Growing grapes is a very exciting and, at the same time, not so laborious task as it may seem at first. If you strictly follow the main rules and adhere to the recommendations of experienced people, then it’s really possible to get large tasty clusters of berries in your vineyard, which you can not only eat, but also make high-quality home-made wine.
What you need to know
First and foremost, you need to decide on the right grade. After all, not everyone can grow comfortably in a particular area of our country. For example, in order to get a decent grape harvest in the middle lane, it is necessary to use only winter-hardy varieties that have an early ripening period. Among the relatively recently bred varieties You can find for yourself quite a suitable and correct option, which will be resistant to frost and various pests, and even be distinguished by high yields.
Most heat and sunlight required by black varieties. Accordingly, light grapes are less whimsical. Although you can find quite durable black varieties. For example, in Chuvashia, many gardeners successfully grow a black variety "Early Purple".
This variety has a good sugar content of 23%, it is not only frost-resistant, but also resistant to diseases. It has a muscat flavor.. The harvest of this variety is collected gradually, that is, as it ripens. After the entire crop is harvested from the vine, it is immediately cut. This must be done to give the opportunity to mature new shoots of replacement. As for light varieties, they can grow and bring a good harvest in the middle lane quite a lot.
When buying grape seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that there are no mechanical damages, strange spots on it. If the seedlings are healthy, they should have at least three sufficiently developed roots, and the shoot itself should not be shorter than half a meter. To protect yourself from low-quality purchases, you need to make it in the nursery. And in order for seedlings to take root, they must be in a container when buying.
Planting technology seedlings
Before you start planting a sapling, it is very important to take into account your climatic conditions. If winters in your area are usually frosty and snowless, then it is more profitable to plant grapes in pits and trenches. Landing clumps grape saplings can be used where winters are with heavy snowfalls, and the summer months are cold enough. In the ridges, the root system of seedlings will receive the greatest amount of heat during the summer months. And in the pits, the roots of grapes will be better protected from freezing. You can plant grapes saplings in spring and autumn. We will consider a phased autumn technology planting grape seedlings.
- A landing site should be level, without excessive moisture, well lit and where there are no drafts.
- When digging the planting fossa, one should take into account the size of the root system of the seedling itself and the type of soil. If the soil is sandy, the fossa should be deeper (about 0.5 m.). If the soil is clay, we dig a small hole (about 0.2 m).
- The soil dug out of the pit is necessarily mixed with complex mineral and organic fertilizers.
- First, gravel is poured into the hole, then branches or small planks.
- So that after planting it was convenient to water and fertilize the grapes, we install a small pipe, 10 cm in diameter is enough.
- Over the branches and gravel we form a hillock from the prepared soil.
- Shortly before planting, the roots of the seedling should be held in a solution, which consists of rotted mullein and clay (mullein should be half the size of clay).
- Shoots cut off a couple of buds and dip them into melted paraffin.
- Then put the seedling in the hole and gently straighten the roots.
- We fill up the rest of the soil hole and tamp down a little.
- After planting, seedlings are watered with warm water and mulch the hole with rotted manure or some suitable compost. So grapes will grow better.
- If we plant more than one vine bush, then we need to keep at least one and a half meter distance between the pits.
Features of growing
To properly form the grapes bushes, you need to install a solid trellis. The simplest design is considered to be two wooden or metal pillars with several rows of wire between them. When will the grapes begin grow up, it will just be tied to the wire. In the first three years, seedlings require more care.
Two days after watering or rain do not forget to loosen the ground. It is impossible that the leaves wither and the soil dried out. Constantly required to destroy all the weeds.. And already with 4 years of life care for grapes will be less troublesome. Watering it will need for the season no more than three or four times. In order to prevent the destruction of your vineyard and to start to fight with its dangerous enemies in a timely manner, you need to more often and with great care examine your possessions.
- Care is that after the autumn leaves fall pruning.
- With the arrival of night frost, the vines will need to be removed from the supports and brackets to pin them to the ground.
- Then the plant will need to be treated with a solution of copper sulfate and cover until spring with plastic film. It can be opened only when all spring frosts are completely over.
10 Tips to Help You Get a Great Harvest
- The right choice of planting seedlings. It should be quite sunny and warm. This may be the southern slope. Also suitable for landing and southwest slope. It would be better to place the vines, among other things, near some kind of fence or stone wall so that it can protect the grapes on the north side from drafts and strong gusts of wind. You should not grow grapes near trees, as they will constantly block the sun rays with their crowns. The root system of this plant is able to penetrate the soil deep enough. And if there is an excess of moisture in the soil, then this may well have a negative effect on the vineyard. From this it follows that groundwater should not be too close to the ground (at least no closer than 2 meters).
- Choosing the right variety. Properly selected variety can bring half the success. Choosing for planting a particular grape variety, you need to carefully examine all the information about it. If you intend to grow grapes only for making wine, then you should choose the most technical special varieties.
- Artificially increase temperature. During the growing season of grapes, the best temperature is considered to be from 28 degrees to 32 degrees. In order for the soil to warm up better, seedlings are pre-formed on high ridges (30 to 50 cm). Artificially increasing the temperature around your vineyard is possible with the help of glass bottles, which need to be buried by 2/3 into the ground. This kind of stove should be placed no closer than 50 cm from the bushes. With such a device to grow grapes will become much easier.
- Give the vineyard more light. It will not grow not only without heat, but also without light. For this reason, grape seedlings need to be located not otherwise, namely from north to south. To all the bushes enough of the sun, they should be planted at a distance of about 2 meters from each other.
- Timely watering. In order for the grapes to be fully cared for, it must be watered in a timely manner and carefully. Because of its powerful root system, this plant is quite sensitive not only to excess moisture, but also to its lack. In the first year of life, the bush requires an average of 10 liters for watering. In the second year of his life, he will need 20 liters for irrigation. And after three years of the life of a grape bush, watering intensity should be reduced to 8 liters. As soon as the water is absorbed after watering, the well should be covered with earth and slightly loosened around the bush.
- Correct pruning. It will be quite difficult to get a good harvest of grapes without proper pruning, so all newcomers need to learn how to do it. In the autumn months, it is necessary to leave three escapes formed in the current year. One is cut short, only three buds. The other two are cut off much longer, leaving about 8 buds. These shoots will bear fruit for us next year. In a year they will no longer be needed, and they can be deleted. We had a short runaway for replacement, therefore from it we will again leave three shoots in the same way for the next year.
- Tying grapes. Caring for grapes will also be tied up. At the initial stage of breeding your vineyard, grapes are usually tied at a 45 degree angle. It is believed that this method of tying can increase the sugar level in the berries. In addition to this method, there is a horizontal and vertical garter grapes. These methods are also justified in the technology of growing grapes.
- Growing a big crop. To harvest high yields, it is not necessary to leave long shoots during pruning. Much will depend on the grape variety that you have planted on its age, climatic conditions and growing conditions. Experienced growers consider average pruning the most suitable pruning. With this pruning leave on young shoots from 5 to 10 buds.
- Unwanted pests and diseases. Growing grapes sometimes becomes problematic due to the appearance of any pests on it. To avoid this, you need to deal with preventive treatments in adverse periods for the grapes. This period is the time when the air temperature can drop to 15 degrees and below.
- Frequent feeding is not the best care. If you want to help the plants, we can only harm them. This applies to a large number of feedings. It is considered correct to apply fertilizer in the smallest doses, moreover, regular ones. Compound fertilizers are considered the best for feeding grapes.
So that the cultivation of grapes does not stop in winter, many try to grow it on their balcony. Good cultivation resultand culture can only be achieved by choosing the right variety.
Planting Grape Saplings for Beginners - Preparation for the Procedure
First of all, the young vine must be tempered. Even if the seller assured you that he had independently carried out all the procedures, better reinsure yourself. After all, saplings that have not been quenched, take root worse and get sick more. You can wait longer for the harvest from them, or they will die at all, not even growing.
The procedure is carried out as follows: about 2 weeks every day, keep the seedlings in the fresh air. Start at a quarter of an hour on the first day, and then every day, increase the time by 30 minutes. In the first week, protect the vine from the sun. The last 3-4 days grapes should always be in the fresh air. Exception: forecasted frosts that can destroy seedlings.
To plant the grapes is only after the end of the return frost. The most favorable time: May - the beginning of June, when the soil is already well warmed. The ideal time to land is morning or evening. The day is better to choose a cloudy, so that the plant will stick faster.
Grapes - planting and care in the open field
While the seedlings are tempered, dig quality planting pits. The average width, length and depth are 80 cm each, but you can adjust the parameters according to the size of the plot and the composition of the soil.
If there is a light fertile soil on the plot, you can dig up small pits for grapes, and if the soil is heavy, their size should be as large as possible.
The earth dug out of the pit, divided into three parts. The most fertile soil from the upper layer, which is about 20-30 cm, you will later put on the bottom of the pit, closer to the roots. Then the middle part of the soil will be used. And from above - the least nutritious soil from the lower layer, which after a while will again become fertile after exposure to soil bacteria.
When digging a hole, carefully examine the lumps, remove the pest larvae and the roots of the plants that may hinder the development of the vine. Then pour into the pit:
- 2 buckets of decomposed organic matter: manure, compost,
- 1.5 kg of wood ash,
- 300 g of complex feeding, for example, nitroammofoski.
All mix thoroughly with a long stick, pre-pouring the top layer of fertile soil, and pour 2 buckets of water. When moisture is absorbed, pour earth from the middle layer of the pit.
Nitrogen top dressing in its pure form is best not to apply, otherwise the vine will begin to fatten, its aging and resistance to frost will decrease.
If the weather was unfavorable or you did not have time to prepare the pits, you can save the vine saplings for autumn planting. Just transplant them into containers with drainage holes and dig into the ground to the middle, water regularly. So you will have more time to prepare for the autumn planting.
How to plant grapes
When the pit is ready, and the plant is hardened, proceed to planting. Remove the grapes from the package along with the earthy ball. Place the seedling in the pit so that the zone of formation of the roots (the heel of the cutting) is 35-40 cm below ground level. Conventionally, this place can be taken as the center of the container where the seedling was located. Also, make sure that the "eye", from which the lowest green shoot develops, is located 10 cm below the ground level - this way it will be easier later to form a bush and cover the shoots for the winter.
If the seedling is too long and it is impossible to plant it vertically at the correct depth, position it obliquely, in front of this, pour the earth on one side of the pit.
At the end of planting, cover the plant with soil 5 cm below the “eye” and firmly seal it with your hands so that there are no voids. Water the seedling with 1-2 buckets of warm water. Wait until it is absorbed, and completely fill the pit with soil, but do not compact it. The soil should remain loose, so that there is a good air exchange, so do not tread it. But mulching is worth, because it will not allow an earth crust to form and reduce the evaporation of moisture.
Many gardeners wonder at what distance to plant grapes in a row. The answer is: the most correct is to keep a distance of 1-1.5 m between plants. If there are many seedlings, it is possible to dig not pits, but a trench 40-80 cm deep. Support is also needed for the grapes so that the vine develops correctly. As temporary means, use pegs, pipes, etc. In the future, it is worthwhile to put a trellis that will allow the bush to perfectly form and facilitate the care of it.
Care for first-year grapes in spring, summer and autumn
Spring care for grapes is to combat diseases, pests and adverse external factors. To protect the plant, spray the plant with 1% Bordeaux liquid, which will prevent the development of fungal diseases. From the grape moth, flea and spider mites will help ordinary laundry soap (1 piece of 10 liters of water). In addition, immediately after planting, young plants need a couple of weeks to shade from direct sunlight, for example, with the help of a spunbond, plywood, shading nets, or other improvised materials.
Summer care of grapes consists of regular watering and feeding, loosening the soil and weeding.
Watering and feeding the grapes
After planting the vine needs regular and abundant watering. Of course, how often to water the grapes depends primarily on the weather. But usually the plant is watered within 10-15 days after planting and repeat the procedure every 2 weeks. If it is hot and the earth dries quickly, watering is increasing.
For watering grapes use warm distilled water in the amount of 5-10 liters per bush.
Fertilizers that were applied during planting will provide nutrients to the vine for 2-3 years, so there is no urgent need for additional feeding. If desired, the plant can be supplemented at the end of the summer with the help of such a mixture: 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M. Then the grapes are better prepared for winter.
The main goal of pruning in the first year after planting is to give the bush the correct “direction” of growth, so that it will have two new strong shoots. To do this, immediately after planting, trim it to 2 eyes, removing everything else.
In the future, pruning of grapes is carried out annually. Otherwise, thickened planting will become a source of disease and pests, and the harvest will drop sharply.
Can also be carried out crockery - removal of the surface roots of the plant. This will allow other roots to go deeper into the ground and successfully overwinter. Outline the hole to 25 cm deep and carefully trim the upper roots and excess shoots. Then fill the hole with earth.
In winter, young bushes necessarily cover, regardless of whether you have a winter hardy variety or not. Процедуру проводят, когда опадут все листья, после первых небольших заморозков. Для укрытия можно использовать солому, лапник, спанбонд и даже шифер.
Если вы будете соблюдать правильный полив винограда, регулярно подкармливать лозу и защищать ее от вредителей, то молодое растение разовьется так же успешно, как и саженцы, посаженные осенью прошлого года.
Do you want to grow grapes? Care for beginners, collected in this article, will help create a luxurious vineyard, which will bear fruit every year with juicy berries.
Try to plant a vine, perhaps this lesson will enthrall you so much that you will become a real expert. And if you are already growing grapes, share your secrets of a rich harvest in the comments.
Biological features of grapes
Grapes belong to the family Vinogradovyh (Vitaceae Juss), which has 14 genera and more than a thousand species. Almost all cultivated plant species belong to the genus Vitis, uniting 70 species. In the wild, these are perennial plants, which in most cases produce large, climbing bushes.
The scheme of the structure of the vine: 1. Heel roots, 2. Underground shtamb, 3. Surface roots, 4. Head of a bush, 5. Sleeves, 6. Fruitful shoots, 7. Fruit Link, 8. Fruitless escape, 9. Stepson, 10. Leafy escape, 11. Annual shoots, 12. Fruiting arrow, 13. Replacement knot, 14. Horn.
Cultivated grapevine consists of underground and aboveground parts. The underground part consists of the underground stem and the root system. The stem has a length of 40 to 50 cm and is used by gardeners as planting material, because it is reliably protected by a layer of soil from low temperatures in winter and drying in summer. The root system nourishes the plant, absorbing nutrients from the soil, so the roots need to pay no less attention: moisturize, loosen the soil, apply fertilizer.
The above-ground part consists of the stem, the bush sleeve, its head, annual shoots and second-order shoots, called stepchildren, which after flowering turn into large clusters of juicy delicious berries.
The base of the underground boom is called the heel. The head is the part of the bush that is at the ground level or lower with the covering method of cultivation, which is most common in the conditions of our country. Perennial vines that depart from the head are called sleeves, if their length is more than 35 cm, and horns, if they do not reach 35 cm in length.
The annual vine that extends from the base of the bush is called the knot of formation, and the adjacent vine to the fruit vine is the knot of substitution. Fruit vines are called arrows if there are 5-8 eyes left on it, an arc, if there are 9-12, and a whip, if there are more than 12. It is the fruit vine, together with the substitution bitch, that form the links of fruiting and require maximum care.
Planting grapes: bushes care
The grapes are not very fastidious to the soil, but if the soil is not fertile, it is better to dig landing pits to a depth of 1 m, adding organic fertilizer, black soil and sand. In the conditions of black soil can be limited to a depth of 60-70 cm. But the most evil enemy of the grape bush is the shadow, where it grows intensively, but bears little fruit. If you plan to grow plants against the wall, choose the southern or south-western part, because in this way the wall will heat up in a day and even at night the bush will be provided with heat.
If the grapes are grown in an open area, then for each bush you can make a separate support, but gardeners prefer, in order to save, plant the plants in rows on a single support. Naturally, each variety must grow separately, because the grapes are intensively washed down. Shrubs should be at a distance of at least 1.5 m, and the aisle - at least 2 m. The rows should be formed in the east-west direction.
The scheme of planting grapes.
Planting pits should be prepared in the fall, laying the ground mixed with manure along the bottom, and in case of its absence, pour the pit with infused ashes or bird droppings. In winter, the landing pit is compacted with a thin layer of soil. And in the spring there are planted seedlings, also harvested in the fall. With a lack of material for planting, you can use cut cuttings, but leave a deep hole above its surface.
Grapes can be planted vertically and obliquely, but one should not forget that in the first case all the roots are cut to 10 cm. In both cases, the roots are soaked in a tincture of rain water for two days with the addition of 1 tablet of heteroauxin per 10 liters of water . It is not recommended to make a landing until the temperature reaches 10 ° C. The first watering is desirable to produce warm rain water.
It is also possible autumn planting, but it should be held until mid-October, when the plant becomes dormant. In this case, an earthen mound 25-30 cm high should be built over the sapling for the winter to avoid freezing.
It happens that the cutting does not take root. The reason for this phenomenon may be its drying, underdevelopment before the time of pruning, the soil affected by rot, too much germinated cuttings during planting, insufficient watering. The modern technique suggests planting it along with a part of a two-year-old vine about 1.5 meters in length for better survival, placing it in a ring along the bottom of the planting pit.
It is very important to establish support for the bushes in time. In the autumn of the first year, a single-row vertical trellis with five-tier wire is sufficient. When six to eight sleeves are formed in the bush (3-4 year of fruiting), a two-plane oblique trellis is required. Thus, the whole plant is well supported and receives enough light from top to bottom.
Scheme shelter vine for the winter.
In the autumn period of the first year of the growing season before the threat of frost, young shoots are covered without cutting. They can be touched only in spring, even if the vine intensively "cries." After four years, the formation of the bush is made exclusively in the fall, when the sap flow stops. The bush grown from a sapling is naturally older than the cuttings, but regardless of this, by the autumn only one shoot with 2-3 eyes is preserved. In the case of the development of two shoots, it is better to cut each of them into two buds in order to form four branches in the future. But if there are three shoots, the bottommost one is cut regardless of its thickness.
Summer work is reduced to loosening the soil around the bush, intensive watering, especially in hot summer conditions and pest control. Also during this period, weak shoots develop from the central bud of the peephole, which gardeners call the "whisk". They need to be cut, leaving only the two most developed lower escape.
The worst enemy of the grape bush, and hence the future harvest, is mildew, which is resistant to frost and can remain in the dry leaves. In spring, it is better to plant the planting with copper sulphate (100 g per 10 l of water) without lime. In the summer, the developing bush is sprayed with a solution of polychrome (25 g per 10 l of water), and after each rain with the same solution, but in double concentration, without waiting for the leaves to dry. This will help protect the bushes from many fungal diseases and rot.
Against oidium, sulfur is used as a means of prophylaxis, which must be constantly on bushes at the age of more than 4 years, in the form of pollination of crushed sulfur or spraying with a suspension of colloidal sulfur (80 g per 10 l of water). Acaricides are effective against ticks. If the plant is affected too much, then it is better to remove it completely, so as not to spread the infection.
The first feeding of grape bushes carried out in early May. To do this, 60 g of nitrogen is dissolved in 10 l of water and poured into the well around the base of the plant. Every 10 liters of solution alternate with the same amount of clean warm water, watering is repeated two more times, and the soil is mulched. Such procedures are repeated once every two to three weeks, depending on the weather. They are recommended to be combined with fertilizer, which is introduced into the aisle not earlier than in the second year of full fruiting.
In winter, the bushes must be wrapped, especially in the climatic conditions of the greater territory of Russia. A week before insulation, the upper roots are cut without leaving hemp and with the disinfection of the sections with a solution of blue vitriol. But this procedure can be repeated only once every two years. To carry out manipulations, dig a hole to a depth of 15 cm, and then fill it with clean sand without clay admixture. Tying green shoots is not recommended too tight, it is best to use the loop-rewind method, in which the loop is loosely attached to the stalk, and it is tightly tied to the mount.
Grape grazing scheme.
The process of forming bushes can be accelerated in the summer growing season. This method allows you to achieve maximum fruiting by Italian gardeners. To do this, choose a two-year-old or a developed one-year-old sapling, having two shoots, cut into knots of three eyes each, of which six shoots will form by the fall. In early June, they are minted, leaving 5-6 leaves on each, and the uppermost shoots are removed from the bush.
Minted arrows are placed obliquely two in different directions for the simultaneous growth of the stepsons. After 9-10 days pasyonkovye shoots begin to grow from the main leaves. By the end of June, the main shoots have the two uppermost shoots, while it is very important that the second one is external, as the future replacement knot. The remaining stepchildren gently pinch off, leaving the leaves, thus forming a young sleeve with preserved leaves. The following year, in the spring, it is already possible to make the first pruning, for which, on the sleeves, the outer lower stepson is cut to a replacement knot with 2-3 eyes, and the upper one - to a fruit arrow with 7-8 eyes. So in the spring of the second year you can get a shaped four-bush with 30-35 eyes. In the first year the inflorescences are removed from the bush, and in the second it is fully fruiting. Today it is the most common method of achieving maximum yield from each vine.
If the shrub develops normally and bears fruit, then approximately from the beginning of October, when the last crop has been harvested, the shoots should be painted in a light brown color and crackle when they bend. The time has come for sanitary clearance - removal of young shoots and leaves below the first wire, and the tips of young shoots can be cut. The lowermost outer knot is pruned to a new knot of 2-3 eyes, the next is to the fruit arrow of 8-10 knots, and the upper escape is removed. After 8-10 years, when fertility decreases, the bush should be replaced by young.
How to grow planting material
Different ways of planting vineyards include the use of seedlings of matured annual vine, one- and two-year seedlings, rooted cuttings, cuttings and green seedlings grown in greenhouses under greenhouse conditions as seedlings.
Cuttings can form a root system from both nodes and from any interstitial point. Cherenia shoots shoot only from the buds of the eye. Even single-eyed cuttings 50–60 cm in size are used for growing seedlings. Autumn harvestings obtained after the growing season have a greater viability than spring, because then it is impossible to accurately determine the number of frost-damaged buds and select the survivors. From drying out and mold, autumn cuttings are soaked for two days and then placed in plastic bags. They are best preserved in wet sand or dug in the ground at a depth of 25-35 cm. A thin layer of sand is poured at the bottom of the groove, and a small mound is formed above it so that not too much moisture falls. For cuttings, healthy shoots are selected, and the unripe ones, which do not crackle when bent, with traces of disease, are removed.
The scheme of preparation of the pit for grape seedlings.
For growing seedlings cuttings that have reached a length of 30-35 cm, harvested in advance. Sometimes they are left 70 cm long to be better preserved, and cut in two before use. But it is not very effective, it is better to take good care of short cuttings. During the autumn rains they prepare a trench so that it is moistened as well as possible in winter and warmed by the spring sun. In the spring, it is plentifully watered with hot water, and at the end of March the cuttings are taken out, cut to the very knot, and soaked in warm, sedimentary water with the addition of growth stimulants for 24 hours.
The prepared pits are carefully fertilized with the subsequent planting of cuttings there under an inclination in the south-north direction. The soil is compacted, and the entire surface of the seat is sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate without using lime (50 g per 10 l of water). Along the planting should remain a furrow for irrigation 3-4 times a week. When the first shoots arise, spray them for diseases. In the winter the school is well covered, and next autumn they land on a permanent place.
Saplings can be grown in greenhouses through paper cups. So that the glasses are not defrosted, they are wrapped in film. When the time of landing comes, the film is removed, and the paper can be left to preserve the roots as much as possible. The main point - maintaining the temperature in the room 25-30 ° C and additional lighting.
Saplings from green cuttings and cuttings are used less frequently, and sometimes grapes are propagated in the same way without seedlings, using a layering of green shoots. Whatever technology you choose, you need to take into account that the plant is rather fastidious, but the taste and usefulness of the berries justify all the efforts made, and the grape business is today considered one of the most profitable.
What to consider before growing grapes?
Why not every gardener succeeds in growing good grapes on his plot so that he does not freeze during the winter, rot in the summer and bring a bountiful harvest of decent quality? The fact is that the cultivation of this culture must be approached seriously.
First of all, you should choose a suitable grape variety that will feel comfortable in your area. For example, growing grapes in the middle lane gives good results only when using winter-hardy varieties with early ripening. Among the new varieties you will find a lot of excellent options that are resistant to fungal diseases, pests and severe frosts, with high yields and the ability to ripen even in the dull short summer.Video about growing grapes
Aronaceous varieties, as a rule, require more sunlight and heat than bright grapes, although there are quite hardy black varieties.
Pay special attention to the appearance of the seedling when buying. See if there is any mechanical damage to the plant, signs of drying out, or strange stains? Healthy grape seedlings should have at least three well-developed roots and a sprout about half a meter high. In order not to doubt the quality of planting material, buy seedlings in the nursery, and preferably in a container - so the plant will take root better.
It will be easier for a novice gardener to plant a ready-made grape seedling, especially if you want to create a vineyard from scratch. Experienced winegrowers can easily cope with cuttings, but those who are not afraid to experiment can try to grow grapes from a stone.
In the photo grape saplings
Step-by-step technology of growing grapes
Starting to create a vineyard, it is important to take into account climatic features: if the region has little snowy winters and strong frosts, it will be preferable to plant the grapes in trenches or pits, if there is enough snow in winter, but the summer is too short and cold, it is better to plant seedlings in bulk ridges. In the pits, the root system will be reliably protected from freezing, and in the ridges the roots will receive more heat during the summer months.
You can plant grapes both in spring and in autumn, depending on which planting material you choose. Consider the most common and easiest option - autumn planting of grapes saplings in the planting holes.
Pictured planting grapes
Stages of planting grape seedlings:
- choose for planting a well-lit sun, a flat place where there are no drafts and excessive moisture,
- dig a planting hole to the size of the root system, with a depth of 0.2 to 0.5 m (less for clay soil, deeper for sandy soil),
- Mix the soil from the pit with organic and complex mineral fertilizers,
- put a layer of gravel on the bottom of the pit, and put branches or planks on top,
- install a pipe with a diameter of 10 cm in order to water the grapes through it and fertilize the soil,
- form on top of a layer of gravel and branches a small mound of prepared earth,
- Before planting, put the roots of a grape seedling in a solution of clay and rotted mullein (there is twice as much clay as mullein),
- cut off the shoots for a couple of buds and dip in the melted paraffin,
- place the seedling in the hole, straightening its roots,
- cover the pit with the remaining soil and tamp gently
- pour warm water over the grapes
- Rumble the hole with compost or rotted manure.
Photo watering grapes
If you are going to plant several bushes of grapes, leave at least one and a half meters between them. At the same time it is recommended to locate plants from the south to the north.
How to grow grapes and care for them?
For the proper formation of grape bushes, you must install a strong trellis. The simplest design consists of two metal or wooden pillars with several rows of wire between them. As they grow, the vines are carefully tied to the wire, giving them the right direction.
In the photo are grapes
В первые три года уделяйте посадкам особенно много внимания: осторожно рыхлите землю спустя два дня после дождя или полива, не допускайте увядания листьев и пересыхания почвы от недостатка влаги, уничтожайте сорняки. Начиная с четвертого года, достаточно поливать виноградник три-четыре раза за сезон в наиболее важные фазы развития.
Periodically it is necessary to feed the grape bushes through the drainage tubes and on the leaves, and from pests and diseases to process suitable fungicides. Often carefully inspect the plants, in time to start the fight against dangerous enemies of the grapes and prevent the death of the entire vineyard!Video about the technology of growing grapes
Every autumn after fall foliage spend pruning grapes. With the onset of the first night frost, remove the vines from the supports, pin the brackets to the ground, treat with copper sulfate and cover with plastic wrap. In the spring, do not rush to open the grapes until the frosts and rapid temperature drops stop.
Following the technology of growing grapes, given in this article, you can create your own vineyard and enjoy delicious, juicy fruits every year.
How to grow grapes on your own site?
Before buying a grape seedling, you need to decide on a variety that will take root well in your climatic conditions. It must meet all criteria.which are important for summer resident. For example, for areas in which early frosts are not uncommon, such varieties as “Alpha”, “Nina”, “Amursky” and “Isabella” are perfect. They tolerate low temperatures in the range of -24 to -32 degrees and have a high resistance to various diseases.
In order not to be mistaken in the choice, before purchasing the cuttings, one should carefully examine them and leave only the strongest and healthiest ones.
Time and place for landing
The planting time of the grapes depends on the material from which you decided to grow the plant. The hardest and strongest seedlings can be rooted from mid-April to early June, depending on the climate. Young flexible shoots are planted not earlier than the end of May, when the risk of frost returning is minimized.
Experienced gardeners advise planting grapes in the fall. Ideal for most regions from late September to mid-October. This is explained by the fact that during the first wintering the plant gets used to the climate faster.
As a landing site choose the most light and warm areas. The southern side of the courtyard is well suited for this. Land for planting should be airy and light, so if it is initially dense in the garden, you can dilute it with sand or drainage. It is advisable to place the grapes on a hill or flat surface to protect the planting from wastewater after rain.
Growing grapes from seeds
This method of cultivation is not the most common among gardeners, because plants grown from seeds do not fully adopt all the qualities of their parents. It is suitable for experienced gardeners who like to conduct experiments on their site. Grapes grown from seed, often characterized by high resistance to weather conditions and diseases.
The process of growing itself consists of several steps:
- Remove the bones from the most juicy and ripe berries. Rinse them under clean cool water.
- Collect the bones in a plastic bag and put in a cool place. Once a week you need to wash them to avoid mold.
- After 6-8 weeks, the seeds will begin to crack. This means that the material is ready for planting.
- You can begin to prepare the tank for germination. For this purpose, well-suited plastic dishes, at the bottom of which lay a wet cloth. Planting material is put on it and left for two to three days at room temperature.
- When the seeds begin to germinate, they are planted in small containers with sandy soil. They are placed shallowly, it is enough to dig out small holes with a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters. Capacity covered with plastic film and put in a warm place.
- After the appearance of the first green shoots of capacity, you need to put in a bright place: on the balcony or windowsill.
- When 4 leaflets appear on the seedling, you can proceed to the first transplant into a larger pot. Add turf and mineral fertilizers to the soil.
- If there is not enough light in the storage area of seedlings, electric lamps can be used as a source of additional lighting.
If all the landing steps are done correctly, grapes from seeds will grow quickly enough. In one year, you can grow a vine with a height of one and a half to two meters.
To grow grapes in the country does not necessarily rush to the store for seeds. It is enough to use an adult bush that grows with neighbors or acquaintances. Autumn is the best time for harvesting cuttings cut from adult bushes.
For the cultivation of suitable vine, which last season gave a good harvest. It needs to be cut on several equal cuttings. Their lower part should be cut at an angle. To prepare the seedlings for the winter, they are treated with iron sulfate (a weak solution with a concentration of 1% will do), dried and wrapped in pieces of cloth. The resulting bags are folded in bags, signed in accordance with the grape variety and put in a dark cool place, the temperature in which does not rise above +6 degrees.
In the first days of spring, you can begin preparing for planting. The cuttings are taken out of the cloth and the most healthy and strong ones are selected for rooting. The rest of the material, on which traces of mold and diseases are found, should be discarded; they will not take root in the soil.
Rooted cuttings thus:
- Peat, dried leaves and sand are poured into disposable cups. All carefully mixed.
- A hole is made in the center of the tank.
- In the hole set stalk and cover it with soil. Cut the seedling, which remained on the surface, it is necessary to process the garden pitch.
- During the first 30 days, the cuttings are provided with constant heat, the container with them should stand in a warm place. It is better to put it on some heat source so that the soil temperature is in the range of 25 to 30 degrees.
- To prevent the plant from withering, you need to regularly water it with a small amount of water. Empty shoots pinch to the main vine was enough moisture and nutrition.
Already in the middle of spring, it is possible to transplant the cuttings into a more spacious container, adding mineral fertilizers and turf to the soil.
Growing grapes from seedlings
This is the easiest way to grow grapes. In special stores Or nurseries can buy rooted seedlings, which are quite simple to plant in open ground. The age of such bushes should not be less than one year. On the quality of the acquired seedling will tell its appearance. The cut of the vine should have a bright-green color. A good seedling has a massive root system.
Before planting, the soil needs to be made more airy, add a little sand and sod to it. It also does not hurt addition of mineral fertilizers. Then you need to follow a few simple steps:
- Before planting, process the roots of the grapes by dipping them into warm water. Leave the plant in water for two days. You can add to the water composition to accelerate the growth of plants.
- Pour the prepared soil into the container for planting, place a seedling in it and straighten the roots.
- Fill the emptiness of the tank with residual soil and water.
As the seedling grows, you need to cut off the extra vines and do not forget about regular watering and fertilizing.
Rules for watering grapes
Grapes - a perennial plant, but it requires constant watering only in the summer. The rest of the time with proper care in temperate climates do not need to water the bush.
In the summer with a single grape bush when high temperature evaporates from 0.5 to 2 liters of moisture, so it must be replenished. If you neglect watering, you risk the future harvest. The leaves of the bush will begin to crumble and turn yellow massively, and the clusters will become smaller. The lack of moisture leads to too active growth of the roots of the plant, they begin to look for water. With this they can interfere with other plants growing in the adjacent plot.
Too much watering of the grapes is also not worth it, as this can lead to rotting of the root of the plant and its death. Excess water leads to the leaching of minerals and other nutrients from the soil. Therefore, it is important to observe the measures in watering the grapes.
In the first year after the rooting of the bush should be taken to watering especially carefully. You need to water the plant without going beyond the hole that was formed when the plant was planted. Make it very simple: you need to retreat from the trunk of the plant about 25 centimeters to the side and dig a shallow trench. With the help of it and carry out watering, and after it the trench is sprinkled with earth, so that the moisture does not evaporate. In the first year of the bush it takes an average of 10 liters of water.
It is better to prepare the water for irrigation in advance: type it in the tank in the morning and heat it in the sun during the day. Watering the grapes is best in the evening when the sun begins to lose activity.
In order not to fill the plant, you need to focus on its external state. It is enough to irrigate young saplings once a week, then reduce the frequency of watering to once every two weeks.
Complex fertilize the plant enough twice a year. At the same time, the nutrient composition is not laid directly in the roots of the bush, it is done at a short distance from the trunk. To do this, dig the same trench as for watering the plant. Mineral fertilizers are poured into it and covered with soil.
The best time to fertilize grapes is mid-November and early March. This is a time of active growth, disclosure or preparation for wintering. Under each plant, you need to pour nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers into the hole in the proportion of 5: 3: 4. After that, you need to fill the bait soil. You can replace it with a wet composition, you can buy it at any specialty store.
Wet dressing is also useful during the flowering period. You can cook it yourself. For this fit chicken droppings mixed with water in equal proportions. Immediately before the fertilizer composition is further diluted with water. To feed one bush, it is necessary to prepare about 1.5 buckets of the mixture.
When the first berries appear, you need to feed the bush with a complex of mineral fertilizers. It should not be highly concentrated, the composition of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus described above should be diluted with water and poured into a trench near the bush. During this period, additional fertilizer is very important for the growth of berries and obtaining a good harvest. It also helps to form more buds, which significantly affects the yield next year.
The final fertilizer will be during the ripening of the crop. Nitrogen fertilizers at this time exclude, it is enough to add only potassium and phosphorus. Mix them in the same proportions and feed each large vine.. Add a little wood ash to them.which nourishes the plant with essential micronutrients.
It is not necessary to feed the plant in the first year after rooting, because a large amount of fertilizer is placed in the hole during planting.
Rules for pruning the vine
After the young branches after planting have reached a length of 10 centimeters, they need to be cut. It is enough to leave 3 strong vines on the main shoot, the remaining branches can be cut. Next you need to form the right bush for a year without extra empty branches.
Before flowering, you need to pinch off the top branch, so that the bush begins to grow in width. In the process of flowering and the formation of a bunch you need to ensure that the bush received a sufficient amount of sunlight. To do this, large sheets cut off. You also need to clean dry lifeless branches that interfere with the normal growth of the main vine.
So that the bush does not grow much, you need to cut young branches after harvesting with a garden knife. Every autumn, experienced gardeners cut more than half of the unnecessary branches of the vine, leaving the strongest and strongest vines that gave the most for the season.
Preparing the bush for wintering
Autumn pruning branches - this is not the last stage of care. In November, you need to cover the ground at the roots of the plant with a "pillow" of sawdust or humus. The thickness of the mulch should not be less than 5 centimeters. After that, the branches of the grapes should be tilted parallel to the ground and covered with a film or wooden flooring. Such measures are needed only for those varieties.which are hard on winter, there is no need to cover frost-resistant types of grapes.
Within two years after rooting, all young vines must be covered for the winter, regardless of the climate in which they are planted.
Some tips on caring for grapes in the north
To create favorable conditions for the growth of such a thermophilic plant like grapes, you can resort to using some tricks. Especially these tips will be useful to summer residents, who want to grow grapes in the northern regions of Russia.
- You can isolate the planting of grapes from the north. To do this, you can independently build from the wooden planks a semblance of a shield and install it near the bush. For greater warming, the shield can be sheathed with iron, so that when heated it gives off its heat to the grape bush. So the plant adapts faster to the climate.
- Another useful tip: you can dig holes in the plant’s root system that contain glass bottles. They need to be placed down their heads next to each other. Bottles are partially covered with soil, so that the bottom is on the surface and acts as a heater. This way you can easily create an air cushion that will warm your plant.
How to choose a sapling?
When buying seedlings, in order not to become a victim of a fraudster, you should remember a few simple rules:
- No need to buy “inferior” seedlings, because of them often turn out weak bushes, almost no yield. Because they just have to throw away.
- You should choose elite seedlings or plants of the first and second grade. Elite seedlings have at least 4 roots, the thickness of which at the base is about 2 millimeters. Saplings of the first grade have a normal gain from one or several escapes. This seedling can be distinguished by the roots - they must be at least 4 and a thickness of at least 2 millimeters at the base. But second-rate seedlings can be identified by mature growth - they should be at least 3. But the roots at the base of the trunk should be at least 2.
- Carefully look at the growth of seedlings. Plants with nevzoryvshim or poorly mature growths can be attributed to the defective specimen in need of re-growing.
Planting and watering grapes
Grapes are perennial shrub vine, which belongs to the family of grapes. This plant can be found in regions with a temperate and subtropical climate in almost every country. It is necessary to know that the yield, the speed of development and the durability of the plant depend on how well it will be possible to choose a planting place. Grapes are a culture that loves light, and therefore should be planted in the most lighted areas on the territory, having foreseen all the prospects for shading, for example, with fruit trees that will grow in the future.
A feature of the grape is its simplicity to the soil, but he does not like the close occurrence of groundwater and high clay content. It is best to plant table grapes on moisture-permeable soils rich in humus - black soil and loam. For planting grapes should prepare a place in the fall, before digging the site to a depth of 50-60 centimeters, fertilizing the soil with compost or manure at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 square meter.
The best solution for planting grapes is spring, when it will be above zero and warm weather will please. A small amount of humus should be added to the prepared well and the sapling should be placed together with a clod of earth, then it should be filled up, mulched with peat and watered abundantly. Before planting, the seedling should be cut, leaving two shoots with two eyes on each. Next to the seedling, hammer the peg against which the plant should be leaned. At the first stage (1-2 weeks), you should water the grapes every 2-3 days, then reduce the intensity.
For the first time in a season, the plant should be watered immediately after the winter shelter has been removed, and the vine is tied to the lower horizontal trellis guide. Young shrubs under the age of 3 years should be watered using a dug plastic pipe. 1 liana will need about 40 liters of warm water diluted with 500 milliliters of wood ash.
The second watering should be carried out a week before flowering, and the third time should be watered the shrub after it has faded. To stop watering the grapes should be after the green fruit begins to change its color. Young shrubs of wine varieties are watered 4 times per season, mature - only 1 time.
After the seedling is planted, it is very important to follow it, constantly loosening the ground. As the grapes grow, pruning of weak shoots should be carried out, leaving those that grow faster - to tie them to pegs. In late July, it is very important to remove the tops of the shoot with two or three leaves. It is necessary to form a grapevine, since with a strong growth there can be serious problems associated with caring for it. In addition, it is fraught with the fact that the plant will lose strength, and its yield significantly reduced. Длина основной лозы должна быть не более 1 метра, а состоять она должна из 1 или 2 стволов, которые растут из земли. От основной лозы будет происходить разрастание лоз. У подвязанного куста должна быть веерообразная форма, а его высота не должна быть более 1,5 метра.
In addition to removing diseased shoots, it is equally important to cut the grapes annually. Pruning should be carried out twice a year - in spring and autumn, while the plant is still inactive. But in winter, grapes should be covered to protect it from freezing. In the summer, as such, pruning of grapes is not carried out, but during this period it is necessary to produce a pasynkovanie, pinching, chasing grapes. You will also need to break the extra branches, remove the foliage that prevents the sun from penetrating to the berries.
In early spring, the grapes should be cut only in case of emergency and only after the temperature is more than +5 degrees. In this case, only diseased or injured branches can be cut on young bushes or planted in autumn.
In the autumn period, the cutting of the grapes is carried out in several stages. After harvesting, it is necessary to clear the branches from the seed-bearing links, tops and weak shoots. After 14 days after the leaves no longer crumble, you should proceed to the next stage of pruning. To do this, it is necessary to cut off all the extra stems so that at least 3-8 branches are left on the bush, growing at an angle from the ground.
Grape plants will develop better and bear fruit if the soil is rich in nutrients. But over time, the content of beneficial microelements in the soil drops significantly, because it is very important to feed the shrubs several times a season with complex fertilizers, which will help revitalize the plant. The grapes need these nutrients:
- Zinc. This trace element helps to increase the yield of grapes.
- Nitrogen. The substance is responsible for the growth of leaves and shoots, because most of the nitrogen fertilizers should be made in the spring, at the very beginning of the growing season of the plant. In summertime, grapes do not particularly need nitrogen, but since August it is highly undesirable to use nitrogen fertilizers.
- Bor. Boric acid introduced into the soil will help make the grapes sweeter, as well as accelerate the ripening of berries. In addition, boron stimulates the germination of pollen.
- Phosphorus. Grapes most in need of phosphorus at the very beginning of flowering. Due to this fertilizer inflorescences will develop better, and the clusters to ripen.
- Copper. This substance helps to strengthen the growth of shoots and protect them from death in the cold and during drought.
- Calia. Closer to autumn, it is necessary to feed the plant with potassium chloride, since it helps to accelerate the ripening of vines and fruits, and also prepare the grapes for winter.
Grapes are also particularly in need of calcium, iron, magnesium and sulfur, but often these elements are contained in sufficient amounts in the soil.
Most gardeners are convinced that the chemicals treat the affected stems and branches of the vine, but this is not at all the case. The fact is that any chemical preparation is intended only to combat pathogenic microorganisms that cause the manifestation of the disease, but it is unable to heal the affected tissues. Therefore, it is very important to carry out preventive procedures that will provide reliable protection of the plant against various dangerous pests and diseases.
In the spring, after the length of the green shoots reaches 10 centimeters, the plant should be sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur 1%, Bordeaux liquid 3%. So it will be possible to increase the immunity of grapes to felt mites and various fungi. Also, most gardeners prefer to spray the plant with Ridomil solution at the rate of 50-60 grams per 1 bucket of water or Polyhome at the rate of 80 grams per 1 bucket of water. For prevention, it is recommended to combine the solution with the means for foliar feeding.
The main task for the gardener at the initial stage is the selection of a plant variety adapted to local conditions. In order not to be mistaken with the choice, it is necessary to study all about grapes. Care, pruning, planting and reproduction should be carried out taking into account agrotechnical features. For the northern regions, it is necessary to choose early-ripe and frost-resistant varieties.. Among the most common varieties found Isabella, Madeleine Anzhevin, Nina.
Complex resistant varieties do not require scrupulous care and are distinguished by good prigiveness. Such varieties not only tolerate freezing temperatures, but can also resist fungal infections. The best option for a novice grower in endurance and taste are varieties Delight, Lydia, Moldova, Crystal.
Another important factor to consider when choosing a plant is the power of growth. Novice gardeners better opt for low-growing or sredneroslyh varieties. These varieties do not deliver great complexity during planting and maintenance. Among the most common varieties can be called Timur, Novinka, Jubilee of Moldova.
When choosing a grape variety Alpha, planting and care will not be much different from all the others. It is intended for cultivation in the northern areas. Plant it from the end of March to the end of June. Caring is similar to other species, but for the winter they shelter from freezing.
Raw material for planting
In the fall, many specialized nurseries sell plant seedlings. The advantage of such a purchase is the choice of high-quality planting material. Often in such places it is possible to evaluate the taste qualities of the purchased variety.
Healthy grape saplings, planted in the autumn, are far ahead in their development of seedlings planted in the spring. For spring planting, it is recommended to acquire vegetative seedlings. Their quality can be determined by appearance. In such seedlings growth should be at least 25 centimeters, with a stem thickness of about 5 millimeters. They should have several green developed leaflets, up to about 6 pieces, and several root processes.
Being a heat-loving crop, grapes require a choice of a sunny, windless and not damp place for planting. The best solution in this case is to choose the south-west or south side.. To protect against the wind, you can make a landing near the fence or the building, departing from them half a meter. If trees grow alongside, it is necessary to retreat from them at least 3 meters.
It is better to choose loamy or sandy soil for growing grapes and caring for them.. With the accumulation of a minimum experience in the care of this plant can be planted on clay and rocky soils. In areas with groundwater grapes do not grow.
Cultivation and care
For quality growth and development before landing in the ground form a supply of nutrients. The depth and size of the pits for landing make optimal - 80 to 80 centimeters. They are recommended to be prepared two months before planting.
The upper fertile layer, taken from the pit, is mixed with manure and wood ash. They take 2 buckets of each and add 0.5 kg of superphosphate. If the soil is clay at the bottom of the pit, then sand is added to it. Prepared soil mixture fill the hole in half and leave for shrinkage.
To obtain high-quality plants with high fruiting, it is necessary to produce proper planting and care at all stages of development. Before planting in the ground sapling during the day soaked in water. After this procedure, the roots and sprout are pruned slightly.
The lower part of the stem and the roots immersed in a clay mash and proceed to planting. Proper planting of grapes saplings looks like this:
- deep into the pit on the layer of nutrient soil sprinkle a small mound,
- spreading the roots of a seedling and put on a mound, lightly sprinkle them with soil,
- the pit is covered with ordinary soil dug out of the lower layers, and slightly compacted,
- produce abundant watering, waiting for shrinkage and fill the ground to the level of growth,
- the resulting hole should have a depth of 30 centimeters.
When spring planting, seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight by a wooden shield. When planting in the autumn before the onset of frost, the seedling is covered with a plastic bottle with holes. The holes with seedlings mulch peat. The pit is completely filled up before the arrival of cold weather, with the formation of the upper embankment up to 30 centimeters.
Gardeners may have difficulty growing this plant in some areas. For example, when growing grapes in Udmurtia, planting and caring for a plant will differ slightly. In the spring there can be strong frosts from which young saplings often die. To save all plantings gardeners are forced to cover them. The rest of agricultural technology in this area is almost the same.
For the proper development of the vine in the first three years should:
- produce constant loosening of the soil and destroy weeds,
- annually carry out spring katarovka: for this, dig up the stem to the first branch to a depth of 20 cm, remove the thin roots and fall asleep again,
- spray the plants with 3% Bordeaux mixture prior to the start of active growth in order to prevent diseases,
- switch to enhanced watering during the growing season.
Form a grapevine as it grows and grows. Three-centimeter young shoots break off to prevent neglect. The optimum ratio of fruitful and fruitless shoots is regulated by plucking them when they reach a length of 15 centimeters.
This method allows you to prevent overload and depletion of the plant. When the shoots reach a length of 80 centimeters, they must be tied up first to the pegs, and then to the trellis in the right direction. Trellis is the simplest type of support for grapes. It consists of one plane, up to 220 centimeters high. Between these supports pull the wire to form grapes.
Cultivation and care of the vine is not too difficult, but it is he who helps to achieve a good harvest.
Watering, feeding and processing
During the period of vigorous growth of vines, it is necessary to ensure regular watering. With minimal watering, up to 15 buckets of water are poured under each bush 4 times per season. For a better supply of moisture to the roots, some gardeners dig pipes in the ground between bushes and pour water into them.
During the fruiting period, plants are regularly fed. During the season it is carried out at least three times. Before flowering spend the first, and after two weeks - the second. To this end, mineral or organic fertilizers are diluted in water, among which Roskontsentrat enjoys the greatest demand and the bushes are watered with the solution obtained. The third dressing is carried out before ripening berries. At this time, allowed to feed the bushes with wood ash.
After harvesting the vine grapes are treated for diseases and pests. Some pathogens can continue their livelihoods in the winter, which can adversely affect the health of the plant. With the arrival of spring, such a bush will look weakened and practically will not grow. For this purpose, spraying infected plants with fungicides is used. This treatment allows the vine to accumulate nutrients and neutralize the effects of harmful factors.
Pests and plant diseases
Grapes are prone to infectious and non-infectious diseases. In the latter case, the plant does not pose a danger to neighboring bushes, but becomes sluggish and does not bear fruit well. Among the most common diseases and pests most common:
- Anthracnose. Refers to fungal infections and affects the plant along with the fruits. Spores can tolerate wintering and manifest themselves in the spring after rain. On the appearance, in all parts of the plant appear brown spots with a white or dark border.
- Mealy dew is false. It belongs to the most common fungal diseases of grapes. It affects all parts of the bush and appears on the leaves outside as oily spots, and below as a powdery deposit. On the affected areas without proper treatment, plant tissues die. In order to prevent it, it is recommended to monitor the irrigation and not re-moisten the soil, mulch it with potash-phosphorus fertilizers and treat with fungicides.
- Mealy dew. Manifested grayish-white bloom and slows the growth of affected areas of the plant. Interferes with development of fruits, destroying them a mold. Warn its development by timely garter vines, stading and hilling.
- Gray rot. Manifested by fungal plaque on young shoots. If the plant is not treated with fungicidal agents, the mold will cover all the green parts of the plant.
- Escoriosis, or black spot. It refers to fungal diseases and affects the whole plant completely. The disease affects the vine not only from the outside, but also from the inside. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures in time. Affected plants must be removed.
- Phylloxera. Grape yellow-green aphid. It is divided into two subspecies: leaf and root. Its complete absence is noticed on sandy soils. In order to prevent shrubs treated with insecticides. When a plant is diseased, it must be uprooted.
- Spider mite It usually settles on the inside of the sheet. You can notice its presence by the color of the leaves of the bush: they become red or yellow. The appearance of a tick reduces the sugar content of the fruit.
- Grape pruritus The pest can appear on the leaves and inflorescences. It can be seen on the characteristic tubercles on the leaves from the outside. Under its influence, the foliage falls.
- Leafworms. There are several types of them. You can fight with them by using chemicals or cleaning the damaged areas from bark and pupae caterpillars.
Today, the care of grapes is not very difficult: in specialized stores you can buy various means for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. If preventive work is carried out in time, the vineyard will for a long time please its owner with a tasty and abundant harvest.