The formation of such plants as tomatoes is an important agrotechnical technique, due to which the productivity of a bush increases several times. For example, on tomatoes of some varieties it is recommended to leave 2 main stems, on the others - 1 main shoot. Understand why and how to do it in the greenhouse, will help the article and view videos and photos.
Why form bushes
In the very warm climate of their homeland, South America, tomatoes grow as perennials. For the full period of the plant’s life, over 150 stepchildren of various orders are formed on it. Such a significant amount due to the natural pattern - the more shoots, the more they can produce fruit.
However, such a calculation does not take place in a competitive environment for the area of supply, which always happens in a closed greenhouse system. Here, tomatoes can not at the same time provide good nutrition for both leaves and fruits. Therefore, experienced gardeners resort to pasynkovanyu, that is, remove excess shoots that are formed in the leaf axils.
In greenhouses, this procedure is necessary for several reasons:
- if the aboveground part of the plant is significantly larger than the root, then the growth and development of the fruit will be inhibited by a lack of nutrients,
- when a large number of leaves grow, the root system is unable to feed them all. As a result, some of them turn yellow and die off, without performing their direct function, which consists in the synthesis of the elements necessary for the formation of fruits,
- when the leaves on the plant are many, they begin to shade each other. Air access is also difficult. Such conditions contribute to the development of diseases.
Tomato division into types
The rules for the formation of a bush completely depend on the type of branching of the plant, which are distinguished by two:
The first type is inherent in varieties whose fruits ripen in the early and medium terms. On the main stem of the determinant (with limited growth) bush, the first inflorescence is laid after the formation of 3-4 leaves. The second is formed in 2-3 leaves, then in one leaf. The last 2-3 inflorescences go in a row. At this growth, the main escape stops. During the formation of such a bush 2-3 stalks are left.
In indeterminate varieties, the first inflorescence develops over 9-12 leaves, and the next one goes every 3-4 leaves. In favorable conditions, the main stem can reach 3 m, and floral brushes are formed continuously. It is better to form tomatoes of an indeterminate type in one stem.
Bush formation techniques
Attention! The main stem is considered the escape on which the first flower bud was formed. All the rest are stepchildren.
- Gathering, or picking off additional shoots, begin to be carried out 15 days after planting the tomato in the greenhouse. Then repeat the procedure regularly, every 2 weeks. At the same time, the shoots simply break off manually. It is desirable to do this in the morning.
- Pinching tops. This manipulation is carried out so that the growth of the bush stops. As a result, the plant does not consume nutrients on the stem, and sends them to the fruit. This contributes to the timely ripening of tomatoes. When a sufficient amount of ovary is formed on a tomato, the top is cut off.
- Leaf removal. On grown plants it is necessary to remove the lower 5-6 leaves. During the sanitization, they peel off the dried and yellowed ones.
How to form a bush in 2 stalks
Basically, this technique is used in agricultural techniques of determinant varieties of medium height. At first glance, the process of forming a bush is very simple. However, if you do not follow the rules obtained by experiment, you can lose a decent part of the crop.
- The second shoot should be formed only from the stepson, who grew up under the first floral brush. He is the strongest.
- It is necessary to constantly monitor the growth point of the left stalks and always keep the replacement stepson at the top. If a stunted growth is noticed, that is, the main shoot is determined by a floral brush, this process will become its continuation.
- It is necessary to pickle regularly, not allowing the outgrowth of extra shoots.
Council If it is a pity to remove any of the stepsons, it is possible to leave it with the third stem. However, the rest must be nipped off.
Growing tomatoes in greenhouses is impossible without a garter. Moreover, both varieties with small and varieties with large fruits need it. Throughout the life of the plant it should be secured with a twine to the trellis or other support.
Of course, not do without dressings. Be sure to keep in mind that for normal growth and fruiting tomatoes need to get potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Tomatoes need enough heat and light. The temperature in the greenhouse must be +24 .. + 31 ° C, and the duration of illumination is at least 10 hours per day. If these two modes are not observed, the tomatoes over-grow the leaves.
The formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse is one of the most important points in agricultural technology, which forces the whole plant to work on the formation of floral brushes and ovaries. As a result, there is a significant increase in yield and quality of fruits.
Why do I need to form tomatoes?
As already mentioned, under optimal conditions, tomatoes can safely produce additional stems that can successfully bear fruit. But the climate does not allow the bushes to have time to give such a crop. If tomatoes are not formed, the bushes will spend their strength on the growing season, and they will have neither strength nor time to ripen the fruits. Accordingly, gardeners have to resort to the above-mentioned agrotechnical measures.
Masking is used for such purposes:
- Regulation of the load on the bushes of tomatoes,
- Normalization of the correct distribution of nutrition throughout the plant,
- Providing access to air and light to the tomatoes, which, in turn, is the key to health.
The formation of tomato bushes always includes their garter. It helps to make plants more sustainable, to ensure optimal conditions for them - good light, airing.
How to form a bush
In each case, agrotechnical measures need to be selected, according to the growth conditions of tomato bushes. Also affected by the type of tomato, the type of bushes. Each of them requires a certain amount of space, power. Only taking into account all these factors, it is necessary to calculate how many side shoots can be left, what height of the bush can be allowed.
In a polycarbonate greenhouse
Growing tomatoes in greenhouses has its own characteristics. To form them in such buildings is very important. After all, greenhouse is a closed space. It lacks such ventilation, as in the open area. The light here is also different. Anyway, a greenhouse is a limited area in all three dimensions.
For the first time pasynkovanie do about 2-3 weeks after transplanting. Later, you need to repeat this procedure every 10-15 days. The main stem is the one on which the brush with flowers first appeared.
- Remove them when they grow to 6 cm.
- In the greenhouse they do it in the morning, breaking off the stepsons with their hands.
- In order for new ones not to grow in their place, small hemp should be left, about 2-3 cm each.
- On the stem should be 4 brushes, no more.
When the hand grows up, it's time to start pinching. This will stop the intensive growth, help direct nutrients to the future fruits of the formed bush. The stem is cut so that there is no more than 2 leaves on top.
Another method of forming the bushes in the greenhouse - pruning leaves. There is also no consensus on this.
- Some recommend removing all lower leaves, leaving no more than 2-3 on top.
- Others believe that it violates the metabolism and circulation processes in the plant.
The best option is to try it yourself, which you like best. It is precisely known that the removal of foliage helps plants to get more light, air, thus providing prevention of many diseases.
Why is it necessary to form a tomato in a polycarbonate greenhouse
During the growing season from the main stem of a tomato can break off a lot of shoots, which will also be fruit. It seems that the process itself should please the gardeners with a large number of ovaries, but in reality it looks quite different.
A mature shrub with bulky greens and a small number of ovaries is not capable of providing vitamins and minerals in the required amount of fruit., as a result of which some of them fall off, others are deprived of the opportunity to ripen completely.
But how many stalks to leave on the bush? Depending on the selected hybrid / variety and haulm development features, gardeners form a bush in three ways:
- in 1 stalk,
- in 2 stalks,
- in 3 stalks.
In the polycarbonate greenhouse pasynkovanie aimed at obtaining high-quality yield, which is ensured by redirecting power to the main stem and fruit. Pysynki rob a plant of most of the micro and macro elements useful for development, therefore it is advisable to remove them. It is important during the procedure not to confuse the stepson with the fruit-bearing branch. Determine the excess escape can be at the place of its growth. This is the bosom of the leaf.
How to shape the bushes in two stalks
Before you begin to remove extra shoots, you need to decide on the following questions:
- the frequency of the procedure (in the greenhouses the strawberry tomatoes should be 1 time in 7-10 days),
- technique of staving plants with a method of two.
It is also worth considering that with a break in the sprout a tomato juice can get on your hands. Moving from bush to bush, there is a high probability of infecting other tomatoes with various diseases, if there is at least one affected tomato. Therefore, experts recommend wearing rubber gloves before the procedure and wipe them with an alcohol solution after each whip.
The scheme of removal of excess shoots on tomatoes
The essence of the technique of the formation of the bush is in the selection of the main stem and the first stepchild, as it is the strongest, capable of intensive development and fruiting. To determine it simply, it is located under the first brush of the inflorescences. The remaining stepchildren, who have reached a length of 4-7 cm, are boldly removed. Cut off shoots need sharply, holding them with your index and thumb. In order not to damage the main stem, move the sprout to the side when jerking, not to the side. Also cutting with the tool having a sharp edge (knife) is allowed.
How to form deterministic brushes
This group includes stunted plants of early and middle ripening periods. In principle, they do not need the formation of a bush (on average, the height of the tops reaches 55-65 cm). But experienced gardeners still carry out the procedure for obtaining an earlier harvest and increase in fruiting.
In determinant tomatoes, after the formation of 3-4 leaves, the first flower brush is laid on the main stem. After 2-3 leaves a second one appears, and all subsequent brushes are tied through a leaf. The last closing growth of tomato inflorescences are arranged in a row without an interval on the leaves. In the southern countries, the culture is grown without removing the stepsons, aided by the climate and the long daylight hours. In our regions it is simply necessary to participate in the process of staving.
For the formation of tomatoes of the determinant type, in addition to the main stem, the first or second stepsons are chosen. After the beginning of flowering, you need to install a support so that the branches do not break under the weight of the fruit. In a greenhouse, plants are tied up to a trellis.
Removing excess bush
Formation of indeterminate varieties
This type includes cultures that do not have growth restrictions. Most often, these varieties form in one stem, less often with two. The use of these methods is explained by the ability of indeterminate tomatoes to form a large number of side shoots.
On a plant whose height exceeds 50-70 cm, in addition to the main stem, the first or second stepson is left (a stronger and more developed version is chosen). On each branch leave 4-5 brushes of inflorescences. Sprouts located on the sides and in the root zone are removed.
What will happen if growing tomatoes let go
Removal of useless sprouts contributes to the ripening of large fruits, because a tomato does not waste energy and energy. If young seedlings are not subjected to such a procedure, then the bush turns out to be highly branched, and the fruits on it will be small. Many ovaries can fall due to lack of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the beds thicken and there is a problem with airing. With increased humidity, various fungi are activated, which causes plant diseases.
Spontaneously forming tomatoes in height can reach 1 m or more, which creates problems with illumination in a polycarbonate greenhouse. And for normal growing season, light is simply necessary; it promotes protein synthesis. Therefore, the adjustment of the growth of the bush is another advantage of staking.
Scruffy tomatoes produce a lot of greens and little fruit.
The beds without the formation of bushes look unclean, it is extremely inconvenient to process them, you have to make your way through the thickets. By the end of the season, the plant remains a lot of undiminished fruit, which is unsuitable even for preservation because of its too dense structure and bitterness in the taste.
Removing stepsons does not take much time, and knowledge to perform cutting or pinching will require a minimum. But the harvest will delight large tomatoes, which will correspond to the product and taste characteristics. The scheme of how to form bushes can be applied in the open field.
For one period of cultivation on one bush can grow more than 140 shoots. The more shoots grow, the more fruits will be formed. But this can only be in a warm climate, and we have warm summer weather in the greater territory of Russia for 3 months. And often lately summer has become cold. For this reason, summer residents do not always manage to harvest a large crop.
The main cause of poor harvest is the incorrect formation of a bush due to the large presence of side shoots, the so-called stepsons. Tomatoes during the summer season a large number of stepsons are thrown out, which leads to the overgrowth of a bush with a large number of leaves and stems, in the axils of which young shoots are constantly formed.
This will continue until the fall. Shrubs will constantly grow, expel floral brushes, and there will be few fruits, besides a lot of lateral shoots due to poor ventilation of the soil can be affected by fungal late blight disease.
It must be remembered, late blight fungus becomes very active on thickened bushes, because it is not only poorly ventilated, but also moisture does not evaporate from the stalks and leaves of the tomato.
More common blight causes the death of the plant. In order to avoid all this, it is necessary throughout the summer period. shape tomato bushes, especially it concerns their cultivation in the greenhouse. In order to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is necessary to observe not only the agrotechnical rules, but also the right choice of varieties.
In tall, and scientifically, imperative, tomato varieties, the height of the bush sometimes reaches 8 meters. And if you properly follow the rules of watering and plant formation, you can get a very high yield of tomatoes. But not all greenhouses have the opportunity to grow tall tomatoes. Therefore, gardeners most often plant medium-grown varieties in their greenhouses.
Rules for the formation of bushes
- To get started, you need to purchase rubber gloves, preferably medical ones, since they are thinner and you will feel better hand. Then, before working in a wide container, dilute the manganese. A solution of manganese is necessary in order to dip his hands in gloves. This must be done so that the tomatoes do not carry viral infections.
- Work on the removal of stepsons should be carried out in the early morning, it is desirable for this to choose a summer, warm and always sunny day. The fleas on the stems of the plant must be removed in the morning, so that by the evening the wounds could dry out.
- It is necessary to remove stepchildren who have grown no less than 5 cm. Pasynki cannot be pulled out and cut off from the stem. They need to pinch. And pinching should be done so that after it remains a small column of about 2 cm.
- It is necessary to monitor constantly the formation of the bush and not allow the stepchildren on the stem to be more than 7 cm. The smaller stepsons, the less chance of plant disease. The growth of lateral shoots requires a considerable proportion of nutrients, which is taken from the main stem, and as a result, because of this, you will have a tomato crop much less than you expected.
- In no case can not grazing be done if you have watered or spent mineral fertilizing the plant before this procedure. One of the reasons for this will be that the plant, after watering or feeding, begins to actively absorb minerals and water. Поэтому лучше всего пасынкование проводить через трое суток после полива или подкормки.
Три способа пасынкования
- В один стебель.
- В два стебля.
- В три стебля.
All of the above methods are necessary for the cultivation of different varieties of tomato. For the formation of a tomato bush in one stem, it is necessary to carry out for tall varieties. Usually this is done with tomatoes, which are grown indoors in a greenhouse.
The formation of a tomato bush should be done after a flower brush appears on the tomato. In tall varieties, it grows above 11 leaves, then the brushes will be located through 3 leaves, along with the floral brush, the side steps-branches will also grow. Steps are usually located between the leaf and the stem of a tomato.. With this method, gently pinch all the side shoots above the second leaf, leaving leaves on the stem, which are necessary for the tomato to obtain vegetable juice.
Sredneroslye varieties of tomatoes planted in the greenhouse, it is recommended to form in two stalks. To do this, on the stem of the plant find a formed flower brush and a lateral shoot extending from the top of it along the stem. All side shoots, except one, are removed. On the stem leave no more than five brushes of flowers. Pinch the top of the plant, leaving no more than three leaves on it. In the future, a strong shoot will grow from this stepchild, on which a floral brush will also be formed. As a result of this formation, there will be two main stems.
To do the correct pinching, you have to pinch the sprout with two fingers and pinch the top of a bush with scissors. On the bush after pinching, there should be a small stumps no longer than 3 cm long.
In order not to harm the plant and not damage the stem, the stepson should not be pulled down. Having carried out such simple procedures in the greenhouse, you can receive in addition more than 2 kg of a crop of tomatoes from each bush. Which you have correctly formed.
The formation of a bush in three stalks occurs when the gardeners, growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, want the bush to consist of not three stalks, but three. To do this, all side shoots, except for the two most powerful, removed. On the stem, you must leave no more than five brushes with flowers, and pinch the top of the plant, leaving three leaves on it. In the future, two stalks will grow from these stepsons, on which a flower brush will first form, and then fruits will appear. The formation of a bush in three stalks should be carried out when growing tomatoes in open ground.
Tomatoes are a heat-loving vegetable, but summer does not always please them with favorable weather. Gardeners increasingly began to grow vegetables in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Under cover, plants are not afraid of temperature fluctuations, precipitation, wind and other adverse factors.
Almost all types of tomatoes require pasynkovanie, which means cutting the side branches. The exception is the standard types. This is a variation of the determinant group of tomatoes. Growing standard tomatoes is easy and simple. They do not require removal of the side branches, the formation of the central trunk and tying to the support.
Tomato bushes of the stem type have a strong, powerful stem that extends up to 60 cm. On the stem 4 fruit-bearing brushes are formed.
Tall varieties of tomatoes without forming the main stem begin to branch in different directions, forming many flowers that do not have time to grow into fruit. Therefore, the formation of tomatoes in a greenhouse is considered a mandatory procedure. Cutting off extra, weak inflorescences will lead to the fact that all forces will be directed to the development of a full-fledged harvest.
Masking is done for three main reasons:
- unrestricted growth of the bush leads to the development of numerous lateral flowering branches and ovaries, which need more nutrients and energy for excess greenery,
- a large number of leaves leads to insufficient penetration of sunlight and air to various parts of the plant,
- The formed tomato bush gives a qualitative and numerous crop.
To properly conduct the procedure, it is necessary to distinguish between a regular sheet and a stepson. Paceniks grow between the main stem and the leaves. First, the sheet itself appears, and above, after a while, the stepson begins to form. It turns out that they grow from one point. Tear off the top sprout, without touching the bottom.
How to form a bush, everyone decides for himself. For tomatoes in open ground, the presence of two trunks is permissible, and in a polycarbonate greenhouse can be grown with one stem. It is suitable for high types of tomatoes. In determinant varieties of tomatoes, two main stems are usually left in the greenhouse, whereas in tomatoes in the open field three trunks can be formed.
If you correctly form the stem, it will slow down the growth of vegetable crops, and increase the amount of the crop. Growing tomato bushes in a greenhouse and forming it consists of pinching, pinching and other manipulations.
Rules for the formation of the main trunk
As soon as the first excess shoot is formed under the central brush with inflorescences, it is necessary not to miss the moment and to pick it in time. A shoot longer than 5 cm will be harder to pick and damage the stem. Therefore, tomatoes should be regularly inspected.
The formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse is carried out according to a special scheme, during which some recommendations should be followed. How to form tomatoes in the greenhouse important tips.
- The first formation is carried out after 7-10 days after the seedlings are planted in closed ground. During this time, seedlings have time to get stronger, take root and adapt. Forming a tomato bush in a greenhouse for the first time involves identifying the main stem on which the brush with inflorescences is located. As soon as the shoots grow to 5 cm, they are broken.
- The subsequent formation of the bushes is carried out with an interval of 11 days. During these days, new lateral branches that have appeared will not have time to outgrow. Masking is best done in the morning or evening.
- To break off or cut off the side branches should not be at the root, but leaving a small process length, about 2 cm. This will prevent the re-formation of stepsons.
- The formation of indeterminate tomatoes can be carried out in several stems.
- When staving need to leave shoots with large, strong flowers. The best option is to have three brushes. From the shoots that are formed in the root zone, also need to get rid of.
When forming a tomato in one stem, one central trunk is left, the side branches are cut. As a result, not the number of fruits increases, but their mass.
How to form tomatoes in two stalks? If it is decided to form a plant in 2 stems, then leave the central trunk with inflorescences and the stem located closest. When forming in three stalks, the trunk is left below the second one. When forming tomatoes in two stems, the branches that will be formed on the stems must be removed.
Variety varieties and appropriate care
How to form tomatoes correctly also depends on the type of tomato seeds selected. All varieties of tomatoes are divided into three different groups. They can be planted in closed or unprotected soil. During the description of the formation methods, the seed variety is taken into account.
The determinant tomato variety reaches a certain height and stops growing (it can grow up to 150 cm). But sometimes it can be a negative point. Early top formation leads to a decrease in the number of crops. Often bushes are sredneroslymi.
It is advisable to leave one stem in semi-determinant varieties of tomato. How to form tomatoes in open ground in 1 trunk? The traditional scheme involves the removal of unnecessary branches and leaving one stem for fruiting. To the fruits are more ripe, pinch the top at the end of the growing season.
The formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse according to the scheme, which preserves several shoots on the stem at once. As soon as shoots are formed on the side branches, the point of their growth must be pinched. In the bushes of tomatoes remains the central fruiting stem and lateral hand.
The formation of a tomato bush in a greenhouse can take place in steps (the method is suitable for semi-determinant tomato varieties in the heifer). In this method, the pinching is carried out periodically, leaving one additional shoot in the middle of the central stem. As soon as the fruit is fastened on it, the point of growth of the main stem is pinched.
Growing determinant tomatoes is not difficult. After the formation of several brushes with buds growth stops. Determinant tomatoes can also be formed with the formation of two and three main stems. Tomatoes in two stalks form easily. The stepson, which is under the main brush, do not break, and leave for the second stem. For the third trunk leave the appendix, which is located under the second main trunk.
The formation of determinant tomatoes in the greenhouse should be carried out according to all the rules, leaving an additional branch on top. It can save the plant in adverse situations and act as the main stem.
It is advisable to form indeterminate tomatoes in one stem. If there is a lot of space in the greenhouse, a tomato can be formed into two stems. The second main branch is formed from the side branch, which grows under the first brush with inflorescences. Rip off the shoots, leaving 4 brush.
After the first pinning is carried out, you need to carry out the procedure of tying to the support. A peg is driven into each tomato bush or tied up on a trellis. Without this procedure, a long stem will break under the weight of fruits and greens.
Indeterminate tomato varieties cannot do without pinching the tops. This will make the plant compact, without the formation of new ovaries. Pinching is usually done twice.
When the required number of flowers with flowers has grown on each stem left during formation, it is necessary to cut off the apex at the central stem. Plant growth stops up, and all the nutrients are sent to the fruit.
Many experienced gardeners believe that all leaves should be removed, leaving the trunk bare. This will reduce the risk of infection of fungal and viral diseases. All nutrients will be sent directly to the tomatoes. Sunlight and air will circulate freely. Gardeners with this method leave only a few sheets on top.
Proponents of another version believe that removing all the leaves disrupts nutrient movement and photosynthesis. They remove only the lower leaves, as well as yellowed and diseased leaves.
All the procedures described above have a positive effect on the development of vegetable crops, gardeners often advise not to forget about them: “I always form all types of tomatoes into two or three stems. This allows you to take more yield. Fruits with a dense skin that does not crack. The flesh is juicy, sweet, not watery. "
In the open ground
Such cultivation of tomatoes is quite complicated. In our latitudes, the weather does not always allow tomatoes to ripen and bring a big harvest. And if in the greenhouse we can regulate the conditions ourselves, then in the open garden it is almost impossible. Therefore, it is necessary to form bushes in order to at least somehow increase their productivity.
In tall varieties, you can leave from 1 to 3 stems. Leaves must be removed. Between the first branch and the soil you need to leave a distance of not less than 30 cm. You can pinch the top when up to 8 brushes appear on the plant. Above each of them is recommended to leave for 2 sheets. This helps plants maintain good nutrient turnover.
In 2 stalks
In this way, determinant tomatoes are usually formed. They are able to give a good harvest, even in our not too favorable climatic conditions. To form a bush in 2 trunks, you must leave the stepson, which appeared immediately under the first brush. It is considered the most powerful. The remaining stepsons are removed according to the technology described above.
This method of pinching helps to get a greater yield from 1 tomato bush. But it is important to remember that the formation in 2 of the trunk requires more space on the site. So take into account this method of pinching is necessary even when planting seedlings.
Tomatoes have a very interesting story. Initially, they were grown as an ornamental plant, and the fruits were not consumed. It took a long time for humanity to appreciate the taste of tomatoes. Now, thanks to the seedling method of cultivation, this culture is ubiquitous, and its fruits are widely used in cooking. Breeders brought a lot of varieties that differ in color, shape, size, taste, ripening time and adaptability to certain climatic conditions.
Interesting. Tomatoes contain a lot of vitamins and substances that are useful for the human body, due to which they are very popular. Anyone who has at least a small plot of land, allocates a bed for this plant. For the cultivation of tomatoes, sandy and loamy soil is suitable.
They love heat and are able to tolerate drought. Most varieties that are grown on an industrial scale are characterized by limited growth and do not require additional pinching, shaping, or pinching. Varieties favored by amateur gardeners require additional care procedures. The formation of tomatoes plays an important role in obtaining a good harvest.
Terms for the formation of tomato bushes
In the literature special attention is paid to the proper molding of tomato bushes. Depending on the specific variety and growing conditions, the authors recommend forming a shrub in 1, 2 or 3 stems. If you leave a lot of lateral shoots and additional stems, then the plant does not have enough food to form high-quality and large ovaries. It will spend all its strength on building up green mass.
Tomato in a greenhouse
The timing of the beginning of the forming of the bushes somehow depends on whether cultivation occurs in open ground conditions or in a greenhouse. As a rule, the tomatoes are pinched for the first time 2 weeks after the seedlings have been planted in the ground. The top just pinch off. After another couple of weeks, re-pinching is performed, as a result of which the main shoot and the main stem are determined.
Formation of tall varieties
The formation of a bush of tomatoes depends on which particular variety they belong to. The most convenient way to care for the early species, because they ripen quickly and deliver a minimum of trouble. Lateral shoots can hardly be removed, and due to the rapid maturation of the fruits of nutrients from the soil is not so much consumed.
Tall bush specialists recommend forming in 1 stem. Additional and lateral shoots should be carefully cut off. This procedure should be carried out every week to speed up the process of fruit ripening and increase yields.
The formation of a tomato bush in a greenhouse is most often produced in one stem. Srednerosly bushes allow the formation of a tomato in two or three stems. It is necessary to delete only stepchildren and additional processes. Thus, food is not consumed in the shoots and side shoots, but completely goes to the formation of fruits on the main stem. Lateral processes are removed once every two weeks.
Attention! At the time of pinching the growth point of a tall variety of tomatoes over the inflorescence there should be 2 leaves.
The formation of undersized bushes of tomatoes
Stunted standard cultivars of tomatoes also require forming a bush. This determinant species has a low, but very powerful stem. A distinctive feature is that they only form a crown, and the side shoots are not removed. To make the plant more lush, it stepsons into three stalks.
Formation of a tomato bush in one stem
If there is a question about how to properly form tomatoes in the greenhouse in order to get a bountiful harvest and not be too bothered to care, then it is better to do it in one barrel. It is possible that this technique can also be used for cultivation in open ground. It mainly extends to determinant varieties.
After 2 weeks after planting tomatoes on the beds, side shoots appear. They should be removed along with the leaves. With the onset of autumn, you need to pinch the top of the tomato to stop growth and speed up the ripening of the resulting fruit. Such a scheme provides for only one left main stem, on which brushes with fruits will be formed.
Mostly experienced gardeners prefer to form tomatoes into one barrel. It is not only practical, but also looks beautiful. A large number of tomatoes hang on one trunk, and the leaves and side shoots are almost absent. Fruits are harvested more quickly not only in the open field, but also in the greenhouse, where artificial heating is performed. For the construction of such facilities now most often use polycarbonate, well transmitting light and retains heat. The fruits of tomatoes grow smooth, beautiful, with a monochromatic color.
Formation of a tomato bush in two stalks
Таким методом хорошо формировать детерминантные сорта, которые не склонны слишком развиваться в рост. На верхушках таких растений образуется немного кистей, потому урожайность можно повысить путем увеличения количества основных стеблей. Пошаговый инструктаж проведения формовки в 2 стебля:
- После образования дополнительных боковых побегов выжидают, когда сформируется 2 листочка,
- The stepson is removed on the same principle as all side branches. As a result, many branches with two branches are formed.
This technique makes it possible not only to increase the number of fetuses, but also to speed up their ripening. Used primarily for cultivation in the open field.
Forming a bush of tomatoes in three stalks
The method of forming tomato bushes most appropriate for conditions of open ground is three stems. Its principle is to obtain 3 main stems from a large plant, on which fruits will be tied and ripen. The buttocks are removed after two (that is, 2 are left, then 1 is removed). The result is a very lush and productive bush.
Removing excess foliage and pinching the tops
Proper formation of tomato bushes in a greenhouse also includes timely pinching of the upper part, as well as tearing off the extra leaves. Experienced gardeners recommend that during the period when the ovaries begin to form, remove all foliage from the plant, in addition to the one at the very top. This contributes to good ventilation of the bush and reduces the risk of disease. But some gardeners claim that the complete removal of leaves disrupts the nutrition of the tomato. They advise to pick off only the yellowed or diseased leaves.
If it was decided to plant an indeterminate variety of tomato, then approximately at the beginning of August it would be necessary to pinch the top of it in order to limit the further formation of the fruit. It is not enough to simply form to obtain a high and high-quality harvest, it is necessary to stop the growth of the plant in time, so that the resultant fruits have the opportunity to mature in time. When growing such varieties in greenhouse conditions, the shaping is performed in 7 brushes, and if they are planted in open ground, then in 5 brushes.
How to carry out the procedure correctly can be determined only if it is reliably known to which variety the tomato belongs. When pinching the tops over each inflorescence, several leaves are left, and the rest are cut. High-growth varieties worth pinching throughout the season, occasionally cutting the tip. Thus, the nutrients will be directed mainly to the fruit. In early varieties, in addition to the main stem, it is recommended to leave one stepchild, which is somewhat lagging behind in development, due to which the harvest ripens a little.
How to care for formed tomatoes
Growing tomatoes is not so difficult if properly care for them. After all, plants need not only the pinching and removal of leaves, but also regular watering, loosening of the soil, removal of weeds, treatment of diseases. The tomato requires the most moisture during the fruit formation period. However, it is worth remembering that waterlogging for tomatoes is detrimental. It leads not only to the development of dangerous diseases, but also to the decay of the root system, the deterioration of the taste and commodity qualities of the fruit.
After each irrigation or rain, it is recommended to loosen the soil under tomato bushes. Do it carefully, without going deeply, so as not to injure the roots close to the surface. We can not allow weeds on the beds with tomatoes. They should be regularly removed, and later used as a natural material for mulching the soil under the tomatoes. Hilling has a favorable effect on the growth and development of bushes. As a result, additional roots are formed, and the growth of the lower stepsons is limited.
Note. Also, tomatoes require regular fertilization and fertilizing. Most of the nutrients needed by plants during the fruiting period.
In general, farming is a rather difficult science. To master it well, you need a good theoretical base and invaluable experience. Growing tomatoes on your site is not so difficult, the main thing is to constantly work and improve the accumulated knowledge. The quantity and quality of the harvested crop directly depend on the correct shaping of tomato bushes. Novice gardeners should pay attention not only to the characteristics of the selected variety, but also take into account the growing conditions, take into account the climatic zone. These factors also influence the choice of the method of forming a tomato bush.
Formation of tomatoes, why do this?
The formation of tomato bushes must be done to increase the immunity of the plant, to increase the volume of the crop and to improve the quality characteristics of the fruit.
Most often, tomatoes are formed in one, two or three stalks. For this, pinching or removal of unnecessary processes is carried out, which take power and energy from the plant and do not allow it to fully develop.
There is nothing difficult in pasynkovanie. You just need to learn how to correctly identify the stepson from the main sprout. It comes out of the same leaf sinus, but is only slightly higher than the main one and has no rudiments of the ovary.
Remove the stepson must be very carefully with your hands or with scissors. During the procedure, complete sterility is important. Irresponsibility can cause infection of planting with fungi and other infections and lead not only to a significant decrease in yield, but even to the death of plantings.
It is important!
Cut off an unnecessary process must be very carefully, or rather should not be cut off, but gently, as it were, cut with nails. At the same time, a sprout of about 5 mm should remain on the stem. If you remove the stepson right next to the main stem, you can cause a very serious injury to the plant. And it gets serious stress anyway.
How and when to carry out the formation of the bush?
After 2-3 weeks after transplanting tomato seedlings on the garden, you can begin to form a bush. Immediately you need to decide what will be the bush. If the stalk is one, the distance between the tomatoes should be 80-100 cm, if you plan to leave two or more stalks on the bush, place them at least 1.5-2 meters apart.
Otherwise, the plants simply do not have enough nutrients and moisture from the soil, as well as light and air.
Pasyoning in the early morning in hot and dry weather, so that the cut can heal until the evening, and also treat the wounds with potassium permanganate to prevent viruses and fungal infections.
The first stepson is formed under the first brush. If there is one stalk, it must be removed, as well as all additional sprouts that are formed in the future.
If the formation will be carried out in two or more stems, then this stepchild is left. In the future, unnecessary processes are removed once a week for 10 days. They should not reach a height of more than 5 cm, otherwise there will be too much stress for the plant.
Video: How to form tomatoes in the greenhouse?
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse has the features of the formation of the bush. Optimally, if there is one or a maximum of two stems. Be sure to consider the props and how to be tied.
You should also plan in advance the landing sites of seedlings. Tomatoes in the greenhouse and so suffer from a lack of air and light. And if they are planted too thick, the result will be lush foliage, but for harvest there will be no sense.
Such varieties differ in that they cease to grow independently when the number of shoots reaches 4-6 pieces. Shrubs of such tomatoes are medium in size. They are compact, not high - only 1-1.3 m. Already above 6-7 leaves, the first inflorescences begin to be laid.
Form determinant varieties in 1, 2 or 3 stem. This allows you to increase the yield of bushes. The second stem can be left after the appearance of up to 4 brushes. Then you can choose the strongest son, who will become the second stalk. In a similar way, a third is formed later. But when growing determinant varieties need to take into account the weather. If the summer was cold, then perhaps you should not leave more than 2 stems.
Formation of determinant varieties of tomatoes: video
Almost all varieties of cherry tomatoes must be shaped. The technology is preserved, as in the previous cases. Extra stepchildren are removed, stumps should be left up to 3 cm in size. Leaves are removed under the tassels. When forming it is necessary to take into account that the stems of cherry are thinner than those of varieties with large fruits. So the formation inevitably coincides with the garter bushes.
Medium determinant cherry species form according to the same principle as the large-fruited varieties. Leave from 1 to 3 stems, increasing the yield of bushes. Indeterminate cherries sometimes form even 4 stalks.
Tall, indeterminate varieties
Tall or, in other words, indeterminant tomato varieties also need to be formed. Passing can be started 2-3 weeks after transplanting. Keeping the technology, you need to break out all the extra shoots. When forming into 2-3 trunks, an additional stepchild under the first brush and the next one, the strongest, are left respectively. The rest should be broken out regularly, approximately every 7-8 days.
Leaves at the bottom are removed, until a distance of 30 cm between the first and the soil remains.
Tips for proper shaping
Although different varieties of tomatoes, as well as the conditions for their cultivation, have their own characteristics of formation, there are still some basic general rules:
- Stepsons are removed carefully, with hands, preferably with gloves, leaving hemp.
- Overgrown stepchildren can be cut, but only with a disinfected instrument.
- When forming bushes need to tie up.
- The lower leaves are removed completely or partially, depending on the density of planting, light exposure and ventilation of the site.
- Above each inflorescence, 2 leaves should be left to ensure a normal flow of nutrients to the fruit.
- Passing should be carried out in good weather conditions.