nGarlic is cultivated not only for personal consumption, but also to put it on the market. Good garlic is in great demand in the autumn-winter period. However, it is necessary to know the rules of planting and growing this product, otherwise all efforts will go down the drain. Without some knowledge, garlic heads can be very small and inconspicuous. So let's get started.
Proper processing of garlic heads for planting
It is necessary to plant exactly the seed, which was grown and assembled in the gardener's country. Thus, the fetus will already be fully adapted to weather and ground conditions. If you take overseas varieties for planting, then it may happen that the plant simply does not rise and will die, since the new growing conditions are not for it. For planting, good quality teeth of spring (for planting in spring) or winter (for planting in winter) are selected. Dental teeth should have a dense structure and free from defects.
Garlic just before planting
There are several types of preparation for landing. To get the most out of the effort you need to understand how to prepare the seed. Thanks to the observance of these simple rules, the crop will be protected from parasites and will be able to get started faster. Consider these types:
- Before you plant a plant in the ground, it must be hardened at a temperature not higher than +5 degrees Celsius. Fit shelf in the fridge. It is necessary to place the heads in the cold 2 months before planning to plant garlic cloves. After aging the temperature mode, the head is divided into separate teeth. This procedure should be carried out very carefully, so as not to damage the integrity of the cloves.
- If only seeds are available, they, too, should be treated with cold before they are planted. The only difference is in the time of exposure - keep the seeds in the refrigerator for 30 days. This procedure will allow garlic to sprout faster and form larger heads after garlic has risen. Moreover, the vegetable will not be afraid of the cold of winter and will not die.
- Some gardeners prefer to prepare and process garlic before planting with special antiparasitic agents. After this procedure, the garlic must be dried.
Does garlic require pre-soaking before planting?
Experienced gardeners recommend soaking the plant. However, ordinary water from the tap is not suitable in any case. To do this, you need to make a special solution that will give protection to teeth during growth from parasites. After soaking garlic grows much faster, and the fruits are large and fleshy.
Basically made soaked garlic in brine. Ticks and other harmful insects can not tolerate a solution of salt. To create such a solution, you need to take 30 grams of salt and three liters of water. Soak the garlic in this solution for no more than 24 hours.
There is one more effective and useful solution. - solution of potassium permanganate. The result of the solution should have a light pink shade. Soak garlic for no more than fifteen minutes.
The disinfecting solution looks like this: dissolve the blue vitriol (1 tsp) in water (1 liter). Keep no more than thirty minutes.
The next way is it is to make a solution of ash (wood ash). A pound of ash poured water at room temperature. Pre-ash must be well sifted. After a twenty-minute infusion of the solution, it is put on the stove and brought to a boil. Then it needs to be decanted and diluted with water (half a liter of solution per liter of water). Garlic soak 48 hours.
Garlic Planting Rules
For future beds with garlic harvest you need:
- To choose the right soil - ideally, this land is rich in black soil.
- It is categorically impossible to plant the fruit in the ground, where tomatoes, potatoes and onions used to grow. It is better to choose the places where cabbage and cucumbers are grown.
- Each year the place for planting garlic should be different. It is not recommended to plant garlic in the place of last harvest.
- Plantation for planting should be well lit. Before planting the beds must be digged and cleaned of weeds. For better effect, you can pour the solution with salt from the ground (1 bucket of purified water for 3 tablespoons of salt). After this treatment, garlic can be planted after 48 hours.
Planting garlic in seeds
If sowing will be done for the winter, the plot will be must be treated for infections and parasites. The furrow distance is at least five centimeters. At the bottom of the furrow itself, sand (preferably river) is poured in an even layer and the seeds are poured (to a depth of about three centimeters). The distance between the rows of at least ten centimeters.
Planting seeds in the spring is slightly different from winter. All winter seeds are stored at a temperature of +20 degrees Celsius. In early February, they are shifted to a temperature of about +4 degrees. Seven days before the planting day, the seeds are dried and treated with manganese solution. The temperature of the earth should be about seven degrees (not lower). The distance between the beds is fifteen centimeters.
Garlic in the winter
According to long-term observations of scientists and gardeners, it was found that garlic survives at a temperature up to minus twenty five. When the seedling has released arrows, then they need to be removed. The arrow is removed by reaching about twenty centimeters. This is done in the event that there is no need to collect the seeds for the next crop.
Autumn planting garlic
Winter varieties of garlic should be planted about a month or two before the onset of winter cold. Such a gap will be enough for the plant to take root. The planting season depends on the region: the northern side - approximately from mid-September to early October, the southern part - landing begins from the seventh of October. The landing pattern is identical to the above.
Watering winter planting
Water beds need spring in the first soil loosening.. Watering is necessary under the condition that there was no spring floods and heavy rains. From the last month of spring to June, you need to water the beds constantly. A month before the planned collection of watering should stop. Let us reveal the secret of spring watering of garlic, which was planted for the winter:
- Under moderate climatic conditions, watering is necessary every ten days.
- If the spring is dry and hot, then 12 liters of water must be consumed three times within 14 days.
- With strong rainfall it is not necessary to water the plants, otherwise you can prevent the fruits from rotting.
Top dressing of the garlic landed in the fall
Without proper feeding of the crop, it can be lost. So:
First feed should be carried out in the presence of at least two first leaves. Urea is mixed with garlic fertilizer and diluted in a bucket of water. For each square meter of vegetable garden you need to spend no more than three liters of solution.
Next stage fertilizer addition occurs after 25-30 days.
Third stage comes about in the middle of the month of June. Superphosphate (ground) is diluted in one bucket of water. Solution consumption is identical.
Planting garlic in the spring
The technique of preparing garlic for planting in spring is identical to that described above. There is a small "but." Spring variety should be irrigated until July. In the period of active development of the plant. The frequency of watering is reduced with the emergence of the first leaves. In August, watering must stop completely.
To increase the yield of spring planting you need:
Loosen the beds after each watering. Thus, oxygen is formed to the plant.
At the beginning of the last month of summer it is necessary to build a nodule from the grown leaves. So the nutrition of the leaves is slowed down and all the energy of growth in the summer period goes into the fetus.
Planting garlic harvest in the spring in the open land
The seating period is from March to April. If these minimum requirements are not met, the crop will be far from what the gardener expected to see. Dig up beds to a depth of eight centimeters. The distance between the beds is up to twenty-five centimeters.
Proper feeding of garlic harvest
Garlic seedlings love extra food, and a big harvest will say "thank you" to the gardener.
- Primary feeding of spring garlic (spring) occurs after the finally formed first leaves (approximately the beginning of the summer period). Perfectly go waste bird life and herbal decoctions and infusions. Manure used as feed is strictly prohibited.
- The next stage of feeding comes in about 14-20 days. Here you can use mineral supplements.
- Phosphorus- or potassium-containing feedings should be added already during the formation of the first teeth.
Reliable fact: how garlic is stored depends on how it will grow later. Dental cloves or whole bulbs in the fall should be properly dried and sent to a cool, dry place, for example, in a refrigerator or cellar. If they are spoiled by insects, covered with mold or rot - they can not be used. Even if the plant grows up, it will be frail, small and absolutely unsuitable for further reproduction or eating.
Preparation of spring garlic
Spring garlic cloves should be dried well in the fall, and then packed in fabric bags, cardboard or wooden boxes. The air temperature during storage should not exceed +7 degrees, and the humidity should tend to zero, because it is in this environment that garlic continues to produce all the chemical compounds necessary for rapid growth. If you correctly handle the teeth in the fall, then in the spring you will have first-class planting material.
It is necessary to select the largest teeth, while preferring those that are on the outer circle - the best plants grow from them. Carefully inspect each clove so that it does not have worm holes, rot, dents. Disinfect in a pink solution of potassium permanganate or ash liquor.
For planting, you can choose varieties "Degtyarsky", "Kledor", "Flavor", "Messidor".
Choosing a place to land
Garlic is incredibly fond of heat, but it does not tolerate the dry heat, which harms its leaves. Therefore, choosing a place for landing, make sure that it is either a little shaded or well moistened.
Garlic also has a special relationship with water: during the active growing season it needs quite a lot of moisture, but it cannot “float” in the water - the bulbs immediately begin to rot. Thus, it is possible to make an elevation from the soil, so that the water goes slightly lower than the underground part of the plant.
It is important to observe crop rotation, that is, replant the garlic each time so as not to infect the earth with a fungus and not to lure harmful insects. It is good if early-ripening crops — potatoes, tomatoes, or annual plants such as melons and gourds — and peppers grew to garlic. They saturate the soil with nitrogen and phosphorus, which allows the culture to "feast" during growth. Whatever it was, the preparation of planting material and soil for planting begins in the fall.
Garlic prefers a loamy soil rich in organic matter with neutral or low acidity. At the same time, fertilizers should be applied in late autumn, so that during the winter they will be well transformed, and in the spring the teeth will get an ideal, rich in useful compounds soil.
For 1 square meter of land you will need at least 1 bucket of compost or humus, you can use mullein or horse manure. In the compost should be added to 1 tablespoon of double superphosphate and nitrophoska. You can also make 1 cup of dolomite flour to reduce the acidity of the soil.
The plot is dug up on a spade bayonet, then leveled with a garden rake and watered with a solution of copper sulphate. For its preparation, 40 grams of vitriol granules are diluted in 10 liters of water so that 1 liter of solution is left to 1 square meter.
Until spring, the beds are closed with plastic wrap.
Types of garlic
All varieties are divided into 2 types:
- winter, planted in the fall,
- Spring - for spring planting.
There are also 2 large groups: arrow and non-arrow. At the first, instead of seeds, small single-jawed bulbous bulbs, often used for planting, are formed. Mostly shooters produce winter crops, but sometimes this feature is found in spring plants.
From winter varieties can grow large garlic. However, such a crop is stored for long - by the end of winter the vegetable begins to deteriorate.
In summer garlic, the bulbs of which are rarely obtained in large size, the preservation period can be up to two years.
Which species to give preference, each decides depending on the needs: winter varieties are planted for sale, but spring varieties are planted for long-term use.
Planting dates vary by grade:
- Winter garlic is planted at the end of September – mid-October so that it can take root before the onset of frosts, but it does not grow to the surface. Only in this case, he will be able to safely endure the cold and give a big harvest,
- summer variety begins to grow after the snow melts in the early to mid-April. He endures cold and will be able to germinate even at a soil temperature of 6 ° C. Good garlic can be obtained by early planting. It should be borne in mind that the head should be formed before the onset of hot weather, otherwise the bulbs of spring varieties will not be large.
Garlic must be properly planted and grown to make big heads.
Growing large garlic in the garden
Garlic - light-loving culture that does not tolerate wetlands. Without knowing how to grow it properly, it is difficult to achieve good results.
Several factors affecting the size of the future crop:
- The choice of location: it must be open, so that nothing obstructs the sun that is necessary for sprouts.
- The size of the beds: they should be wide enough (75 cm) for more convenient processing and high (8 cm) to prevent water accumulation.
- Landing scheme: make sufficiently wide aisles (20 cm) and a little smaller distance between planted teeth in a row (10 cm), so that later it would be convenient to take care of the culture. It is not necessary to distribute planting material tightly — garlic — since the forced struggle for space and resources will not allow it to gain the necessary weight.
Preparation of beds
One of the secrets of how to get a good harvest is preparing the beds for future plants. For the winter crop, the site is carefully dug up 2–3 weeks prior to the landing, so that the earth can settle. If this is not done, then gradually with the movement of the soil, the garlic cloves will deepen. This will adversely affect the size of the crop and the timing of its preservation.
For the spring disembarkation, the beds are also prepared in the fall, so that the introduced elements have time to transform into a form that can be assimilated for germs. They dig up the earth to the depth of a shovel, fertilize it if necessary. It is important to loosen the soil so that it has enough oxygen. After digging, the area is leveled and disinfected with manganese solution. Then cover with foil and leave until planting.
It is necessary to apply fertilizer if the quality of the soil is not optimal for the crop. The soil should be:
Reduce the acidity of the soil by liming (a glass of lime per 1 m 2). Loosen the structure of peat, sawdust and sand. Increase fertility, making fertilizers: 5–6 kg of humus per 1 m 2, for the same area - 1 l of litter and ashes. Organics are replaced with complex mineral fertilizers in the amount of 30–40 g per 1 m 2.
It is important that the soil in the garlic beds be fertile, air- and moisture-permeable.
Preparation of planting material
The secrets of growing large garlic include the preparation of heads for planting. It is possible to mix the teeth of a winter variety with spring. It is easy to distinguish them:
- the first are characterized by the presence of a central rod around which an even number of segments are distributed: 4, 6, 8,
- the second number of teeth can be different, often differ in shape, and the rod in the center is not available.
To improve the immunity of future plants in the preparation of seed need to observe the following points:
- Discard all damaged, rotten and moldy heads.
- Growing together, small teeth and a small number of them (2–3) indicate the degeneration of the variety and low yield. Therefore, for planting it is better to take bulbs with large segments.
- Before planting, decontaminate the heads by dipping in a solution of copper sulfate (1%) or potassium permanganate (1%) for 20–30 minutes. With the same purpose, use this solution: 0.3 kg of wood ash mixed with water (2 l), boil, cool, separate the bright part, in which the planting material is immersed for an hour.
Special requirements for the preparation of spring varieties:
- a month before planting the head is sent to a cool place (-3 - +2 ° C),
- per day, the seed is removed and disinfected,
- for 12 h soaked in a growth promoter (potassium humate or Epin).
To accelerate growth, spring varieties are germinated. Для этого зубцы выкладывают в увлажненный тканевый мешочек, который заворачивают в полиэтилен на двое суток.
Как сажать чеснок
Чтобы чеснок вырос крупным, соблюдают определенные правила при его посадке.
Особенности весенней высадки:
- поливают только сухую землю, во влажную зубки чеснока высаживают без поливов,
- глубина посадки– 3 см,
- мульчируют до появления ростков торфом.
Rules for planting in the fall:
- planting is done on time: the teeth must root, but do not germinate,
- so that the bulb does not rot, sand or ashes are poured into the grooves, the beds are not shed,
- garlic should be planted to a depth of 5 cm (the larger the clove, the deeper) in order to reduce the risk of freezing,
- after all the necessary measures have been taken, the ground is leveled and mulched with peat or rotted sawdust with a layer of at least 3 cm,
- in the winter, they cover it with foliage or lapniki (before snowfall), and during the period of melting the shelter is dismantled.
Secrets of large garlic
Compliance with certain rules of cultivation of crops will help increase yields. Open-field garlic will be large if:
- drop him off on time
- choose the right grade
- be sure to update the planting material every 3 years, growing from bulbballs,
- in arrowheads, pinch the arrows in time,
- in spring varieties, tie leaves to stimulate the flow of nutrients from the foliage to the head,
- make proper garlic care (watering, fertilizing, mulching).
As a recommendation for a gardener - respecting crop rotation:
- the best in the country predecessors for garlic are siderats (alfalfa, clover, oats, mustard), strawberries, pumpkin, cucumbers, peas, zucchini, cabbage,
- you will not be able to get a high yield after solanaceous crops (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants) and root crops (beets, radishes, onions, garlic): in this case, the probability of plant diseases, as well as reducing the size of the heads.
If you plant a crop next to tomatoes or peppers, the crop will be larger.
It is not necessary to plant a bed for several years in a row one crop, so as not to reduce the yield. Large garlic will be obtained only with an annual change of landing site.
Preparing garlic seeds - a pledge of a rich harvest
To grow large and tasty garlic, it is necessary to make a three-stage preparation of seeds.
I. Selection of quality material
Knowledgeable gardeners are advised not to disassemble the garlic heads in advance, otherwise they will wither and lose their strength. This is best done on the day of landing. How to check the quality of the seeds? Visually inspect the heads and discard all those on which there is any damage or at least one spoiled clove. Not suitable for planting heads on which no more than 3-4 teeth. In addition, it is not necessary to plant seeds of a miniature size, since the harvest will have the appropriate dimensions.
Do not plant spoiled garlic seeds
Ii. Vernalization of garlic seeds
Seeds of garlic, whether it is winter or wild, are usually planted in insufficiently warm earth. To get a friendly shoots, as well as large heads, it is necessary to include in the preparation of the hardening process. What is needed for this? It's simple - for two to four weeks, put the planting material in the refrigerator. Before planting, it must be kept at room temperature for a day.
Iii. Pickling garlic cloves
This stage of training agronomists advise to carry out on the eve of planting, after the teeth are separated (dry husks do not need to be removed). In the arsenal of summer residents and farmers there are many ways to disinfect garlic. The most popular solutions were:
• potassium permanganate,
• copper sulphate,
Garlic pickling is an important step in preparation for planting
Opinions agronomists about the time of dressing divided: some believe that a few minutes is enough, others tend to keep the seeds of garlic in the disinfecting composition for half an hour, and the third group soaks the teeth all night. In order for the sprouts to hatch faster and develop well, many farmers additionally soak the seeds of garlic in a solution of the drug "Epin", "Prestige" or potassium humate. Before planting teeth can not dry.
Planting garlic - tips experienced
• Try to arrange garlic beds every year in a new place.
• Garlic grows well after greens, cabbage, melons and legumes.
• Growing a crop will not be successful if there used to be onions or something from the nightshade family at this place.
• Large garlic can be grown only on light and loose soil with neutral acidity.
• The beds should not be submerged, but the quickly drying land on the hill is also not suitable.
• In the spring, seeds are planted to a depth of 2-3 cm, and in the fall a little deeper - by 4-5 cm.
• Between the teeth when landing leave about 10 cm, and between rows from 20 to 40 cm.
• In order to avoid rotting of garlic seeds, it is recommended to sprinkle the bottom of the furrows with sand or ash.
• It is best to mulch beds immediately with peat, straw or rotted sawdust.
Preparation of garlic seeds for planting, as well as the planting itself must take place correctly. Only in this case can we expect to dig really large heads out of the ground during the harvest. Remember, garlic is your health!
Watch the video “Preparing winter garlic for planting!”
Garlic processing before planting
There are several recommended procedures that will help prepare the teeth for disembarking, so that they will better start, develop rapidly and protect themselves from the onslaught of various pests and diseases. There are several ways to prepare garlic for planting:
- Many gardeners recommend cold quenching, thanks to which the plant will grow well and the crop will ripen faster. 1.5-2 months Before heading out, tight heads should be placed in the cold. Best of all, if the temperature is about 5 ° C, it can be a cellar or a lower shelf of a refrigerator. The day before the garlic is planted, the heads are divided into teeth, it is important to do this carefully so as not to damage anything. If only garlic seeds are used, they must be kept in the cold, otherwise only greens will grow. For them, the duration of quenching - 1 month.
- For processing, you can take special drugs, for example, "Maxim" or "Vitaros". They are excellent prevention of the occurrence of diseases. After this treatment, the teeth are recommended to be slightly dried.
Do I need to soak the garlic before planting?
In normal water, it is not recommended to withstand vegetables, but there are several beneficial compounds that will protect planting material from various diseases and will contribute to a good harvest and rapid growth.
- Many recommend the use of a solution of salt, which will protect against nematodes and ticks. Take 3 liters of water and dissolve there 1 tbsp. a spoonful of salt. Withstand the seeds for a day.
- If you are interested in whether it is necessary to soak the garlic before planting it in spring in a solution of potassium permanganate, gardeners give a positive answer to this. It should be medium pink. The duration of soaking is 15-20 minutes.
- A solution of copper sulphate is suitable for disinfection, so for 1 liter of water it is necessary to take 1 tsp. Planting of garlic is carried out after the slices are kept in the solution for half an hour.
- You can soak the vegetable in the ash solution, for which 0.5 kg of wood ash sift and pour 3 liters of warm boiled water. After stirring, the solution is infused for 20 minutes and then put on the stove and boiled. Turn off the heat and leave until the liquid has cooled. The solution must strain and dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 2. Soaking garlic leaves 2 hours.
How to plant garlic?
First you need to choose a suitable site, which must meet a number of requirements:
- The best are such soils: black soil, loam, and still light and medium soils.
- Planting garlic in the open field and care for it should be carried out in areas where potatoes, tomatoes and onions have not been grown before. Suitable precursors are such vegetables: cabbage, legumes and cucumbers.
- Keep in mind that it is not necessary to plant garlic at the same place every year.
- The plant prefers heat and light, so choose a lit area. It needs to be prepared: dig up, loosen and remove weeds. You can pour saline on the ground (3 tablespoons is taken on a bucket of water). After two days you can land.
How deep should garlic be?
Large and healthy teeth should be planted to a depth of 5-10 cm, and this is the distance from the tip of the clove to the surface of the earth. When planting spring garlic, it must be borne in mind that the depth should be less than that of winter varieties, since they do not need to be protected from frost. Not only is the depth of planting garlic important, but also its correct deepening, so the teeth are inserted vertically down into the ground, so that the pointed end is on top. If you plant them deeply, the vegetable may sprout unevenly or dry up.
At what distance to plant garlic?
In most cases, the landing is carried out in rows, and the distance between them should be 20-30 cm. The distance between the teeth directly depends on their size, so a segment of 6-8 cm is considered the norm. Disassemble the heads into slices should be no earlier than 1-2 days before how the garlic will be planted, otherwise the percentage of germination will be reduced. If you are interested in how many zubkov need to plant about 1 m 2 of the garden, then the rate depends on the size of the planting material. Agronomists call the number 130-380 teeth. Feather value with teeth weight about 3 g, and the second - at 7 g.
Another point worth staying at is how to plant garlic with seeds. In this case, there are two options:
- Seeding for the winter. The site must be disinfected and fertilized with phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. It is necessary to make furrows of 5-6 cm, on the bottom of which lay clean river sand and spread sev to a depth of 3 cm. The distance between them should be no more than 6 cm. Between the rows should be approximately 10 cm.
- Seeding in the spring. In winter, planting material is stored in a dry and dark place at a temperature of 20 ° C. In February, it is better to leave it in a cool place where the temperature is not more than 4 ° C. A week before planting the garlic, dry, air, and spray with a solution of potassium permanganate. It is necessary to get to work when the earth warms up to at least 7 ° C. A suitable distance between the furrows is about 15 cm. Their depth should be such that the seams are at a depth of 3-4 cm, and the distance between them is about 4 cm.
Winter garlic - planting and care
The plant tolerates frost well to -25 ° C, but if the figures go down even lower, then mulching is a mandatory measure of crop safety. When figuring out how to plant garlic and how to care for it, it is worth noting that along with the formation of leaves an arrow is also formed, and when it grows up to 20 cm it is necessary to break it, if seeds are not needed. Another secret is that the garlic heads ripen faster, scoop the earth from them, leaving 1/3 open.
Planting garlic in the autumn before winter - terms
Since weather conditions differ in different territories, it is better to focus on the following rule: it is important to plant winter garlic 35-45 days before the onset of constant cold weather. This time is enough for the plant to take root and develop a good root system. The main thing is that the leaves start to form. In the northern regions, landings are carried out from September 20 to October 10, and in the more southern ones, from October 10. The scheme of planting garlic for the winter is no different from the above option.
Winter planting garlic - watering
After the first loosening in the spring, watering is carried out, but only if there is no natural precipitation. In the period from May to June, regular watering is a prerequisite for leaving. 20 days before harvest, it stops completely. There are tips on how to properly water spring garlic planted before winter:
- When the weather is mild, irrigation is carried out once every 8-10 days and 10-12 liters should be spent per 1 m 2.
- When the spring is hot, the volume of the liquid is the same, but watering is done three times in 2 weeks.
- When there is a lot of rain, watering should be reduced so as not to ruin the plants.
How to feed the garlic planted in the fall?
Without fertilizer, getting a good harvest, most likely, will not work, and do it in several stages:
- Information on planting winter garlic and caring for it indicates that the first top dressing is carried out when the plant already has 3-4 leaves. It is necessary to mix 1 tbsp. spoon of urea and complex mineral fertilizer in 10 liters of water. For 1 m2 should be spent 2-3 liters.
- After 2-3 weeks, the following feeding is carried out, for which 2 tbsp is taken for 10 l. Spoons nitrophoska or nitroammofoski. Consumption per 1 liter more than in the previous version.
- The last feeding is carried out in the second half of June, so 2 tbsp is taken for 10 liters. spoons of ground superphosphate. Again, the consumption of 1 liter more
How to plant garlic in the spring?
The scheme and depth of planting was described above, but some nuances were missed. Spring varieties need careful watering until mid-July, when there is an active growth process. With an excess of moisture, the growth of the bulbs is delayed, and garlic will not be stored for a long time. If there is not enough water, then the tips of the plant will begin to turn yellow. When the sixth leaf is formed, the amount of watering should be reduced, and by mid-August it should be completely stopped. Other rules regarding how to plant garlic in spring relate to increasing yields:
- After watering the next day, be sure to loosen the beds so that oxygen will flow to the plant.
- In early August, you need to tie all the leaves in a knot, thereby reducing their food. As a result, garlic will give all its strength to the formation of a large head.
- A good harvest contributes to the timely updating of the variety.
When to plant garlic in spring in open ground?
For a good harvest, it is recommended to start planting a vegetable from the moment when you can start field work. You should focus on the period from the third decade of March to the beginning of April. If you are even a few days late, the harvest will be small and insignificant. It is important to know how to plant garlic in the spring at the dacha, so it is necessary to make along the bed a groove 6-8 cm deep. The distance between them should be 20-25 cm.
How to plant garlic - dressing
The plant responds well to the application of fertilizers, thanks to which large bulbs of garlic can be grown. In the instructions on how to plant spring garlic and properly care for it, it is indicated that it is necessary to make additional feeding several times:
- The first time fertilizers are used immediately after the formation of several leaves. To do this, take nitrogenous fertilizers, for example, a solution of bird droppings, mullein, or herbal extracts. Please note that making fresh manure is prohibited.
- A few weeks later, a second feeding is carried out for which mineral fertilizers are taken.
- The last feeding is carried out in early July, when the teeth will be formed. It is worth using phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Garlic bed care
Care for growing garlic after planting involves mulching the soil. It allows:
- keep humidity
- reduce the amount of watering
- eliminate weeding, loosening.
After regrowth, the shooters up to 20 cm in length are shortened to 5 cm: they can be cut with a sharp tool or broken off, leaving a stump of the desired length. The main thing is to remove the upper part - the bud of the future inflorescence. This will increase the supply of nutrients to the bulb.
20-30 days before harvesting (winter varieties - until mid-July, spring varieties - in the first week of August) shovel the land from the heads. This is done in order to redirect part of the nutrition to the bulb and thereby increase its size. The soil is removed with a special device so that the teeth half look out of the soil.
Since garlic is a moisture-loving plant, it grows well in moist soil. Therefore, an important point in the care of the culture is the correct irrigation.
The basic rules are as follows:
- most of all, the vegetable needs moisture in the spring, when the root system is actively formed (the first 3 weeks after disembarkation): during this period it must be watered plentifully (15 l per 1 m 2) every 5–7 days,
- the volume and frequency of irrigation depends on the weather: at moderate temperatures, 10–12 liters are consumed per 1 m 2 with a break of 1–1.5 weeks; soil stop
- after the procedure it is necessary to sprinkle the bare heads with earth,
- It is advisable to use warm water, which has stood for some time in the sun.
In no case should waterlogging be allowed, as in such an environment fungal diseases develop and bulbs deteriorate.
If you feed the plants in time, you can grow garlic with large heads. The winter variety in the spring after the snow melts is shed with urea, and then fertilized as needed. Poor soils enrich with nutrients 1–2 times a month until the end of the vegetative period.
When growing spring garlic supplements make twice:
- The first feeding is done in early spring with a solution of bird droppings (1 kg per bucket of water) or mullein (in the same amount per 8 liters of water).
- In the middle of summer, pour a solution of ash (glass on a bucket of water).
A gardener should follow one important principle: the amount of fertilizer applied should be moderate. An excess of organic matter contributes to the yellowing of foliage and cessation of bulb growth. A large amount of minerals will adversely affect their taste and quality.
Diseases and pests
Ряд вредителей и болезней могут испортить удовольствие от выращивания культуры. Чеснок подвергается нападению нематод, медведки, долгоножки, луковой моли и других насекомых.
Спасти растения от вредителей помогут народные методы:
- опрыскивание дважды в месяц настоем табака (0,25 кг) и молотого перца (2 ч. l.): pour 3 liters of hot water, hold for three days, then strain, dilute with water to 10 liters, mix liquid soap (2 tbsp.),
- pollination with a mixture of pepper, tobacco and wood ash 2 times a month.
The plant is subject to such diseases:
- Donets rot (bulb rotting, roots die, foliage turns yellow),
- downy mildew (stops the process of head ripening),
- white rot (the aerial part of the plant dies off and the bulbs rot)
- bacterial rot (spoiled teeth).
To prevent the development of diseases, before planting the seed is treated with a solution of ash, copper sulfate or potassium permanganate.
Harvesting and storage
Winter varieties ripen in early August. When the lower leaves turn yellow, start harvesting. With this you can not tighten, otherwise the heads will begin to dry up and crumble. This product may have a reduced shelf life.
Spring varieties are harvested at the end of summer - early autumn, when the feathers turn yellow and start to lie down, and the bulbs are already formed.
After collecting the plants dried for 1.5 weeks, shaking off the ground. Next, cut the roots and part of the stem, leaving the rod in winter crops with a length of 5 cm, from spring crops - 2 cm. For the seed material, the largest specimens are selected.
Storage conditions are as follows:
- temperature: 16–20 ° С for spring varieties, 2–4 ° С - for winter crops,
- humidity: average.
Features of the cultivation of garlic from bulbbokhek
Garlic is considered to be a perennial (three-year) crop, but is often used as an annual plant, because of which it gradually degenerates. To avoid this, you need to regularly update the seed.
When planting winter crops leave a few arrows on the sprouts grown from large cloves. On them are formed the seeds - one-teeth. When it is time to harvest, the plant is tied in a bundle and hung to dry. During this period plastic substances flow into the bulbs from the green mass of the plant, promoting growth. After complete drying of the stem, they are carefully separated.
Bulbs are planted both in spring and autumn in the prepared soil. Buried by 3 cm, as they are very small. Dig out when the leaves begin to turn yellow. Then dried: first a couple of days in the sun, then under a canopy. Single-teeth, planted in the fall, with proper care will give a good harvest.
Externally, the garlic is shaped like an onion, slightly flattened along the edges, however, the structure of this vegetable is much more complex. So, inside the “onion” is divided into several so-called sinuses, inside each of which from 2 to 50 teeth can be formed, depending on the variety.
The teeth themselves are oblong in shape and can be absolutely any size. Their color is usually:
However, in addition to the traditional shades of vegetables can be found cloves, painted in:
- pinkish tint
- rich lilac color.
The leaves of spring varieties of garlic look traditional:
- they are narrow
- have the form of a lancet,
- pulled up,
- sharp endings
Spring garlic leaves are also readily used for food, as they are very juicy and have a mild flavor.
The width of such a leaf of garlic usually reaches a centimeter, but in height it sometimes grows up to a meter. The stem of a culture has a generally complex structure, so subsequent leaves grow out of the sinuses preceding.
This plant also throws out the arrow, which is often eaten fried. The height of the arrow is 70-140 centimeters. The end of the arrow is a curved tail, topped with an inflorescence, then transformed into a box containing a small amount of seeds.
When to plant spring garlic in the garden
Spring garlic, unlike winter, to plant on the beds can only be in the spring time, because:
- these are his biological rhythms,
- he will not survive the winter frosts and die, and you will be left without a crop.
Brief identification of spring and winter varieties of garlic
It is necessary to plant the garlic in the open ground, as soon as you realize that the return frost has passed. It is desirable that at the time of the landing, the air temperature during the daytime outside would not fall below 6 ° C.
Planting garlic beds
Fortunately, planting garlic is much easier than, for example, sowing tomatoes on a seedling or other, more demanding crops, however, this is still a responsible procedure and requires some accuracy. Let's consider what stages it includes, and how to successfully pass each of them in order to get a good harvest.
In order for spring garlic to grow well in your land, you must first prepare it, compensating for the shortcomings and strengthening the advantages
Land preparation for planting
In order to sow spring garlic in the open ground in spring, it is necessary to take care of the preparatory measures in the previous autumn, in particular, to feed the soil, based on the composition of the land available on your site. Consider in the table below how to do this correctly.
Table 1. How to feed the soil for planting spring garlic, based on its composition
Loamy soil - the most suitable for the cultivation of garden crops, granular lumpy, and very fertile. It contains in the composition:
Consequently, it boasts the merits of each of these impurities.
The clay soil is a very nutritious soil, which, however, due to the abundance of clay in its composition, does not penetrate well:
At the Russian latitudes spread. Requires loosening.
Sandy soil on the territory of our country is not often, but still there. Sand prevails in it, therefore, it:
As you understand, such a land needs to be fed and weighed a little.
The land for planting garlic is fertilized in the autumn, only for spring garlic it remains to be hibernated, and for winter it is planted immediately.
After the land at your disposal, going under the planting of garlic, will be fertilized, loosened, or, conversely, compacted, etc., it will be necessary to dig it again well enough to achieve an even distribution of useful substances along its thickness.
Note: Spring garlic gives the highest yield in terms of growth for:
- loamy soil
- sandy soil.
However, if you have a different ground, you should not be upset, as the measures listed in the table above will help you to compensate for its shortcomings in the most effective way.
Prepared soil in this form and remains to winter, waiting for the sunny spring.
Choosing a place for landing
When deciding on the future location of garlic, you should start from how rich harvest you want to get, and what part of the plant you prefer to eat.
1. So, if you are a fan of chewing the green foliage of garlic, and using it in summer salads, seaming and other dishes, then it is best to plant cloves in shaded areas, as this will contribute:
- maintaining the softness of green garlic tops,
- set of tops of juicy fortified juice.
If you like to eat exactly the green part of the plant, it is better for you to plant it in the shade, so that the tops of juice
2. In the event that you intend to use garlic "onions" for food, in particular, to store them in the winter, you must plant the culture, on the contrary, on an open area that has the opportunity to enjoy direct sunlight.
Crop rotation - an important nuance
Crop rotation is a term implying the transfer of a specific land area in which a particular crop has previously grown to a plant friendly to it, and not vice versa.
So, according to the rules, spring varieties of garlic will produce abundant crops only if planted after:
- white cabbage,
Tomatoes - a great predecessor for garlic, after which the spring crop will grow like yeast
But, for example, after onions or garlic, even other varieties, spring garlic cannot be planted, since these crops feed on similar substances from the earth, and they have long since emptied it all. In addition, they can pass on a typical disease to their follower.
What tasks does crop rotation solve?
We plant spring garlic on the beds
After the seed has been properly processed, you can send it to the ground, pre-moistened with plenty of water.
The landing pattern must be observed the following:
- between each tooth leave 8 centimeters,
- between rows of garlic remains at least 25 centimeters.
Garlic must be filled into the ground at a depth of about 2-3 centimeters, not more than that, otherwise:
- plant spitting time may increase, which will affect the overall harvest time
- the root part of the Zubkov will freeze in the thickness of the earth, which can also slow down the development of the root system of the plant.
Do not overdo it with the deepening of the seed, otherwise the teeth will have to face such difficulties as excessive cold and prolonged breakthrough through the soil to the sun's rays.
It would be best to immediately dig up a few grooves of the depth of interest to us, put garlic in them and cover the ground with soil, so as not to miscalculate.
The first 20 days or a month after planting spring garlic, it will grow slowly, as this crop has a weak root system. However, after about 30 days, all biological processes will activate, and you will be able to observe the first shoots.
Care for spring garlic after planting in the ground
Spring garlic is a culture that, although it can fight frosts, does not like them very much, therefore, it will be necessary to delay the planting until the temperature does not stop dropping below 5 ° C.
After disembarkation, you will need to carry out only several regular procedures:
- soil loosening
- removal of weeds from the soil.
However, two of the above tasks can be solved at once by mulching - covering the ground with mulch, which can be:
Not only will the mulch not allow weeds to grow, it will also keep moisture in the soil, which you must supply abundantly with spring garlic throughout most of the growing season. The thickness of the ground covering layer should ideally be at least 3 centimeters.
Garlic can be mulched using various materials, the most accessible of which, perhaps, is still straw, sold everywhere for a penny.
What else needs to be done is watering the beds correctly. The smarter you put moisture on them, the more abundant the crop you get.
Table 3. How to water garlic
In the first phase of garlic growth, when it is a green mass culture that grows, watering should be especially abundant. Signal to the fact that you water garlic is not enough, can serve as tips of tops, which are:
The earth should be moistened not only superficially, but also to a depth sufficient for the plant.
The abundance of watering garlic should correspond to the phase of growth and development of the plant under consideration.
As soon as each garlic sapling forms several leaves, it is time to apply nitrogen fertilizers to the ground, for example:
- solution of mullein and water,
- humus in its purest form
- mineral industrial mixtures,
- an infusion of herbs collected in the garden.
Note: It is strictly forbidden to use fresh manure, as this environment is too aggressive for garlic.
Two weeks after the first feeding procedure, you will have to repeat everything, preferably using top dressing in the form of a liquid.
At the end of June cloves form in garlic, therefore, it is very important to fill it with potassium and phosphorus in a timely manner:
- industrial production
- contained in the simple wood ash left over from the furnace firing.
Garlic must be fertilized not only before planting, but also repeatedly after it is placed in the ground
Fertilization of mineral category should be carried out with great care, since their excess in garlic after directly harm your health.
The deadline for harvesting garlic from the beds begins closer to mid-August, at that moment, when part of the tops of the plant have already fallen on the beds, and will turn yellow. For too long to keep the plant in the ground is not worth it, because of this from him:
- internal membranes are damaged,
- cloves begin to decay.
4-5 days before you decide to remove the garlic from the garden, it will be necessary to stop watering it, and it is best to remove the surface layer of soil from the beds in order to release the upper level of the onions, giving them:
It is best to harvest garlic on sunny days, so that the stored vegetables are not rot from excess moisture
On a sunny day, the crop is also harvested from the beds. After pulling out, it is advisable to dry the plant right on the same place, for another 5 days, or under a canopy, if you suspect that it is about to rain.
The fruits are dried together with the sheets, and after the end of the above term is cut, but not completely:
- tops (up to 2-3 centimeters from the bulb),
- plant roots (up to 3 millimeters from the bulb).
It is necessary to store the harvested and dried crops in a dry place where the ventilation is regularly carried out, it is desirable that the air temperature in it always remains at around 15-20 ° C.
Initially, the fruits are dried together with the leaves, and then the tops and roots of the crop are cut to the desired size.
Let's sum up
Spring garlic is a popular crop grown in Russia everywhere. Its benefits and taste qualities are indisputable, therefore, no gardener will voluntarily refuse to plant garlic. The spring variety of this plant is planted in the ground in spring, with the onset of heat, and a delicious harvest is gathered at the very end of summer.