To obtain a good potato harvest, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil and fertilize it in time. Modern industry produces for this purpose a large amount of chemical fertilizers, only after their use, the crop will no longer be environmentally friendly and safe. In order to enrich the soil with useful substances and increase its fertility, but at the same time not to conflict with the ecology, it is necessary to sow potatoes between the green manuretahs between the rows of potatoes.
What are the green mans for potatoes
Green mans refer to natural fertilizers. After their planting, the soil is plowed up, as a result of which the green mass is in the ground. There, it begins to decompose, resulting in the release of beneficial micro and macro elements.
In addition, the top layer will be enriched with the necessary elements of the potato, such as:
- phosphorus, etc.
Required control the volume of growing greensbecause if there is a lot of it, it will no longer be decomposition, but souring of plowed vegetation. This can lead to the multiplication of pathogens.
Green mans not only fertilize the soil and fill it with essential nutrients. They also help get rid of the most common diseases and pests that affect potatoes.
How to prepare the soil
Siderats, like any culture, require preliminary preparation of the soil before planting. After harvesting, the land is leveled using a rake or other tool; nitroammofosku (at the rate of 10 liters per hundred).
If the acidity of the soil is high, you can make a little the lime. Strongly dry ground must be watered before planting green manure. For these purposes it is better to use a shower head. Only after that you can proceed directly to the sowing of seeds and their embedding.
With increased acidity, it is necessary to lime the soil before planting green manure.
How to make
Time for planting sideratov is selected depending on the purpose for which they are brought to the site. If plants are designed to repel pests, then seeds can be sown. right in the aisle. In this case, you will need to cut them periodically to prevent the seeds from ripening.
They must be quite cold-resistant, because by the time the potatoes are planted, these plants are already cut. Autumn sowing involves treating the soil and enriching it with useful microelements for the future season. All necessary measures are carried out after the harvest has been gathered and the site is completely free.
Why make spring
When sowing green manure in the spring, potatoes will gradually receive nutrients from their decomposition throughout the entire growth period.
Sowing is done immediately as soon as the snow melts and the earth begins to warm up. Cultures must be cold resistant.
Sideratov planting is done after the snow
In the spring it is very good to sow such plants as:
You can also use siderats that will grow along with potatoes, enrich the soil and deter pests.
Can I plant in the fall
Autumn planting of siderats will not only fertilize the land, but also suppress weeds, promote soil saturation with oxygen, reduce the number of pests.
When calculating the sowing time, it is necessary to consider that before the onset of frost, the crops must have time not only to rise, but also to grow. Otherwise, they can not be used as fertilizer.
Most often, as autumn siderats for potatoes use such plants:
It is especially appreciated. white mustard, because it has the property to grow rapidly even at low temperatures. But oats can later not be cut, and planted potatoes directly into it. The dried plant in this case will serve as mulch and protect the crop from the negative impact of the external environment.
How to choose
A key criterion when choosing siderats for potatoes is the general condition of the soil. It should be loose, with a sufficient amount of minerals, without pests and diseases.
Unfortunately, one type of plant is often not able to solve all the problems. To do this, use combinations of several plants.
In order to increase the fertility of the soil and its fertilizers are planted in the place of potato growing legumes. They relieve gardeners of the need to use fertilizers of inorganic origin and saturate the earth with all the necessary trace elements.
In the fight against pests (wireworm, phytophthora) well helps mustard or colza. But to scare the Colorado potato beetle is good to plant flax.
Siderata also help cope with the main weeds. To do this, sow on the site buckwheat, nasturtium, radish, clover, alfalfa.
Can it be planted if the soil is infected with pests or fungus
In no case can potatoes be planted in contaminated or diseased land. Before you land, this area must be to treat. DO NOT rush and resort to chemical treatment. Siderats can come to the rescue.
Natural healers can serve:
- radish oilseed,
- white mustard
These plants not only heal the soil, but also rid of peststhat are in it. In particularly contaminated areas, seedlings can be left between the rows. Thus, the phytosanitary will perform their work throughout the season.
Types for potatoes
By right, legumes are considered to be one of the best siderats that have the ability to saturate the soil with useful microelements.
It is worth paying attention to Vika. This is a curly annual, which not only prevents soil erosion, but also significantly improves its structure. Well proven in neutral soils.
A plant like clover can not only improve the structure of the soil on the site, but also help in the fight against the nematode and wireworm. Thanks to a powerful and extensive root system, it has the ability to extract useful substances from the very depths of the earth.
Cruciferous is used not only as a natural fertilizer, but also as soil treatment. They help in the fight against viruses and pests.
Most common in this group white mustard. It tends not only to quickly build up the green mass, but also to loosen the earth, improve its structure. After mowing, it is an excellent fertilizer, and in the process of growth it protects the area from weeds.
No less deserving of radish oilseed. Thanks to a powerful root, the plant loosens the soil well, helps retain moisture, destroys pathogenic microbes, and fights fungal diseases well. It tends to inhibit weeds. When decomposed, it forms a large amount of nutrients.
Rye attracts the attention of gardeners due to cheap sowing material and low soil requirements. When decomposed, it forms a large amount of organic fertilizers, however, it cannot fix nitrogen in the soil.
If used as a green fertilizer oats, then it can be replaced with one crop of 200 kg of manure per hectare. This plant can improve the structure of the soil, helps in the fight against weeds, nematodes, fungal diseases, scab, root rot.
Can phacelia be sided
Phacelia has very short gestation period. The plant loosens the soil well, while decomposing it enriches it with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, and is able to inhibit the growth of weeds.
Thanks to these properties, the plant is widely used as a siderata. It tolerates frost fairly well, which makes it possible to get several harvests per season. Green mass can also be used as animal feed.
Advantages and disadvantages
Siderata among gardeners called green fertilizer. This is no accident: these plants when plowing into the ground act like manure, peat or other organic fertilizers. When they decompose, a mass of beneficial micro and macro elements are formed, which are so necessary for the full growth and development of potatoes.
Some siderats can not only fertilize, but also heal the soil, and also scare away the most common types of pests.
There are probably no negative aspects of using such fertilizers. Except for the fact that the process of their cultivation itself requires some material costs and the investment of its own forces, labor. And the growth process takes some time, so you need to be patient and wait until the green mass increases.
When using green manure for potatoes, it is possible not only to increase the yield of the plot, but also grow an environmentally friendly product. After all, natural fertilizers are absolutely safe for the human body, which is not the case with chemical analogues.
The best siderata for potatoes
Siderata can be annual plants with a well-branched root system.: peas, sweet clover, lupine, sardella, alfalfa, chickpeas, beans, lentils, soybeans.
The green manure roots, loosening the soil, improve its structure, and tops fertilize and mulch the soil. Siderats guarantee the replenishment of minerals in the soil on which the planting of potatoes is planned.
A good siderat for potatoes (albeit with a lower percentage of nitrogen) is rape, mustard, colza, fatselia, oats, rye, wheat.These cultures protect the soil from weathering, dehydration, enrich with useful minerals. When winter sowing, these plants will save the soil from deep freezing and delay the snow.
How to sow siderata under potatoes
Before planting siderats, the soil is well loosened - the plants must fully develop and give a sufficient amount of green mass.
Siderates for potatoes are sown in autumn 1.5 months before the onset of cold weather - in September. The sideratov seeds (best of all, cereals - they tolerate winter well) are scattered on the surface of the plot, and then plowed in with a rake. You can plant seeds in shallow grooves (2-3 cm deep).
Fresh sowing is covered with a thin layer of compost. In May, siderats are harvested and potatoes are planted in their place..
If sowing is planned in spring, then siderats should fall into the ground in late April - early May (the ground should warm up by 3-5 cm). Very good mix of spring sedertov: oats, fatsely, white mustard.
2 weeks before planting potatoes, siderats are cut by a flat-cutter and they dig up the soil to a depth of 8-16 cm. During this time, the green mass will have time to be rotten and become a good fertilizer.
Potatoes on the site, fertilized with sideratami, planted to a depth of 5-6 cm. Practiced planting potatoes with mustard. This method of landing has several advantages: mustard loosens the soil, “clogs” weeds, retains moisture, frightens off pests.
When the potato leaves and mustard are equal in height, mustard must be removedso that potatoes can fully develop. Cut plants can be left in the aisle, and can be taken out in the compost pit.
During the growth period, tubers need nitrogen and phosphorus more than any other elements. Because the potato fruit is under the ground and is on the roots - it means that the root system should receive a lot of nutrients during the period of tubers. Roots need phosphorus.
But this battery can not be fully absorbed without the growth of green mass. Therefore - need nitrogen. Siderates for potatoes should contain a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. It remains to find out which plants contain these nutrients, buy seeds and sow the field.
There are several methods for using siderats for potatoes:
- lately, when the roots of companion crops serve as the plant’s food source,
- complete, if the aboveground and underground parts are used simultaneously,
- cut, when they dig up only the beveled above-ground part, and leave the root system in the same place.
Depending on which nutrients have been added to the potato field, you can use one of the methods.
When to sow - in the fall or spring
Features of the growth of legumes is increased germination and a rapid increase in green mass due to the accumulation of nitrogen in the tissues. Gardeners use this feature for their own purposes - to return the plants back to the soil in order to enrich the soil and feed other crops.
Video: Siderata - potatoes on poor land
During the summer season, legumes can grow twice, so you need to use in spring and autumn. Rules for planting sideratov for potatoes:
- Seed to make seeds in the treated soil - for this you can make mineral supplements, and the plants will translate them into safe organic matter,
- they are planted in spring in late March and early May, depending on the temperature, in the fall six weeks before the cooling, shoots should grow to 15-20 cm and have time to decompose in the ground - for this they need two weeks,
- You need to mow plants before the seeds appear so that they do not fall back into the ground, since then they will be difficult to bring out.
Siderats need watering so that they quickly process nutrients. The fact is that healthy batteries can be found deep in the soil, and you can only get them from there with sufficient moisture. Therefore, in arid climates, it is recommended to water siderata regularly in front of potatoes in the spring until cutting.
It is possible to mow the plants before incorporation into the soil either manually or with a lawn tiller.
Important! If the amount of greens on the site has exceeded all expectations, you do not need to make all that there was no souring of plant residues. Part of the fertilizer close up on other beds for other crops
What siderata are not suitable for potatoes
Grain crops such as wheat, oats, and rye are sown as predecessors, but they do not have enough nitrogen and phosphorus, so they will not bring much benefit. The same applies to phacelia, white mustard, rape.
For other garden plants, they are suitable for nutritional composition, so they are best used in front of tomatoes, cucumbers. You can make more than the normal rate, but then the fertilizer will be processed in the soil longer, which is not good in spring, as you can be late with planting potatoes.
Which siderats to plant after potatoes in the fall does not matter. It can be any. Well disinfects soil mustard, in addition - it is resistant to cold.
For the growth of potato tops and tuber pouring, the best sideratami are all kinds of leguminous plants, which are sown preferably in the prepared soil, so that they germinate faster. Siderates after potatoes can be sown any - they will more affect the soil fertility than the growth of potato tubers.
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Siderates: Description and their useful properties for the land
Siderats are semi-cultural or cultivated plants., which are sown in the dacha plots to improve the condition of the soil, and not to obtain a crop. Siderates tend to have the following positive effects:
- stabilize the mechanical structure of the soil,
- enrich the soil with mineral and organic components,
- increase endurance of crops planted at the site for various diseases,
- prevent the occurrence of erosion on agricultural land,
- increase the activity of necessary and beneficial microorganisms,
- scare off malicious and attract beneficial insects,
- positively affect the acid-base balance of the soil.
More than four hundred different plants are used as useful siderats, but all they are divided into such groups:
- Cruciferous siderats (from the cabbage family), such as white and gray mustard, canola, colza.
- Cereals siderats, such as timothy, barley, oats, ryegrass, gray first and payza.
- Bean siderats such as lupine, peas, soybeans and lentils.
Most often used in vegetable gardens Siderats from mustard, as well as from such cultures of other families, such as mallow, buckwheat or amaranth. But it is worth remembering that not always siderats can have a positive effect on garden crops. Such a situation may arise if plants from the families of the crop that is grown after them are used as green manures.
In order for the potato harvest to be decent, it is necessary to grow useful plants on the plot before it. It is important to remember that potatoes belong to the Solanaceae family, which require a large amount of nitrogen for active growth and development. In addition, for the formation of a large number of tubers, the soil must be loose and have water and air capacity.
Как отмечают опытные садоводы, для того чтобы обеспечить картофелю комфортные условия для роста и развития, лучше всего использовать не один, а несколько видов сидератов.
As noted earlier, potatoes need a constant supply of nitrogen, which can be ensured by planting such sideratnyh crops as beans or peas. And in order to neutralize the soil from the harmful wireworm, it is necessary to plant sideratny cultures of the Cruciflora family in the form of colza or mustard. Also, oats or rye can have a positive effect, and you can get double benefit, since the harvest of such siderates collected from the potato field can be used as pet food. In order to understand how using green manure to bring more benefits to potatoes, it is necessary to study in more detail the peculiarities of their cultivation.
Grass Cereal Cultures for Potatoes
It is important that the preparation of land for the new planting of potatoes should begin immediately after harvest. The best for this time is planting rye. It is very difficult to overestimate this crop, because thanks to it you can get powerful shoots that clog all the weeds and rid the soil of the wireworm. It is also worth noting that rye crops allow winter snow to go much faster during the spring thaw. It is important that leads to rapid heating of the soil. In the autumn period, rye is sown in straight grooves, and then they are covered with earth.
In spring, when the snow melted, the upper part of the rye should be removed, this can be done using a flat-cutter or a rag, and if there is a trimmer on hand, then cleaning can be done in a more simple mechanized way. It is not necessary to remove the roots from the ground. It is worth noting that all rye harvesting activities must be carried out no later than fourteen days before planting potatoes.
What are the benefits of siderats?
In the world there are about 400 species of such plants. Green manure roots are able to extract the necessary substances from the lower soil layers for growing vegetables. Their leaves, stems contain a large number of beneficial elements, which after rotting go into the ground.
The roots of some sideratov loosen the soil. Increase its air - and water permeability. The benefits obtained from such plants are comparable to the benefits of introducing manure or peat into the ground.
General rules for growing
Green manure is chosen according to the type of soil. On clayey, swampy areas, it is best to plant legumes. In such a place will not grow lupine. In heavy, rocky soil is recommended to plant a sainfoin. On poor soils cereal grows well. You cannot choose a siderat of the same family as the culture that will be planted after it.
Cereals are recommended to be planted after harvest, as their ability to attract wireworms is noted.
The best option for planting siderats for potatoes is to select several types of plants of different families, each of which will be responsible for:
- repelling pests
- prevent the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms,
- soil enrichment with organic matter, minerals.
Land for planting should be loose. Seeds should be sown in furrows. Some gardeners throw them around the plot and bury them with a rake. Watering must be done carefully so that they are not brought to the surface of the earth with water.
On 1 weave need to plant about 2 kg of seeds. For each culture, you need to know the density of the crop. It is impossible to thicken the thickets of siderats, as they begin to sweep, but rare plantings do not give good results.
All plants need to be cut before flowering.
Green mans can be sown both in the fall after harvest and in the spring before planting potatoes. It is best to do this at the end of the season. During the autumn - spring period, they will have time to overtake, give the soil all the necessary batteries.
During the growing season, siderats are sown between rows of potatoes. Landing sideratov alternate annually. It is not recommended to sow the same plants in the same place every year.
Autumn to winter
Autumn sowing of natural fertilizer should be carried out no later than 1.5 months before frost. The best option is to start growing them immediately after the harvest. To get enough green mass, they need to be watered regularly.
After the plants have gained enough greens, they must be mowed and tucked into the ground when digging. Until spring, they will have time to fade.
In the autumn most often as sideratov after potatoes are planted:
For sowing in late autumn, it is best to choose winter rye. Sow last year's seeds by spreading around the site. Then cover them with a small layer of compost. The first shoots appear in early spring. Mow rye a month before planting vegetables. She tolerates low temperatures. It can be planted in any soil.
Rape in its qualities is second only to legumes. Its vegetative parts quickly decompose, saturating the soil with essential substances for potatoes. Essential oils in its composition scare phytochemicals. Spring rape is a great predecessor to the nightshade.
How to plant potatoes in the winter right in the green manure? More in the video:
In the spring, siderats are sown not earlier than the end of April, beginning of May. By the time of planting, the snow should completely melt and the earth should warm up.
Do not allow excessive overgrowth of sideratov. They are grown for about 2 weeks. They do not have time to form seeds.
The best siderata before potatoes:
Plants are cut a few weeks before planting tubers. Then plow the land with greens.
Lupine is one of the best crops for planting in a plot where potatoes will grow in the future. It takes about 5 weeks to grow. Long lupine roots improve soil properties.
Are there any universal green manure for potatoes?
There is no universal crop for planting potatoes. Each plant has its own beneficial properties. It is recommended to plant several siderats together. There are crops that can bring diverse benefits to vegetables. These plants include phacelia.
It not only nourishes the land, but also protects the beds from weed overgrowth and pest invasion. It can be planted both after potatoes and before it. It is also a crop that is planted between rows of vegetables and berries.
To control pests and weeds
Mustard is able to protect the potato tubers from invasions of wireworm, beetle larvae. The same properties possesses colza, phacelia, and clover.
It enriches the soil with potassium, phosphorus. Contributes to the preservation of moisture in the soil. It can be used for sowing between rows.
Due to its roots, the clover extracts batteries from deep layers of the earth, loosens the soil.
Another crop that can protect the area from weeds is oats. It can be planted both in spring and autumn. At the beginning of the season, oats are sown immediately after the snow melts and the soil warms up. Autumn sowing should be no later than mid-September. For these purposes, you can plant such plants as:
To protect the bushes from the Colorado potato beetle, it is advised to plant flax. The ability to repel pests in calendula and nasturtium is noted.
What is not suitable for potatoes?
Before planting potatoes is not recommended to plant sunflower. For its growth requires a lot of nutrients, and its tops difficult to decompose.
Plots with wheat crops can be chosen by damage control cells. Therefore, it also should not be chosen as a precursor for potatoes.
What plants can be planted for the "treatment" of the soil?
If on the site where it is planned to plant potatoes, cultures grew that were affected by diseases, the land should be “cured” before planting. To do this, use the following siderates:
Green manure retains soil fertility, struggling with fitovits, infections. To improve the land, it is recommended to sow plants of different families in one place and alternate them annually. The best fertilizer option for potatoes is to plant legumes and mustard in the fall. These fertilizers are completely safe, and also inexpensive.
The choice of sideratov
Potatoes can grow in one area for no more than four years, then the soil is depleted and ceases to give the root crops the necessary nutrients. In addition, the neglected fertile layer of the earth becomes a breeding ground for pathogenic bacteria that can destroy the crop. Refusal from chemical drugs can lead to many problems with the soil, so instead of them you can use vegetable components - green manures (green fertilizer).
Siderates for potato decomposing, give the soil the required substances: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other trace elements. Also thanks to the green manure, the soil is enriched with humus. However, care should be taken not to exaggerate the amount of plants grown for humus, otherwise the green mass will begin to sour instead of decomposition.
On one weave a plot spend no more than 2 kg of plant seeds.
The root system of siderates loosens the soil, and the green mass enriches with nutrients and acts as a mulch. For example, to enrich the earth with phosphorus and nitrogen, you need to plant leguminous plants.
Can not be used as a green fertilizer sunflower. Firstly, it draws a lot of useful substances for its development. Secondly, its rough structure decomposes too long in the ground.
Other plants that enrich the soil with nutrition are:
They enrich the fertile layer with essential minerals, and also protect against weathering and dehydration. In the above plants there is a lower content of nitrogenous substances than in legumes, but they also bring undoubted benefits to the soil and potatoes. And if these crops are planted in the fall, they will save the soil from freezing.
However, rye and wheat have the peculiarity of attracting wireworms to the soil, so it is desirable to exclude them from the lists of green manure for potatoes.
Note! To increase the yield of potatoes, it is recommended to mix siderata with a high content of nitrogen with others. The combination of nitrogen and minerals has a beneficial effect on the nutritional value of the soil.
The choice of green manure is based on the need of tubers in sufficient air. Therefore, the ground must be breathable and loose. This can provide well-chosen crops.
Is it possible to replace siderat with humus? This option is also well suited to enrich the soil with humus and minerals, however, green fertilizer decomposes faster in the ground. Also, the lack of fertilizing with humus is a greater amount of substrate application compared to sideratom.
Green mans are used to improve soil structure, so they can be planted twice a year - in the fall after picking the fruit and in the spring before planting crops on the beds. It is better to plant green manure for potatoes in autumn, but sometimes green fertilizer is grown in spring.
The advantage of the autumn cultivation of green mass is that vegetation protects the earth from freezing.
In the spring, after the snow melted, the plants are not removed from the site until May. Sometimes the green manure is not removed when planting tubers, as it can protect them from the negative effects of sunlight and spring frosts.
If you decide to mow siderat before planting potatoes, then do it about a month before the start of work. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that siderat does not enter the color, otherwise the process of decomposition in the earth will slow down.
But after harvesting the need to plant leguminous plants, since even before the onset of frost, they will have time to gain biomass.
Green fertilizer can be used in several ways:
- full embedment
- cutting way
- lately way.
The complete embedding of the green mass into the soil is carried out by digging a site to a depth of 10 cm. Cutting method - beveled from another part of the plant is embedded in the ground. Then, on the site only the roots of the plants are used, and the green mass is mown and used for other purposes.
With the help of the late method, two sites can be enriched with green fertilizer: the roots remain on one site, and the canted mass is closed up on the other.
Autumn work on the site
Green mans for potatoes are sown in the fall before the onset of cold weather, so that they can gain a thick green mass. Around the middle of September, you can begin to sow, having previously dig the ground well. In the fall, you can safely sow grain crops, as they are resistant to winter frosts.
Immediately after harvesting the potatoes, you can plant siderat:
You can scatter the seeds on the plowed soil, and then level the surface with a rake. You can sow the seeds in shallow grooves, and then sprinkle with earth. Top of the ground is covered with a small layer of compost for heat. In May, siderata mow and close up in the soil, then potatoes are planted.
Alternate siderata on the site, do not plant the same culture annually.
Experienced gardeners advise not to mow sideratta winter crops before frosts. If you leave them until spring, you do not have to dig the ground for planting potatoes.
Planting sideratov spring potatoes should be planned in April or early May. The criterion for choosing the correct sowing time should be warm soil.
Before planting the tubers (14-15 days), the green mass is mown, and the ground with roots and plants is dug up to the depth of a shovel. Green mass quickly decomposes, giving nutrients to the earth.
A big mistake is to mow siderarat, who managed to give seeds. Works need to be carried out before violent flowering of plants.
Which siderata for potatoes in spring is preferable? Gardeners believe that phacelia is a universal fertilizer for a rich harvest of root crops. This plant is sown immediately after the snow melts, before planting potatoes, it manages to gain green mass and to structure the soil - to make the earth loose. In addition, phacelia (like mustard) drives away from the wireworm site.
Too abundant green mass will not be able to completely perepret in the ground and will begin to rot, so remove excess.
How deep should the tubers be planted? Prepare holes 5–6 cm deep. Experienced gardeners plant potatoes with mustard, as it protects against weeds and loosens the soil well. When the mustard is stretched to the height of the potato tops, it must be cut. If this is not done, it will interfere with the development of the plant. Cut mustard tops can be laid between rows or put into compost.
Vika (mouse peas)
This culture is characterized by an accelerated growing season and unpretentiousness to the conditions of growth. Mouse peas belong to the legume family, which means it accumulates a large amount of nitrogen between the nodule roots. During the decomposition of the roots in the ground, there is an active release of nitrogen, without which the potato cannot develop. The decomposition of the green mass of mouse peas enriches the soil with humus, at times increasing its fertility.
This culture is also distinguished by the rapid development of green mass, endurance and undemanding to the conditions of growth. The clover forms a powerful branched root system extending to a depth of more than a meter. Thanks to the developed root system of the clover, the soil becomes loose, and therefore does not need digging. In the spring, the green mass is cut off and placed in between the rows, or buried in another area as a lateral fertilizer method. Melilot belongs to the legume family.
It is difficult to overestimate the value of white mustard for feeding potatoes. Planting potatoes after sideratov (mustard) gives a bountiful harvest. Culture with long roots attracts earthworms and creates favorable conditions for the formation of humus. Mustard has a phytosanitary effect on the soil, scaring off pests and keeping potatoes from rot and other diseases. If the wire is wound up on the plot, it can be driven off with the help of white mustard.
Experienced gardeners mix mustard with mouse peas for excellent results. To accelerate the decomposition of the green mass of the plant, one can use “Baikal” biostimulants. If you grow mustard together with potatoes, it will not allow weeds to develop.
This sideratny culture also belongs to the cruciferous family, like mustard. Oilseed radish quickly goes to growth, forming a rich green mass. Next to this crop weeds do not grow, including the ever-present wheat grass. Rarely has a phytosanitary effect on the soil, destroying rot and soil pests. Before sowing seeds, the soil should be dug up well, since the radish does not like dense soil. After a month, the tops can be cut and embed the greens in the ground. The seeding rate is 300 grams per hundred.
This cereal is an excellent winter green manure and sanitary ground. Rye completely destroys helminths and phytophtora, insects and other soil pests. Juicy green rye mass quickly decomposes in the soil, giving a large amount of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. An advanced root system loosens the earth, making the fertile layer air- and water-permeable. Rye perfectly prepares the plot for potatoes, creating the most favorable conditions for its development.
When is it best to sow rye? Sowing is carried out immediately after harvest, that is, in late August. In the spring, when the shoots stretch to a height of 25-30 cm, siderat close up in the ground. Через полмесяца можно высаживать клубни.
Данная культура обогащает землю азотом и калием. Мощная корневая система разрыхляет почву, создавая условия для оптимального водного и воздушного баланса. Овес рекомендуется сеять на тяжелых почвах, неблагоприятных для роста корнеплодов. Для повышения плодородия грунта овес смешивают с мышиным горошком и кормовым горохом. Иногда при посеве используют и аммиачную селитру. Green mass is embedded in the soil before the formation of buds.
Soil contaminated with fungus and pests
What to do if the site is not suitable for planting potatoes due to fungal and pest damage? In this case, the siderat will also help. Gardeners treat the area with cruciferous plants such as rape, mustard, rep and radish. They free the soil from phytophthora, rot and potato scab. In addition to these diseases, cruciferous drive from the site of worms and slugs.
If the soil is severely affected by blight and pests, then the green manure is not completely mowed, but left between rows - it will perform its phytosanitary functions until harvesting.
Siderates in the fall for potatoes are an excellent environmentally friendly fertilizer. After such feeding, you can collect many times more yield from the site. Tubers greatly deplete the soil, pulling nutrients for their growth. Therefore, it is impossible to do without top dressing - every year the harvest will decrease, and the tubers will become shallow.
Siderates in the spring for potatoes prepare the soil well and create favorable conditions for the development of tubers. When is the best time to plant sideratnye plants - in the fall or spring? Gardeners have no unanimous opinion on this. If you need to save the land from freezing, then winter crops should be planted.
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What siderata suitable for potatoes
What siderata for potatoes are best? Most plants that are grown as green manure can be sown before planting potatoes or after harvesting, as well as in the row spacing.
From legumes, the best sideratami are:
Many vegetable growers recommend growing peas or beans between the rows of potato beds, and after harvesting these plants and digging up the potato tubers, simply dig up the above-ground part of the legume when autumn plowing the vegetable garden. Also planting phacelia in the spring and autumn period - when plowing into the ground, this plant can replace the introduction of other organic fertilizing (manure, compost), and also “drives off” the wireworm.
In the spring, sideratnye plants are planted after the snow melts, when the soil warms to 10-12 ° C (all planted crops must be resistant to cold). When planting in the spring, the siderats rot over potatoes gradually, as a result, nutrients will be supplied to the vegetables in portions. Potatoes after sideratov are better in growth, the tubers begin to ripen faster due to the fact that a large amount of nutrients enter the soil. The best crops for planting potatoes in spring:
When to plant sideratov in spring for potatoes, depends on the specific weather conditions in the region. The sideratny plants planted before planting potatoes will protect these vegetables from pathogenic microorganisms and pests and will not allow weeds to grow. Siderats planted for potatoes can grow simultaneously with these root crops, simultaneously improving the soil structure, scaring off pests. These plants can be:
- vegetables from the legume family,
- from flowering plants - calendula, nasturtium.
In the autumn planting of such plants, the seeds are planted after harvesting potatoes for 1-2 months before the onset of frost. In this case, siderats do not have time to bloom, and under the cover of snow rot almost completely. The rotted vegetative mass is plowed into the ground during the spring digging of the plot. Beginner vegetable growers are often concerned about the question, which siderats are better to sow for potatoes in the fall? There are many such plants:
During autumn sowing, siderats will improve the soil structure, contributing to its saturation with oxygen, suppress the growth and development of weeds, will prevent pests from entering the ground for wintering and will become a source of nutrients for the soil. Mostly in the autumn period, white mustard is grown, because it goes well in growth even at air temperatures below 11-13 ° C. Oats do not have time to grow before the onset of cold weather, but in the spring it should not be mown - you can plant potatoes directly in the siderats. Dried stalks of oats will protect the growing roots from cooling and other negative weather conditions, as they turn into a mulch layer.
How to produce sowing
Spring or autumn sowing of seeds of sideratny cultures is carried out by simply scattering the seeds on the soil surface, covering them from above with a layer of compost or humus (the thickness of such a layer is 1.5–2 cm). It is possible to sow in another way: in small furrows up to 2 cm in depth they plant seed and fill it with earth, then water it.
How to sow siderata with potatoes - this is another of the nuances of sideratnyh cultures. Usually, between the rows of potato beds, grooves are made into which the seeds of such crops are laid. Then the edges of the furrows are leveled. Watering sideratov in this case, produce simultaneously with the irrigation of potatoes.