система не мешает цветущему кустарнику.
Это, кстати, еще одно обязательное условие при посадке рододендронов – чтобы поблизости от посадочной ямы не было больших деревьев с поверхностной корневой системой. Таких как клены, липы, ольха, ивы и особенно березы – их корни сильно иссушают и истощают почву, и рододендронам сложно с ними конкурировать. Чтобы защитить рододендрон от подземной агрессии крупных соседей, посадочную яму можно изолировать снизу и с боков цельным куском плотного нетканого укрывного материала.
Years of experience have shown that these plants feel well near water bodies where the air is humid. Therefore, they are planted near ponds and lakes, streams and pools. If there is no water nearby, evergreen rhododendrons are sprayed once a week before flowering. But it is undesirable to pour over the flowering plants with water, it is better to water the bushes more often.
Rhododendron. © Clearly Ambiguous
The best time for planting rhododendrons is spring. When spring planting plants get the opportunity to adapt well and take root in a new place. And you will be able to admire the first flowering. Plants with a closed root system (in a container) can be planted at a later date.
Planting pits are prepared in advance at the selected location. The root system of rhododendrons is quite compact, so even for tall species it is enough to dig a hole about 50 cm deep and 70-80 cm wide. The distance between plants depends on the height and diameter of the crown of the bush and averages from 0.7 to 2 m. Drainage to the bottom pit is required: a layer of broken brick and sand 15-20 cm, if the landing pit is deep, then the drainage layer increases to 30 - 40 cm and includes fine gravel or crushed stone (but not calcareous!).
It should be remembered that in nature rhododendrons grow on acidic, humus-rich, loose, air- and water-permeable soils. Therefore, the garden substrate should also be appropriate: a mixture of leafy ground, top peat, litter of coniferous trees (3: 2: 1) with the addition of complete mineral fertilizer: 70 g per well. The optimum acidity of the soil is 4.5 - 5.0.
Before planting, the root ball of a rhododendron taken out of the pot should be soaked with water. If it dried up, it is immersed in water and waiting for the release of air bubbles. The shrub is planted in a hole filled with the substrate, making sure that the root neck is not buried, but is 2-4 cm higher than the soil level, taking into account its precipitation. Around the bush do pristvolnuyu hole with raised edges and abundantly watered.
Rhododendrons have a shallow, sensitive root system (30-40 cm), which develops mainly in the litter and humus horizon. Therefore, around the planted bushes necessarily pour mulch material that retains moisture, prevents overheating of the soil and weed growth, protects the roots from mechanical damage, reduces the depth of soil freezing. Pine bark or wood chips, coniferous litter, peat are best for mulch, and the mulch layer should be at least 5 cm.
Rhododendron. © brewbooks
Properly planted rhododendrons take root well. If the soil substrate was made with high quality, they will not require special care.
In hot and dry summer and even autumn months it is necessary to ensure that the soil under the bushes does not dry out. However, do not get carried away - excessive watering them harmful.
Since in the mountains, these plants live in conditions of high humidity, then, as a rule, they respond very well to spraying the whole bush with leaves and flowers. Naturally, this should not be done under the scorching sun and icy water.
Watering is best with rain or river water. Water from an artesian well or water supply contains many salts of calcium and magnesium - the soil in this case will begin to alkalize and saline, and the rhododendrons will lose their decorative effect. (At first, nothing seems to happen, but in 2-4 years hard water will do its job.)
So that the soil substrate does not become alkalized, the water for irrigation needs to be acidified - best of all with sulfuric acid. The exact concentration of acid is difficult to specify - it depends on the degree of hardness of the water. The easiest way to use litmus indicator paper. Hydrogen index (pH) of water should be 3.5–4.5.
Faded inflorescences that reduce the decorativeness of the plant, you need to break off or carefully cut off, keeping the axillary buds in the upper leaves. This contributes to the abundant growth and flowering of rhododendrons in the next year.
Wintering is the most important stage in the life of rhododendrons. It depends on the flowering next year.
As a rule, deciduous species in the middle belt conditions winter better than evergreen ones. Deciduous rhododendrons like Dahurian, Japanese, yellow, Canadian, Ledebour, Schlippenbach need not be covered - just in case, cover only the area of the root collar with dry leaves or peat.
More difficult is the case with evergreen rhododendrons. Even winter hardy (Caucasian, Katevbinsky) is better to grow with shelter. In winter, they do not freeze like they are drained — they need protection from the wind and the sun. For this purpose, good houses, knocked out of the boards and covered with roofing material.
Less shelter evergreen rhododendrons such shelter will not protect. They will need houses, covered with porous insulation material (polypropylene, polyurethane foam, etc.). Fragile insulation (foam) unsuitable. Shelter must have a frame, otherwise the snow will bring down him and break the bush.
Frosts can damage the root system of rhododendrons, both evergreen and deciduous, so it must be insulated first. As soon as low temperatures are established, the roots are mulched with sour peat or a dry leaf (preferably with an oak) layer of at least 10–15 cm.
When to close and when to open the bushes?
And with that and with another it is not necessary to hurry. Low temperatures (down to –10 ° C) are not dangerous for rhododendrons. But if the shelter is set too early, the root neck will begin to subside and the plant will die. Do not strive to catch up to the first snow, which sometimes falls in October. You can clear off the snow, but cover in optimal time - in mid-November.
It is also not too early to open the bushes in spring. Do not be tempted by the March sun. In March, the roots are still asleep in frozen ground and can not absorb water. If at this time to remove the shelter, the tender leaves of evergreen rhododendrons will fall under the scorching rays - and “burn”, dry and blacken. It is best to remove shelter from rhododendron bushes when the soil is completely thawed and warms up a little, and the weather will be cloudy on the selected day.
Rhododendron. © Tie Guy II
The most spectacular rhododendrons look like freely placed groups. Landing is desirable to stir along the edges of lawns, near paths and paths. Since rhododendrons belong to moisture-loving plants, they are best planted near water bodies: ponds, pools, fountains, where in summer, due to high humidity and moderate temperatures, the conditions are most favorable. Plants should be at least 3, and, for each should allocate at least 1 sq.m. In the absence of adult specimens, thickened plantings of young can be used with the expectation that as they grow they will be thinned out.
When creating groups it is not recommended to mix deciduous and evergreen rhododendrons. If various species are planted next to each other, they should be selected according to height: in the center - the highest, at the edges - lower. Rhododendrons are very decorative next to coniferous plants: spruce, pine, thuja, yew. On a plain dark background, plants with bright colors are especially impressive. Evergreen trees and shrubs planted from the south, east or west protect rhododendrons from cold winds, winter drying and spring sunburn. Since light penumbra is preferred for normal growth and development of rhododendrons, they can be successfully planted between large, old trees or on the north side of buildings. The territory on the south side is not recommended for planting, especially for evergreen species. In this case, the plants are more susceptible to diseases, their leaves turn yellow, growth and bloom weaken.
When placing the rhododendrons in groups, one should strictly ensure that they are composed of such varieties and species that harmonize with the color of the flowers. The most decorative neighborhood of plants with purple, pink and white or with different contrasting shades. Rhododendrons with yellow and orange flowers look amazingly well in plantations. Pale yellow tones are brighter and brighter.
Rhododendrons are beautiful not only in groups, but also in solitary plantings. They are especially good on parterre lawns, but it should be borne in mind that the decorative effect is maximum when using an adult (at least 10 years old), preferably a tall (1.5-2.0 m) plant, otherwise it will be “lost” on the lawn. Rhododendrons are also used in the creation of hedges and rocky hills. For rock gardens the most suitable are small-flowered undersized varieties in combination with alpine species of herbaceous plants. In such plantings rhododendrons should be planted only in groups, which during flowering gives a greater effect.
Rhododendron. © brewbooks
All variety of rhododendron for your garden
More than 90% of all rhododendrons come from Southeast Asia. The plant itself is a shrub, deciduous (second name Azalea) or evergreen.
Special love and distribution received for large flowers of different colors, often pink or lilac. Among the many species you can find shade-tolerant, thermophilic and frost-resistant.
Rhododendrons bloom from April to July and can bloom again from August to October.
The following deciduous species are known:
Rhododendron Schlippenbach (R. schlippenbachii). Height - 1-2 m, flowers pale pink with speckles, very decorative, bloom in May before the leaves bloom. Winter-hardy view for the Baltic States, St. Petersburg.
R. Canadian (R. Canadense). Also winter-hardy up to 2 m tall with purple-purple flowers, which are collected in large inflorescences with a diameter of 12-15 cm. It blooms in May and July. For better flowering is better to cover.
R. Japanese (R. japonicum) has bright orange-red flowers or brick-red with specks of yellow. Also winter hardy.
Azalea Pontic, or R. Yellow (Azalea pontica) refers to relics. It has fragrant flowers, orange or yellow, blooms in May and June. It grows quickly, light-requiring, however, can tolerate a slight shading, frost-resistant look.
The biggest minus is the whole plant is poisonous, even flowers. Accordingly, honey is poisonous. Historically, this property of a plant has repeatedly determined the outcome of wars.
Evergreen species are more widespread. Of these, the most common are:
R. Ketevbinsky (R. catawbiense). The shrub has a height of up to 2 m, the leaves are dark green above and gray below. Blossoms in May-July lilac-purple flowers. Winter hardy look.
R. Caucasian (R. caucasicum) has creeping branches, white flowers. It grows slowly and prefers moist places in the shade. A special feature is the plant's resistance to lime-containing soils, and all its parts are poisonous. Frost resistant
The polymorphic species R. Dahur (R. Dahuricum) is very interesting.. Its leaves live for 2 seasons - for the winter they curl and darken, and in spring they open and turn green. The plant is winter-hardy, and winters with large buds that bloom in early spring.
R. treelike (R. arboretum) blooms in March and April with red flowers. This type is most often used to produce various varieties and garden forms.
R. Adams (R. Adamsii) It is interesting for its small size (height up to 0.5 m) and pink small, but numerous flowers. Also, the plant has beneficial medicinal properties.
R. golden (R. aureum) also undersized with yellow flowers. Winter-hardy, badly transfers heat.
For the garden, plants from the group of hybrids are usually purchased. The most common varieties with red flowers - "Cynthia", "John Walter", "Doncaster". The variety “Pink Pearl” has large flowers of pink color, however it is necessary to control the speed of its growth. But the variety "Dr Tjebes" more compact. If you want a rhododendron hybrid with white flowers, then these are in the variety “Sappho”. Purple - in «Purple Splendour».
Recently, dwarf varieties (“Elizabeth”, “Blue Tit”, “Bow Bells”) have become popular.
Growing rhododendrons in the garden - planting and care, especially reproduction
In order for your plant to please you with its healthy appearance, you need to choose the right place for planting. It should be in partial shade and near the water source.
Hollows and hollows are not suitable, the landing site must also be protected from the cold wind. It should be borne in mind that deciduous species are more demanding on the soil, but they do not require shading.
The best soil - high acid sour peat or its mixture with sand. The general requirement is the acid reaction of the soil, as indicated by the growth of such plants as dog mint, small oxalaceae, and Veronica.
Then for the bush it is necessary to prepare a landing hole. It is usually made 60–70 cm wide, 30–40 cm deep. On clayey soils — less deep by 20–25 cm, but wider (1.0–1.2 m). We fill the pit with peat (top) or a special soil mixture purchased in the store.
It is best to purchase three year old rhododendron saplings with a closed root system. Planted plant in spring (mid-April - the first decade of May) or autumn (September). We place a lump with the earth into the water so that it is well saturated with moisture, and then we lower it into the prepared pit.
Plant in such a way that the upper part of the coma with the roots is at the level of the top of the pit, without deepening the root neck. Fall asleep hole and water the bush. After a couple of days, the soil should be mulled with sawdust (layer 5-7 cm).
If you want to plant several plants side by side, then the distance between them should be at least 1 m. But still you should focus on the size of the bush itself. For example, on 1 square. m can accommodate one R. yellow or 4 R. Canadian.
Care is to combat weeds, dressing, watering, loosening, protection from pests and diseases.
For the destruction of weeds, it is better to use herbicides (roundap, casarone, etc.), since mechanical removal can damage the roots of the bush, which are located very close to the surface. Limit the growth of weeds mulching sawdust or bark.
Feed should be fed twice a year - at the end of flowering and in early July. Mineral fertilizer for rhododendrons can be purchased at the store. As an organic fertilizer, it is better to use high-moor peat or rotted manure (the latter should be applied only in spring in a small amount - 0.5 l of liquid per bucket of water per 4 sq. M).
Watering is a very important factor. Norm - 1-1.5 buckets of water 2-3 times a week, young bushes and plants during the flowering period are watered more often. The soil should be wet, not wet. In hot weather should be sprayed. Also, it is better to slightly acidify the water before irrigation with sulfuric acid (1 ml in a bucket of water) or another organic acid.
It is advisable to remove faded inflorescences, pruning of a bush is possible, but not necessary (carried out after flowering).
Many rhododendrons are winter-hardy enough, but still need winter shelter (sacking, lapnik, spunbond). In deciduous species, the roots are also warmed for the winter with a layer of fresh sawdust (8-10 cm).
Reproduction of rhododendrons can be carried out by layering in the summer (best of all), cuttings, dividing the bushes, grafts, seeds.
The cuttings are carried out in June-July, cutting off the branches 10-15 cm long, and soaked them for 20 hours in a growth stimulator. Then placed in an acidic substrate and covered with a film, periodically watered. After 2-3 months a root system should appear.
It is possible to grow rhododendron from seeds, but it is rather difficult and it is required to fulfill numerous conditions for a successful result. It is much easier to buy an adult bush.
Garden rhododendron is a shrubs with different in shape and size of leaf plates. You can find annual, biennial and perennial species. In addition, rhododendron can be sessile or petiolate, alternate, entire or palmate, ovoid or obovate.
The flower rhododendron has gained great popularity all over the world due to its decorative leaves, but its main advantage is the beautiful flowers of pink, white, red, purple and violet. Flowers gather in shields or brushes that look like a gorgeous bouquet. The shape of the flowers can be funnel-shaped, bell-shaped, tubular or wheel-shaped, depending on the variety of rhododendron. Some flowers of the plant produce a very pleasant and strong aroma.
After flowering in place of the flowers, fruits are formed. in the form of a multi-seeded five-fold box with seeds, the size of which reaches 2 mm. The root system of rhododendron is quite compact, superficial, and consists of a large number of fibrous roots. Therefore, due to the superficial location of the root system, plant transplantation is quite easy to implement; it does not cause any trouble even to beginning flower growers and the plant itself.
Rhododendron is also an excellent early spring honey plant.
Where to plant?
If we talk about growing rhododendron in our climatic conditions, then it is worth planting only winter hardy varieties. Planting at the same time in open ground should be carried out in the period from April to mid-May, as well as in the period from September to November. Вообще, если имеется необходимость, то посадку рододендрона можно осуществлять в любое время вегетационного периода, исключая только ту пору, когда растение цветёт, а также в течение пары недель после цветения.
Сажать рододендрон рекомендуется в тенистых местах, у северной стороны здания, в рыхлый, хорошо тренированный кислый грунт, который богат гумусом. Если на вашем дачном участке имеются грунтовые воды, которые залегают на глубине менее 1 м, то посадку растения необходимо производить на приподнятые грядки. В качестве соседей рододендрона могут выступать следующие деревьяwhose root system goes deep into the soil:
Rhododendron is not recommended to plant next to the following trees:
The fact is that the above trees will deprive rhododendron of necessary nutritionbecause their root system will feed at the same depth as the roots of our plant. If you do not have the opportunity to avoid such a neighborhood, then it is necessary to protect the root system of rhododendron by introducing roofing material, slate or polyethylene into the soil.
If we talk about garden trees, then apple and pear trees will be good neighbors for rhododendrons.
How to plant?
First of all, it is necessary to dig a pit for planting, the diameter of which is 60 cm and the depth is about 40 cm. After that, a well-mixed mixture is poured into the pit.consisting of the following types of land:
- 8 buckets of peat,
- 3.5 loam buckets.
The mixture at the bottom of the pit should be well compacted, and then dig a hole in it, which corresponds to the size of the root system of seedlings.
Before planting, rhododendron saplings must be dipped in water, keep them there until the air bubbles cease to stand out. After this, the root system of the seedling should be placed in the hole, covered with a hole up to the ground, tamping it down so that there are no extra voids left. Thus, the root neck of the plant should be at the level of the soil surface.
After planting the bush should be watered abundantly, if you planted in a dry ground, so that the soil got wet to a depth of 20 cm. After this, the tree trunk must be mulched with peat, oak leaves, moss or pine needles 5 cm thick. If there are a lot of buds on the plant, so that all forces are directed to successful rooting, and not to the flowering process.
If you carry out a single landing on a fairly spacious area, then you need to stick a support, tilting it towards the direction of the winds, tying the plant to it. As soon as you notice that the sapling of rhododendron is rooted, the support can be removed.
Possible pests and diseases
More often of the pests rhododendron can be thrown as follows:
- Spider mite,
- Rhododendron fly,
At the same time, gastropods need to be collected manually, and as a preventive measure, you can use the TMTD or Tirama fungicide solution. In order to get rid of spider mites, bugs and weevils, it is necessary to do the processing diazinonom. If the rhododendron struck the weevil, then it will have to be treated with insecticide and the top layer of soil. Other pests can be exterminated with karbofos in accordance with the instructions to the tool.
If we talk about possible diseases, then most often rhododendron is affected by fungal:
These diseases usually appear due to poor aeration of the root system. Spotting and rust can be destroyed with the help of preparations of copper sulphate, in particular, Bordeaux mixture. To get rid of chlorosis, it is necessary to add iron chelate to the water for irrigation. If we talk about cancer, then to eliminate it, it is necessary to remove all diseased shoots or cut them to healthy tissue. In addition, it is recommended to regularly carry out preventive treatments for bordeaux bushes in early spring and late autumn.