Lack of nitrogen in plants leads to poor development of buds, frail and undeveloped shoots, scant leaves, early dropping of leaves. Urea will help to correct the situation. What is it for and what to do with it? On its application and processing of the garden and the garden, we'll talk further.
What is urea?
This mineral fertilizer with a high concentration of nitrogen. It is used as the main or additional feeding for different cultures.
After the introduction of urea, the plants grow well and abundantly bear fruit. Pests such as weevils, aphids and coopers disappear after spraying.
Purple blotch will recede from fruit trees and shrubs if they are treated with a solution in early spring and late autumn.
Urea and urea: are they the same or not?
In fact, these are two names of one fertilizer. At first, it was synthesized from the urine of livestock by evaporation, the resulting substance was called urea.
Urea is the scientific name for a chemical compound currently being produced.
Fertilizer is a small white granules, soluble in warm water.
Urea and urea are one and the same
The composition and properties of the drug
Urea is a highly concentrated nitrogenous fertilizer that contains no nitrates. Its use is preferable at the plant development stage. If you use it at the stage of bud formation, then you can lose it in the harvest.
Positive properties of fertilizer:
- Not able to cause burns to plants, while spraying.
- Increases autumn fruit harvesting from garden and fruit crops.
- Excellent against parasites and pathogens.
- In a short time absorbed by plants.
- The concentration of nitrogen in plant cells increases, within two days after spraying.
- Able to slow down flowering and reduce the risk of falling flowers in the frost.
- Increases the amount of protein in cultures.
- Practically not washed into the lower layers of the earth.
- Slowly disintegrates in the ground.
- It is easily dissolved, does not leave sediment.
Negative side of urea:
- Reduces germination of seeds, if there is too much of it in the soil.
- It is capable to harm young shoots, at wrong use.
- Stored at certain prescribed rates.
- It is badly combined with many elements.
Combination with other fertilizers
Urea is not recommended to be mixed with alkaline fertilizers, because after a chemical reaction, ammonia is released and nitrogen disappears.
If you combine urea and powdered superphosphate, then the properties of these fertilizers change. This can be avoided by adding limestone, bone or phosphate rock to the superphosphate.
For a long time you can store a mixture of urea and:
- sodium and potassium nitrate,
- potassium chloride,
- potassium sulfate,
- ammonium nitrate.
Before fertilizing garden and fruit plants, urea can also be mixed with phosphate rock, superphosphate, ammonium sulfate.
Instructions for use of the solution
Spreading carbamide granules around the garden will not give the expected results, as under the influence of air, its compounds disintegrate. Maximum efficiency is achieved if you bring it into the soil. Air access to ammonium carbonate will be limited, as a result, nutrients will get to the plants.
Urea is suitable for use on all types of soil.
In the autumn, it can only be used in an empty garden, as it can harm perennial plants and winter varieties of onions and garlic. But experts believe it is inappropriate to apply it at this time, due to the fact that urea quickly decomposes, and some substances evaporate.
Fertilizer is better to make in the spring for the active growth and development of plants. Top dressing solution is effective in wet ground. In granules, it is used for digging and loosening.
Urea is added in spring for better plant growth.
Spraying and processing garden
During the period of plant growth, it is better to apply spraying with urea, which is carried out at sunrise or sunset, in calm weather.
To destroy overwintering pests, it is necessary to treat the trees before the appearance of buds, when the average daily temperature is set at + 5 ° С.
In the period of leaf fall, you can sprinkle trees that have infectious diseases, as well as their fallen leaves. This is necessary so that next year the culture will not fall ill.
Urea can be used on all cultures.
Horticulture application rates
For vegetable crops, flowers and berries per 1m 2:
- roses, irises, calla lilies, hyacinths, hippeastrum - 5-10 grams,
- cucumbers and peas - 6-9 gr.,
- squash, eggplant and zucchini - 10-12 gr.,
- Peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, beets, potatoes, onions and garlic - 19-23 gr.,
- strawberries - 13-20 grams.
For fruit crops one plant:
- young pears and apple trees - 150 gr.,
- fruiting pears and apples - 200-250 gr.,
- young plums, cherries, berry bushes - 70 gr.,
- fruiting plums and cherries - 120-140 gr.
Urea is a very effective fertilizer in gardening. They can feed plants and soil, destroy pests, protect crops from diseases. For best results, you need to dilute the 5 percent solution, according to the instructions, and also try not to scatter it on the garden plot. It should be remembered that it is useful for plants in the spring during the period of green mass gain, and for the prevention of diseases and pests - after the first autumn leaf fall.
Externally, urea fertilizer is a very light or transparent round granules that have no smell. By the way, granulation is performed to prevent urea (aka carbamide) from caking during transport or long-term storage. The chemical formula of the drug, called scientifically "carbonic acid amide" - (NH2)2CO, half of the total (46.2%) is nitrogen.
According to physical indicators, urea fertilizer, the use of which is popular among gardeners and gardeners, is characterized by good solubility in liquid and polar solvents, which allows it to be used both in pure form (granules) and as a solution. Its surface use is most common, the granules are scattered around the plant, crushed with a small amount of earth and leveled with a rake, after which the fertilized area needs to be watered. Once in the soil, urea fertilizer (instructions for use are usually available on the packaging manufacturer) begins to immediately interact with enzymes and bacteria in the ground. This may lead to the fact that part of the drug can gradually turn into ammonia.
Urea use with nitrogen deficiency in plants
Urea is a fertilizer that is recommended for use for garden and horticultural crops suffering from nitrogen deficiency. Determine its shortage can be on the following grounds:
- unnaturally slow, depressed plant growth,
- weak, thin, short shoots of trees and shrubs,
- thin, narrow leaves, often pale or with characteristic yellowness,
- premature fall of foliage,
- weak and underdeveloped flower buds, the formation of which occurs in quantities less than the norm, and, as a result, poor fruiting.
Urea fertilizer can be used for fruit and berry crops as the main fertilizer, and as a top dressing. And for him any soil is suitable. It is worth knowing that each crop is individual, therefore its fertilizer needs are different from the rest. It is always necessary to observe the dosage specified by the manufacturer!
Urea is a fertilizer, the use of which in the garden often becomes a necessity, has the property to be transformed and modified in the course of several days by the action of bacteria in the soil. During this process, the release of ammonium carbonate occurs, which tends to decay rapidly in the open air. As a consequence, the use of urea acquires a superficial character that has an ineffective effect.
Urea (fertilizer): application in the garden
The best is the introduction of urea in its immediate incorporation into the soil, which causes a high percentage of penetration of nitrogen and other nutrients into plants. It is worth knowing that urea fertilizer strongly acidifies the soil, therefore, chalk should be used as a neutralizer, which is applied simultaneously with urea (½ kg of urea - 400 grams of limestone).
In preparing the land for planting garden and horticultural crops per 1 square. meter should be made 5-11 grams of urea in its pure form (granules). 60% of the total urea is applied in the autumn, 40% in the spring.
Urea Dosing for Cultures
Urea is a fertilizer, the instructions for use of which during the vegetative period for different crops recommend the following dosage:
- for beets, onions, cabbage, potatoes and garlic urea consumption per 1 square. meter is 19-23 grams,
- for peas and cucumbers - 6-9 grams,
- for eggplants, squash, squash - 10-12 grams, feeding in this case requires 2 times: first - when planting seedlings, second - at the beginning of the formation of fruits,
- for cereals - 300 grams per 1 hectare.
For strawberries and strawberries, urea (fertilizer) is diluted in water (10 grams per 2 liters). This solution is spraying the culture during the formation of buds and fruit ovary. In early September, the plants will need to feed a concentrated solution: 60 grams per 20 liters of water. Yield increase is the purpose for which urea (fertilizer) is used. Application in the garden should be dosed, an excess of nitrogen fertilizers will cause an effective growth of their green mass, unfortunately, to the detriment of fruit bearing. At the same time formation of underdeveloped ovaries and fruits can be observed.
Urea (fertilizer): instructions for use
There are several goals for urea introduction:
- Basic (preseeding). Fertilizer when making is required to immediately embed into the soil to a depth of not less than 3-4 cm in order to avoid evaporation of ammonia.
- Seeding (during sowing). There must be a layer of soil between the preparation and the seeds. It is better to use in combination with potash fertilizers.
- Top dressing - during the growing season of plants.
- Foliar top dressing. It is carried out by hand spraying in the morning and evening hours. Unlike ammonium nitrate, a solution of carbamide does not burn the leaves.
Urea is a fertilizer, the instructions for use of which recommends applying the drug in advance. This is due to the fact that when granulating it, a substance buaret is formed that can harm the plants. If the content of buareta exceeds 3%, then the plants will be oppressed. This problem can be solved by fertilizing a couple of weeks before planting the plant. During this period, the store manages to decompose.
Use of urea as a top dressing
Foliar top dressing of garden crops, in parallel aimed at protecting plants from pests and diseases, is done by spraying at the rate of 9-15 grams of product per 10 liters of water.
For good development and abundant fruiting of shrubs and trees from urea, it is necessary to prepare a concentrated solution, which is applied directly to the area of the stem and pristvolnyh strips. For each adult apple tree, urea consumption is 200 grams in dry form (which is not very effective) or in diluted (per 10 liters of water). For plums, cherries and chokeberries, the proportion is less - 10 liters of water - 120 grams of the drug. It is logical that not many gardeners have on hand a scale to measure the fertilizer correctly. It is worth knowing that a tablespoon contains 10 grams of urea, in a matchbox - 13 grams, in an ordinary 200-gram cup - 130 grams of this fertilizer.
Urea Pest Control
If you do not want to use pesticides in the fight against pests, urea (fertilizer) can be used. Instructions for use suggests setting a temperature of +5 degrees, before awakening the kidneys, to spray urea solution (50-70 grams per liter of water). This is a good method to get rid of wintering pests. Such treatment will be effective if in the previous year there was a huge accumulation of pests. You can not make a highly concentrated solution (more than 100 grams per 1 liter) in order to avoid burning leaves.
During storage, urea should be protected from moisture, because it tends to be very moist.
Urea: advantages and disadvantages
Mixing urea with other fertilizers is possible only if they are dry, when combining urea with superphosphate, the acidity is required to be neutralized with chalk.
Positive characteristics of urea:
- Nitrogen urea is easily absorbed by plants and is equivalent in value to nitrogen, which is contained in ammonium phosphate and sulphate.
- Urea can be an effective foliar feeding, as it, unlike other drugs, does not cause leaf burns.
- Urea (fertilizer) is effective on light and acidic land for plants that are sensitive to an increase in acidity.
- Productive on irrigated soils.
Urea is a fertilizer that has the following disadvantages:
- With a low urease content in the soil it may be ineffective, which will require the use of organic fertilizers.
- With a strong concentration of fertilizer near the seeds, a sharp decrease in their germination is observed.
- Sensitive to storage conditions, should be protected from moisture.
Urea is highly concentrated mineral nitrogen fertilizer. The urea formula is as follows: (NH2) 2CO. Urea is in the form of small granules, they may be white or have a weak color. Urea does not smell. This fertilizer is also called carbamide. Urea is very soluble in water. In fact, it is the end product of protein breakdown in fish and mammals. Any blood composition that is subject to biochemical analysis will contain urea.
In industry, urea is produced by a certain compound of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Thus, its production is often combined with the manufacture of other substances based on ammonia.
- Fertilizer contains a large amount of nitrogen, which is easily soluble in water.
- Nutrients from the solution are practically not washed out into the lower layers of the soil, thus all the useful substances will remain near the roots and will be fully assimilated.
- Despite the rapid dissolution, urea slowly decomposes in the soil, and the roots get nourished for quite some time.
- This substance can be compared with ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate. But such substances make the soil very acidic, and without fear urea can be added to acidic soils.
- The use of this fertilizer helps to increase the yield, the timely introduction of nitrogen contributes to the early ripening of fruits and berries.
- You can make and during irrigation, and as foliar dressing.
Urea is practically most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer. Of the total composition of matter, nitrogen takes up about 46%.
Nitrogen in urea is found in the amide form and it is easily formed into available forms that are well absorbed by plants. When the fertilizer enters the soil, the amide form of nitrogen is converted to nitrite and ammonia. But it is precisely these forms that are easily absorbed by the root system of the plant.
In addition to providing nutrients, urea helps the plants to become more strong and not subject to diseases and pests. The substance that got into the soil in a few days turns into ammonium, and it has chemical instability. Therefore, fertilizer should be embedded in the soil. If you just spread the granules on the surface, then they will not bring benefit. But plunging into the ground and coming into contact with moisture, the substance immediately gives a reaction and is absorbed by the plant. But you can not embed the pellets too deep, in this case, the roots simply do not reach the power.
The introduction of nitrogen into the soil makes it more acidic, but when the nitrogen is absorbed, the acidity of the soil returns to its previous level.
Signs of nitrogen deficiency
Plants themselves can show that they lack certain substances. Thanks to these features, it is possible to determine which specific nutrient elements are missing.
On the lack of nitrogen indicate:
- Very slow growth of green mass.
- The leaves become pale, and yellow streaks form on the surface. But it is worth remembering that the lack of nitrogen affects precisely the lower leaves. If the upper leaves are pale on the plant, this indicates a lack of iron. If in this case to feed the bush with nitrogen, it will bring him significant harm.
- Нижние листья могут полностью погибать.
- Цветение происходит в более поздний период.
- Общий вид зеленой массы становится угнетенным.
Правила внесения удобрения
- Если почва дерновая и легкая, то мочевину стоит вносить на участках с большим количеством естественных осадков.
- In soils with neutral acidity, fertilizers are applied with obligatory sealing. For example, urea is scattered on the soil surface and immediately dug up. If the granules are left on the surface, then more than 50% of nitrogen is simply not absorbed by plants.
- In the forest-steppe zones, carbamide is applied before planting. And it is worth making no more than 70% of all substances that are necessary for plants. The remaining elements contribute to the period of growth and the formation of plants.
- If nitrogen is mixed with superphosphate, then you need to add components that will help neutralize the acidity. For example, you can make dolomite, chalk and other substances.
Top dressing vegetables
Urea is applied to the site just before planting vegetables. Spring - the most favorable period for the introduction of nitrogen. On a plot of one square meter you need to distribute 5-12 grams of fertilizer. The following feeding is carried out during the growing season. The dosage is kept the same as before planting. The solution is used only after rain or additional watering, it will protect the roots from damage by concentrated fertilizer.
Also during the growing season, foliar feeding with urea is carried out. It is prepared as follows: 50-60 grams of granules are dissolved in 10 liters of water. The solution is used in the amount of three liters for every 100 square meters of planting. It is important to use this solution before flowers start to form on the plant. It is not allowed to conduct foliar feeding on hot days, the most favorable time for this type of dressing is morning and evening.
Fruit and ornamental plants
Trees and shrubs fertilize twice.
The first dressing make about a week after flowering. For fertilizer dilute 20-30 grams of urea in 10 liters of water. The resulting solution is abundantly watered plants. The second feeding is carried out 25-30 days after the first.
At each adult bush is worth pouring at least 10 liters of water. And under the trees you need to make more.
Urea Use as a Pesticide
This fertilizer can be used as a protective agent against diseases and pests.
To protect plants from pests should hold spring gardening. The event can be carried out already in the period when the air temperature is not less than +5 degrees.
- First prepare the solution. For 10 liters of water you need to add 500-700 grams of urea and mix well.
- Prepare the solution immediately watered the beds and shrubs. In this way, you can get rid of aphids, suckling, weevil and apple tsvetoeda.
- To treat the site in order to protect against disease, it is necessary to prepare another solution. This solution is watered on the site in the autumn, after harvesting. To do this, use a solution of urea, the concentration chosen is 5%. For each plant consume 1-5 liters of the finished solution. Such a solution can be used in the fight against scab, purple blotch and other bacterial diseases.
Urea is used quite often, because it is available, cheap and can be used for different types of plants or trees.
Urea as fertilizer - what is it?
This additional mineral supplement for soil and plants was discovered in the 18th century. Since that time, it began to be used to improve the quality of the soil, increase yields. Appearance of fertilizer - white or slightly transparent balls, granules or powdery substance. It is also available in pill form, but less frequently. Another name for urea (you already know this) is carbamide, if somewhere in the recommendations for applying fertilizers you will meet this word, keep in mind that urea and urea are one and the same. This product is highly soluble in water and other liquid formulations, if the situation requires.
The granule-like fraction allows to precisely dose the required amount of urea, facilitates the process of fertilizer application. Urea saturates the soil with nitrogen when it enters it, subsequently its amide form (the main component) is gradually transformed into ammonia, and only then into the nitrate form. This process occurs gradually, which allows the plants to evenly absorb the feeding.
There are liquid forms of nitrogen fertilizer. For example, Liquid carbamide with macro- and microelements from Fasco. Convenient to use. The manufacturer assures that the complex of microelements is in chelate form, which means it is quickly and efficiently absorbed by plants.
Not so long ago, humatized urea went on sale. This organic-mineral fertilizer, including organic additive - humate. Composition: nitrogen - not less than 44%, salts of humic substances - not more than 1%.
In general, from the above, we already know that urea is a highly concentrated nitrogenous fertilizer. The nitrogen content reaches 46%.
What is urea scientifically? In order not to delve into chemical terms and try to explain the essence of the matter more easily, it can be said that urea is a product of the synthesis of inorganic compounds. Of all the nitrogen fertilizers available, urea is considered the most concentrated.
How to know that plants need urea - signs of nitrogen deficiency
The appearance of your green inhabitants may suggest that it is time to use urea.
With a lack of nitrogen:
- The plant grows very slowly in growth, sluggish and weak in appearance.
- Too thin stems and undeveloped (short) shoots.
- Small, scanty foliage pale green-yellow shade.
- Dropping leaves, sometimes much earlier.
- Poorly developed buds (in flowers, trees), their number decreases.
The above symptoms are a signal for a nitrogen deficiency. It is noteworthy that urea can be used to fertilize garden trees, berry bushes, as well as all the vegetables that you have in the garden. It is a truly versatile supplement that equally helps all green crops.
Urea fertilizer - how to use?
In large areas, farmers, producers of urea agricultural products are used, scattering dry granules. But this method is ineffective if you do not listen to the weather forecast. If it does not rain in the next 2-3 days, and urea (carbamide) remains lying on the surface of the ground, then we can assume that fertilizer (money) is thrown to the wind, since urea in the open air quickly loses its properties.
How are we, gardeners, better to use this fertilizer? There are several ways:
- these are top dressing - root or foliar,
- This is the protection of plants from diseases and pests.
How not to twist, scattering granules on the surface of the soil, directly at the place of growing plants - this is the most common way to use urea as fertilizer.
You can use a rake and sprinkle some fertilizing with earth a little - this is an important point, because fertilizer always mixes with the ground! After making the feeding, the soil should be watered with water, if, of course, it is dry.
There are several methods of using carbamide: the first is preseeding dressing, when urea balls are buried in the ground by not less than 5 cm. This is done during the spring and / or autumn digging of the earth.
Urea scattering on the site, photo:
The second - during planting or seeding, to maximize the effect, urea is mixed with potassium supplements. During this, it is extremely important to prevent the seeds from contacting the granules - there must be a layer of earth between the fertilizers and the seed.
The third method is considered the most productive, it is carried out during the growth of green crops - this foliar feeding. The granules are first dissolved in water, and then irrigation of the ground parts of the plants is carried out. This is best done in the early morning or after sunset, during the procedure there should be no wind or rain - this is important.
Foliar top dressing (spraying), photo:
Urea - dosages for different cultures
For spraying, you can use special garden spray with a pump. Urea dissolved in water does not harm foliage, so you can be safe from burning it. The standard dosage for creating a urea solution for foliar feeding of vegetable, berry and fruit crops involves the cultivation of 10-15 g of the product in 10 liters of water.
It should be borne in mind that for grassy crops it is necessary to make a less strong composition, for trees or shrubs a more saturated one will suit. For large trees (pears, apples, quinces, peaches) that have already turned more than 4-5 years old, you can take 200 grams per 10 liters of water. Apricots, plums, cherries or cherries require approximately 120 g per 10 liters.
An approximate calculation of doses for certain garden representatives looks like this:
- Cucumbers, beans, peas and other legumes - from 6 to 9 g per 1 m².
- Tomatoes, carrots, beets, radishes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers and various types of cabbage - from 18 to 25 g per 1 m².
- Eggplants, squash, any sort of zucchini varieties - from 10 to 12 g per 1 m².
- Strawberries, raspberries, strawberries - from 50 to 70 g per 10 liters of water (at the end of summer).
- Fruit trees, shrubs - from 5 to 12 g per 1 m².
For example: 1 tablespoon is 10 g of urea, and a matchbox holds 15 g. In a standard faceted glass, 140 g of product is placed. Remember that dry fertilizer is applied to the soil or when planting plants, or in the spring / autumn digging. For other cases, only water solution is used.
Urea as pest protection
Urea is used not only to maintain the vitality of your green inhabitants, but also to combat parasites. Aphids, copperskin, weevils and their many comrades die after irrigation with a concentrated composition of urea. To destroy pests 60-70 g of urea is dissolved in 1 liter of water. This is a very concentrated solution. They can spray fruit trees only on bare branches.
So you will be sure that you are guaranteed to destroy all the parasites that wintered under the bark.
With the onset of autumn, as soon as the plants drop the foliage, it is recommended to spray all suspicious trees and shrubs with the same concentrated solution. Crown, branches - everything is processed.
This is a very effective remedy for diseases and pests of garden crops. Any infectious disease, such as rust, scab, spotting, will be destroyed, and next year there will be no trace of them. Thus, you will bring double benefit to the plants - get rid of the disease and produce nitrogen fertilizer.
Urea is also effective in preventing and treating many fungal diseases. Processing plants with urea reduces the possibility of reproduction in pathogens, and also reduces the possibility of infection in fruit trees.
Urea itself does not kill pathogenic fungi on plants. But with an excess of nitrogen in any plant, the process of suppression of fungal spores occurs.
When treating plants with urea for fungal diseases, gardeners should be careful, especially if they want to use a loading dose.
Impact dose is 300 or more grams per 10 liters of water. With a higher concentration of the solution can only achieve the death of the whole plant.
According to some sources, early-spring (before kidney prickling) treatment with 5% urea solution has not only a preventive effect, but also delays the onset of flowering for 7-10 days, which is very important in our unpredictable climate.
On my site the soil is black soil. Experiencing for myself, I found that in my garden 1 tablespoon of water with a slide into 10 liters of water is the best solution. Checked repeatedly. This dose is good for peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, cabbage, potatoes.
The first fertilizing urea I do when planting seedlings. In the empty hole, first pour about 1 liter of clean water. As soon as the liquid was absorbed, add 1 liter of solution to each and immediately plant the seedlings. Such a dosage will allow the seedlings to adapt quickly, to grow. Urea in the first half of the growing season helps plants quickly form a vegetative mass, the root system. But in the second half you cannot abuse this fertilizer.
The second feeding is about two weeks from the first, when buds, flowers, and ovaries appear on the bushes.
Do not forget - first the bed is watered with plain water. Only after that under each bush pour out a liter of urea nutrient solution.
This quantity (1 liter) - for pepper, tomatoes, eggplants. For cucumbers, so much solution under a bush is too much, since such an amount will lead to an increase in leaf mass due to a decrease in ovaries. That is, under the cucumber bush enough to pour no more than 1-1.5 cups of urea solution.
Urea - pros and cons of fertilizer
All the advantages of using urea have been mentioned above: it is the easy absorption of nitrogen by plants, and, as a result, the improvement of their growth, pomp, density of green mass. The fertilizer itself is a gentle but very effective means. It does not cause burns on the foliage, destroys dangerous infections, pests. Even sensitive plants that react to the pH of the soil, react positively, absorb urea. The ease of use, the availability of the product itself, the versatility of the methods of use (soil application, as well as foliar feeding), the guarantee of increased yields are the advantages of using this fertilizer.
The so-called "cons" also need to be considered:
- Overdose with the subsoil introduction is fraught with a decrease in germination of seed.
- Mix urea with phosphorus additives can only be in dry form. If such a “cocktail” increases the acidity of the soil, it can be neutralized by adding chalk.
- Granulated carbamide should be stored in dry conditions, because the product actively absorbs moisture, which can clump.
- It should be remembered about the characteristics of urea to slightly acidify the soil. If your site has a normal pH level, then it will not affect its composition. If the acidity is increased, the introduction of limestone will solve this problem (800 g of limestone should be added per 1000 g of urea).
Carefully read the instructions on the package, do not exceed the recommended dosage, excess nitrogen is also undesirable, as well as its disadvantage. With proper use of this product is able to solve many agrotechnical problems, ranging from improving plant growth and ending with the destruction of parasites. Urea-fertilizer is good for everyone; the use of this universal additive in the garden is a time-tested, real salvation for gardeners and gardeners.
The main characteristics of urea
This unique mineral fertilizer for plants and soil was found at the end of the 18th century. Since then, it has been used to improve soil properties and increase yield. Urea is a small white balls or powder mixture. Sometimes it is made in the form of large tablets. The second name of this fertilizer is carbamide. It is well dissolved in any liquid when necessary for convenient use.
Granules allow very measure dosage accurately the right amount of urea, which greatly simplifies the process of its use. Urea saturates the soil with nitrogen after it hits it. Then its amide form goes into the ammonia state, and then already into the nitrate state. This transformation is rather slow, which contributes to the cultures assimilate fertilizer evenly.
Scientifically, urea is the product of the synthesis of inorganic substances. Among all nitrogen fertilizing, carbamide can be considered the most concentrated.
The main signs of a shortage of urea in the soil
The appearance of the plants is able to suggest when you need to feed them with urea. The main signs of nitrogen deficiency are:
- the plant grows rather poorly, and its appearance is weak and sluggish,
- shoots with stems are very thin and poorly developed,
- the plant sheds leaves, often earlier than expected,
- kidneys practically do not develop, and their number is very small.
These signs can be considered the main signal of a catastrophic lack of nitrogen. It is worth noting that urea is used for feeding berry bushes, all types of trees and vegetables that grow in the garden. It can be considered a universal fertilizer that equally helps all types of plants.
Application in the garden
On vast fields, agricultural producers use urea, scattering the right amount of small granules on soil surface.
However, this method has little efficiency when the weather forecast for the near future is unknown. In case the rain does not start after top dressing, the fertilizer will lie on the soil surface. Thus, urea in the open air will lose its beneficial properties, and funds will be wasted.
Experts recommend using these methods of using urea:
- foliar or root bait,
- protection of garden crops from harmful insects and diseases.
Стоит заметить, что рассыпание гранул по поверхности почвы, около самого растения, является наиболее популярным методом применения карбамида. Иногда пользуются граблями и присыпают гранулы землей. Это довольно важный момент, так как мочевина хорошо перемешается с почвой. После подкормки, необходимо грунт залить водой. Существует еще несколько способов применения мочевины.
The first method consists in pre-sowing fertilizer, when the granules are immersed in the soil to a depth of at least 6 centimeters. This work is worth doing in spring or autumn when digging the ground.
The second method should be used when planting plants, and in order to increase the effect of urea, it should be mixed with potash fertilizers. In the process of work, it is necessary to prevent the contact of seeds with urea. Between seeds and pellets should be small layer of soil.
The latter method is the most popular. It is used during the growth of plants and is called foliar feeding. Urea is diluted in ordinary water, and then irrigation of the soil around the plants is done. The best time for this is considered to be early morning or evening. While working it should not rain or strong wind.
The optimal dosage of urea for plants
To effectively spray the plants, you should use specialized garden sprinklers with a hand pump. Urea dissolved in water does not harm the leaves, so do not be afraid of damage. The optimal dosage for the manufacture of urea solution with foliar bait of various plants is about 20 grams of fertilizer per 12 liters of water.
It is worth noting that for herbal plants it is necessary to make the composition of a smaller fortress, and for various shrubs and trees a mixture with a high concentration of nitrogen is suitable. For large trees that are older than 4 years, it is necessary to dissolve 220 grams of urea in 12 liters of water. Small fruit trees will need about 130 grams of fertilizer per 12 liters of water.
Optimum dosage calculationand for some plants like this:
- legumes and cucumbers require about 7 grams of urea per square meter,
- potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, onions, carrots and peppers require the use of up to 20 grams of urea per square meter,
- strawberries, raspberries and strawberries require the use of up to 60 grams of fertilizer per 12 liters of water,
- various shrubs and trees require up to 11 grams of urea per square meter of plants.
It must be remembered that dry urea is introduced into the soil when digging up the soil or when planting plants. For other cases, it is worth using an aqueous solution of urea.
Protection against insects with urea
Urea is used not only to feed various plant species, but also to combat insect pests. Weevils, aphids and other similar parasites die after processing the crop with a concentrated urea composition. To destroy insects, it is necessary to dissolve 65 grams of urea in one liter of pure water. Such a solution is considered very concentrated. They need to spray the trees only with bare branches, for example, in early spring.
Thus, there will be a guarantee of the destruction of all pests that wintered under the bark of trees. At the onset of autumn, when the trees lose their leaves, it is worth spraying all suspicious plants with such a concentrated composition.
Urea is a very good remedy for parasites and diseases of all plants. Absolutely any infectious disease will be destroyed, and next year there will be no trace of it left. In other words, it is possible to bring double benefit to agricultural crops. With the help of urea will be fertilized plants and getting rid of diseases.
Urea is very effective in preventing and treating most fungal diseases. Spraying urea reduces the risk of reproduction of pathogens, and also reduces the possibility of re-infection of trees and shrubs. This fertilizer is not able to destroy pathogenic fungi. However, with a large excess of nitrogen in the tree begins the process of inhibition of spores of harmful fungi.
When treating trees with urea from a fungus, a person needs to be extremely careful, especially when he uses concentrated formulations. Particularly dangerous is a solution of 310 grams of urea, which is dissolved in 12 liters of water. A large concentration of nitrogen can only achieve the death of the entire tree.
Experts say that treatment with 5% carbamide solution in early spring can have not only disease prevention, but also delay the start of flowering for a week. This is a very important impact in a domestic climate.
The advantages and disadvantages of urea
All the advantages of using urea have been described before. This is a good assimilation of nitrogen by fruit crops, the acceleration of their growth and foliage splendor. Urea is considered a fairly gentle fertilizer, but very effective. It never causes burns on the leaves, well destroys viral diseases and harmful insects. The most sensitive crops respond well and absorb fertilizer.
The disadvantages of using urea are as follows:
- Overdosing with the introduction of urea into the soil is fraught with a decrease in the number of seedlings.
- Mixing urea with phosphate fertilizers is possible only in a dry form. When the acidity of the soil increases from this composition, it can be reduced with ordinary chalk.
- Urea granules should be stored in a dry place, as they quickly absorb moisture and break down.
It must be remembered that urea slightly oxidizes the soil. When the acidity in the garden is high, you should add some limestone to the land. For one kilogram of fertilizer, you need to add about 850 grams of limestone.
Urea fertilizer: instructions for use in the garden
Ammonium carbonate is unstable. It decomposes into gaseous ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. When introduced into the soil, ammonia is converted to ammonium with an additional hydrogen ion coming from the soil solution or from soil particles. Then, the positively charged ammonium ions are fixed in the negatively charged soil particles, where they remain until they are absorbed by the plants through the roots or are not used by bacteria as an energy source and are not converted to nitrate during nitrification.
Here are some tips for applying urea fertilizer in the garden and garden:
- The use of urea by dissolving in the soil. As a rule, urea should not be applied to the surface of the soil or plants without ensuring its immediate absorption. Since, when applied to the surface of the soil anhydrous ammonia, a product of the hydrolysis of urea, it will immediately turn into gas and dissolve. This process is called ammonia volatilization. A significant loss of nitrogen from urea can be reduced or eliminated by treating the soil, for example, by plowing, or by irrigation. Being highly soluble in water, fertilizer urea in the soil behaves the same way as other nitrogen fertilizers. This means that once in the soil, the nutrients from the fertilizer will remain in it.
- Apply separately or mix with approved fertilizers. Urea fertilizer can be applied separately or mixed with some other selected fertilizer materials. However, some blends should be applied immediately after mixing. Moreover, it should not be mixed with some fertilizers, because a reaction will occur that will make some nutrients useless. Mixing basic materials with urea will result in nitrogen loss in the form of ammonia.
Fertilizers that cannot be mixed with urea:
- calcium nitrate,
- calcium ammonium nitrate,
- ammonium nitrate
- potassium nitrate,
In fact, here we are talking not about individual, but about the so-called compound fertilizers (mixtures). Compound fertilizer is more nutritious in its content and provides simplicity and economy in practice, because it contains many nutrients. But if the percentage of nutrients in the mixture is not suitable for the needs of a particular soil, which is necessary for growing plants, their use cannot provide the expected benefits. And if one-time enrichment of the soil is required for a single crop, such mixtures cannot be used.
Urea use time
Since nitrogenous fertilizers are very active in the soil, they can easily go to the gas or wash off with excess rain and water for irrigation. It is necessary to prevent such a loss and provide the soil with a timely supply of nitrogen precisely when the plant most needs nutrients. On the other hand, nitrogen should be discarded in dry years. In a well-treated fertile soil with a normal annual cycle with rains, you must also use a sufficient amount of urea.
When nitrogen deficiency is observed on a fruit tree, urea at a concentration of 0.5-1.0% should be sprayed before flowering and in the fall. To satisfy the lack of nitrogen in fruit trees, nitrogenous fertilizers are scattered on the crown of the tree (provided that the area is 0.5 m around the trunk), and then interfere into the soil with a dredge or hoe.
For pollination of vineyards, urea should be used during tillage in February or March; this should be the first fertilizer used in the season.
For vegetables, fertilizing with nitrogen is carried out 1 or 2 times during the growing season. Half of the nitrogenous fertilizer, preferably in the form of ammonium sulfate, should be mixed in the soil within a radius of 5-10 cm around the stem 15 days after planting. The second half is given after fixing the fruit.
When farming in the garden (for melon, watermelon), the first half of the nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied near the embankments during sowing and shoot. The second half of the nitrogenous fertilizer should be scattered around the holes, or near the beds and treated with a hoe.
This method involves early irrigation. It is used both immediately after the germination of the sprout and as a scattering of granules on the soil surface by hand or with the help of a machine just before plowing and sowing. This method provides the penetration and absorption of fertilizer within the culture.
The method is applied in the following cases:
- for use on fertile soil and in fruiting plants to enhance root growth,
- to increase the size of the plant,
- for regular enrichment of the soil nutrition in order to avoid damaging the plant factors,
- when potassium deficiency is found in the soil,
- to grow a culture planted in a timely manner.
This method saves time and labor.
In this method, fertilizers can also be poured on the soil with the only difference that this should be done after the formation of the beds, which need to be excavated and put the granules on the bottom so that they are 3-5 cm below the seeds. Also sprinkle near seeds or seedlings before planting in a radius of 5-8 cm.
The method is applied:
- to plants that are usually planted using the method of beds, or with wide intervals between rows,
- when fertilizer needs to be used in small quantities in a region where plants are grown with a weak root system and in soil with low productivity.
Many studies show that the application of this method is the best. When a large amount of fertilizer is concentrated near a plant, its weakened roots can easily extract nutrients and regulate their growth.
Spraying the leaves
Commercial fertilizers are usually applied to the leaves as a solution, when micronutrient deficiencies are observed in fruit trees and shrubs. Useful substances are absorbed through the cuticle or the pores of the leaves. The method is applied in a region with a very hot or cold climate. This method can be a good protective tool so that the plant does not hurt.
Urea - What is this fertilizer, what is it for?
Among the variety of fertilizers for the garden and the vegetable garden, used in both spring and autumn, Urea or urea is widely known. This fertilizer is in the form of white granules, containing 46% of nitrogen. Urea is the richest nitrogen-containing fertilizer, has good solubility and is distinguished by the absence of any odor. With increasing temperature increases the solubility property. It is easy to assess the importance of the use of urea in gardening and horticulture, knowing the importance of nitrogenous fertilizer for all plant species.
Urea fertilizer is used for:
- growth activation
- obtaining abundant crops,
- keeping plants healthy.
Urea is a good helper in the garden. Thanks to this approval, the plants are well typed in color, have a bright green color, bring a rich harvest.
It is more serious to treat the soil and plants with urea. Lack of nitrogen causes the plant to depress, the appearance of barren flowers, respectively, to a poor crop. Some plant species may simply die due to a lack of nitrogen. It is also important not to overdo it with urea fertilizer. An excess of nitrogen also negatively affects plant development. It is worth carefully reading the dosage of urea for each type of plant.
The best time to tillage urea
The best time to apply urea into the soil is the period of flowering of garden plants and before fruiting garden crops..
By this time, the soil was sufficiently depleted, and the signs of nitrogen deficiency in plants are most clearly visible. It is worth choosing windless weather after heavy rainfall: this way nitrogen will penetrate into deeper layers of the soil. Before planting, there is no point in using urea, since nitrogen particles are quickly washed out by sediments from the soil.
When the plant needs fertilizer urea
During the development of the plant, it is important to carefully consider its appearance. The condition of the plant will prompt you to use fertilizer. Deciding to use urea, you need to make sure that nitrogenous fertilizers are needed. Lack of nitrogen affects the appearance of the plant:
- The plant is in the germination stage for a long time (does not grow into a mature plant),
- Mature plant has small shoots, there are bare branches,
- Leaves unformed, have white pigmentation, often fall off.
If the plant does not have the above symptoms, grows well and has a rich green color, do not rush to fertilize with urea.
Urea can also be used to prevent the shortage of nitrogenous elements in the soil. It is not necessary to wait for obvious signs of nitrogen deficiency. Prevention will help to improve the condition of the plants and will anticipate a decline in yields.
How to use urea as a fertilizer
Urea is widely used both in the garden and in the garden. It is suitable for fertilizing all plants. The ways of its application are also varied:
- Urea solution. A certain amount of urea is dissolved in water and watered the soil near the plant.
- The introduction of granules. The granules are introduced into the soil at a shallow depth, in a pre-moistened soil.
- Fertilizer when planting. When planting a plant, several urea granules are placed in the well.
- Spraying plants. Urea is dissolved in water, after which the plant itself is processed.
The variety of ways and ease of use of urea gives it an advantage among other fertilizers.
Dosage fertilizer for different crops in the garden
- Fruit trees
Feeding trees with urea is an important procedure in every garden. No matter how fertile the land is, over time its useful substances are washed away, dissolved and disappear. To get a wonderful harvest, with large ripe fruits, it is necessary to spray the garden with urea.
Urea fruit trees should be fed three times per season:
- Spraying trees at the first greenery in early spring
- Adding to the soil in the form of a solution during flowering
- Adding to the soil in the form of granules during fruit ripening.
When using urea as bait, you should follow these tips:
- Fertilizing apple trees in early spring should be after the first heavy rainfall. The ground should be completely thawed and well hydrated, which will allow the easy penetration of nitrogen into the soil.
- It is necessary to retreat from the trunk of a tree 0.5 meters, trying to spread urea under the crown of the tree. The foliage of the tree will create a shadow barrier, thereby preventing the rapid decomposition of nitrogen into trace elements from the sun's rays.
- Urea is not used in conjunction with other types of nitrogenous fertilizers, they can react with each other and harm the tree.
For each type of tree, there is its own rate of fertilizer:
Apple trees are unpretentious and resistant to various changes in climate. Can fully develop on poor soil surfaces. But to get a high-quality crop, you still need to care for apple trees.
The pear tree has few differences from apple trees. In their structure, they are similar, since they belong to the same family, and thus the peculiarities of courtship are the same. But there are some differences.
- We make the first lure during the period of swelling of the kidneys. Top dressing is introduced by the root method. Like apple trees, pear trees should be fed after the first rainfall, applying fertilizer to moist loosened soil. The quantitative composition of fertilizer applied to the soil for pear-shaped trees is 100 grams under one tree. Удобрение карбамидом улучшает корневую насыщенность груши полезными веществами.
— После появления первых соцветий, следует, проводит вторую подпитку груши, которая полностью повторяет первую. Азот поможет дереву набрать как можно больше соцветий и предотвратить их падение. Главное, не пропустить момент. When the inflorescence is fully revealed, the third fertilizer with urea is held.
- Pear fertilization during the fall of the ovaries can improve the quality (both external and taste) of pear fruit. For the third time, a smaller amount of urea will be used in order not to harm the tree. The dosage of urea is reduced to 50 grams, or even 30 grams per tree. It is important to moisten the soil well and retreat from the trunk of a tree 0.5 meters.
The cherry tree has a weaker root system, compared with apple and pear, so the method of using fertilizer will be different.
Plum trees, because of their unpretentiousness, need minimal fertilizer: they have enough microelements in the soil. But for the prevention of fertilizer use is still worth it.
Apricot rather whimsical tree. Often, it does not take root, but it takes root, giving scanty, often spoiled fruit. To avoid failure with the cultivation of apricot, you should carefully consider its fertilizer. To strengthen and grow apricot, as well as for good fruiting, the tree is fertilized with urea.