Whitewashing as caring for trees in spring performs two functions: preventive and aesthetic.
The bark has a dark color. As you know, the darker the color, the more it attracts sunshine to itself. Therefore, the raw bark heats up quickly, and the likelihood of a sunburn increases. To prevent this unpleasant damage, it is better to protect the wood with whitewash. It is important to remember that shtamb is the most sensitive part of the tree. The plant may die if this area is injured and it has not been cured. Whitewashing in this case is an excellent prophylactic.
In addition, the treated plant looks well maintained. Pay attention to the trees in the parks: garden workers whitewash the bottom of the trunk to give it a beautiful appearance. However, as a rule, the stages of stripping the bark and its treatment are ignored.
Pros and cons of the procedure
Often owners of gardens ignore the process of tree care. Meanwhile, the bark under the bright sun overheats, wounds appear. And then there comes a time when it is simply necessary to whiten the trees in the spring. It is to the affected surface that various diseases stick, as a result of which the tree begins to die. To avoid this, the boles should be treated with a whitewash solution. After this simple procedure, the tree will not be afraid of any pests and sunlight.
However, it is believed that whitewashing does not bring any benefit, but on the contrary: the solution penetrates deep into the cortex, clogging the pores. The tree gets poisoned and stops breathing. In addition, in addition to harmful creatures, the larvae of a ladybird die. They serve as garden defenders from aphids. In such a case, environmentalists say that the natural balance of nature is disturbed. But this is just one of the opinions. It is obvious that there are more positive moments in this procedure than negative ones.
When to whiten trees in spring?
So, it was decided to process the whitewash. Then the question arises about when to whiten the trees in spring. As a rule, the best time for the procedure is the May holidays, that is, the first days of the month. Nothing bad will happen if you whiten the stumps a little earlier, for example, in mid-April. It is possible to start painting when the garden starts to wake up, the vegetative period begins. If the whitewash was applied already last year and still keeps well, you can postpone the procedure until the middle or even the end of May.
Preparing a tool for processing yourself
Whitewash for trees is made by different methods. Consider the most popular:
- It takes 1 kg of manure, 0.2 kg of copper sulphate and 1 kg of lime to fill with 8 liters of water. Then you should mix all the ingredients thoroughly and let them stand until they are completely dissolved. It will take about 2-3 hours. Whitewashing will have a bluish tint, it is formed due to the addition of vitriol. This element is an excellent preventive tool for the development of fungal diseases.
- Take 2 kg of slaked lime, 1 kg of oily clay, manure (1 shovel), 0.25 kg of copper sulphate. Pour 10 liters of water. All components mix, let them brew.
- Dissolve 0.4 kg of copper sulphate in hot water. Then add 2 kg of hydrated lime, 100 g of casein glue and 10 liters of water, mix thoroughly.
Lime whitewashing trees will guarantee the strength and durability of the solution.
The first stage: cleaning the trunk and branches
The solution is ready. You can proceed to the procedure. To begin with, the tree should be cleared of old bark, lichen and mosses. It is recommended to wear garden gloves before work. Metal and plastic items for cleaning will not work, because they are traumatic for the bark. The ideal option would be a wooden knife. If it is not, you can use a regular sliver, only it needs to be sharpened.
When performing this stage of work, it is important to remember that after the winter period there may be various pests in the bark that is to be cleaned. Therefore, all waste must be burned. To make it easier to collect the cleaned bark, before starting work, you can lay a strong film under the tree. It is important to perform surface preparation for whitewashing in wet weather.
Second stage: bark disinfection
The following procedure is best done in dry weather. Otherwise, the whole procedure will be in vain. For disinfection should make a solution. To do this, take about a pound of blue vitriol and fill it with a bucket of water. You can add Bordeaux mixture. Then, using a finely dispersed method, it is necessary to sprinkle the surface so that the drops do not flow down the tree, but settle on the bark, forming a fog.
There is another solution recipe that is most effective. For its preparation, you need to take 0.2 kg of ash, add to it 5 g of soap and dissolve in one liter of hot water. The resulting composition does not need to spray, it is enough just to wet them with a rag and wipe the desired part of the tree with it. Ash in this case serves as a good disinfectant and an excellent fertilizer.
There is another variation of the solution: 2 kg of ash is poured with a bucket of water (10 l), the components are mixed for 20 minutes, after which the mixture is put on the fire and brought to a boil. The cooled solution is mixed with water in a 1: 1 ratio and applied to the treated area by spraying. If you take the ratio of 1: 2, then you can simply wash the wood with the resulting mixture.
Why whitewash the trees in spring time
Spring whitewashing of trees growing in the garden protects them from some adverse environmental influences. So, for example, from bright spring sunlight, from low temperatures and from harmful insects living in the soil. In this regard, experts advise to whitewash trees a couple of times a year.
Whitewashed apple trees and cherries tolerate wintering relatively easily. Whitewash is carried out in the fall, after there are no leaves on the trees. However, it is necessary to have time to frost. This will protect the plants in the spring time from harmful insects and the scorching rays of the sun.
How to whiten old trees
It should be especially attentive to whitewashing of old trees. Whitewashing on them lies relatively poorly, because the old bark has a lot of irregularities and cracks. In this regard, before you whitewash a tree, you need to clean its trunk, for this you will need brushes, as well as scrapers. However, this procedure is often recommended using simple rag gloves, as they are not capable of severely damaging a tree trunk, unlike brushes and scrapers. If you decide to clean with a scraper, then you should remember that this should be done with special care, as you can easily injure the wood.
There are many types of whitewash, but not all of them are able to provide protection against microorganisms and harmful insects. In this regard, before you whiten the trunk, it is necessary to make treatment with special means. This solution is applied to the surface of the branches and the trunk very carefully, so that the liquid does not flow down. Frequent use of such solutions may harm the cortex.
How to prepare a solution for whitewashing trees
In order to process the trunk, it is recommended to use wood ash. For this, a solution is prepared: 3 kilograms of ash are taken for 1 bucket of water, and soap should also be added. Processing the resulting solution should be carried out on a cloudless day.
In the case when the wood has cracks, they are treated with special means to accelerate the healing process. Experienced gardeners recommend making such a putty with their own hands. To do this, mix straw, mullein and clay. However, this solution does not have high strength and in a relatively short time it will crumble. But for some time he can hold out and provide protection from harmful insects.
What can be used for whitewashing
The best option is spray gun. You will whitewash a tree with it very quickly and at the same time save the solution. And also with the help of it you can quickly fill all the cracks in the trunk. However, gardeners often use a simple whitewash brush.
To whiten the whole trunk should be from the root to the branches at the bottom. Many people think that it is enough to whiten the trunk only to a height of 100 centimeters, but this is wrong. And all because harmful insects and frosts can wade and higher. In this regard, sometimes you need to whiten not only the trunk, but also some branches.
There are many types of whitewash, which have a different purpose. So, in the springtime, it is not recommended to use lime alone for whitewashing, because after the first rain it will wash off. It is recommended to mix with litter, PVA glue and add bluestone. This whitewash will last longer, and she is not afraid of rain.
The composition of whitewash depends on the type of wood. So, if you paint an old tree, then no permitted additives can harm it. However, for young specimens, it is recommended to use a solution with a small amount of components.
The best choice would be a whitewash purchased in a special store, in which there are substances that help to strengthen the protective forces of the plant. It can be purchased as diluted and fully ready for work, and in dry form. These solutions are kept for a very long time, provide protection from harmful insects and look great on the plant. They are environmentally friendly.
Whitewashing trees with lime and copper sulfate and white glue
In order to prepare the solution for whitewashing, you need:
- PVA glue or wallpaper ―60 g,
- lime - 2 kg,
- copper sulphate ― 0.4 kg,
- clay - 1 kg,
- manure - 1 kg.
This solution perfectly protects the plant, fits well and keeps on the trunk for a long time. He is not afraid of rain. It is an excellent choice for whitewashing of old trees growing in the summer cottage.
Cooking method: the required amount of glue is added to a half bucket of water, and the solution is thoroughly mixed. Then, it is necessary to gradually pour in the hydrated lime, and also dissolved in water, which must be hot, copper sulfate, while the solution must be continuously stirred. After that, you need to gradually pour the yellow clay, as well as manure. As a result, the solution should have the consistency of sour cream.
For whitewashing should use a brush or a fairly wide brush. It must be carried along the trunk from the top down.
Why whitewash trees
If autumn whitewashing is done in order to prevent cracks in trees and bushes from forming in the winter, freezing and destroying the crowd to overwhelm pathogens and pests in the bark, trees are whitewashed in the spring to protect their boles and skeletal branches from burns, because at that time the sun is very active, and the plants still have no foliage that could protect the bark from overheating. In addition, whitewashing in the spring is a preventive measure against pathogens of diseases and pests that still managed to survive the winter in the cracks of the bark and upper soil layer. That is why trees are whitened at least twice a year - in autumn and spring.
When to whiten the trees in the fall.
Autumn whitewashing of apples, cherries, plums and pears is considered the most important - without this procedure, fruit growers can not only lose their decorative effect, but also perish, because sudden changes in temperature during the autumn-winter period can lead to severe damage to the bark. It is necessary to whiten fruit trees in October or November, just before the start of frost. If the process is successful, your garden will be protected from frost, ice formation on the trunks and from hungry hares eating the bark.
When to whiten the trees in spring.
Spring whitewashing is done in February or early March: at this time, tree trunks can heat up to 11 ºC during the day, and this triggers sap flow too early. And night temperatures at the end of winter and early spring can drop to -10 ºC, and this leads to freezing of juice, tearing of tissues and the formation of freezers. White paint on the trunks and skeletal branches repels the sun's rays, protects the bark from overheating and does not allow the trees to wake up at the wrong time.
Preparations for whitewashing trees.
Garden whitewash can be made of three compositions: lime mortar, water-based or water-dispersion paint. The composition of whitewash for trees must include three components:
- - white pigment - chalk or lime, because it is white that best protects the bark from the sun,
- - adhesive base, which fixes the pigment on the bark, not allowing the composition to flow down the trunk,
- - a fungicidal drug that destroys the infection in cracks in the cortex.
The easiest way to protect trees - lime or chalk solution, which gardeners have long used. There are several recipes in which the ingredients differ, but in any case, the basis remains chalk or lime. For example:
- - in 10 l of water you need to dilute about three kilograms of hydrated lime or chalk, add 500 g of copper sulphate and 100 g of casein glue, which can be replaced with several spoons of flour paste. The composition is thoroughly mixed until all ingredients are dissolved, then the whitewash should be infused for several hours,
- - mix 2 kg of hydrated lime, a kilogram of oily clay, a manure spade and 250 g of copper sulphate in 10 liters of water and leave for 2-3 hours,
- - in two liters of water stir 300 g of lime-pushonki, 2 tablespoons of copper sulfate, 200 g of clerical glue, 200 g of clay and 25 g of karbofos,
- - 400 g of copper sulfate must be dissolved in 2 liters of hot water and mixed with 100 g of casein glue, 2 kg of hydrated lime and diluted with 8 liters of water.
Lime whitewash has the disadvantage that its coating is quickly washed off or showered. That is why after the autumn whitewashing of trees with lime or chalk composition you will have to whiten them again in the spring. If you use water-based or water-dispersion paints, then one whitewash per year or even two will suffice.
The main advantage of water-based paint in its durability: it forms on the surface of the trunk a durable, but vapor-permeable breathable coating that is resistant to rinsing and sunlight.
The composition of water dispersion paints, in addition to pigment, includes latex and antiseptic. The paint forms an air-permeable coating on the trunk of trees, but it does not let in ultraviolet rays, which can cause great harm to trees in spring. Water dispersion coating rests on trunks up to two years, which greatly facilitates the work of the gardener. The painting of trees with a water dispersion composition is carried out at air temperature not lower than 3 ºC.
Both water-based and water-dispersion paints are sold in garden pavilions. But it is also possible to independently prepare a durable paint by mixing two parts of bustilat or PVA glue, one part of pigment (chalk or kaolin) and adding a fungicide preparation to the mixture. How to dilute whitewash? After you mix all the ingredients well, add water to the mixture in small portions, while continuing to mix the composition, so that the consistency is such a consistency as oil paint.
Tools for whitewashing.
Most often, whitewash brushes are used to whitewash trees, but this is not the most convenient tool. It is easier and more convenient to use a fly paint brush made of artificial material, as well as a flute brush, or a maklovitsy, which allow in one motion to cover a significant portion of the surface of the bark, both smooth and fractured. If there are few trees in your garden, then you will quickly manage with a brush or a paint roller, but if the garden is large and the trees are tall, then it is better to use a spray gun for their whitewashing.
How to whiten trees in spring
If for any reason you did not whitewash the trees for the winter, then in the spring you will need not only to cover them with composition, but also to carry out preliminary preparation of the trunks and skeletal branches of your fruit growers before whitewashing. It is necessary to clean them of the old dead bark: spread an oilcloth or fabric under the tree and remove the lagging pieces and pieces of bark with a scraper with a wooden (but by no means metallic!) Scraper. You need to process the entire stem and the lower third of the skeletal branches. Do it better on a damp, cloudy day. Wear old leather gloves for work, and burn the bark fragments that fall on the litter.
Purified bark should be disinfected: on a dry and clear warm day, treat the stem and the base of the skeletal branches with a 5% solution of copper sulphate or Abigak pik preparations, HOM or Oxy. Spraying is carried out from a fine disperser at close range so that the moisture forms a mist slowly settling on the bark, and not flowed along it in streams. Note that this manipulation should be carried out in the morning, so that in the evening the bark has time to dry out. Кроме того, дезинфицирование медьсодержащими препаратами нежелательно проводить каждый год, поскольку металл имеет свойство накапливаться в коре, и в конце концов его концентрация станет токсичной для дерева. Чтобы этого не произошло, нужно чередовать обработку фунгицидами с опрыскиванием коры мыльно-зольным раствором, который не так вреден для дерева, но при этом прекрасно очищает кору.To prepare the solution, 2.5-3 kg of ash and 50 g of liquid soap or dishwashing detergent should be diluted in water at a temperature of about 80 ºC.
The wounds and cracks formed during the cleaning of the bark should be sealed with one of the following compositions:
- - 200 g of clay mixed with 100 g of mullein, a handful of finely chopped straw and diluted with water to the consistency of thick cream,
- - 100 g of rosin and 200 g of beeswax dissolve over low heat separately, then combine, add 100 g of unsalted animal fat, and when everything is melted, pour this mass into cold water, take it out and roll it into a ball. Before smearing wounds and cracks, this garden pitch is slightly warmed up so that it becomes resilient.
To seal the injury, you can use the garden paste RanNet, which includes copper sulphate and humate. The procedure is carried out in dry weather, since the composition does not differ in moisture resistance.
When all the preliminary work is done, you can start whitewashing. Do I need to whiten trees with smooth young bark? Some gardeners believe that the lime composition burns the tender bark of annual and biennial seedlings, and this prevents the trunk from thickening. Agreeing that lime is not very useful for young bark, we suggest using water emulsion or water dispersion paint instead of it, and lime mortar for seedlings can be made not as concentrated as for adult fruit growers. But if you completely abandon the whitewashing of young trees, the harm from deep cracks and frost can be much stronger.
The consistency of the composition for whitewashing should be such that it does not flow down the trunk, and the thickness of the layer applied to the trunk and branches should be 2-3 mm. If the coating is too thick, it will flake off, and you will have to whitewash the trees again.
Why whitewash the trunks of fruit trees
A sign of a healthy tree is the bark of a characteristic color for the breed, which does not have cracks and scoring. But only a young tree can boast of absolutely clean clothing trunk. Later, roughness, microcracks appear, in which pests can lay eggs, introduce fungi and lichen spores.
Whitewashing trunks of fruit trees with a special composition:
- disinfects wounds on the trunks and bases of skeletal branches,
- protects against uneven heating of the wood during the day, prevents sunburn.
The March sun heats up the dark trunks very well, disrupting the biological rhythm. Another snow lies on the ground, and the first spider has already crawled out of the cracks and is busily descending down the rope. It is necessary to wall up the pests under a dense layer of whitewash, to which protective preparations are added. That is why the dates of whitewashing of fruit trees in the spring should be early.
If since autumn the tree has not been cleaned of pests of the bark, cracks and hollows remain, before the whitewashing in cloudy weather, the bark is laundered from dirt, cleaned up of doubtful places. After a hygienic procedure, the bark should dry out.
The white color of the bark reflects the sun's rays and the wood heats up much less. Changes in night and daytime temperatures in spring are significant and can lead to cracking of the bark. A durable layer of whitewash of fruit trees in the spring - protection from diseases and pests, from overheating the trunk until autumn.
The composition of spring whitewash
A prerequisite for any composition is its maximum reflectivity - whiteness! The best basis for the whitewashing of adult trees is fresh-lime. Its disinfecting properties are associated with obtaining an alkaline suspension. After drying, a strong crust of CaCO is formed on the stem.3which does not dissolve in water. Whitewashing will continue during the summer.
If it is difficult to find lumpy lime, you can use acrylic white paint, popularly called emulsion. These components - the basis of the composition of whitewash for fruit trees. For better adhesion to the bucket, you can add previously dissolved tar or household soap 5 g per 1 liter of suspension.
The remaining components can be added as needed per 10 liters of solution:
- fresh manure 1 kg + blue vitriol 200 g,
- fat clay 1kg + fresh manure 1kg + copper sulphate 250 g
100 g of karbofos or urea can be added to the solution.
Do not mix everything in one bucket. Need to focus on the population of the tree pests.
For young trees with thin bark without damage, the solution should be prepared on the basis of chalk. If you purchased the fluff, its disinfecting properties are weak, it has already decomposed in air, copper sulfate, karbofos, urea will be required.
Sequence of operations
Spring whitewashing of fruit trees consists of mandatory actions:
- preparation of the trunk for coloring,
A canvas is spread around the tree on which the dead bark falls, taken off with a scraper, chips and dust from stripping with a metal bar. If the tree is damaged to the cambium and deeper, the wound should be closed with a garden pitch.
Thick suspension is best painted using a brush, evenly closing the cracks and exits of the lower skeletal branches. If the tree is young, only the stem is painted to the first branches.
After that, litter is collected and burned along with the contents. It is important to prevent the spread of insects and diseases.
Not all farmers consider it right to mix chemical ingredients in the same container. Some believe that the whitewashing of fruit trees in the spring in the early stages performs only aesthetic functions, which is negligible for the development of the tree. As an alternative, they propose, after stripping the wood, to process it from the spray gun with a Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate. It is important to prevent the liquid from flowing into the barrel.
Instead of whitewashing it is proposed to protect the trunks with a coat of straw, fresh manure and clay. Experienced gardeners use an infusion of 3 kg of ash in 10 liters of water for several hours. For sticking to the composition add chips of soap. It is believed that trace elements in the furnace ash feed the bark of the tree.
With experience comes an understanding of which agrotechnical measures in a particular climate zone are more suitable for protective measures. The main thing is that the garden is healthy and fruitful.
How many whitewash does a garden need?
Many gardeners relate to whitewashing as a decorative act and leave it for May holidays. Meanwhile, for a longer healthy state of the tree is a very important procedure of care, and it should be carried out several times a year. According to many years of experience, whitewashing of trees should be carried out 3 times a year, twice-white whitewashing is sufficient if special, non-washable compositions are used.
- The main whitewash is autumn., which is carried out after the foliage discharge and the onset of a steady cooling (approximately October-November).
- Repeat whitewash in springbefore blooming buds, or rather, before the steady spring solstice (the second half of February-March, in cold regions - until mid-April).
- Third summer whitewash it is considered additional and is carried out much less frequently, although it is also necessary as protection against pests (laying eggs, release of larvae) and diseases (proliferation of mycelium in bark cracks, ingress of hibernating spores).
Is spring whitewashing required?
In the spring with the onset of bright sunny days, dark bare trunks and skeletal branches of trees warm to + 8 ... + 12 ° C, that is, to the temperature of the beginning of sap flow. Remember, "... coming, spring noise is humming"? Night temperature drop to minus values causes freezing of the juice and, in accordance with physical laws, expanding, it breaks the internal tissues, causes cracks in the cortex, especially young ones. White color whitewash reflects the sun's rays well and reduces the heating temperature. Trees continue to be no longer in natural, but forced rest (without sap flow). They begin to grow vegetative and bloom later, which saves not only the health of the trees, but also the harvest.
If, for various reasons, the February-March period is missing, then it is not too late to whitewash trees in the first half of April.
Preparation of fruit trees for whitewashing
It is often possible to see how unfortunate gardeners whiten tree trunks without prior preparation. After the brush, dry bark is strewed, the cracks are not gaps, but it is beautiful from a distance. Such whitewashing does not bring anything but harm to the garden. All the preparatory work and whitewashing itself is carried out only in dry weather.
Preparatory work for the whitewashing of fruit trees:
- clean the soil from debris in the area of the tree crown,
- cover the soil with a film under the crown, so that the diseased bark, mosses, lichens, wintering pests do not get on the soil,
- use wooden (plastic) scrapers to clean the trunks and skeletal branches from the lagging old bark, overgrown mosses and lichens, metal tools (except for saws) cannot be operated so as not to cut the wood,
- if the bark fits tightly to the trunk, but deep cracks are visible, it is necessary to clean the crack with a rod, rounded or hewn at the end and cover it with garden pitch, “RanNet” paste or other compounds,
- Inspect carefully the trunk, all skeletal branches and everywhere close up hollows and cracks, carry out the necessary pruning of the tree crown.
- Waste from the film burn away from the garden.
After cleaning the trunk and branches, it is necessary to disinfect the cleaned surfaces. Disinfection is carried out only in dry weather. If after processing it started to rain, then it is repeated.
Disinfection is carried out by spraying with a fine-mesh sprayer. This is a better option than whitening with a disinfectant solution, which rolls down from a smooth bark and can not get into cracks.
Spring whitewash of garden trees. © R. Ll. Morris
Solutions for disinfection:
The most well-known and acceptable for all gardeners is a solution of copper or iron sulphate. Prepare 3-5% solution at the rate of 300-500 g of the drug per 10 liters of water. The vitriol is pre-dissolved in a small amount of hot water and made up to the required volume. Mortar sprayed boles and skeletal branches. If the tree is “asleep”, the entire crown can be treated with the same solution. If the kidneys are swollen, use a 2% solution for crown treatment so as not to burn the vegetative buds. Treatment with iron or copper sulphate is repeated only after 4-5 years, as the drugs are gradually washed into the soil and accumulate there, causing soil poisoning and plant death.
Instead of copper sulphate, Nitrafen can be used for disinfection - an analogue of copper sulphate. Nitrafen is used only in very neglected gardens, since the concentration of copper sulfate in the preparation is high and when washed into the soil there are obviously negative consequences for living organisms, including beneficial ones.
Instead of copper sulfate and nitrafena, you can use a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
For the treatment of trunk and skeletal branches, it is also possible to use the preparations Hom, Oxyh, and Abiga-Pik. The preparations are dissolved in water and used for treating trees as recommended. Their use during this period is harmless for future harvest.
Some gardeners use ordinary diesel fuel for disinfection. Pure oil product can not be used. It is necessary to prepare a less concentrated solution, for which 10 parts of water and 0.5-1.0 parts of soap are added to 9 parts of diesel fuel. The composition is thoroughly mixed and the trunk and skeletal branches are sprayed with a pump. Leave for 2-3 days and start whitewashing.
For disinfection of shtambov and skeletal branches, not only from pests, but also fungal diseases, mosses and lichens, you can use the composition of mineral salts of high concentration.
In 10 l of water dissolve one of the ingredients:
- 1 kg of salt,
- 600 g of urea,
- 650 g of nitroammofoski or azofoski,
- 550 g of potassium carbonate
- 350 g of potassium chloride.
These salts can be added directly to the lime mortar, combining 2 operations for whitewashing trees.
From household tools at home a good disinfectant solution is obtained from the infusion of wood ash. To prepare a solution of 2-3 kg of ash mixed with 5 liters of water, bring to a boil and leave to cool. We filter the cold solution, add 50 g of dissolved laundry soap for better adhesion of the solution to the bark of trees and add water to 10 liters. We process trees with ready-made mortar.
Note! Whitewashing is started in 1-3 days, so that the disinfectant solution can be absorbed into the bark of the tree.
All work related to the disinfection of garden plantings with poisonous preparations of high concentration is carried out in compliance with all personal protective measures.
From what age to start whitewashing garden crops?
Before novice gardeners often raises the question of how old whitewashed young trees are. The seedlings have a very delicate thin bark and high concentrations of disinfectors, the caustic properties of white-washed remedies can cause burns of the young bark and the same cracks as the sun's rays.
All garden plantings are subject to whitewash. But for young saplings and trees, solutions are prepared less concentrated. In a separate bucket, the emulsion prepared for whitewashing is diluted with water 2 times. It is possible instead of lime to space young trees with water-based paints “For garden work”. Whitewashing of young trees will save the gardener from additional work to protect shtambov from the scorching rays of the sun, destroying the integrity of the thin bark.
Preparation of whitewash solutions
The basis of whitewash solutions are 3 mandatory ingredients, to which various additives are introduced:
- White pigment (lime, chalk, water-based or water-dispersion paints).
- Insecto-or fungicidal drug, you can any other, destroying the infection.
- Any adhesive base that does not interfere with bark breathing.
Fillers in the form of clay or manure can be added to the basic solution.
The whitewash composition must necessarily contain adhesives, otherwise the first rains will wash away the protective layer, and all the work will have to be repeated. In the form of adhesives in lime solutions, prepared independently, they use laundry soap, PVA glue, preparations offered in specialized stores.
Lime is sold on the market in the form of solid material, slaked fluff or lime dough.
Experienced gardeners prefer to self-extinguish lime in order to get fresh source material. It is most effective in the fight against pests, fungi, lichens, mosses.
For making lime paste, solid lime is diluted in a ratio of 1: 1-1.5 parts of water.
To obtain milk of lime mix 1 part lime with 3 parts of water.
Remember! Lime boils when extinguishing, splashing burning drops. Therefore, it is necessary to extinguish lime in protective clothing and glasses. Boiling, with constant stirring, lasts about 20-30 minutes.
Freshly lime is kept for 7 to 30 days. The aged freshly-extinguished lime fits perfectly on the surface of the trunks during whitewashing.
The concentration of lime mortar is chosen arbitrarily, but the milky suspension (emulsion) should leave a clear, dense white mark on the wooden surface. On average, to obtain 8-10 l of whitewash solution, dilute 1.0-1.5 kg of hydrated mixture per 8-10 l of water. Necessary ingredients are added to the finished lime mortar.
The composition of whitewash solutions for self-preparation
All proposed whitewash compositions are prepared based on 10 liters of water:
- 2.5 kg of slaked lime, 200-300 g of copper sulphate, 50 g of soap,
- 1.5-2.0 kg of quicklime, 1 kg of clay, 1 kg of cow dung, 50 g of soap,
- in the number 2 add 200-250 g of copper or iron sulphate,
- 2.0 kg of hydrated lime, 400 g of copper sulfate, 400 g of casein glue,
- mineral salts can be added to all previous solutions (see section 6 in the section “Disinfecting Solutions”),
- some gardeners, instead of disinfection, add nitrafen, karbofos and other insecticide and fungicidal preparations directly to the whitewash solution.
Industrial treatment white coating solutions
In specialized stores and other retail outlets, customers are offered ready-made solutions of garden whitewash. All necessary ingredients are entered into their structure, including disinfectors and glue substances.
The most popular of the ready-made compositions are garden whitewash "Gardener", "Water-dispersion garden paint for trees." They contain all the necessary ingredients, keep on the whitewashed trees for 1-2 years. It is recommended to use compositions for whitewashing at an ambient temperature of + 5 ... + 7 * С.
The most sustainable are acrylic compositions: acrylic whitewash "GreenSquare", "acrylic paint for garden trees" and others. The validity of garden acrylics is approaching 3 years. But these compounds limit the access of air to the whitened surface. The supply of ready-to-use whitewash compositions to stores increases every year, and there is always the opportunity to make whitewash on your own or to buy ready-made ones. The choice of the owner.
Rules whitewashing fruit trees
- A layer of whitewash on the trunk and skeletal branches should be up to 2 mm thick. Usually impose 2 layers. The second - after drying the previous one.
- Раствор должен быть однородным, сметанной консистенции, чтобы не стечь по стволу на землю.
- Широкую, мягкую побелочную кисть ведут сверху вниз, не пропуская ни одной щели или царапины на коре дерева.
- Практичнее использовать краскопульт.
- Покраску ствола нужно заканчивать с учетом 4-6 сантиметров в глубину, для чего освободить низ штамба от земли. После побелки слой грунта вернуть на место.
- Верхний побелочный слой должен быть белоснежным для лучшего отражения солнечных лучей.
- For mature trees, whitewashing of the whole trunk and 1/3 of skeletal branches located up to 1.8-2.0 m in height is considered sufficient. Particularly in need of whitewash branches covered with lichen or moss, previously cleared of them.
- Young seedlings, according to individual gardeners, whitewash completely. Usually the trunk and 1/3 of the future skeletal branches are whitened.
The owner of the garden has the right to choose the type of whitewashing. It undoubtedly has a positive effect on garden crops, but under one condition: the performance of whitewash should be a tree care system.
I earnestly ask! Publish at least one article, which proves the use of whitewash.
Where I do not live now, 1 cherry, 4 plums and 5 apple trees grew. The hostess, who planted and looked after the trees, died 5 years ago. She whitened them in the spring and autumn, no longer sprayed anything.
No one took care of the trees since her death. During this time, the lichen killed 3 apple trees (two are trying to save, but 50/50), with the most delicious, medium and early ripening varieties, one plum (the only yellow one), two more will be saved with a 70/30 chance, one is worse - 50/50 , cherry is the youngest and the chance of saving it is 80/20.
Damn, do editing comments =))
IMHO. Based on my own experience, when I got on the same garden, and putting it on it for several years, I concluded that it was necessary to spare no money and then lay a new garden. Perhaps not removing this, and planting beginners. But there is a danger of infecting them with old sores. Well, that's as lucky.
In any case, these years have not been in vain)) And certainly - to whiten! And not just to whiten, but also tentatively: to cut, clean, disinfect (smear with iron with vitriol, with a brush everywhere you can reach), spray sores with sistemnik. Occasionally and with pests to fight, if you get it. But with sores, the only way - tedious, monotonous, regulated, every season, twice. Spring and autumn. That is, if not, in the middle of the season, of a bacterial burn or mildew attack, or some other powderiness.
Vladimir, and what proof do you want to hear? What white color reflects the sun's rays (preventing the tree from sunburn)? So it is in the fifth grade of the school, should have told. Or the fact that fungicides or insecticides included in the whitewash kill fungi and insects, respectively? This follows from their name. :) Open the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary of 1890 and read the article “Plastering the Trees”, you might be surprised, but since then nothing has changed. Open ANY book about garden care and there you will read the same thing. Coincidence? :)))
Vasya, your story is very interesting and your talent as a narrator is superior to Jan Fleming. But the words story and proof are not even single-root.
Those. experience is not a proof, but the story of a famous (or unknown) expert decorated with pseudoscientific rhetoric is proof. However (c))))
The owner of the garden has the right to choose the type of whitewashing himself - this is the proof. Or to whiten or not to whiten - that is the question. If you whiten - that means you are a responsible gardener. If you don’t whiten systematically, every year, or don`t whiten trees at all, then you are a fan of eating fruits.
So Vladimir you need an article, evidence of the usefulness of whitewashing, and Vasya did not convince you?
Then, dear eat fruits, they are even more tasty without whitewashing and watering, for example - it is well known that vineyards give the sweetest grape harvest - if they are not whitened and not watered at all, and from such grapes the most delicious and fragrant is obtained, and most importantly 28 degrees of strength wine. For example, Tibaani — you can then dilute it with water — one to one, as was the case with the Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR. Harvest in this corner of Kakheti (village of Tibaani) will produce wine from it, will issue as 12 * alcohol. Fixed displacement in the dock. And then diluted one to one. Here you have an additional incentive not to whiten the trees in the garden. Documentary happened, right? The difference between 24 and 28 degrees I leave to the critics of my opus! With the Coming Spring Sadovchane. Successes in the right case!
When it comes to whitewashing, I always ask one question and do not get an answer: why not bleat fruit orchards on an area of 1-2 hectares, who can show a sunburn on a tree (at least a photo), I live in the Belgorod region. There are a lot of fruit here gardens, but I didn’t see whitewashed trees in any garden. White also has my own trees in autumn and spring, but I don’t see any benefit to Bely for beauty, how beautifully whitewashed trees look. on Saturdays. And now we have whitewashed the city Trees of the city of Stary Oskol. With respect, Khalil.
We need to ask another question: where is all this and where did the production Soviet gardens go.
Frost looks like a crack in the bark. Many do not pay attention. There are apples - and all right. No - it means they will be next year, and they are grabbed when it begins to shrink. And this is the last stage. But I didn’t whitewash once on young apple trees - and got cytosporosis. Easily. On the young it is quickly noticed.
Summer resident Your answer, even if you are offended, do not talk about anything. That is, I have not received an answer and not a word about sunburn. You just made a reply. With respect, Khalil.
OMG))) Sunburn is the same as a freezer. Do you even sometimes google the question))) Do not be lazy. Grow above yourself (c) There you will learn physics. And the chemistry of the question)))
Here, of course, do not laugh, but we must cry)))
Sorry, dear Summer Resident!
We all respect you and do not need us to demonstrate your tactlessness. Moreover, aggressive illiteracy is worse than rudeness.
Every science has its own language. And completely pointless to mix different sciences.
Khalil rightly put the question. And respect for him as an opponent requires either to answer his question, or to remain silent.
And let me ask you to write in Russian. I do not understand the verb “google”. If you enter a new word, please decipher it. There are norms of the literary language and if you are not a boor, then do not use slang. We are not criminals to claim our own language.
Freezers and sunburn are not the same thing. In both cases, it is mechanical damage. But these diseases have different origins and differently affect the development and growth of the plant.
Sunburns are reliably established only in coniferous plants. For example, dwarf forms of fir trees (I happened to see this phenomenon on the European and Canadian spruce trees, as well as in the juniper scaly and the doloborate tuevik).
A reliable frost can be found on fruit crops - apples, pears, etc. At the same time, first of all, on new varieties. For southern varieties, this phenomenon is very characteristic, but for local varieties it is very rare.
Let me give you some advice. If you want to get rid of frostbite look for varieties resistant to them. And in relation to sunburn ... then it is more difficult. Physiologists are still arguing - give them time to experiment.
But do not plant plants prone to spring burns. Or accept them.
In relation to the whitewash I will express my own point of view, based on 30 years of experience, personal observations and the study of literature. This is a completely pointless exercise, which sometimes does little harm to plants. This is your money - whatever you want and spend it. I will not argue with anyone. I replied to the author out of respect for his work, but in private.
with deep respect for everyone!
May the Lord bless you and may your garden bear fruit and delight you!
And in practice and literature, and even more so on the Internet - sunburn and freezers - are identical. Of course, if you rest against it, you can argue until it turns blue, but it will not give meaning to your words.
These injuries are a combination of stress factors. Everything, further - for narrow-minded. And if you speculate, having crossed your legs))), then you water the plants? What for? After all, you can not water, interrupted somehow. From the point of view of plant physiology, the same stressful situations. Plant succulents, what's the problem?))
And yes, it is not necessary to break into the open gate: “Based on my own experience, when I got on the same garden, and putting it on for several years, I concluded that it was necessary to spare no money and lay a new garden then.” (C)
Dear Vladimir, I completely agree with your reasoning, Today I came from the site and specially photographed my trees once again, which are purely for aesthetics, And took photos of the neighbor’s trees, we planted trees together, I mean fruit, 6 years ago, and the neighbor never I have not whitewashed over the years and have not found the difference between him and their trees. For comparison, I wanted to put a photo, but here it is not possible to insert a photo. With respect, Khalil.
That's when they will not be 6, but 26 years old - and then compare. And do not compare between themselves and their neighbors, but between themselves and the Pole-neighbor.
After all, you are not to Poland, but they brought apples to us. Feel the difference.
I don’t know if I whitewashed my apple trees three times, and every time I regretted it. Not that no good, on the contrary, the trees from this was only worse. Then, looking at the neighbor's garden, in which the apple trees grow beautifully by themselves, because if a neighbor arrives at the dacha, then only once a season, wondered if it was necessary to do it? And more to whitewashing did not apply. And I do not regret it at all.
When is it best to whitewash trees?
Bleach fruit trees at least once a year. But the ideal option, holding whitewash twice: autumn and spring.
In the autumn whitewashing is carried out in october-novemberspring is held in end of February - early March. Spring whitewash is designed to protect trees from sunburn.
In spring, the weather is changeable: during the day, the air temperature is much higher than zero, and at night it can drop well below zero. The trunk and branches of the tree are mostly brown in color, so they heat up in a day, and at night it becomes cold and the bark cracks.
After whitewashing, the tree trunk becomes white and reflects the rays well, the trunk does not heat up.
Whitewashing trees for the winter - extermination of insects that hide and live in the bark. Most garden pests make themselves a winter overnight stay in the pores of tree bark.
Both young and old trees are whitewashed in the garden.
Preparation of trees for whitewashing
Before whitewashing the tree must be prepared. To do this, clean off the dead bark, lichen build-up, and repair the damage to the tree trunk by means of RanNet.
To remove the lichen you can use plastic twine or brush on metal.
If the trees are young, use a twine, do not use a metal brush (for trees aged 10 years and older, you can use a metal kitchen net), since it will leave wounds on the trunk.
Freezers and all damage to the bark, clean up the living tissue and cover it up by means of RanNet, before the start of whitewashing the tree.
Before whitewash trees in autumn (after preparation), it is necessary process the soap-and-soap solution.
To do this, in 1 liter of hot water to dissolve 5 grams of soap and 200-300 grams of wood ash. Stir, moisten a rag or sponge in the finished solution and dip the trees. Ash will both disinfect and fertilize.
How and what to whiten the trees?
Many gardeners believe that young trees do not need to whitewash, arguing that lime can burn the young bark, whitewashing also compresses the trunk and prevents normal breathing of the tree.
This can be avoided by reducing the concentration of lime mortar by 2 times or using a special paint for whitewashing trees: acrylic paint for garden trees, silver biomask.
Paint for garden trees is not washed off by rain, it is excellent and retains its protective properties longer, unlike lime mortars. Paint may be thick, dilute with water before application.
When whitewashing trees with lime mortar, often they add chalk, clay, laundry soap, milk, casein glue for better adhesion of the solution, and for the protection against pests add copper sulphate.
Whitewash produce in dry weather, as the bleaching compound should have time to grab.
Coloring is done with a brush (a good option is a paint brush), the composition should be applied evenly over the entire surface. The trees are whitened to a height that can be reached by at least 1.5 m. Young trees whiten to the first branches.
Video - Whitewashing fruit trees in spring
Do not forget consider that whitewashing must be white, for better reflection of the sun's rays. To rain did not wash your whitewash, add glue to the mixture. For young trees, the concentration of the solution is less than for adults. If the whitewash exfoliates from the bark, you need to re-whitewash.
Take care of fruit trees and protect your garden!
Reasons to whiten fruit trees
Autumn whitewashing of plants is necessary in order to prevent cracks and freezing in the bark in winter and to destroy various pests and microorganisms that can spend the winter in the bark of shrubs and trees. And spring is the time when whitewashing is necessary to protect plants from skeletal branches and shtambov, as well as from burns, because in the spring the sun's rays are very active, and the plants do not yet have sheets that can protect the bark from the sun. In addition, spring whitewashing is the prevention of pests and various diseases. For this reason, plants must be whitened twice a year: in spring and autumn.
Spring whitewashing of trees
In late February or early March spring whitewashing is carried out: it is during this period that trees can warm up to eleven degrees during the day, and this produces a very early sap flow. And the temperature at night at this time can drop to minus ten degrees, and this leads to the fact that the juice freezes and breaks the plant tissues, and freezers appear. White paint, which covers the trunks of plants, repels aggressive sunlight and thus protects the bark from heating and prevents the trees from waking up at the wrong time.
Paints and solutions for whitening
Whitewashing the garden can be done by such means: water-dispersion paint, water-based paint or lime mortar. The composition of whitewash for fruit plants must include such components:
- White pigment, it can be lime or chalk. These components are white, and it very well protects the bark of plants from sunlight.
- The base must be adhesive, and it will act as a fixing pigment that allows the composition to flow down.
- And also must be present fungicidal drug that will destroy the infection in the cracks of the bark.
If you bleach the plants with lime, then it will quickly crumble or wash off, this is the main disadvantage of such whitewash. It is for this reason that after the whitewashing of trees in the fall, a solution of lime or chalk has to be done in the spring again. If you choose paint for whitewashing, then this procedure will need to be done. only once a year.
The main advantage of such paints is their durability: the paint forms a very durable coating on the tree trunk, vapor-permeable and breathable, it is quite resistant to sunlight and flushing.
The paint contains antiseptic, latex and white pigment. Such a water-dispersion coating forms an air-permeable layer on the trunk, but at the same time, such a layer does not transmit ultraviolet rays, which in the spring are very harmful to fruit trees. This paint is kept on the plant for about two years, and this greatly facilitates the life of the gardener. Whitewashing of trees with water dispersion paint is carried out at a temperature not lower than three degrees.
Both water-based and water-dispersion paints can be purchased in special stores. But such a long-lasting whitewash can be made with your own hands, for this you need to mix two parts of PVA glue or bustilate and one part of kaolin or chalk and add a preparation that contains fungicides to this mixture. After you make a solution, all components must be very well mixed and add water to the mixture, in the end you should get a mixture, the thickness of which will be similar to oil paint.
If for certain reasons there was no whitewash for the winter, then in the spring it will be necessary not only to cover it with paint or lime, but also to prepare the plants and their skeletal branches before whitewashing. It will be necessary to clean the plants from the old bark, before that it is necessary to spread the fabric under the tree and carefully remove the dead bark with a wooden scraper. You will need to process the entire stem and lower branches. This should be done on a raw non-sunny day.
The removed bark should be treated with disinfectants: on a clear and warm day, the stem and the main branches should be treated with Abigak-peak or copper sulfate solution, and you can also use XOM or Oxy. The plant is sprayed with a fine sprayer and always at close range, this is necessary in order for the moisture to form a mist, which will very slowly settle on the bark, and not flow in streams. Do not forget that this procedure is carried out in the morning, so that in the evening the bark is already dry.
Besides, disinfect plants with drugs, которые могут содержать медь, не рекомендуется каждый год, потому что металл может накопиться в коре, и в конечном результате его большая концентрация станет очень вредной для растения. Чтобы этого избежать, необходимо чередовать обработку фунгицидами с мыльно-зольным раствором, такой раствор не очень вреден для дерева, но он очень хорошо очищает кору. To prepare a soap-ash solution, three kilograms of ash and fifty grams of dishwashing liquid or liquid soap are needed; all this must be diluted in water, the temperature of which is not less than eighty degrees.
If while you were cleaning the bark, cracks or small wounds were formed, they should be treated with one of these solutions:
- Two hundred grams of clay must be mixed with one hundred grams of mullein and very finely crushed straw, then it must all be diluted with water so that the mixture looks like thick cream.
- It is required to take one hundred grams of rosin and two hundred grams of beeswax, these components need to be melted on very slow fire in turn, after that they need to be combined and add one hundred grams of animal unsalted fat, and then everything needs to be melted and poured into cold water, then get and make lump.
Methods whitening trunks
When all the required actions are carried out, you can start whitewashing. Some gardeners do not recommend bleaching trees with young bark: they believe that the solution, which includes lime, burns the young bark of seedlings.
The consistency of the solution for whitewashing plants in the garden should be such that the solution does not spread along the trunk, and kept on it, and the thickness of the layer that is applied to the branches and the trunk should be not less than two to three millimeters. If the applied layer is very thick, then it will simply begin to peel off the trunk, and you will have to re-whitewash the trees.
But remember that whitewashing does not always benefit the plants. If the seedlings are young and their bark is completely smooth so far, the mixture will harm it and retard its growth and development. But if you still want to whiten young plants, then choose eco-friendly mixtures.