Today, every second gardener dreams of planting a dwarf apple tree on his plot. Especially small fruit trees attract those from whom the area allotted for the garden is limited. "Dwarfs" are becoming increasingly popular. Everything depends on their compactness: they occupy much less space than tall trees with a strong root system and a spreading crown. An increasing level of yields of dwarf apple trees is also gaining increasing popularity.
Cultivation of this culture has its own characteristics, which must be known to amateur gardeners. What are dwarf apple trees (varieties, reviews, advantages)? What are the nuances of planting trees and caring for them?
One of the most popular garden crops.
Apple is one of the most common fruit crops among Russian gardeners. Its seedlings, which bloom from May to June (depending on the variety), are widely used in landscaping parks and gardens as a decorative flowering plant, but more often for harvesting.
The beneficial properties of apples (spherical fruits of green, red or yellow color, up to 15 cm in diameter) have been known for a long time. It is believed that at least one apple must be eaten per day in order for the body to replenish with the necessary dose of iron and other nutrients and vitamins.
The hostesses make excellent jams, jam, compotes and juices from apples. Delicious fruits are also used to prepare apple wines, widely popular among fans.
These fruit trees differ in terms of fruit ripening: early (summer varieties), medium (autumn) and late (winter, late winter). Their stocks are also heterogeneous. Among them are different: seed stock (vigorous apple trees that are grown from seeds) and clonal, grafted (dwarf, semi-dwarf, medium).
Class apple varieties:
- Tall - plants up to 8 m tall, well developed root system, which penetrates deep into the soil. Recommended for cultivation in areas with the location of groundwater below 3 m.
- Semi-dwarfs reach a height of up to 5 m. They are grown in areas where groundwater lies at a level of up to 2.5 m.
- Dwarf - undersized crops up to 2.5 m in height, with a relatively shallow (up to 1 m) root system. Suitable for areas with high (about 1.5 m) location of groundwater.
- The columnar have one erect stem without significant ramifications.
By resistance to cold varieties differ: frost-resistant, thermophilic. By taste: sweet, sour, dessert, etc.
Dwarf apple trees: varieties, reviews
A clear selection of varieties for each particular plot is necessary so that the fruit trees annually please the owners with a high yield. Gardeners generally speak positively of dwarf birch trees. After all, they are not very whimsical in care.
Famous I.V. Michurin believed that the success of the whole business, i.e. The achievement of the desired indicators of the yield of the garden, is solved precisely by the successful selection of varieties. Dwarf apple trees are no exception. Varieties, reviews, features of planting and care for them are in the public domain. More than 10 thousand varieties of such trees are known. Users in their reviews highlight the best dwarf apple trees, varieties.
Reviews, photos can be read and viewed in the article. Gardeners believe that by choosing suitable for the region varieties of dwarf trees, adhering to the rules of planting and care, you can ensure a rich fruiting.
The best summer dwarf apple trees (varieties, reviews, description):
- "Melba" - high-yielding variety. Fruiting begins in the third year. Apple ripening is attributed to the period: end of July - August. They are medium in size, have juicy flesh and caramel flavor.
- "Candy" - early-ripening variety, bred by I.V. Michurin. The fruits of this hybrid fragrant, very tasty. In warm and rainy summer, their ripening begins in August. The weight of individual fruits reaches 120 g. They are round in shape, have a dark green skin, dense and juicy flesh.
- “Wonderful” is a late summer variety with high winter hardiness. Fruiting begins in the fourth year of planting. Gives high yields (up to 75 kg). Fruit weight - 140 g. The shape of apples is flat-round, slightly ribbed. The color is yellow-green with a rich dark red blush and bright dessert taste.
The users selected the best autumn dwarf apple trees (varieties, reviews):
- "Zhigulevskoe." Fruiting of trees begins in the third year. The variety has a high level of vitality, does not respond to pests and diseases. Ripening apples - at the end of September. These are large fruits with a red-orange peel. According to reviews of gardeners, on condition of annual fertilizing, the tree for a long time preserves good fruiting and large size of fruits.
- "Autumn striped". Trees of this variety are recommended to cover for the winter, as frosts can damage its high-lying root system. The fruits have a rounded shape, their weight is about 200 g, the color is bright yellow, the taste is bright, sweet and sour. The grade differs in unpretentious storage conditions (at a temperature up to 6 degrees).
- "Landed". The variety is resistant to low temperature and scab. Beginning of fruiting, depending on the region, refers to the third year after planting. Productivity reaches 130 kg. The fruits are large, flat-rounded in shape, with a dense smooth skin of a greenish-red color, have a bright sweet-sour taste.
- Sokolovskoye. Fruiting grade begins in the fourth year. Productivity - about 85 kg. Apples are large, weighing about 190 g, with a greenish-yellow color and a bright blush. Taste is sweet-sour, differing in a saturation.
The best gardeners call winter dwarf apple trees (varieties, reviews):
- "Bratchud." The tree is of medium height (up to 2 m), begins to bear fruit at the age of 3-4 years. Its yield is about 120 kg. The variety has high winter hardiness and regular fruiting. Fruits have an oblong rounded shape with a noticeable ribbing and a characteristic side seam, reach a significant size. The skin is smooth, shiny, with a greenish-yellow color. The flesh is white, weakly, coarse-grained, with a bright sour-sweet taste.
- "Grushovka Moscow Region." One of the varieties mentioned by gardeners. Many also claim that these are the best dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region. Varieties, reviews of which are different, have their strengths and weaknesses. "Grushovka Podmoskovnaya" - a popular variety that is resistant to scab. Fruits in 5-6 years, high yield is stable. Apples of small size, rounded elongated shape. Practically not subject to rotting. The color of the peel is yellow with a red side.
- “Bogatyr” is distinguished by a wide branching crown, which, in order to increase the yield, requires the annual pruning of old branches. The tree has significant winter hardiness, almost not subject to pests and diseases. Fruits are elongated, with a red-yellow color. The taste is sour, reminiscent of Antonovka.
- “Moscow Necklace” is a new variety, fruits three years after planting. Fruits are large in size. The color of the peel is bright red, juicy, soft-pink flesh with a sweet-sour taste.
- "Carpet" fruits in the fourth year after planting. Productivity reaches 110 kg from one tree. The size of the fruit is significant, the shape is flat, the shiny skin has a greenish-yellow color. Taste - dessert.
- “Snowdrop” is a winter-hardy, scab-resistant variety. Productivity - about 90 kg. The shape of the fruit is round-conical, weight is about 170 g. The skin color is light yellow, with a red blush. The taste is sweet and sour.
How to distinguish saplings of dwarf apple trees from other varieties?
Many are wondering how to grow and what are the dwarf apple trees, varieties, reviews. The seedling must be chosen when buying very carefully.
Dwarf apple trees are grown from ordinary seedlings using stock of the required variety. This process is quite lengthy, so gardeners prefer to buy seedlings ready.
When buying, there is a risk of mixing up “dwarfs” with seedlings of other varieties.
To avoid this, it is necessary to take into account their distinctive features:
- on the place of inoculation, where the joint of the neck of seedlings with the bole is located, the projection should
- ordinary apple trees have a taproot root system, in dwarfs it is fibrous with small roots,
- The main difference between good roots of seedlings of dwarf apple trees is that they are usually fresh and supple,
- on the ground part of a quality tree there should be no drying of the bark or injuries of the branches,
- the stem of the columnar apple trees, in contrast to the dwarf, smooth, almost without branching,
- a two-year-old sapling of a dwarf apple tree at the ends of branches has large buds, the trunk does not exceed 50 cm in height, the number of formed branches is insignificant.
Gardeners leave positive feedback on dwarf apple trees. But you need to be very careful about transportation. Immediately after purchasing a dwarf apple seedling, wrap it in a damp cloth. For the safety of the branches during transportation, they are tightened closer to the trunk and secured with a twine. Upon arrival at the place of the tree immediately planted and always watered.
How to plant dwarf apple trees in the ground? Varieties, reviews, the advantages of which are considered in the article, require a prepared soil.
The best time for planting, according to gardeners, is spring, immediately after the snow melts. The required amount of fertilizer should be applied to the soil. The place should be elevated and protected from the wind. Dwarf apple trees (varieties) grow not only on sunny, but also on slightly shaded places. Reviews, planting in which is considered in the first turn, confirm that you need to choose the right place for the tree.
Before planting, seedlings should be cut a little to form the lower trunk of the crown. A year later, growths are cut off. With proper implementation of these procedures, the apple tree retains its youth longer, and the fruits are of considerable size.
Saplings of dwarf apple trees are planted in areas where groundwater occurs at a distance of at least 1.5 m from the surface. The distance between the trees should be 2x3 or 3x3 m. The parameters of the landing pit:
Topsoil removed when digging a hole should be set aside separately from the rest of the excavated mass.
In the excavated planting hole should be added a bucket of humus, mix it with the top layer of soil, pour out a bucket of water and mix again.
The root system of the seedling is placed in the resulting wet mass and covered with earth. The inoculation site should be 2-3 cm above the soil level. The ground must be compacted across the diameter of the wheel circle, making a roller up to 10 cm high for irrigation.
About the features of care for seedlings
An important question is what kind of care require dwarf apple trees (varieties). Reviews, tree care need to study in advance, even before the purchase.
Saplings of dwarf apple trees are very unpretentious in care.
During the summer, trees need watering (1-2 buckets of water once a week). In addition, additional feeding is necessary:
- Infusion of mullein (1:10). In the water (10 buckets) dissolve the mullein (1 bucket), ferment (insist) for 10-12 days. The resulting infusion (1 l) is then dissolved in 10 l of water.
- Chicken droppings (1:20). The solution of chicken manure (1 bucket) is diluted in 20 buckets of water, fermented (insisted) for 10-12 days. Then 0.5 liters of the mixture is diluted in 10 liters of water.
Saplings should be watered with fertilizer in the amount of 1-2 buckets under 1 tree. After watering or the last rains, the soil must be loosened. Top dressing ends in August, in more northern areas - at the end of July.
Care for mature apple trees: spring
In the spring, as soon as the sun begins to warm, the insulators are removed from the apple trees, with which the trees were covered for the winter, after which they begin to pruning. Branches damaged by frost must be cut. You should also carefully examine the crown, remove existing pests. After that, under the apple trees fertilize, scavenge near trees and burn it. It is necessary to dig up the soil to a depth of 5-7 cm, to make complex (containing microelements saturating the earth) and nitrogen-containing (to activate vegetative processes) fertilizers into tree circles. In clear weather whitewash trunks.
In the spring period, the trees are also sprayed three times a day with special solutions:
- before the kidneys swell,
- in the period of swelling,
- after bud break.
The procedure eliminates pests and fungal diseases. Before the start of the awakening of insects, water obstacles should be built: traps, barrels wound with trapping belts.
Arrangements for the care of mature trees in summer
With the onset of summer, it is necessary to carefully observe the soil near the apple trees and the condition of the trees themselves. At this time of the year, the care consists in timely watering and pest control (treatment when they detect diseased trees and nearby plants with a special solution).
At this time, foliar feeding is carried out. During the hot period, dwarf stands are fed with nitrogen. When a deficiency of a microelement is detected, the plants are sprayed with a special agent capable of providing the apple trees with everything necessary. With a shortage of iron (it happens most often), plants are treated with iron sulfate.
Autumn care for mature apples
Autumn period is the time of harvest. All the garbage should be removed around the apple tree: fallen leaves, branches and apples - in order to prevent the appearance of fungus and rot. It is also necessary to make mineral fertilizers, pruning branches that are damaged by insects or have other damage.
It is also necessary to loosen the soil around the apple trees: to break the insulation of the potential winter overnight of insects. It is necessary to protect the trunks from rodents, warming them with roofing material, placing bait for mice.
- The life of dwarf apple trees is half as long as their tall counterparts. But this has its plus - the ability to replace varieties with more modern ones every 20 years.
- Finding roots near the surface is fraught with danger of their freezing. Careful root system insulation is required.
- The surface location of the roots requires a fertile soil.
- High yields of apple trees sometimes lead to poor quality fruit. Depletion of trees leads to abnormal fruiting. For its elimination it is necessary to tear off superfluous inflorescences.
- The load of fruits sometimes leads to breakage of small trees. To prevent this, install special supports for the branches and the trunk.
Varieties for the middle band
It is known that fruit trees ripening fruit depends on climatic conditions.
Gardeners well remember the words of the ancestor of the domestic selection of I.V. Michurin about the need to carry out zoning of varieties, taking into account the ability of apple trees to withstand the diseases of a particular climatic zone and their frost resistance.
Above, we have already mentioned the best dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region (variety). Reviews gardeners mention about hybrids, as well as artificially bred trees with different ripening terms.
The Moscow region is a midland region, ideal for the cultivation of early, middle and late varieties.
These are already familiar:
- summer varieties "melba", "candy",
- autumn "Zhigulevskoe", "autumn striped",
- winter “pears of Moscow Region”, “bogatyr”, “Arbat”, “Moscow Necklace”, “Lobo” (a relatively recent variety with high indices of fruit taste, as well as preservation, fruiting, winter hardiness of trees).
Growing "dwarfs" in Tatarstan
Amateur gardeners, based on the results of the experiments, confidently assert that Tatarstan is a suitable climatic region, where you can grow dwarf apple trees (varieties). Reviews, Tatarstan in which is mentioned quite often, confirm that it is in this region you can get a good harvest.
For example, in the most extreme conditions of Tatarstan (Bugulma-Belebeev Upland, where frosts reach minus 40 degrees in winter, late spring and earliest autumn frosts are observed) gardeners successfully grow a paradise 62-396, as well as a “Moscow pear” with an intercalary insert of this paradises
Gardeners call two conditions favorable for this:
- good snow cover (keeps the soil temperature to minus 5-10 degrees with a total air temperature up to minus 35 degrees Celsius),
- heavy soil cover (clay and heavy loam), contributing to good root anchoring, which keeps the tree from tilting in the presence of a bountiful harvest.
The same factors also have negative aspects with which to struggle: in spring, trees must be dug out from under the snow so that the snow mass does not break branches.
Для защиты от грызунов по причине высоких снегов штамб приходится поднимать до высоты 1,2 -1,4 м и осенью обматывать толем или рубероидом.
Выращивание карликовых яблонь в районах Среднего Поволжья и Южного Урала (Башкирия)
Невысокие деревца на карликовых подвоях приобретают все большую популярность среди садоводов не только южной полосы, но и в регионах с суровым климатом, к которым относятся районы Среднего Поволжья и Южного Урала (Башкирия).
Where else can you grow dwarf apple trees (varieties)? Reviews, Bashkiria is also mentioned in them, they say that in this region, many planted this type of apple trees.
The most attractive for gardeners are apple trees with a height of up to 3-3.5 m, characterized by rapidness and a high level of yield:
- “Spartak”, “Kutuzovtsy”, “Kuibyshevskoe”, “Daughter of the Papy”, “Zhiguli” (Middle Volga Region),
- "Bashkir handsome", "Moscow pear", "mundane", "silver hoof", "brotchud" (Bashkiria).
Varieties are well compatible with clonal rootstocks. The first harvest on semi-dwarf rootstocks is harvested at 3-4 year after planting, marketable - at 4-5 year.
Trees on dwarf rootstocks are less adapted: for 2-3 years they stop growing due to the loading with fruits. At the age of 7-8 years, bear fruit periodically.
In the harsh conditions of the region (the temperature of the arable horizon in winter is minus 13-15 degrees, in the summer it is plus 60-64 degrees Celsius, soil fertility is low), they showed the best:
- semi-dwarf rootstocks: E-56, 64-143, "Ural-11", E-63.54-118, "Ural-5",
- dwarf stocks: K-2, SPS-7, "arm-18", R-60, "Ural-1".
"Dwarfs" in the southern regions
The southern regions, in particular, Rostov - an ideal region for growing dwarf apple trees. And here gardeners plant dwarf apple trees (varieties). Reviews, the Rostov region in which is also considered as a region for a favorable planting of apple trees, say that first of all attention should be paid to the soil and climate.
The following varieties of fruit trees on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks are unequivocally recommended for growing in the region:
- M1, M3 (sredneroslye),
- M9, MM106, the parade of Budagovsky (with the risk share),
- 54-118, 3-3-35, 62-396, 3-5-44. 3-3-72, 3-1-76 (high winter resistance),
- Paradykov Serdyukov (extremely high winter hardiness).
Dwarf apple - culture is popular because of its undeniable advantages among gardeners in various regions of the country.
The choice of low-growing varieties of trees suitable for the region, and the observance of the rules of planting and caring for them will ensure a high yield of a dwarf garden for a long time.
Features of stunted apple trees
All dwarf trees, whether apple or pear, reproduce vegetatively, and grow them on short rootstocks (grafted cutting). These trees have the following main features:
- early ripening of fruits
- bountiful harvest
- small root system
- ease of care
- small size.
The disadvantages of dwarf apple trees are:
- Short period of fruiting: approximately 15 - 20 years.
- Often trees are tilted down due to heavy fruit.
- Their root system is practically on the surface, so it is weak and the severity of the fruit does not stand.
Such a placement of the root system needs special care, feeding and frequent and abundant watering.
When buying dwarf apple trees, you need to carefully inspect the roots, they should not be dried out, for a good tree the root system is fresh and fibrous. At the very end of the branches should be buds, seedlings should not be injured or broken. After purchase, it is necessary to wrap the roots with a damp cloth and land as soon as possible in a permanent place.
The apple tree on the dwarf rootstock of the Wonderful variety is a bonsai, no more than one and a half meters high. This apple tree will bear fruit in the third year after planting. The fruit of the wonderful variety are medium and slightly flattened. The color of the fruit itself is yellow-green with juicy flesh inside. Maturation begins in early August. Fruits are excellent for canning and for preparing various jelly and preserves.
Winter low-growing varieties
Most popular winter varieties and their description following:
- Bogatyr, a tree with well developed branches, the crown of this variety is wide and beautiful. The Bogatyr variety is fruiting with slightly elongated yellow-red apples. The taste of the fruit is slightly sour and full ripening of apples occurs in late autumn.
- Saffron Pepin. This tree fruits very tasty and fragrant apples. Here are just the first fruits will have to wait a little more than five years after planting. The shape of the apples is small and conical with a slight ribbing. The tree itself has an average size for dwarf apple trees.
- Variety Borovinkaweak-branched dwarf apple tree. The crown looks like a big green ball. This variety is considered to be winter hardy, the fruits have a standard, regular shape and fructify this variety in the fifth year after planting. Apples themselves are of several shades, but red or yellow colors prevail. The taste of the fruit is sweet with a pleasant sourness.
Autumn varieties of dwarf apple trees
Sokolovskoye variety. Fruiting of this variety comes at the end of autumn literally before the onset of frost. Apples are quite large, juicy. The tree itself has an average height.
Golden delishes average height of a tree with a rather wide and rounded crown. The first fruits appear early, already in the third year after the landing. The fruits are rounded, the skin is dense, the flesh is juicy and sweet.
Grade Zhigulevskoe, it is a fairly quickly ripening apple tree, since the first apples can be tasted as early as the second year after planting a tree. Fruiting this variety of large red fruits. Tastes from the apple have a sweet-sour taste. Full ripening occurs on the first days of October, and such apples are stored in the right conditions for up to six months.
Planting and breeding
Propagate undersized varieties using layering (both vertical and horizontal), using root cuttings or by grafting. Before planting a tree, you need to prepare a pit for it, the shape of the pit should be cylindrical in diameter of approximately 80 centimeters, a depth of at least 60 centimeters.
The soil is prepared in advance, it is carefully fertilized using organic and mineral supplements. It is best to take natural fertilizers, such as humus or compost. For one hole, you need about three buckets of fertilizer. Before filling the pit, the fertilizer must be mixed with the ground. And also just before planting, you need to dig a stake or any wooden stick 150 cm high into the hole. After grounding, the tree is tied to a wooden support, so that later the thin trunk does not bend or break.
During planting, it is necessary to closely monitor the location of the root collar, it should be almost at the level of the surface, no more than five cm deep.
Any low-growing varieties of apple trees have a weak root system, which is why to land a tree, you need to distribute the roots shallowly and carefully over the ground so that they do not have bends. When the roots are fully distributed, they can be filled with prepared soil.
If groundwater flows near the planted tree, then it is better to plant on a bulk hill about 50 centimeters high and two meters in diameter. Land for such a landing should be imported.
During the planting of the dwarf rootstock, care must be taken that the bare roots do not look out, but are under a small layer of earth, otherwise they will dry out and the tree will die. The best time to plant such trees is early spring. After the earth is filled up and densely rammed, the tree must be watered, for this, small holes are made in the ground and two buckets of water are poured into it. To keep the soil moist for a long time, it must be mulched.
Any variety of apple trees need pruning, this is done to ensure that the tree is better acclimatized, grew faster. But you need to pruning with skill. Pruning should be done only after the crown is formed, then in just a couple of years the tree will acquire a strong trunk and elastic branches.
Apical branches are cut thirty centimeters from its base, and the remaining branches are cut to the level where the cut is located. The crown itself is cut after its full formation, if it is a longline, then it is necessary to leave four branches, all the remaining cut on the ring. The branches that are decided to leave should be well developed and be strong, weak, hanging branches should be removed.
If, when planting, the sapling does not have a crown, then immediately after disembarking, they are cut from the very base to 80 centimeters.
One of the main parts of the circumcision technology is the pinching of the shoots, this procedure is carried out exclusively in the summer. Pinching is performed to remove young shoots that have not yet become stiff. The event itself is performed using a sharp pruner and only during the period when the first buds appear, this procedure is carried out to preserve and direct nutrients to the growth, and abundant leaf development and to increase the number of buds.
Pinning procedure (nip) is carried out in several stages. During the week it is necessary to perform pinching three times, the first is held in early June, the second in the middle of the month of July and the final pinning is performed as necessary, but this should be done very carefully, the young shoots may not have enough time to mature and they will die when cold weather sets in.
If you do the pinning correctly, this will lower the growth activity of the young branches. Pruning fruit-bearing apple trees that have a one-year growth is done by thinning the tree crowns, all broken branches, as well as all closely-spaced branches, are pruned. Twisted branches must be shortened. If the growth of shoots is weak, you can spend rejuvenating circumcision, for this pruning all existing branches on the tree.
Care for dwarf apple varieties
It is not difficult to care for undersized apple trees, the whole care consists of regular and timely watering, proper feeding, cutting and loosening. Watering these apples need throughout the summer period. One apple takes about four buckets of water. Immediately after watering, it is necessary to loosen the land around the tree, the same procedure is carried out after each rain. Watering stops in August, if the apple tree does not make it grow with a delay. Also, watering in a later period can cause damage to the apple frost.
Much depends on watering and on the composition of the soil on which dwarf apple trees grow. If this is a loamy water soil, more than about six buckets will be needed. On the sandy soil - four buckets.
It is necessary to fertilize these wonderful rootstocks, but to do this no more than three times over the summer, the most useful fertilizer is mullein, and if available it can be fertilized with chicken manure.
It is necessary to protect the apple tree from pests, the most frequent of them are fruit mites and haws. But it is impossible to process trees during the blooming of buds, it is best to process them before buds begin to form. For this purpose, special chemicals are sold either with the help of a solution of lime, which is treated with an apple tree trunk. It is forbidden to treat with any solutions during flowering, which is harmful not only to pests, but also to pollinating insects important for the future harvest. It is better to remove weeds that grow near the apple tree and manually remove the pests found on the tree.
It is easy to grow a dwarf tree, it is important to do all the caring manipulations correctly fertilize and water, carefully cut and land. Do all this on time and regularly, and then the first and juicy harvest of apples will not take long.
Low-growing apple varieties: description
A total of low-growing apple varieties in the updated (for 2018) State Registry of Breeding Achievements has 12 names:
- Golden Delicious,
- Pepin saffron,
All of these varieties do have moderate growth. Their height rarely exceeds 2.5–3 m, especially if the crown is monitored and not launched, giving “run amok” to the tops.
Known undersized variety of apple, is small, the tree itself is compact.
- Fruits weighing up to 130 g, tasty, have a thin peel and are painted in golden-yellow color with red strokes on the surface.
- The variety tolerates even severe winters without problems, the fruits are well preserved.
- The apple tree, despite its short growth, develops very actively after planting the seedling on the site.
For some reason, my neighbor calls him a short-growing variety. Winter redWell, he knows better.
- This is not our variety, overseas, but we have got accustomed.
- I fell in love with him for reserved growth and tasty fruits, reaching a mass of 170 g,
- They lie in my boxes until May, of course, if I tear them carefully, do not beat or damage the skin.
- The variety blooms too late and never gets a return frost.
- The disadvantages of this stunted variety include low drought tolerance - I do not recommend it to be planted in remote cottages.
- He needs watering according to my calculations every 4 days - a bucket of water under the trunk, of course, if there is no rain and the sun is hot.
- But what kind of fruits ripen - they reach a mass of almost 200 g, golden-yellow color with a faint pink-colored scorch on the south side of the fruit. Their taste is excellent.
- The apples with a neat collection are kept by me until the May holidays.
One name makes planting this apple tree, which is surprisingly short, even up to 2 m.
- The fruits ripen in summer, are colored straw yellow with a pinkish blush.
- The mass of fruits is small, not more than 50 g, but I can eat them at least a whole bucket - sweet, juicy, tasty!
- The variety can withstand any winters, endures drought and has a huge yield - a small tree stands covered with apples as a Christmas tree with toys. And so every year.
Known to many undersized variety, and especially loved by me - Papirovka. Low, with good-looking apples, reaching a mass of 150 g and painted in a greenish-yellow color.
There is only one deficiency in the variety - fruiting frequency, it is worth sprinkled with apples, they are not at all.
Variety has a lot merits besides restrained growth:
- early maturation
- resistance to scab,
- excellent winter hardiness
- high yield
- a long stalk on each apple, which is why it is convenient to pluck them.
No less well-known and no less loved by me this stunted variety. Received in 1947, but the relevance is not lost to this day.
- If you take care of the tree as it should, then its fruits will be of normal size, not 70-80 g as everywhere they write, but more than 100 g for sure - it is checked in your own garden.
- The apples are amazingly tasty, juicy, and their attractive color is orange-yellow with a dark red blush, which, like the artist’s genius, “smeared” across the entire surface of the fruit.
Of merits of the variety I can highlight:
- late flowering, due to which return frosts are not terrible for him,
- scab resistance
- lack of periodicity of fruiting,
- great taste and aroma of fruits
- high heat resistance of apple.
Well, how can you not plant this stunted apple-tree variety Nezhenka on a plot?
- The variety gives even small (about 100 g), but the most delicious fruits, painted in greenish-yellow with a pink blush on the south side.
- The fruits ripen the very first of all varieties of apple trees - this is a kind of honeysuckle from the berries in ripening terms.
- The variety is hardy, and only in critically severe winters can it freeze slightly.
Well-known variety Welsey, and he is also short!
- Who will pass by apples weighing about 150 g and painted in light yellow with a top coat color.
- The variety ripens late, but the fruits lie until January,
- Fruits can crumble, but not all ripen at once and you can visit the garden and, walking, pick 1-2 ripe ones, stretching the period of consumption of fresh fruits.
- Tasters unanimously consider the fruits of the variety - dessert, the acid in taste is felt, but it is harmonious and appropriate there.
- winter hardy
- resistant to scab and powdery mildew,
- harvested, although if a year falls out with a very high yield, be on the alert, next year there may be no apples at all.
Idared is a low-growing variety of foreign breeding, but it has surprisingly well caught on in Russian gardens.
- Fruits can lie without damage until May, and under proper conditions until the new harvest!
- The apples reach a mass of 175-180 g, are painted in greenish-yellow with a dark carmine blush tint.
- They have a surprisingly pleasant taste - having eaten one apple, you will involuntarily stretch after the second one.
Dignity variety Idared:
- winter hardiness
- drought tolerance,
- resistance to scab and powdery mildew, brown spot.
A new for me, undersized variety Zhivinka.
- Fruits reach a mass of only 20 g, but they are distinguished by excellent taste and light yellow color with a purple blush. When you eat these fruits, it seems as if they have no skin on them at all.
- The apples are kept for half a year.
- The tree rarely exceeds the height of 2 m.
- excellent winter hardiness
- drought tolerance,
- resistance to scab and powdery mildew,
- high yield
- crown that never thickens.
- Grade rarely exceeds the height of 3 m.
- Fruits often exceed the standard 140 g, they are always one-dimensional and colored in a greenish yellow color with a solid red blush.
- The taste of the fruit is wonderful.
- Of the additional advantages worth noting resistance to scab and the highest winter hardiness.
A new low-growing variety, which I hardly know, Quadrille, managed to hold in his hands saplings and apples. В Госреестре он появился в 2018 г., хотя выведен на десяток лет раньше.
- Сорт по заверениям авторов едва превышает 2 м.
- Плоды достигают массы в 100-120 г, окрашены в светло-желтый с багровым загаром, с южной стороны, цвет. Их приятно держать в руках, они вкусные, сочные, присутствует приятный аромат.
- Производитель сорта утверждает, что плоды можно транспортировать далеко и долго без их порчи.
- The most important advantages are resistance to scab, winter hardiness, drought and heat resistance and, of course, early onset.
Features of dwarf and semi-dwarf apple trees
Dwarf and semi-dwarf apple trees are produced by grafting varietal cuttings onto dwarf clonal rootstocks. In other words, each tree of such a variety is not grown from a seed, but obtained only by vegetative means. As a result, the sapling retains 100% of all the signs inherent in the donor, except for one - growth.
The success of such varieties has many reasons, including:
- Skoroplodnost. The first harvest from a sapling can be obtained for 2-3 years.
- Excellent consumer characteristics. Apples grow tasty, sweet and fragrant. If you don’t know exactly from which apple trees the fruits are taken, then it is impossible to determine whether it is a dwarf or a regular tree.
- Ease of care. Low crown many times easier to care for her. It is easy to carry out antiparasitic treatment, pruning, and harvesting with the help of ordinary ladders. The semi-dwarfs are the highest - their height can reach 3.5 m, whereas dwarf apple trees do not grow above 3 m, and often even lower.
- Beauty. Low-growing apple trees look attractive in any plantings. In the spring during flowering and during the ripening of apples, they are an exclusively decorative spectacle.
- Compactness. This is true of the crown and root system. Most of the roots are located at a depth of only 70 cm. This is very valuable for areas with high levels of groundwater, as well as with heavy clay soils.
- Early fall of foliage. Usually, by the middle of September the leaf fall is already completed, which many times reduces the risk of damage to the landings by frost.
- Saving space. If in a standard apple orchard between individual trees you need to keep a distance of 4-5 m, then 1.5 m is enough between dwarf trees, therefore at least 25 hectares of such thin-growth seedlings can be placed at least 25.
Dwarf apple garden
It is easy to distinguish from the kolonovidny saplings on a root which has not rod form, but fibrous. Dwarf rootstocks do not have thick roots at all. Even at first glance, buds of dwarf varieties are significantly larger than normal. Intending to buy a dwarf or semi-dwarf sapling should be prepared for the fact that its price will be significantly higher than that of the ordinary.
Attention: dwarf trees perfectly coexist with tall, if you observe the recommended distance between them. At the same time planting shrubs close to the circle of a pristvolny circle is not recommended. The close-lying root system does not tolerate such an neighborhood.
Not without flaws, which is important to know:
- Short lifespan. The common apple tree is able to bear fruit up to 60 years old, but the undersized varieties have a maximum fructification duration of 20 years, and for the most part only 13-15 years. However, in this you can see the positive side, as regular renewal of the garden allows you to appreciate a lot more new varieties.
- Low frost resistance. It is due to the low occurrence of the root system. In extreme cold the roots may freeze.
- Requirements for soil fertility. Top dressing such varieties are needed every year.
- Too abundant flowering. Apple tree seeks to give as much fruit as possible. To obtain a high quality crop to a quarter of the inflorescences need to be cut off. Remove from them those that are located close to the trunk.
- Fragile branches. Often the weight of the fruit is so great that the branches break without additional supports.
- Low keeping quality. Tall varieties have the highest keeping quality, dwarf difficult to compete with them.
Dwarf apple varieties for the Moscow region
Cool summer and frosty winters are typical signs of the Moscow region climate. Not every variety can produce a crop and not die in such conditions. The following dwarf apple trees have proven themselves:
- Melba - Summer pollinated variety of yellow sweet apples, ripening in late July. Fruit weight ranges from 150-250 g. One tree for 3-4 year yields up to 40 kg. Stability: 3 months.
- Zhigulevskaya - large-fruited autumn undersized apple with golden-red apples weighing up to 350 g. It matures in late September. Stored for up to 3 months. Needs cross pollination. One tree can produce up to 250 kg of fruits.
- PearMoscow - one of the oldest winter varieties, ripening in late October. The fruits are quite small - about 100 g, but it is perfectly stored until the summer. Differs in high frost resistance and fertility: up to 150 kg from a tree.
Dwarf apple varieties for the Leningrad region
Swampy soils, severe frosts, high humidity, proximity to the sea are all limiting factors suitable for a small number of varieties. Practice has shown that varieties are well established in the region:
- Antey - late-ripening autumn apple tree, distinguished by an average yield (up to 50 kg), as well as high keeping quality of fruits (until May). Dark red apples have a mass of about 200 g, and the first fruiting comes at 3 years. It is weakly resistant to scab, but withstands temperatures down to −30 ° C. Actively fruiting in the period of 5-25 years.
- Uslada - very sweet, medium-sized (up to 150 g) apples, beautiful crimson color. Trees need cross-pollination and produce up to 80 kg of fruit. Resistant to drought and scab winter-hardy variety. Already in mid-August you can pick green apples that have a pleasant sour taste and strong aroma, and technical ripeness occurs in mid-September.
- Ladoga - red sweet and sour apples weighing up to 150 g. Ripen in September. The tree is able to give up to 150 kg at a height of up to 3 m. The fruits are perfectly stored until March. The first harvest is harvested for 5 year.
Low-growing apple trees for central Russia
Here you can allow a much wider variety of varieties, because the relatively mild winters allow not to be afraid of the freezing of the gardens. Warm and long summer, a large amount of precipitation, fertile soil - all of these are favorable factors, suitable for growing apple trees as well as possible.
The most positive reviews of gardeners in the following varieties:
- Wonderful - apple-dwarf with the most compact crown height in the range of 1.6-2 m. Drop-down spreading branches barely hold green apples weighing up to 210 g. Yield - up to 80 kg. Fruiting for 3-4 year. Ripening in late August. Lay until October.
- Snowdrop - very undersized small apple tree up to 1.6 m high. It has been bearing fruit already for 3 years, it is very resistant to severe frosts and drought. The weight of apples is up to 170 g, and the yield is up to 120 kg per tree. Ripening in early September. Stability - 4 months.
- Imant - it is distinguished by late maturity (late October) and high weight of dark red fruits with a pronounced wax coating reaching 250 g and more. Resistant to scab grade, well preserved until May. Resistant to frost.
The best varieties of dwarf apple trees for the Urals
Serious temperature fluctuations from hot summer to frosty winters require varieties of fruit trees cultivated in the Urals to freeze and drought. This fully can boast such varieties of apple trees as:
- SouvenirAltai - reaches no more than 3 m in height, gives small red apples weighing up to 120 g. Matures at the end of summer. High yield is organically supplemented with resistance to scab, as well as self-fertility. The tree does not need neighbors to consistently produce high yields from year to year.
- Paping - early summer variety of very light white-green apples, competing in popularity with White Bulk. Fruits weigh an average of 150 g, the crop is harvested in the first half of August. Fruiting begins at 4 years old, and the increase with each subsequent year is several tens of kilograms, reaching 200 kg per tree.
- Bayana - abundantly fruiting variety. Yellow-green with blush apples weighing up to 150 g ripen in early autumn with the appearance of a purple hue on the skin. The tree transfers frosts to −35 ° С. Differs self-fertilizing, therefore suitable for a single landing. Fruiting comes in 4 years.
Everything you need to know about planting and caring for dwarf apple trees
It is very important to choose the sapling before buying. Since it is rather difficult to vaccinate on your own, it is much more profitable to acquire ready-grafted plants in nurseries. At the same time you need to know the signs of quality grafts:
- Between the stem and the root neck there is a clearly visible protrusion indicating the location of the inoculation.
- A 2-year-old sapling should have 4 developed branches (the wilderness has many short branches without buds).
- The height of the tree - up to 0.5 m.
- The roots are fibrous in shape (in the dicky - taproot).
The optimum time for planting is spring, as soon as the ground is thawed, or autumn (the first decade of September). Place on the site choose the most illuminated, or with penumbra. The depth of groundwater is ideally 1.5 m. The soil is prepared for planting in advance, enriching it with organic fertilizers, as well as digging and achieving a uniform loose structure.
Planting dwarf apple trees (diagram)
Council Planting pit is prepared at the rate of 1.5 m between trees and a depth of 0.7 m. The first 20 cm of the surface layer of soil is simply thrown away, since they will be mixed with humus or rotten manure. It is good to add wood ash and 0.6 kg of superphosphate to each seedling.
Pegs are placed on the bottom of the planting pit or trench to tie up seedlings and only after that a seedling is installed on a small mound of soil with fertilizers, gently straightening its roots. The dumping of the soil is carried out in stages, watering each layer abundantly. After filling the pit, the scion point should be above the ground at a height of at least 3 cm.
A circle with a diameter of about 50 cm is tramped around the trunk. Its edge is formed with a roller 15 cm high. This will facilitate the watering process, as it will not allow water to spread past the roots. Next, the top of the seedling is tied up to a support peg, and around the ground is sprinkled with a layer of mulch from sawdust, chopped grass, sunflower husks, etc.
The main care for apples is to protect them from pests. Scab is the most common fungal disease from which trees are treated with fungicides. But besides this, the apple trees are attacked by all sorts of insect pests, from which they are protected by spraying with special insecticides, as well as by hanging traps, carefully removing fallen foliage.
Top dressings are carried out annually. The mullein solution is ideal, as they can simply water the planting several times per season.
Important: without food, the apple tree will give an ovary, but it will not be able to mature.
The pruning-forming pruning is done from the very first year. However, it is performed in the spring. The step by step manual is quite simple. After the first year, the sapling is shortened to 50 cm. A year later, its 4-5 heels shorten to 20 cm each. After that, each year the growing branches are shortened in the same way. As a result, a close to spherical crown is formed, optimally suited to most dwarf varieties.
In addition to the formative and sanitary pruning is carried out. It removes broken branches as well as improperly growing ones. In the spring, you must carefully inspect the crown and remove all frozen and withered areas. Moreover, it is important to pay particular attention to dry bitches, because various tree-goders often become the cause of their death.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
The first rule of the gardener in the care of any sort of apple is not to leave the tree without care. It is not enough to plant. Lack of pruning, annual feeding, treatment from pests almost guaranteed will lead to the death of the tree, or the lack of a crop on it.
Given that many high-yielding varieties require the presence of other apples on the plot, it is best to attend to this immediately, taking it as a guide to action. Several seedlings are selected at once for planting, focusing on their adaptability to the climatic features of the region.
Features of growing dwarf apple trees
The process of planting and caring for mini-versions of fruit trees differs little from other species. But some nuances do exist. For example, it is unlikely to bring out a dwarf variety from the usual one. If we plant an apple tree for the first time in life, do not suffer from vaccinations and reproduction, it is better to purchase seedlings in horticultural centers or in the bird market.
Do apple trees differ from different rootstocks?
What is a dwarf stock? Why are varieties with the same name considered dwarf, semi-dwarf or medium strong? Let's try to deal with these questions arising from any novice gardener.
To get a new apple tree, a seedling must be planted. A branch of a certain sort that needs to be planted on a tree is a graft. The place to which the cutting is transferred is a stock. Allocate:
- clone stock (growing vegetatively),
- seed (apple grow from seed).
Thus, the same variety can be developed on a dwarf rootstock, and on any other. When grown, for example, in seed, the same varieties of Melba, Golden Delicious, Kovalenkovskoe and others possess the characteristics of tall or medium-sized apple trees. They, grafted on the dwarf, acquire the quality of dwarf trees.
Breeders are constantly working to create "real dwarfs" that do not require vaccination.
Important! When buying seedlings, you need to ask the seller what stock was grown on.
How to choose a sapling
The tree must be healthy, with a well-developed root system. When inspecting the roots, we inspect for damage. The twigs should not be dried. The presence of vaccinations required. If there is no vaccination, then we are dealing with a wild apple tree. But there are other points by which you can distinguish the variety from the wild:
- The vaccination site is traditionally located between the stem and the root neck. It has the form of a small protrusion.
- The developed branches of a varietal grafted plant must be at least four.
- A 0.5 meter high boom also indicates that we are buying not a wild, but a varietal apple tree.
- A grafted dwarf sapling has many small and flexible roots, it does not have a taproot, unlike dick.
Varietal apple trees can be distinguished from wild by the presence of vaccination and the number of developed branches.
Planting and care of trees in the spring
Dwarf apple trees, like the usual ones, are planted in open ground in autumn and spring. Planting is carried out during the period of "hibernation" of plants, when the earth has already warmed up a little, but the tree buds have not yet dismissed. Gardeners are advised to prepare the wells for seedlings in the fall, so that the fertilizer is absorbed into the soil, and the soil is compacted. If it was not possible to prepare the place in advance, we proceed as follows:
- We dig a hole 60–70 cm deep. Its diameter must be at least 60 cm.
- In the landing hole we stick a wooden stake.
- Add to the well fertile soil.
- Pour 0.5 kg of ash, a bucket of humus and 0.5 kg of superphosphate. Mix with the soil.
- Cover with fertile soil. The layer thickness should be 2–3 cm so that the roots of the apple tree do not touch the fertilizer.
- We lower a sapling into the pit, straighten the roots.
- The inoculation should be above ground at a height of 3–4 cm.
- Soil after planting apple tamped.
- Under each tree we pour out 2–3 buckets of water.
- We mulch the soil with humus.
Care for dwarf trees is easy:
- The root system is in the upper layers of the soil, so we make sure that the soil does not crack, does not dry out. After watering loose soil no deeper than 5 cm.
- In early spring, we whitewash the trees with lime.
- Every 2 weeks we feed complex fertilizers: azofoskoy, ecofoskoy or any other.
- In the spring, apple trees also need nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. You can use wood ash, urea, nitrophoska. Fertilizers are made according to the instructions on the package.
Mandatory procedures in summer and autumn
Care in the hot season consists in loosening the soil and watering. It is important to ensure that the soil does not dry out or crack. As for planting dwarf apple trees in autumn, it is similar to spring. In the autumn, the following procedures should be carried out:
- We prune old and overlapping branches by the tree.
- Loosen the soil so that pests can not spend the winter at the roots.
- As a preventive measure, spray apple Bordeaux liquid (1%).
- In winter, we cover the soil around the tree with a thick layer of humus so that the apple trees do not freeze out during the snow-free period.
Top dressing apple trees
In spring, many plants lack nitrogen and phosphorus. Dwarf apple trees are no exception. We can use mineral complex fertilizers containing the necessary substances, including potassium.
- Fertilizer dissolved in 10 liters of water according to the instructions on the package.
- In the soil we make small holes, as if pushing the layers of the earth with a shovel. In them and pour fertilizer.
- Then cover the tree circle with mulch. You can use recycled peat mixed with humus, sawdust, compost.
Feeding according to plan:
- In the spring, after the soil warms up.
- In the flowering period. We use organic fertilizers: peat, compost, chicken dung.
- During the pouring of the fruit. We take a mullein (3 kg) and warm water (30 l) for one adult apple tree.
- After harvesting. We will need nitrophoska (150 g) and warm water (30 l).
Review of common dwarf apple varieties
The main difference is the diameter of the crown no more than three meters. Довольно часто их путают с колонновидными сортами.
При покупке саженцы действительно легко перепутать. Например, Мельба, привитая на карликовый подвой, до трёх лет очень похожа на колонновидую яблоню. У взрослых колонновидных деревьев крона состоит из одного ствола, на котором растут плоды. У карликовых яблонь крона ветвистая.
To distinguish seedlings on the market or in the garden center is quite simple: at a dwarf apple tree, the trunk and roots branch out. In the columnar no branches on the trunk, and the root has the shape of a rod.
The best dwarf apple varieties
The generally accepted classification is according to the term of fruit ripening. Allocate:
- Early varieties (fruits ripen in summer). It:
- Early sweet
- Golden Delicious.
- Middle-ripe varieties (ripen early autumn):
- By late ripening (the harvest is collected before winter) include:
Dwarf varieties are divided by cold resistance, taste:
Table: Popular varieties for the Moscow region and Central Russia
- On a dwarf tree rootstock reaches a height of not more than two meters. At the age of three years is similar to the column-like trees.
- The variety is characterized by high yield. It is considered early ripe, apples ripen in the middle of summer.
- Apple tree fruits from the age of three. Fruits are small in size. Color is yellow-green, with red sides.
- It is grown everywhere, but is especially popular in Central Russia, including in the Moscow region.
- This columnar short-growing apple was bred in the USSR by the breeder M.V. Kachalkin.
- The Moscow Necklace is a cold-resistant, high-yielding variety of medium maturity.
- Fruiting begins at the age of five. Every year the level of productivity increases. The color of apples is red-orange. The flesh is pale pink. Fruits are juicy, weighing 140–170 g.
- Most of all fell in love with the gardeners of Central Russia and Siberia.
- Strongly branching tree, bred in 1925 in Ukraine.
- A variety of late ripening, cold-resistant, high-yielding.
- The mass of one fruit can reach 400 g, the flesh is white, dense, with a pleasant sweet-sour taste.
- It was originally zoned for the Black Soil Region and Central Russia. Now grown everywhere. Special popularity gained in the Urals and Siberia.
- Tree with a powerful spherical crown.
- Early frost-resistant grade. Crop harvested in the second half of July.
- Fruits are sweet, juicy, fragrant. The color is green. The tree begins to bear fruit at the age of three years. The yield of the variety is high: from one tree you can collect 50–100 kg of apples.
- The variety gained particular popularity among gardeners in Central Russia.
- Compact columnar Apple (natural dwarf).
- Medium late variety, mid season. Resistant to frost.
- Fruits of bright burgundy color reach a mass of 200 g. The flesh is juicy, of a delicate cream shade.
- It is grown in the suburbs, middle and Siberian regions.
- The tree is not more than 2 meters in height with a cauldron-shaped crown.
- Late-ripening, cold-resistant, high-yielding variety. Resistant to many diseases and pests.
- From a tree can be collected from 80 to 300 kg of apples. The weight of the fruit reaches 150 g. Fruiting begins four years after planting. Fruits are green-yellow in color, with a blush on the sides, perfectly tolerate transportation.
- Apple is common in central Russia.
The best grades for Belarus
Gardeners of Belarus prefer to choose for their plots cold-resistant and high-yielding varieties, such as:
- Kovalenkovskoe. The variety is frost-resistant, mid-season, and has a high yield. Fruits are dark green, have a red blush on the sides, weight up to 170 g. Apples tolerate transportation.
- Belarusian sweet is considered semi-dwarf variety. By eight years, the tree reaches a height of 3–3.5 m. High-yielding, frost-resistant - it easily tolerates a drop in temperature to -36 degrees. Up to 35 kg of apples can be harvested from a three year old tree. The average weight of the fruit is 160–170 g, the color is greenish-yellow.
- Darunok. This is a variety of Belarusian breeding, reaches a height of four meters. Late and frost-resistant, it easily tolerates temperature changes, spring frosts. High-yielding: more than 35 tons of apples are harvested from 1 ha. Fruits of green and wine color, with high sugar content (9%), juicy. The skin is thin, elastic. Darunok is resistant to diseases, including scab.
- Memory Syubarova. A variety of late ripening, frost-resistant, high-yielding: more than 20 tons of apples are harvested from 1 ha. Fruits are light green in color with a reddish blush. The average weight is 130–140 g. The flesh is juicy, the taste is sweet and sour. Variety resistant to scab.
Dwarf apple varieties for the Urals and Siberia
Every year the number of varieties inexorably grows, and to make a choice for your backyard is becoming increasingly difficult. In the Urals and Siberia, gardeners try to grow tall apple trees. They have a more powerful root system, they are resistant to severe frosts. But there are several varieties that have been accepted by local gardeners. These are Melba, Bogatyr, Moscow necklace, Silver hoof, Landed and Snowdrop.
- Variety Snowdrop. Trees grow to two meters, winter-hardy. Apples are intended for long-term storage. In the cellars and basements lie up to four months. Medium-sized fruits with a high sugar content (9.2%) have a yellow color with a reddish blush. Snowdrop begins to bear fruit at the age of three years. The variety requires pollinators. The best things for him are the Landing and the Carpet. A distinctive feature is the high yield: up to 80 kg of apples can be harvested from one bush. Variety zoned for the Urals and Western Siberia.
- Landed. Bred in the southern Urals. The maximum tree height is 2.5 m. Winter-hardy variety. Often exposed to scab. Landing begins to bear fruit two years after vaccination, has a high yield: up to 130 kg of apples can be harvested from one tree. Fruits are greenish-yellow, with a deep red blush. The flesh of these sweet and sour apples is juicy, with a slight greenish tint. One of the best pollinators for this variety is Kovrovoe. Variety zoned for the Urals.
- Carpet. This apple tree grows up to only two meters. Winter-hardy variety, zoned for the Urals and Siberia. Fruiting begins three years after vaccination. Productivity is high: up to 60 kg of fruit can be collected from one apple tree. Resistant to scab. The best pollinators are Snowdrop and landed.
- Silver hoof. The variety is bred by the Ural breeder L.А. Kotov, named after the fairy tale of the same name by the writer PP Bazhov. Zoned in 1988 for the Urals and Western Siberia. Currently grown in the north of our country and Kazakhstan. Trees reach a height of three to four meters. Frost-resistant, self-sterile variety, needs pollination. The mass of one fruit is usually 80–90 g. Apples of a rich cream color, with a red or orange blush on the side. The flesh is juicy, the taste is sour-sweet, cream-colored. Crop begin to collect from mid-August.
Interestingly, varieties zoned for the Urals and Siberia, such as Snowdrop and Landing, are popular in Ukraine. Gardeners value them primarily for frost resistance. After all, the temperature here can drop to -30–38 degrees.
Semi-dwarf apple varieties
In addition to dwarf trees, there are semi-dwarf apple trees. What is the difference between these varieties? Apple trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstock, below dwarfs, are resistant to various diseases. Their height reaches only two or three meters. Fruiting these trees begin in the second year after vaccination. Apples are large, juicy and sweet. The best semi-dwarf apple trees include:
- Imrus The variety is mid-season, frost-resistant, high-yielding. The fruits are large, sweet and sour. Crop harvested from mid-September. This tree is also called the “unkillable Russian apple tree” because of its high immunity to powdery mildew and scab. Zoned for the Central Black Earth and Central regions of Russia.
Imrus apples are large, yellow in color with a reddish blush
Lobo's apples are easily recognizable by the rich raspberry color with “frost” (wax coating)
Antonovka is loved in Russia and the CIS: the sweet-sour taste of these yellowish-green apples reminds of childhood, because in the past this variety was very popular in the USSR
Recently, breeders are working tirelessly to create new fruit trees. They do not need to be planted on a dwarf stock, they are natural dwarfs, more compact than their predecessors. The fruits of natural undersized apple trees are large. Creating new varieties takes time, but breeders can already please us with the following options:
- Moscow necklace,
- Autumn striped
Some of these varieties are zoned, others can be grown in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in other regions.
And only Kovalenkovskoe - on this stock develops like a dwarf. If anyone is interested, I will write my impressions about the varieties that I have already “tried.” Kovalenkovskoe. Already wrote that in my garden this tree most closely corresponds to the size of a dwarf tree. The growths are weak, due to the very high yield - more than 90% of new growths turn into fruit trees. The variety is late-summer. , with a dark red blush for 75–100% of the fruit. The apple is tasty, crunchy, absolutely sweet, juicy - you can eat right from the tree. The grades are the same as in the Eubilee.
On apple trees: Not badly recommended and to taste and frost resistance, Kovalenkovskoe, Darunok, Belarusian sweet, Memory of Syubarova, Rosavka ,. Last grade is pleasant most. There is Seraphim, this variety is considered the most delicious of the Belarusian varieties. But I'm not happy about it yet. Previously engaged in collecting varieties, gathered under 250 and maybe more varieties of apple. Now I came to the conclusion that so many varieties do not make sense to keep. Gradually removed from the garden.
I also bought "Landed" on the South Apple tree. Got settled like normal, covered the first winter well. Everything was fine. Over the summer I gave a lot of new growth and grew to about 1.5 m. I didn’t cover the next winter. Just mumbled and that's it. Gnawed hares. The main trunk died. But the side twig survived. Over the summer of 2011, it has grown well. At this time, already wrapped each twig with a special ribbon from rodents. Bent down as far as possible to the ground. She covered both spruce branches and various branches. After the first snow dung on it a lot of snow .. Closed completely. This spring opened, removed all the shelter, left only the ribbon on the twigs. I don’t know how she is.
In the spring of 2012, they planted saplings of dwarf apple trees, Landed and Wonderful, discharged from Chelyabinsk (“The Gardens of Russia”). Over the summer, the seedlings are well grown, they are also called Mazunin dwarfs.
Creating full-fledged apple dwarfs has been bothering breeders for a long time. The main goal of the experiments is still the formation of a miniature tree with large fruits and high yields. Perhaps soon the breeders will be able to bring a variety that will be ideal for most gardeners.
Benefits of Dwarf Apple Trees
Apple trees with dwarf rootstock have several advantages compared with tall varieties:
- early begin to bear fruit
- have high yields
- due to short stature, the main part of the nutrients is aimed at the formation of fruits, and not at the development of the trunk and branches,
- for harvesting are not used extras, which contributes to the preservation of excellent presentation,
- due to the superficial arrangement of the root system, dwarf varieties can be planted even in areas with close groundwater.
All these factors contribute to the growing popularity of dwarf apple varieties among Russian gardeners.
How to distinguish dwarf apple from columnar?
Very often, dwarf apple trees are confused with columnar. But these are completely different forms of fruit trees. Dwarf apple trees are stunted trees that have a spreading crown, up to 3 m in diameter.
The main characteristic of the columnar apple trees is that this clone has a crown consisting of a single stem, with rather short lateral branches. Outwardly, such an apple tree resembles a column, covered with fruits on top, like a sea buckthorn.
In order not to confuse saplings of dwarf and columnar apple when buying, you need to pay attention to the stem and root. The trunk of a dwarf apple tree has branches, which are absent in the columnar form. The root system of a dwarf apple is fibrous, and its elasticity and firmness indicate a good quality seedling. In the columnar Apple tree root has a core system.
A productive summer variety of Canadian origin. Main characteristics:
- tree height does not exceed 3 m,
- medium-sized fruits, weighing 150–250 g, rounded and elongated, bright green peel with a red blush,
- snow-white flesh, tender, juicy, with caramel flavor,
- fruit ripening occurs in July - August,
- yield is 40 kg per tree,
- fruits are perfectly preserved for 3 months,
- resistance to frost and diseases is average,
- the best pollinator for the variety is Borovinka and Suslapskoe.
Apple Tree Wonderful
Late-summer high-yielding variety, which can be grown throughout Russia. Main characteristics:
- tree height 2.8–3 m, with a small bole,
- medium-sized fruits, weighing 120–150 g, round, slightly ribbed, greenish-yellow skin with a rich dark red blush,
- the pulp is juicy, sweet-sour, has a fine-grained structure,
- fruit ripening occurs in August - September,
- productivity - about 75 kg from a tree,
- fruit preservation is good for 2 months,
- trees have high resistance to frost and scab,
- Wonderful apple is the best pollinator for other dwarf varieties. And for her, the best pollinator is Anis Sverdlovsky.
Autumn high-yielding variety. Main characteristics:
- tree height is 2–3 m,
- fruits are large, weighing 150–300 g, round, red-orange,
- the pulp is coarse-grained, tender, cream-colored, sweet-sour,
- ripening period: September - October,
- productivity - up to 120 kg from a tree,
- The fruits are perfectly stored for 6 months,
- the variety has good resistance to pests and diseases,
- the best pollinators are Welsi, Autumn striped.
Based on the recommendations of experienced gardeners, planting apple trees on a dwarf stock is best done in the fall. During the winter, the root system will get stronger, so in spring the trees will begin to actively grow and develop. You can also plant seedlings in the spring. But in this case, you need to have time to perform the planting before bud break, otherwise the trees may dry out.
As a rule, one and two year old trees are planted. Planting dwarf apple trees includes the following steps:
- Planting pits are prepared with a width and depth of 50 cm. When digging a hole, the top layer of soil is laid on the right side, and the bottom layer - on the left.
- In the pit is placed 1 bucket of humus, mineral fertilizer, nitrophoska and part of the top layer of soil. All these ingredients are carefully mixed. If the soil is clay and heavy, then add some more sand.
- The roots of seedlings are well-straightened, the tree is fixed in a hole and filled first with the top layer of soil and then the bottom.
- The soil is slightly compacted. At the same time, the seedlings deepen so that the vaccinations are 5–7 cm from the soil.
- Holes are made around the trunk, and the seedling is watered.
- The pristvolny area is mulched with soil or humus.
If there is a possibility of strong winds, then the seedling is recommended to tie up to the support.
Care for dwarf apple trees
Proper care of dwarf apple trees includes:
In summer, apple trees on a dwarf stock are watered 1 time in 7 days, at the rate of 10 liters of water for each tree. After watering the land must be loosened.
Top dressing is carried out 2 times in the summer. To do this, you can use chicken manure, diluted with water in a ratio of 1:20, or cow dung in a ratio of 1:10.
In the first year, it is imperative to carry out pruning to form the lower part of the crown. In subsequent years, only regular trimming of growths will be carried out.
How to form an apple tree?
It is recommended to form the crown 1 year after planting, in the fall or in the spring, but before the active growth of the branches. How to form an apple tree? For this, its top is cut with shears at a height of 40–60 cm from the ground and treated with a cut garden pitch.
Like any other tree, the branches of dwarf apple trees develop unevenly. And strong branches, as a rule, hinder the development of weak and fragile branches. Therefore, when forming the crown, it is necessary to ensure that strong branches are located at the bottom, and fragile at the top. This is achieved by trimming the top vigorous branches.
To increase the diameter of the crown, when pruning young branches should be directed outwards. In this case, the tree will grow compact, and its branches will not sag.
During the formation of the fruit, the growth of branches is greatly weakened, and they begin to overload. Therefore, it is necessary to cut the growth more strongly, so that the apple tree remains strong and young longer, and the fruits do not decrease in size.
If you follow all these recommendations, the tree will always have a beautiful appearance and bring a good harvest.
Planting and caring for a dwarf apple tree (in short)
- Landing: ранней весной или с середины сентября до середины октября.
- Цветение: в мае.
- Освещение: яркий свет или полутень.
- Почва: loose, moist, fertile, light, best loamy.
- Watering: young apple trees are watered three times per season at a rate of 5 buckets of water per tree, fruit-bearing trees are watered 3 to 5 times: before flowering, during it, before falling off of the ovaries and before the fruits begin to ripen. When grown in sandy soil for one tree enough 4 buckets of water in the clay will need 5-6 buckets. After the dry season in October, water recharge irrigation of apple trees is carried out in order to saturate the soil to the depth of the roots, using 10 liters of water for each m² of the garden. If groundwater is high on the site, subwinter water is not needed.
- Top dressing: regular - once every two weeks. As a fertilizer used as organic compounds (solution of mullein, chicken manure), and mineral. Top dressing can be carried out under a root and on leaves.
- Pruning: in March-April - sanitary and formative; in autumn - sanitary.
- Breeding: vertical and horizontal layering, green and lignified cuttings, grafting.
- Pests: apple-plantain aphid, apple sawfly, glass bowl, moth, moth, mole-worm, hedgehog, worm-like scythe, fruit striped moth, blue-headed scoop, currant-leaf-worm, rowan moth, peppered moth, raw and fruit, fruit moth, fruit moth, fruit moth, fruit moth, fruit moth, fruit moth, currant leaf wrapper sucker, unpaired, ringed and oak-leaved silkworms, miner moths, blood and red-pea aphids, red apple mite, brant, winter moth, green apple aphid, western unpaired bark beetle, sapwood, pear pipeker and sawfly, east moth-lingual, apple blossom weevil, fruit moth upper side, brown fruit mite, hawthorn Aporia Crataegi and hobby groups mol.
- Diseases: witch's broom (proliferation), bitter fruit rot, milky luster, mosaic, mosaic ringing, powdery mildew, flyworm, tinder, common cancer, scab, branch die, pome fruit rot, subcutaneous viral blotch, rubberiness, rust, flatness, pomes fruits, black cancer and cytosporosis.
Dwarf apple trees - description
A dwarf apple tree is not some kind of new plant. In order to obtain a dwarf apple tree, varietal cuttings are grafted onto a clonal dwarf stock. As a result, apple trees grown on such rootstocks reach a height of no more than 2.5 m. It is necessary to know that the life span of dwarf apple trees is on average shorter than that of the vigorous, but with proper care they live for 20-30 years, while the life expectancy of ordinary apple trees trees 35-40 years.
Some people confuse the columnar apple with the dwarf apple, although these are completely different forms. Crown-shaped apple trees are vigorous, medium-grown, and there are dwarf crown-shaped apple trees, but this tree shape does not have a crown, whereas dwarf apple trees have the same crown shape as regular apple trees, only of smaller sizes.
When to plant dwarf apple trees.
Planting and caring for a dwarf apple is slightly different from caring for an ordinary apple tree. It is difficult to independently inoculate and grow a dwarf apple tree, because it requires not only time and effort, but also special knowledge. It is easier to purchase a ready seedling in a nursery with a good reputation.
But if you had to buy a seedling at a fair or on the market, be careful. How to choose the desired planting material, not confusing a dwarf sapling with an ordinary wild? Between the root neck and the stem of a seedling on a dwarf stock there should be an obvious knee-shaped protrusion - the place of inoculation with a fused cut over the grafted bud. A grafted two-year-old dwarf sapling has at least four developed branches with large buds at the ends and a stem height of not more than 50 cm, while the dick will have many sharp branches without buds. The roots of a dwarf apple seedling should consist of elastic small roots, and the wild game necessarily has a taproot. Having bought a seedling, wrap its root system with a damp cloth, and on top - with polyethylene so that the roots do not suffer during transportation. Before planting a dwarf apple tree, its branches should be shortened.
Seedlings of dwarf apple trees are planted at the same time as the vigorous seedlings - in early spring or autumn, during the period of "slumber".
Planting dwarf apple in autumn.
Planting dwarf apple trees in autumn is from mid-September to mid-October, when the trees begin to sink into peace. It is necessary to grow dwarf apple trees in sunny or semi-shady areas protected from wind, where groundwater lies not less than one and a half meters. The soil on the plot must be loose, moist and necessarily fertile, since dwarf apple trees have a superficial root system, and they will not be able to get food from the depth of the ground. The best soil for dwarf apple trees is light and medium loam.
The landing pit is needed 70 depth and 60 cm in diameter. When digging a hole, discard the top soil 20 cm thick separately, then mix part of this soil with two buckets of humus or peat, add 600 g of superphosphate and 700 g of wood ash to the mixture. In the center of the pit, hammer in a stake and place around it a prepared nutritious soil mixture, and on top of it a layer of 2-3 cm thick ordinary soil from the upper layer. Then place a seedling on a mound, spread its roots and fill the pit with the remaining soil from the top layer without fertilizers. The vaccination site should be 3 cm above the surface of the area. It is very important that the roots of the seedling do not come into contact with the soil mixture containing additives, since fertilizers can cause a burn of the root system.
If you plant several trees at once, locate them from each other at a distance of 3 m. After planting, soil around the seedlings is trampled, a roller about 15 cm high is made at a distance of half a meter from the trunk and 25-30 liters of water is poured onto the resulting area. When water is absorbed, the near-stem circle to the roller is mulched with a layer of humus or peat 3 cm thick, and the seedling is tied to a peg. Mulch should not come into contact with the trunk of an apple tree.
How to plant a dwarf apple in the spring.
Planting apple trees on dwarf rootstocks in the spring is possible at the time when the earth has thawed, but the buds in the trees have not yet begun to unfold. It is better to prepare pits for planting in the fall, having filled the soil mixture containing fertilizers in them, and leaving them until spring. During the winter, the soil in the pit will settle and thicken, and the fertilizer will dissolve. In the spring, hammer a stake into the center of the pit, place around it a hill of fertile soil without fertilizers, place a seedling on the mound, straighten its roots and complete the procedure as in the autumn planting.
Care for a dwarf apple tree in the spring.
It is much easier to grow dwarf apple trees than usual ones, you just need to know some of their features. In early spring, the newly planted trees should be slightly shortened branches, for more adults to carry out formative and sanitary pruning. Prior to sap flow, prophylactic treatment of trees for diseases and pests is carried out and trapping belts for harmful insects are fixed on trunks.
Since the root system of this form of apple trees is superficial, it is impossible to allow the ground to dry up in the near-stem circles, therefore, carefully monitor its condition. After watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil in pristvolny circles to a depth of 5-7 cm. It is to ensure that moisture does not evaporate quickly from the soil, it is common for gardeners to mulch near-trunk trees.
And do not forget in April to weather the stumps and the bases of the skeletal branches with lime in good weather. In the spring dwarf apple trees are fed with nitrogen or complex fertilizers.
How to grow dwarf apple trees in summer.
To look after a dwarf apple tree in the summer means first of all to monitor the soil moisture in tree trunks. At this time of the year, the fight against insect pests, which is carried out by folk remedies or specially developed chemical preparations, also becomes relevant. Top dressing in the summer is carried out mainly in the foliar way, adding trace elements to the solution of fertilizers, in particular, iron, which is usually not enough for apple trees.
When the apples begin to fill, take care of the supports for the heavy branches.
How to care for a dwarf apple in the fall.
In autumn, most of the varieties of dwarf apple trees ripen, so the main task will be to harvest the apples. Keep tree trunks clean - regularly drop carrion and other garbage. Apple trees after harvesting are fed with mineral fertilizers and cut for sanitary purposes. The soil in pristvolny circles is cleaned of plant residues - fallen leaves and scraps of branches, and then loosened in order to break the insulation of insect pests arranged for the winter. In the middle of autumn, preventive treatment of trees from diseases and pests is carried out. Late autumn is the time to prepare dwarf apple trees for winter.
Processing dwarf apple trees.
In the spring, before the buds swell, dwarf apple trees are sprayed with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid or Nitrafen from pests and fungi that have successfully survived in the bark of trees or in the upper soil layer. Apple trees can be treated with a 7% urea solution - from pests, insects, and as a nitrogen supplement. It is very important that the treatment was carried out before the start of sap flow, otherwise opening buds can get burned.
In the autumn, after leaf fall, during the preparation of the garden for the winter, autumn preventive treatment of dwarf apple trees is carried out with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid or Nitrafen.
Watering dwarf apple trees.
The watering of apple trees is observed, adjusted for weather and age of trees. Apple trees, which have not yet entered fruiting, are watered three times a year at the rate of five buckets of water per tree, the latter being irrigated in early August. Fruiting apple trees are watered more often, 3-5 times a year - before the flowering begins, during it, before the ovaries fall (in June) and before the fruit begins to ripen. If trees grow on sandy soil, each tree will need 4 buckets of water, and if on loamy soil, then 6 buckets. If summer is dry and autumn does not rain, then podzimny wet-load irrigation of dwarf apple trees is necessary to wet the soil to the depth of the roots. This will require 10 liters of water per 1 m² of garden. Do not carry out podzimny irrigation in areas with high groundwater levels.
Top dressing of dwarf apple trees.
Since the volume of the root system of dwarf apple trees is small, and fruiting is abundant, it is necessary to regularly feed trees with fertilizers once every two weeks. In the second and third year, each apple tree is fertilized with a solution of 30-40 g of complex fertilizer in a bucket of water. At least twice a season, you can feed a dwarf apple tree with a solution of mullein (1:10) or chicken manure (1:20) at the rate of one solution bucket per tree.
In the summer, extra-root complex fertilizing of apple trees with mineral fertilizers is carried out, in which the leaves must be sprayed with a nutrient solution on both sides. This should be done in dry, calm weather early in the morning or late in the evening. Good results are obtained by foliar feeding of apple trees with urea, but you need to know that the solution should be of a consistency that does not leave burns on the leaves of the tree. Last foliar dressing is carried out no later than September.
In the fall, nitrogen supplements are not included in the feed because it stimulates the growth of new shoots and delays the preparation of plants for winter. At this time of year, apple trees need potassium and phosphorus. Here is an approximate recipe for top dressing per 1 m² of garden: 1 tablespoon of potassium and 2 tablespoons of double superphosphate are dissolved in 10 liters of water.
Wintering dwarf apple.
Since the root system of dwarf apple trees is superficial, it can freeze in frosty, snowless winters. To prevent this from happening, cover the stem of the apple tree with a thick layer of humus or compost, and lay a broom tree on top. If snow falls, spruce branches can be removed, and a snowdrift can be thrown into a tree trunk - there is no frost in the dwarf apple trees under the snow.
When to cut a dwarf apple tree.
To achieve high yields, it is necessary to properly form the crown of an apple tree. If the crown growth is allowed to drift, the yields will decrease every year, and in 3-4 years you will get only a few apples of dubious quality as a reward for negligence.
The crown of dwarf apple trees is formed in March-April, at the same time the sanitary and, if necessary, anti-aging pruning is carried out. In the autumn, after harvesting, they carry out sanitary pruning of trees.
How to prune a dwarf apple tree.
Formative pruning of dwarf apple trees is carried out according to the same rules as pruning tall apple trees, only in a shorter time. There are several types of crowns for trees on dwarf rootstocks - “slender spindle”, “flat spindle”, “free palmette”, “dwarf pyramid”. The latter type is most popular: from an apple tree form a tree up to 2.5 m high with an average length of branches about 1 m.
Pruning a dwarf apple in spring.
Before the start of sap flow, sanitary pruning of apple trees is carried out - they cut off broken, frost-bitten, diseased or improperly growing branches. Simultaneously with the sanitary exercise and formative pruning. How to prune a dwarf apple tree? The formation of a dwarf apple tree begins in the first spring after planting - the apple tree is pruned to 50 cm, making a cut on the bud opposite to the inoculation. As a result, by the end of the season, a tree should have 4-5 strong shoots, of which the uppermost (the future conductor) grows almost vertically.
The following year, the conductor is cut to 20 cm from the base of the growth on the kidney, the opposite slice, made in the past year - this way supported the maximum vertical direction of the conductor. The remaining branches (they must be at least four) are shortened to 20 cm from the base. Side shoots that are unnecessary for the formation of a skeleton of an apple tree are cut into three leaves, and second-order shoots on the first leaf from their base - this should be done from the end of July and continue pruning until the uncircumcised shoots grow to 20 cm in length.
For the third and subsequent years, pruning is continued in the same manner: the conductor is shortened by 20 cm per kidney, opposite to the last year’s slice, keeping its vertical direction. When the tree reaches the desired height, annually in spring remove the entire growth of the conductor. Remove the lateral growths of the skeletal branches when they reach 45-50 cm. Thaw out the overgrowing branches, if necessary. To preserve the horizontal direction of fruit-bearing branches, they are shortened to growth, oriented downwards. Control the growth of the upper branches in order to preserve the pyramidal shape of the apple tree.
Pruning a dwarf apple in autumn.
During harvest, some branches are cut off or damaged, so after the fall of the leaves, they sanitize apple trees, removing broken, dry, competing, improperly growing and damaged by pests or diseases of the branches and shoots. Sections thicker than 7 mm should be treated with a garden bar. Do not prune trees at temperatures below -5 ºC, as in cold weather, wood becomes brittle, and you can cause irreparable harm to an apple tree.
How to propagate dwarf apple trees.
Low-growing rootstocks multiply mainly by vegetative methods - vertical and horizontal layers, lignified, root and green cuttings, budding and intercalary insertion.
The problem of growing dwarf apple trees is that their seedlings are rare, and they are expensive. How to grow a dwarf stock yourself? There are several answers to this question.
Reproduction of dwarf apple trees with vertical layers.
This procedure is best carried out with a two-year dwarf sapling. It is planted into the ground, part of the stem is 10-15 cm deep into the ground. In spring, the ground part is cut at a height of 1.5-2 cm from the surface of the plot, leaving 2-3 buds on the stump. When the shoots growing from these buds reach a length of 12–15 cm, the stump after rain or watering is crushed with sawdust, peat, or fertile soil to a height of 6–10 cm. Do not forget to straighten the shoots before the pile. When the shoots grow to 20-25 cm, a second hilling is carried out with a wide and gentle hillock simultaneously with the nitrogen dressing.
The roots on the vertical layers will begin to appear in 35-40 days. At this time, the soil moisture plays a major role, which is maintained at 75-80%. And, of course, do not forget to loosen the soil and remove weeds. In autumn, the soil is carefully otbrebayut, and shoots with roots (cuttings) are cut with shears, leaving a growth of 1-2 cm on the stump. Layers are planted in the ground, and the uterine bush is covered with soil - it can serve as a source of dwarf rootstocks for 10 years, producing 5-10 layers each year, onto which varietal cuttings can be grafted.
The reproduction of dwarf apple horizontal layering.
Strong, low-growing shoots of the dwarf rootstock are laid in the grooves 3-5 cm deep, fixed with metal pins and covered with a layer of soil. Весной земляное покрытие осторожно убирают, а появляющиеся из горизонтального отводка вертикальные побеги окучивают на высоте 12-15 см, а потом на высоте 20-25 см. Чтобы улучшить корнеобразование у растущих побегов, отводки у основания перетягивают проволокой. Осенью отводки отделяют от материнского растения, выкапывают, разделяют на части и высаживают. Качество горизонтальных отводков обычно выше, чем вертикальных.
Размножение карликовых яблонь при помощи интеркалярной вставки.
A serious disadvantage of dwarf rootstocks is their superficial root system, which may die in a frosty and snowless winter. To get rid of this problem, use the combined method of creating a dwarf apple with an intercalary insert - an intermediate link between the rootstock of a tall apple and a varietal handle, which is a cutting of a dwarf tree. The result is a three-story construction: a powerful root system of a tall apple tree, onto which a stem of a dwarf apple tree is grafted, to which, in turn, a stem of a cultivar is grafted. Trees with intercalary inserts are planted in the ground in two ways:
- - in the first case, the insert remains above the ground,
- - in the second variant, an apple-tree is planted with a dwarf insert deepening, which will eventually give additional roots.
Reproduction of dwarf apple green cuttings.
For this breeding method, you will need to create a fog in the greenhouse. Green cuttings with three leaves are cut from young shoots in mid-June. The lower cut is carried out under the kidney, and the top one is above the third leaf. The bottom sheet is removed, then the cuttings are bound and lowered for 18–20 hours in a root-forming solution, then washed in pure water and planted in a greenhouse according to the 4 × 6 cm scheme in a loose substrate consisting of peat and sand. For cuttings, a special installation creates a foggy environment so that the leaves constantly have moisture. Rooted cuttings are planted in the open ground in the summer and grown for a year, after which they are used as a dwarf stock for a varietal cutting.
Reproduction of dwarf apple lignified cuttings.
Lignified cuttings harvested in the fall when digging out the layers. The cutting with the etiolated lower part should be no shorter than 20-30 cm. Before planting, the cuttings are stored in the basement, in wet sand or peat at a temperature of 2 to 5 ºC. In early spring, woody cuttings are planted at a distance of 10 cm from each other in an unheated greenhouse, leaving only 2-3 buds above the surface. For successful rooting, the humidity in the greenhouse must be at least 75-80%.
Reproduction of dwarf apple root cuttings.
To obtain clonal rootstocks in this way, you need to purchase several root cuttings with a diameter of 6-10 mm and a length of 8-12 cm in the nursery or from the neighbors. In winter, they are stored in sand or peat at a temperature of 2 to 5 ºC. Two to three weeks before rooting starts, they are transferred to a room with a temperature of 15-20 ºC. In the spring, root cuttings are buried in the ground at a distance of 8-10 cm in a row, placing them vertically in the ground so that the soil layer above the upper cut of the cuttings is not thinner than 2 cm. Of the shoots that have emerged from each cutting, only the most branched are left. For this method of reproduction, it is very important to keep the soil in a slightly wet state all the time.
Propagation of dwarf apple with budding.
This method has been described by us several times, including in an article devoted to growing apple trees: in mid-July, a visor with a small varietal graft, leaf petioles and a thin layer of wood is inserted into a T-shaped bark section on a dwarf rootstock just above the knee and wrapped around the inoculation site a peeing tape or other elastic material, leaving the peephole with a petiole open. The accretion of the shield with the stock occurs within 2-3 weeks.
A more reliable option is to inoculate two eyes of the same variety from opposite sides of the stock. As soon as you are convinced that the shield has taken root, remove the harness, and next spring cut the stock on the grafted bud and spud the base of the shoot growing from the graft peep hole. In the spring of next year, it will be possible to start forming the crown of the apple tree.
Diseases of dwarf apple trees
Dwarf apple trees suffer from the same diseases as tall trees of this species that affect diseases such as witch’s meter (proliferation), bitter fruit rot, milky splendor, mosaic, mosaic ringing, powdery mildew, mossyman, tinder, ordinary cancer, scab, dying off of branches, pome fruit rot, subcutaneous viral blotch, rubberiness, rust, flatness of branches, fruit vitreousness, black cancer and cytosporosis.
In the fight against fungal diseases, fungicides such as Bordeaux mixture, copper and iron sulphate, colloidal sulfur, Fundazol, Quadris, Ridomil, Scor, Topaz, Horus and others are successfully used. There are no drugs from viral and mycoplasmal diseases, therefore the affected areas are cut out to healthy tissue and treated with blue vitriol. If you are lucky, the tree will recover and restore development, and if not, you will have to dig and burn the plant. The best means of protecting apple trees from diseases are:
- - compliance with the type agrotechnics,
- - spring and autumn preventive treatment of trees,
- - timely and proper care of the garden,
- - respect for the purity of the wheel circle,
- - timely and sufficient treatment of apple trees from fungal diseases,
- - removal of plant residues and digging (loosening) of the soil in the tree pristvolnom circle.
Pests of dwarf apple trees
Among insects, apple-plantain aphid, apple sawfly, glass bowl, moth, mole, mothworm, sucker, wormfish, fruit striped moth, blue-headed scoop, currant leafworm, rowan moth, peacock drawing pattern, and a raft pattern, a raster pattern, a moth, a blue-headed scoop, a currant leafworm, a rowan moth, a drawing pattern, and a raster pattern are a danger. , fruit moth, pear copperfish, unpaired, ringed and oak-leaved silkworms, mining moths, blood and red-haly aphid, red apple mite, brant, winter moth, green apple aphid, western bark beetle, zab olonnik, pear tubovert and sawfly, oriental moth, apple blossom beetle, upper-sided fruit moth, brown fruit mite, haws, and hawthorn circle moth.
Such a number of pests that affect dwarf apple trees is due to the fact that, as a rule, many of them parasitize not only on apple trees, but also on such fruit trees as pear, plum, bird cherry, mountain ash, cherry, cherry, cherry plum, apricot, peach and quince, flying and crawling on apple trees from neighboring trees. Detailed information on how to deal with pests and diseases of dwarf apple trees, you can get from the article already posted on the site called “Apple trees - diseases and pests. What to process. But we must remind you once again that the best protection of the garden from diseases and harmful insects is prevention.
Varieties of dwarf apple trees
The varieties of dwarf apple trees, as well as the varieties of strong-growing apple trees, are divided into early (summer), mid-ripening (autumn) and late (winter) varieties by maturity. It makes no sense to describe in this article seasonal varieties of dwarf apple trees, since they are already described in the article on the cultivation of tall apple trees.
The difference between tall and dwarf trees, as we have already written, is exclusively in that undersized forms grow on dwarf rootstocks with a shallow root system, whereas in tall and middle-growth trees the root system is rooted in the depth of the ground. But it is precisely this difference that requires clarifying for readers the question of which apple varieties on dwarf rootstocks are suitable for areas with a cool and cold climate.
Dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region.
The best varieties of dwarf apple trees for the Moscow region:
- – Melba - a high-yielding summer variety, rounded elongated yellow-green with a red bar-shaped blush whose fruits with a weight of 150 to 250 g ripen at the end of July. The flesh of apples of this variety is tender, juicy, sweet-sour, with caramel flavor,
- – Candy - this summer-flavored and unpretentious summer variety was bred by Michurin himself, and he still surpasses all other summer varieties in taste. Apples ripen with yellow skin and a red-brown blush, weighing an average of about 120 g, by the beginning or middle of August. The flesh of the fruit is sweet, dense and juicy,
- – Zhigulevskoe - a fruitful autumn variety, viable and resistant to diseases and pests, with very large apples in red-orange striped peel, ripening by the end of September and stored for six months. The flesh is creamy, tender, coarse-grained, moderately acidic. The trees of this variety are afraid of severe frosts,
- – Autumn striped - mid-season variety with rounded bright yellow fruits weighing up to 200 g with a rich sweet-sour taste, which are beautifully stored at 6 ºC,
- – Hrusovka Moscow region - has long been a popular high-yielding late cultivar resistant to scab, with small rounded elongated yellow apples with a red side,
- – Bogatyr - winter-hardy, winter-grade, practically not affected by diseases and pests, with a strongly branching crown and slightly elongated apples of red-yellow color and sourish taste, reminiscent of Antonovka.
In addition to those described, varieties of Moscow Necklace, Snowdrop, Carpet, Ground, Northern Sinap, Antonovka, Legend, Moscow Red, Low-growing and others grow well in conditions of the Moscow Region.
Dwarf apple trees for the Urals.
Varieties of dwarf apple trees for the Urals should have even greater winter hardiness than apples for the Moscow region. Treat such frost-resistant grades:
- – Wonderful - Late-summer winter-hardy variety of high yield with flat-rounded, slightly ribbed yellow-green apples weighing up to 140 g with a rich dark red blush and pulp of dessert flavor,
- – apple tree dwarf bratchud - The name of the variety is deciphered as “Brother of the Wonder”. It is a highly productive and very winter-hardy late variety with medium-sized oblong-rounded ribbed greenish-yellow fruits weighing up to 120 g, with a characteristic side seam and weakly coarse-grained flesh of excellent sweet-sour taste,
- – Landed - mid-season, highly productive and scab-resistant winter-hardy variety that can withstand temperatures down to -40 ºC. Greens with bright red blush fruits weighing up to 150 g have a flat-rounded shape and a great sweet-sour taste,
- – Sokolovskoe - fruitful and winter-hardy winter variety, resistant to scab, with greenish-yellow with a shiny skin and red blush fruits weighing up to 200 g and creamy fine-grained, juicy and dense flesh of a sour-sweet taste,
- – Snowdrop winter-hardy and productive winter variety with light yellow, slightly ribbed fruits with a blurry reddish side, weighing up to 160 g, although there are also three-gram apples.
In addition to those described, such varieties as Sun, Early Sweet, Low-growing, Carpet, Ural Bulk, Krasa Sverdlovsk, Xenia, Bashkir handsome, Shreifing, Yantar and others grow well in the Ural climate.
Dwarf apple for Siberia.
There are not so many winter-hardy varieties of dwarf apple trees that can tolerate frost below 40 ºC, but there is still a choice. The most promising for cultivation in the harsh conditions of Siberia are considered varieties:
- – Ermakovsky mountain - summer crop, bred by crossing Felix Altai and Altai dove varieties and able to withstand temperatures down to -51 ºC. The fruits of the apple trees of this variety are small, weighing up to 80 g, round, smooth, light yellow, almost completely covered with a red dash. The pulp is fragrant, fine-grained, white, juicy, sweet-sour,
- – Antonovka dessert - mid-season winter-hardy variety, resistant to scab, obtained by crossing Pepin saffron and Antonovka ordinary. Fruits of this variety, weighing from 150 to 200 g, have a rounded shape, a greenish-cream color with a slight red speckled blush and medium-grained, juicy, fragrant pulp of excellent sour-sweet taste,
- – Arkadik - summer productive variety, ripening already in mid-August, with red-striped elongated fruits weighing up to 160 g with a sweet, juicy white flesh of a pleasant dessert taste,
- – Winter Lungwort - winter hybrid variety, resistant to scab, with round-conical yellow-green fruits weighing up to 120 g with a fuzzy red blush and white pulp of medium juicy fresh-sweet taste. Fruits can be stored until March,
- – Uslada - Early autumn variety with rounded conical yellow-green fruits with a red-crimson blush, which occupies most of the apple. Fruit weight about 150 g, the flesh is fine-grained, white with pinkish streaks, juicy, sour-sweet, with a slight raspberry flavor,
- – Gift to Count - a highly productive winter variety, resistant to fungi, with round-conical slightly ribbed fruits of yellow color with a purple-red blush covering most of the apple. The flesh of the fruit is light yellow, sweet-sour taste, medium juicy, with a faint aroma.
The best varieties of dwarf apple trees.
According to the ratio of taste, unpretentiousness in care, resistance to diseases and pests, frost resistance, drought resistance and other less important characteristics, Bratchud, Carpet, Low-growing, Snowdrop, Dropped, Early Sweet, Sunny, Sokolovskoe and Wonderful are considered the best varieties of dwarf apple trees.