Fruit trees

Detailed description of the Chocolate Chocolate variety

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Breeders offer a variety of varieties of cherry popular in Russia. Among noteworthy are Chocolate Chocolate cherries, a description of the variety, its strengths and peculiarities will help the gardener to get an idea of ​​the crop and to make the right choice of the plant for growing in the garden.

The variety of domestic breeding was obtained by experts of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Cherry-based Fruit Plant Breeding Consumer Goods Black and Lyubskaya. When creating the Shokoladnitsa cherry depicted in the photo, the authors' team of scientists saw the goal of obtaining a productive frost-resistant variety with compact trees of medium and small sizes. At the same time, the fruits ripening on them should be attractive and have a wonderful dessert taste.

The task Orel breeders AF Kolesnikova, M.V. Mikheeva and T.A. Trofimov was fulfilled, and in 1996 a new variety was successfully entered into the State Register, and also recommended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia.

External signs and features varieties of chocolate Chocolate

Mature trees of the Chocolate Chocolate variety have a height of not more than 2.5 meters. The crown, resembling a pyramid turned upside down, has an average thickness and size. Thanks to these characteristics, even the branches, which are leaning under a bountiful harvest, do not descend to the level of the soil, that:

  • reduces the risk of spreading fungal and bacterial diseases,
  • reduces the availability of fruits and leaves for cherry pests,
  • facilitates harvesting ripe berries.

The trunk and skeletal branches of the tree are covered with brown, sometimes grayish bark. Young, not yet lignified shoots have a greenish tint. Leaves appear from cone-shaped, tightly pressed to the branches of the buds up to 4 mm long. The plate plate of the Chocolate Chocolate variety has a shape close to an oval, pointed at the base and at the end. The edges are notched. The leaves are clearly visible central vein, turning into a strong stalk 1.5–2 cm long with a reddish color visible at the base. The bottom of the sheet is lighter than its front surface.

According to the description of the variety Chocolate Shokoladnitsa, the trees bloom together from May 15 to 18. Flower buds are larger than normal. In one inflorescence, as a rule, there are three flowers on elongated reddish-green pedicels up to 35–40 mm long. The diameter of the corolla is 15-18 mm. White petals, freely located around the future ovary.

Flowers are readily visited by insect pollinators.

Gardeners wishing to achieve high yields, it should be noted that the Cherry Chocolate variety belongs to self-pollinating, that is, the ovary is formed even when there is only one fruit tree of this variety on the plot.

This is a significant advantage, but experienced gardeners prefer to hedge themselves and do not limit their choices only to Chocolate. As an additional pollinator for a plant, cherries of Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Studencheskaya, Turgenevskaya varieties are planted nearby. These varieties themselves are worthy of the attention of the owners of personal plots, and will provide a bountiful harvest on Chocolate.

Under favorable weather conditions, the harvest in the middle lane begins in the second week of July. Four-year-old trees enter fruiting season, the age limit for steadily bearing plants is 15–20 years.

The mature cherries of the Chocolate Chocolate variety, as in the photo, have a harmonious almost rounded shape and a characteristic maroon, almost black color. In the middle berry, the height is 16.5–17 mm, the width reaches 19 mm, and the thickness is 17 mm. Mass ranges from 3.5 to 4 grams. The pulp is dense, dark red, juicy. The share of a pulp that is slightly lagging behind, the round bone of a yellowish color accounts for only 8-10% of the weight of the fetus.

When describing cherries of Chocolate, it is indicated that mature fruits accumulate up to 12.4% sugar and contain only 1.6% acids. This provides the berries with a good, closer to sweet taste, rated by professional tasters by 3.8–4 points. In the conditions of industrial gardening, cherries of the Chocolate Chocolate variety per hectare yield 77–97 centners of berries.

A gardener can get about 15 kg of vitamin products from a single tree with proper care and a properly chosen landing site.

Planting and caring for Chocolate Chocolate

Cherries and other stone fruit cultures do not favor sour, excessively dense, soil moisture accumulating much. The variety of Chocolate Chocolate, according to the description and already gained experience of cultivation, is no exception. Therefore, for landings choose elevated areas:

  • with light aerated soil, in which mineral and organic fertilizers are applied before planting the crops, and when necessary, they are deoxidized,
  • with protection from the cold wind, but completely open to the sun,
  • with groundwater, located no closer than one and a half meters from the surface.

To facilitate acclimatization and care for Chocolate Chocolate cherries, planting is carried out in April, before budding, or in September, when it is still warm and the tree has time to get used to a new habitat. Suitable for planting are one-year-old saplings from 1 to 1.5 meters in height, with developed roots up to 20–30 cm long and lignified stem with a thickness of at least 10–15 mm.

Landing is carried out as standard. For young trees, pits are prepared with a diameter and depth of about 70 cm. The soil is mixed with potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. If organic is used, it is better to take well-rotted fertilizers that cannot burn the delicate root system of cherries.

When diving into a hole, it is important not to bury the root neck. For each seedling provide reliable support. After backfilling, the soil is compacted, watered and sprinkled with organic mulch.

In order to avoid overgrowth and thickening of the crown of Chocolate Chocolate, as in the photo, they must be cut. It is more convenient to do this in spring, before the first leaves appear. Pruning should be old, weak, with signs of disease and pest damage shoots.

Particular attention is paid to the symptoms of infection with moniliosis and coccomycosis, to which this variety of cherry has no immunity.

With the same purpose pruning combined with the treatment of planting systemic fungicides or Bordeaux liquid. Repeated spraying chemicals perform in the second half of flowering.

In the care of Chocolate Chocolate cherries include watering trees and feeding them. Although plants are classified as drought tolerant, during the flowering and ripening of berries, moisture for cherries is essential. When watering, one tree must have at least 3-5 buckets of settled warm water.

Since autumn, potash and phosphate additives are added under the crowns of fruit trees, in the spring cherries need “food” for rapid active growth, so they are fed with nitrogen-containing compounds. If the planting and care of the Chocolate Chocolate cherries are carried out correctly, already the first year of life the plants give a stable growth, and in the fourth year they start to bear fruit.

Description of the variety Chocolate Shokoladnitsa

One of the most popular new varieties - Chocolate Chocolate, so named for the bright and rich color of berries. The work of breeders was crowned with success, this young variety of cherry is becoming more and more popular, the tree grows quickly, low, which pleasantly distinguishes it from similar varieties, it hurts a little. So Chocolate can be considered a promising cherry variety for the Central region of Russia.

Cherry Variety Chocolate

Breeders from Orel, who worked at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops, set themselves the task of creating a new species that would have the most important requirements of gardeners:

  • Good frost resistance
  • Low growth tree

It is no secret that these two indicators can be considered the most important for fruit crops. Even with a very large crop on the tree it is important to collect and preserve it, but how to do it, if you have to build ladders and accessories during the ripening of fruits. For the Central region of Russia, winters are not too harsh, but spring frosts often harm fruit trees - not only part of the crop is lost, but the appearance of the grown tree is spoiled with love.

therefore The resulting chocolate Shokoladnitsa almost completely meets the requirements of gardeners - not particularly thermophilic, a little sick. Based on two popular and beloved varieties of gardeners - Lyubskaya and Black cherries, the new hybrid took all the best from its original sources.

Fruit characteristics

The tree grows up to only two and a half meters in heightits crown resembles a pyramid, turned upside down. The leaves are beautiful with a rich dark green color, pointed, not shiny. Each inflorescence consists of three flowers of white shade.

Inflorescence Chocolate consists of 3 flowers

A decent lifespan - with good care, feeding and cutting old branches a tree can live for about twenty years. The fruits are round, on well-groomed trees can reach 20 mm in diameter and weigh up to 3.5 g each. The flesh is juicy, tender, taste sweet and sour.

The tree does not require special care for itself, Chokoladnitsa is unpretentious and gives a bountiful harvest ripening earlier than on other varieties of cherries.

Description and general characteristics of the variety

Cherry "Chocolate" - a young variety of domestic breeding, which became popular among gardeners only in the 90s of the last century.

"Chocolate" is the two most popular varieties of cherries (cherry "Favorite" and cherry "Black), from which inherited the best qualities, including high yields, good frost resistance and excellent immunity to the most dangerous diseases.

Currently, experienced gardeners love this variety for its taste, which allows you to make delicious jam, fruit liqueurs and compotes.

Cherry "Chocolate" has a well-developed root system, which provides a small plant (the average height of an adult tree is 2.5 meters) with all the necessary nutrients.

This variety blooms in the second half of May, and bears fruit in July (these terms are quite early, therefore many gardeners choose “Chocolate Girl” because of its early fruiting).

The berries of the cherry are large, rounded, dark brown in color, their weight is usually no more than 4 grams, but the tree is completely “strewn” with them, so every year you can harvest a bountiful harvest from a single cherry.

"Chocolate Girl" is a universal variety of cherry, which has a good commercial and transportable appearance, therefore it is widely grown for the purpose of sale.

Nutrients in the composition of berries "Chocolate"

Cherry "Chocolate" - an inexhaustible source of beneficial nutrients that support human health and immunity. Many gardeners plant this variety on their plots because of the large number of necessary components. Among the most important elements, many scientists who have studied this variety, consider:

  • vitamin P,
  • vitamin C,
  • vitamin C,
  • catechins,
  • anthocyanins.

Advantages and disadvantages of one of the most popular varieties of cherries

Cherry "Chocolate" - a tree that has long won the hearts of many experienced gardeners and farmers, who can easily list all its advantages and disadvantages.

The main advantages of the variety are:

  • good frost resistance
  • excellent immunity
  • high yields,
  • pleasant sweet-sour taste
  • sweet aroma
  • compact crown,
  • unpretentious care.

However, the variety has certain drawbacks, among which the possibility of contracting serious diseases and exactingness in the issue of neighborhood with certain cultures.

Features proper landing

Proper planting is an important process that requires attention from any gardener and gardener. To plant any culture, you need to know all the rules of planting.

Cherry "Chocolate" is no exception, therefore, requires its owner to give full returns. In order to do everything correctly, it is important to remember the following tree requirements:

  • the best time for planting cherry seedlings is spring, since it is during this period that the soil is most rich in various nutrients and less exposed to frost than autumn soil,
  • it is necessary to choose a well-lit and windless place so that the tree can easily grow and develop,
  • it is important to choose a level or even on a certain elevation site, since in the lowland there is a high probability that the plant will become infected with fungal diseases,
  • the soil for planting cherries must be chosen with a low acidity index so that the roots can firmly fix, if you have too acidic soil, then this indicator can be reduced thanks to various fertilizers,
  • seedlings should be at a great distance from each other (usually this distance is about 3 meters),
  • pits for planting seedlings are dug deep enough, and also prepare a mixture of various fertilizers with the soil in advance,
  • seedlings must also be prepared by checking them for various injuries or diseases,
  • It is necessary to tie a peg to each seedling, which must be at least one meter high so that the plant does not die before the first fruiting.

Care and cultivation

The care and cultivation of any plant robs the gardener of a lot of effort, time and energy. Cherry "Chocolate" - a small plant that requires careful maintenance.

Cherry "Chocolate" - a medium-sized tree that grows quickly enough. In order to ensure proper wisteria care, a number of the following basic requirements must be met:

  • Pruning (Cherry shrubs must be pruned annually so that it does not grow into grass. Pruning cherries can be sanitary, regulating and supporting. Sanitary pruning is done as needed, such pruning removes excess crown details. Regulatory pruning is done annually to protect the cherries from fungal diseases. Supportive pruning is done in order to ensure the annual fruiting of “Chocolate Girls”.)
  • Watering (Cherry is a tree that does not tolerate drought and an excess of moisture, so it needs to be watered regularly, but moderately. If your region receives adequate rainfall, then for the entire time from the beginning of flowering to the start of frost the cherry tree needs to be watered only 4 times It is important to remember that during the ripening of the fruit the tree should not be watered in any way, since it is possible to destroy the entire crop.)
  • Harvesting and storage of crops (Harvesting is usually done in mid-July. Berries can be stored in dried form, in the form of jam, pouring, jam and many other products that are prepared manually at home. Berries should not hang on the tree for a long time, since they are very tasty and juicy, therefore it dries quickly.),

Necessary fertilizers, dangerous diseases and pests

Cherry "Chocolate" even though it has good immunity, but requires constant fertilizing for full growth and development. Before planting, for example, a mixture is prepared in which there must be a large amount of organic fertilizers (compost, humus, peat, manure, and many others).

During diseases, the plant requires a large amount of mineral fertilizers, including copper, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and nitrogen. In everyday life during the growth and development of the plant, it is necessary to add drainage (a mixture of broken bricks, rubble, sawdust) and synthetic fertilizers to the soil.

As for diseases, everything is very simple here, since the 2 main diseases of the Cherry Chocolate (coccomycosis and moniliosis) are treated with solutions of sodium and copper. Coccicomycosis - red-brown spots on the leaves, which are bad for the development of the tree. And moniliosis is a fungal disease that signals a lack of mineral fertilizers in the soil.

The main pest of cherries is aphid, which experienced gardeners and gardeners struggle with by spraying trees with various mineral solutions.

Reviews experienced gardeners

Reviews - useful information that can be easily found on the Internet. Reviews are written on any issue by experienced people who have already tried something. The forums experienced gardeners and gardeners, you can find a lot of reviews about any culture and on their basis to decide on planting this plant.

Cherry "Chocolate" is very popular among gardeners and gardeners, so finding reviews about this plant turned out to be quite easy. “Chocolate Girl” has a lot of advantages due to which she fell in love with society. Some gardeners write about its good frost resistance and excellent immunity.

Some note the high yields and taste qualities of the Chocolate Chocolate berries. And some even note the short stature of this tree, due to which the tree does not require careful care.

However, this representative has its drawbacks, which are not immediately apparent even to experienced gardeners. На форумах я узнала о том, что растение хоть и обладает хорошим иммунитетом, все же часто подвергается заражению самыми опасными заболеваниями (коккомикоз, монилиоз).

К тому же, опытные дачники знают, что «Шоколаднице» необходимы дополнительные опылители, которые обращают внимание только на определенные культуры, покупка которых может обойтись достаточно дорого любому садоводу.

История создания сорта

Учёные Всероссийского НИИ селекции плодовых культур (ВНИИСПК) А. Ф. Колесникова, М. В. Михеева и Т. А. Trofimov made the crossing of varieties of cherries: the late mutant Consumer goods, black and Lyubskaya. As a result, a new variety appeared, which its creators called Chocolate. The color and quality of the berries were transferred to him from the first parent, and from the second parent - winter hardiness, short stature and partial self-fertility. In 1996, Chocolate was registered in the register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation in the Central region. Gardeners of middle latitudes show great interest in him.

Description and characteristics of Chocolate Chocolate

The tree is not high (2–2.5 m), which is an advantage of the variety, since short stature has always been valued by gardeners. In this case, easier to care for plants and harvest. The crown is not very thick, compact, elevated, inverse pyramidal shape. Shoots of medium thickness, straight, per season can grow up to 70 cm.

The low tree (2–2.5 m) of Cherry Chocolate has a reverse pyramidal crown shape of medium thickness.

Fruit ripening occurs in mid-July, which characterizes the variety as mid-season. Flowering occurs in the second decade of May. Inflorescences consist of three large flowers. According to the State Register, the variety is partially self-fertile. The description of VNIISPK contains information about the complete self-fertility of the Chocolate Girl. Scientists All-Union Research Institute of Plant. N. I. Vavilova also consider Shokoladnitsa to be stably self-fertile.

The inflorescence of Chocolate Cherry Chocolate consists of three large flowers with loose petals.

Fruits of flat-rounded shape with an average funnel and a weakly depressed tip, large (height 1.7 cm, width 1.9 cm), their weight is 3–3.5 grams. The color is almost black with a mirror shine. The name Chocolate is due to the color of the fruit. Small bones are well separated from the pulp, the fruits are easily removed from the stem.

Fruits of Chocolate Chocolate large, almost black color with a mirror shine

The flesh is dark red, has a dense structure, very juicy. The taste is sweet and sour, according to some reviews with a slight bitterness, like a sweet cherry. Sugar content - 12.4%, acids - 1.6%. Despite the slightly sour taste, for sweetness, Chocolate is not inferior to certain varieties of sweet cherries. The tasting assessment according to the State Register is 4.6 points, in the description of the VNIISP it is indicated 3.8–4.0 points. The direction of use is universal, the fruits are consumed fresh, and they can be frozen and dried. After processing, products of excellent quality are obtained: jam, compotes, liqueurs, beverages.

Chocolate Fruits are good not only fresh, they make excellent products after processing

Variety begins to bear fruit in the 4-5 year. 11-12 kg of fruits can be obtained from one tree. The average annual yield on an industrial scale is 78 c / ha, the maximum - 97 c / ha, which is not bad, but not the best indicator for this crop. For example, the maximum yield of cherries Turgenevka reaches 200 kg / ha.

Winter hardiness of wood and buds is high, which is a big plus for the growing region of the variety. And also the trees are hardy to drought. The variety is affected by coccomycosis and moniliasis, which is a significant disadvantage.

The main advantages of the Chocolate Chocolate variety are endurance to low temperatures, drought resistance, relative short stature and excellent taste qualities of products.

Do Chocolate Shoppers Need Pollinators?

There are some contradictions not only in the information of official sources, but also in the reviews of the cultivators of this variety of gardeners regarding the degree of self-fertility of the Chocolate Girl. In discussions on the forums, most users note a high degree of self-pollination, however, there are some reviews from the fact that Chocolatnits without a pollinator does not bear fruit at all.

Scientists engaged in the study of fruit crops for the ability to self-pollination, came to the conclusion that this property can be influenced by various factors and, depending on them, the degree of fertility can manifest itself in different ways.

Accumulated by researchers information indicates inconsistency indicators of self-fertility varieties in different years and different climatic conditions. The same variety can exhibit stable self-fertility in some conditions, while in others it can be partially self-fertile.

S. Orlova, Candidate of Biological Sciences, A. Yushev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry named after N.I. Vavilova, St. Petersburg

Garden and Garden № 3, 2009

The presence of pollinating trees increases the yield not only of self-fruitful and partially self-bearing varieties, but also stably self-bearing. Therefore, planting next to the Chocolate variety of cherry varieties that bloom in the same time frame will be an additional factor contributing to the formation of a larger number of ovaries. For cross-pollination, Chocolatnitsa (and not only for her) is recommended to plant Vladimirskaya cherry next to them, which is considered an excellent pollinator. And also the productivity of a tree will increase, if the following varieties grow close: Lyubskaya, Bottle, Student's, Turgenevka.

The chocolate has a rather high degree of self-fertility, but the presence of pollinating trees next to it will increase the number of ovaries.

Features of growing varieties

Agrotechnical methods for growing chocolate in general, apply the standard. There are some nuances associated with the characteristics of the variety, if you take them into account, the tree will not remain in debt and will thank for the increased harvest.

It is better to plant Chokoladnitsa in the spring, as in the region where it is zoned, there is a risk of freezing that did not have time to settle down during the autumn planting of a seedling. To place the tree, choose either a flat area, or with a small elevation or slope, open, well lit and ventilated. Lowlands, where moisture accumulates, are categorically inappropriate for Chokoladnitsa due to her penchant for fungal diseases. And also cherry feels bad on steep slopes, where snow practically does not linger.

The most suitable would be well-permeable loamy or sandy soil, with acidity close to neutral. Groundwater should be at a depth of not less than 1.5 m. Trees are planted at a distance of 2.5 m with a spacing of 3.5 m.

The planting scheme for Chocolate Girl (2.5x3.5) must be observed so that there is no excessive thickening.

Planting pits are prepared in advance, their size is 60x60x60, on poor soils it can be increased to 80x80x80 in order to fit more fertile mixture. The top layer of the earth is mixed with humus or compost, and also mineral fertilizers are added. Further, the planting process is standard, as for any other cherry.

Crown formation and other types of trimming

Chokoladnitsa tree is best formed in a bushy form, like other low-growing cherries. In this case, they leave a stem 30–40 cm high and choose 5–6 strongest skeletal branches, growing in different directions and at least 12–13 cm from each other. The rest are cut, leaving no stumps. From the second year, the focus is on thinning. As a rule, the shoots growing on the skeletal branches are left and the branches directed towards the crown, as well as weak and intertwining, are removed. In 2-3 years of formation, up to 10–12 skeletal branches can be left.

To form the crown of Chocolate is better for bushy type

When pruning cherries thinning is used more often, less often - shortening shoots, it is usually carried out on lateral branches. In addition to crown shaping, the following types of trimming are also carried out:

  • Sanitary. Remove dry, diseased and damaged branches in late autumn and early spring (if necessary).
  • Regulatory. Such pruningis held annually, it consists in thinning the crown and is mandatory for susceptible to fungal diseases Chocolatemaid.
  • Supportive. It is also important for Chocolatnitsa, since the yield of the variety is not very high at the genetic level and must be stimulated. The pruning of fruiting begins to be carried out with a decrease in annual growth of up to 15–20 cm and exposure of the shoots. In this case, the biennial branches are shortened over the nearest side branches.

Watering and feeding

Drought-resistant Shokoladnitsa suffers a lack of moisture much better than its excess, so watering trees is quite rare, but abundant. If precipitation falls within the normal range, it is enough to water the plants 4 times: after flowering, in the second half of June, 2 weeks before harvest and a month before the start of frost. During ripening can not be watered, because with excess moisture fruits become watery. Before the start of fruiting, 30–40 l of water is used per tree, and then its amount is doubled. In order not to expose the root system, water is poured not under the root, but into the ring grooves.

Shokoladnitsa does not like excess moisture, it is watered infrequently, but plentifully, and it is not recommended to pour water under the root.

Feed Chocolate Chocolate in the standard way, without any features. In the spring, before fertilization, nitrogen fertilizers or liquid organics (infused with water, infusion of bird droppings or cow manure) are applied. After flowering plants need phosphorus and potassium. In early June, you can feed urea once more, after which nitrogen fertilizers are no longer applied. And then spend 3-4 supplements superphosphate and potassium chloride (can be replaced with wood ash) with an interval of 3 weeks. In mid-September, organics are introduced in combination with phosphate and potash fertilizers.

In the description of VNIISPK, Chocolatnits susceptibility to coccomycosis and moniliosis is noted, which is also confirmed by quite numerous reviews of gardeners - such characteristics to some extent reduce the value of this variety. Recently, in central Russia, and in other regions, coccomycosis and monilioz cherries have become a real disaster for gardeners. Fungal diseases are especially evident under favorable conditions: cool weather combined with heavy rainfall. Coccomycosis and monilioz are extremely contagious, their spores are easily carried by the wind.

The threat of these diseases should not be underestimated, since their consequences consist not only in loss of harvest, but also in reducing the winter hardiness of weakened plants. In order to minimize the problems associated with diseases, or even to avoid them at all, it is important to prevent thickened landings and to thin out the crowns in a timely manner, creating conditions for good ventilation. As well as collect and destroy infected plant debris as they form.

Coccomycosis

A sign of the disease is chaotically located small brown spots on the upper side of the leaves; on the opposite side, white pads of fungal sporulation are clearly visible in the places of damage. Infected leaves fall prematurely. With the defeat of fruits coccomycosis on them are formed depressed, relatively large, brown-brown spots with a bright touch. The disease usually appears in the first half of June.

Kokkomikoz primarily affects the leaves, on the upper side, small patches of dark brown color are formed, and on the lower side - pinkish-white pads of fungal sporulation

For prophylactic treatments, as well as if the lesions are not too large, it is better to use biological preparations (Fitosporin, Actofit and others). When the disease spreads intensively, fungicides are used to combat it: Bordeaux liquid, Hom, Abiga-Peak, Skor, Fundazol, as well as Horus, which is considered the most effective. Preparations are recommended to alternate, as they get used to them. In early spring, a first spraying of 3% Bordeaux liquid is carried out on the green cone. After flowering, treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide. If the lesion is severely affected, repeat every 12–14 days until the end of June. In August or September, when the harvest is already harvested, carry out the last processing.

The disease is also called monilial burn. The branches and leaves turn yellow and dry, and then turn black, while they look like burnt. Then, small seals appear on the affected areas. Later, the fruits are affected, grayish-black outgrowths form on them, after which they quickly rot and crumble.

When moniliose branches and leaves dry up and look like burnt, and the fruits rot

The fight against moniliosis is carried out by the same drugs that are used against coccomycosis. Treatments are carried out in a similar time frame.

Video: signs of monilioz and methods of dealing with it

The sources do not have information about the stability of Chocolates to defeat pests, therefore, most likely, the probability of attack of harmful insects is very real. Of these, the most common are:

  • Cherry weevil. It feeds on buds, leaves, buds and ovaries. Its larvae damage the fruits, which then fall off.
  • Leaf aphid. Settles on young leaves and tops of shoots, eats their juice. The leaves are rolled into a tube, shoots cease to grow.
  • Cherry fly Its larvae damage the flesh, an unpleasant smell appears, the fruits become watery and inedible.
  • Plum moth. Butterflies lay eggs in green fruit. Caterpillars, feeding on pulp, leave waste products in it.

Photo Gallery: The most common pests of cherry

To protect the cherry from pests, preference should be given to preventive measures. The use of chemicals can be avoided if you regularly perform the following work:

  • Collection and destruction of plant residues, weed control.
  • Whitewash in the fall of trunks and skeletal branches with lime mortar with the addition of copper sulfate.
  • Deep digging of the soil in the fall with a coup of layers.
  • Fastening of trapping belts on tree trunks in early spring.
  • Preventive spraying with biological products (Fitoverm, Aktofit), as well as insecticides (Aktellik, Fufanon, Spark Double effect).

Gardeners reviews about Chocolate Chocolate

Chocolaty samoplodnaya that she plus, of course. But the taste of the cherries themselves is not perfect there, and even a big minus, IMHO, it is susceptible to the main cherry sores - coccomycosis and moniliosis.

mooch

https://forum.auto.ru/garden/37453/

I still have a small tree, the first time the fruit gave. But close to him pollinator seems not to be noticed. The closest one is a felt cherry from a neighbor, but she does not pollinate ordinary cherries. So either the self-fertile, or the second young cherry next to the chocolate bar bloomed unnoticed.

Starche-05

https://forum.auto.ru/garden/37453/

I have. The fruits are great, but we get very little. Thrushes ... (radishes, in short) eat everything. And care, as for any cherry.

water meter

https://forum.auto.ru/garden/37453/

My Chokoladnitsa is about 10. Now it’s about 1.20–1.30. But she was in the second year of life on our site accidentally pulled down the top, grew out of the side branches. I thought she was therefore so low, growing bush. It was bought in two or three years, I don’t remember well. Almost no berries, a couple of handfuls, but sweet. Most likely, my cherries are not pollinated, as they bloom later, when they have almost faded.

Celica, Moscow

http://www.websad.ru/archdis.php?code=665939

The only disadvantage is the poor resistance to coccomycosis and moniliosis. This is the main disadvantage, as now these diseases are everywhere. Yes, and the yield of Chocolate is low - the berries are large, but they are few.

Irena

http://vbesedke.ucoz.ru/forum/23–90–1

Chocolate is a mixed variety. Its most significant advantages are the excellent quality of commercial products and winter hardiness. However, rather moderate yields and susceptibility to fungal diseases confuse some gardeners. Those who are not eager to work hard and protect the trees from diseases will receive large and juicy berries with excellent dessert taste, which can be eaten fresh, as well as various homemade products.

How to choose a place

The most suitable medium for the growth of this culture are subacid or neutral soils rich in nutrients and having a good drainage system.

In soils with high humidity, this type of tree takes root badly. It is also a light-loving culture, since one of the main conditions for it is the abundance of sunlight. In connection with this need of Chokoladnitsa, gardeners are extremely responsible in their choice of a place for planting.

The tree is planted in a well-lit area, devoid of shaded areas. In the shade, this cherry, of course, is also able to bear fruit and grow, but its yield is significantly reduced. The undoubted advantages of this class include high resistance to low temperatures and dry days. Cherry without problems maintains viability even in the absence of moisture and in cold weather. It should be borne in mind that these factors do not have a positive effect on this culture, and therefore care needs to be observed.

Description of landing rules

In addition to cherry seedlings, the gardener will also need a spade, twine and stake. Planting is carried out in spring or autumn. The most suitable months for this are considered to be April and September.

Experts recommend choosing spring nevertheless, because then it will be possible to protect the young tree from the influence of low temperatures.

The process of planting chocolate consists of several stages:

  1. Drive a stake into the ground.
  2. Draw a circle that must match the size of the upcoming deepening.
  3. Сперва выкапывается лунка 60 см глубины и 80 см в диаметре. Выкопанный в процессе откопки грунт смешивается с органическими удобрениями – золой и перегноем – и затем помещается на дно подготовленного для посадки вишни углубления.
  4. Затем в лунку на верхний слой грунта помещают саженец и распрямляют его корни.
  5. После этого корневую систему засыпают грунтом и поливают. For this event, it is advised to use distilled water.
  6. After planting, the root neck should be 3-4 cm above the soil surface. If the top of the seedling is folded, it must be cut. However, more than one third of the plant length cannot be cut.
  7. Further around the trunk scatter a mixture of sawdust and humus. Near the root system, the soil should be slightly tamped.
  8. After that, next to the seedling you need to drive a stake and attach the stem of the shoot to it.

Caring for a cherry tree

In order for the cherry to please its owners with a rich harvest and large, sweet berries, you should follow the established rules for the care of this plant. The main ones include the following:

  1. A cherry tree can self-pollinate, however, in order to improve the quality and quantity of the crop, pollinators should be planted near it. For these purposes, suitable cherries or cherries of other varieties. If several trees of this variety are planted or if there is another fruit crop nearby, for example, sweet cherry, then the distance between them should be 1.5-3 m.
  2. The cherry grows by about 70 cm per year. Caring for this crop requires fertilizing, loosening the soil, removing weeds, timely pruning, as well as carrying out actions aimed at protecting the plant from diseases and pests.
  3. To carry out watering of a tree it is necessary to begin during flowering and then ripening of berries. The total amount of liquid that needs to be poured under the cherry at this time should be about 30-40 liters.
  4. If at the time of planting additional nutrients were added to the well, then the first three years after planting do not need fertilizers.
  5. Care for chocolate should start in the spring months from the time of the growing season. During this process, Chocolate Cherry Chocolate requires a large amount of nutrients, therefore, their quantity in the soil should be replenished.

Cherry pruning

The grade of this cherry assumes timely pruning. This procedure leads to an increase in yield and the correct formation of the crown.

These activities, along with the removal of diseased branches, leads to the rejuvenation of the tree. Pruning is done every year in the spring and autumn.

Pruning is carried out at a young age. Sometimes, when necessary, it is performed immediately after landing.

In spring, pruning of cherries is carried out in the first days of March. It is necessary to begin this process before the sap flow begins.

Features of this procedure include:

  1. First, branches are cut from the central part of the crown. Branches that are too close to each other interfere with sunlight penetration.
  2. It is necessary to cut off the branches, the growth of which goes towards the trunk, as well as those that have cracks or are susceptible to the disease ..

Autumn pruning is carried out from September to November. Removed large branches that impede the development of Chocolate Chocolate. Autumn pruning done every three years. It is impermissible to prune trees at the end of the first growing season. Otherwise, it can last for the branches to become weakened, leading to a loss of resistance to frost culture. Autumn pruning is needed for preventive purposes. It is also necessary to remove dried and diseased branches.

Diseases of culture

A significant step in the care of cherries is the treatment and prevention of fungal diseases, which bone crops are very susceptible to. And chocolate is no exception. These trees are prone to diseases such as coccomycosis and moniliosis. You can recognize them by the following features:

  1. First, coccomicosis affects the leaves. Detect this disease can be on small purple spots. On the reverse side there are visible spores of the fungus, which look like a pinkish bloom.
  2. Leaves affected by this disease, fall from the branches ahead of time. Such a tree hardly endures frosts, and in the coming year without proper treatment will perish.
  3. The fungus falls on the berries. Their deformation begins, they lose their taste and become unsuitable for food.
  4. Cherry, which is defeated by moniliosis, can outwardly resemble a tree burned by fire. At the first stage of the disease, moss-like gray spots appear on the branches and bark of the Chocolate Woman.
  5. Further, the same manifestations become noticeable on the fruits. If the necessary treatment was not carried out, then the fungus over time covers the entire surface of the cortex and cracks. Because of this, the branches and berries dry up, and then die off.

The tree, which is affected by these diseases, is treated with the following drugs:

  1. With coccomycosis Chocolate chocolate is recommended to treat diluted up to three percent solution of Bordeaux mixture. The procedure should be carried out when young leaves appear on the tree.
  2. Before the beginning of the flowering period culture sprayed with "Skor", and at the end of this time - weakly concentrated copper oxychloride.
  3. With the onset of autumn time, the treatment is carried out one more time together with any of the means listed above.
  4. If the culture is affected by moniliosis, then all diseased berries are harvested from the tree as the initial measure and the diseased branches are cut. Fungus can hide under the bark, which can look like healthy. If time does not reveal the disease, a new wave will arise. For safety when removing branches, you need to grab about 10-15 centimeters of a healthy area.
  5. Before flowering, cherries should be treated with special agents. For these purposes, choose to choose a three percent solution. vitriol iron, Oleocuprite, bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate or nitrafen.

Prevention of the development of fungal diseases will help preventive measures. Twice a year, the soil near the tree and the stem must be treated with lime mortar. If cracks appear on the cherry, they should be cleaned and covered with garden pitch. Also, to increase the level of resistance of a culture to various diseases, it should be fed in a timely manner.

Conclusion

Cherry Chocolate has certain advantages that are especially attractive to gardeners, both amateurs and professionals. This fruit crop has a good resistance to low temperature effects, the ability to produce a good harvest even in conditions of significant drought and high yields. The negative side of Chocolate Chocolate cherries is its susceptibility to fungal diseases. However, a responsible approach to compliance with all preventive prescriptions helps to save the tree and its health.

Breeding history

The variety was bred in order to produce a frost-resistant crop with a small crown size, as well as tasty and attractive fruits. The chocolate was obtained at the research institute for the selection of fruit crops by crossing the previously known varieties of cherries Lyubskaya and Black Consumer goods, after which in 1996 it was entered into the state register of fruit crops.

Culture description

There are distinctive features of the Chocolate Chocolate variety. The height of the tree in adulthood can reach 2.5 meters, with the maximum growth typed by 3-4 years of plant life. Crohn's usually inverted pyramidal shape. The leaves, like most varieties of cherries, are spiky, without a characteristic luster, dark green. White inflorescences.

The dark color of the berries and a slight bitterness in taste can be confusing. The taste of the berries is not always clear what the Chocolate is: cherries or cherries. This is a sort of cherry, the berries of which have a dark shade, sweet taste, with a note of sourness and bitterness.

Pollination, flowering and ripening

The period of flowering of the crop falls on the first third of May, and the first harvest can already be gathered by the 20th of June. But it is worth remembering that the first fruits appear no earlier than 3-4 years after the planting of a seedling at its permanent place of growth.

The main pollinators for the Chocolate Chocolate variety are the Cherry Griot, the cherry varieties Flaska and Vladimirskaya. Therefore, it is recommended to plant this variety with the above crops.

Yield, fruiting

High yield is another of the main advantages of the Chocolate variety. From one adult tree you can collect about 10 kg of ripe and tasty berries. This is considered a fairly good indicator for such a low-growing tree.

Scope of berries

Like many varieties, the dwarf Chocolate Chocolatnitsa, namely, its fruits are widely used in cooking:

  • cooked compotes
  • make jam and jams,
  • make natural candy,
  • dried in the oven or special equipment, resulting in dried fruit from cherries,
  • frozen for the winter as a whole berry, and cherry puree.

Blanks are used in baking, preparing a variety of sauces and drinks.

Disease and Pest Resistance

Chocolate Cherry may be exposed to coccomycosis, moniliasis and aphid. However, with proper care and processing of the culture, it is possible to avoid contamination of the leaves, branches and bark. Plus, the lack of long, leaning to the ground branches prevents plant colonization with other pests.

Choosing a landing site

The cherry variety loves sunny and open spaces. If there are any facilities or other large plants on the proposed site for disembarkation, then Chokoladnitsa is best planted on the south side of them. In this case, a favorable microclimate is created for the seedling, and nothing will interfere with the ingress of sunlight.

It is necessary to plant the crop in spring, but if the seedling was purchased several in advance, then it is best to prikopat it in a hole 40 cm deep, fill the root system and trunk before the start of branching soil. After that, cover with spruce leaves, it will allow to keep the seedling in its original state.

Planting Chocolate Shokoladnitsa spring produced in light and neutral sandy soil.

Selection and preparation of planting material

Choose any planting material, including this sort of cherry is needed only in proven, specialized nurseries, in which professionals can give all the recommendations for care. And best of all to do it at the beginning of autumn.

To give preference is not too high instances. It is important to inspect the shoots for their number (8‒12 pieces, depending on the age of the plant and a length of 15‒25 cm), as well as the external condition.

The optimum volume of the root system should be within 25–35 cm. There should be no damage on the bark of the cherry, fungal lesions, the roots should be moderately wet, without creases, blisters, with a large number of branches.

Landing algorithm

Stages of planting Chocolate Chocolate:

  1. Preparation of the pit. Its size should be about 70 cm (width) and 65 cm (depth). The excavated soil is mixed with organic, potash and phosphate fertilizers and poured back into the pit, thus forming a small mound.
  2. A cherry seedling is set on the top of the knoll, straightening all lateral roots. The remaining soil sprinkled root system, compacted and poured about 3 incomplete buckets.
  3. After the soil has settled, you can still add soil to the top, and then bind the tree to a nearby stick with a pole.

Additionally, before planting, it is recommended to treat the root system with a special stimulant drug, for example, Kornevin.

Breeding

Another important point in the care of Chocolate Chocolate cherries is reproduction. It is carried out in two ways: by grafting and grafting. In the first case, a cherry seedling is planted in the ground in the fall and after the appearance of sprouts, a stalk with buds is grafted onto an existing adult plant. In the second case, the cuttings of the cherries are buried in a moist soil and they are waiting for its rooting.

Subsequent care for the culture

Recently planted cherry trees require moderate but frequent watering. After the appearance of the first leaves, you need to mulch the soil and reduce watering.

The main rules of plant care in the first three years are:

  • regular removal of weeds around the seedlings,
  • soil loosening and mulching
  • regular watering during dry periods of the year
  • crown formation before bud break.

One of the main conditions for the care of Chocolate is a well-established mode of watering. Do not allow stagnation of water in the soil, as this may affect the appearance and taste of the fruit. But to leave the soil in a dry form is also absolutely impossible. One plant takes about 4-5 liters of water.

Many people ask: what to do if Chocolate Chocolate does not bloom? This can be affected not only by pests and diseases, but also by a lack of light, the absence of pollinators, and a deficiency of mineral substances in the soil.

Diseases and pests

The main disadvantage of the Chocolate Chocolate variety is its susceptibility to coccomycosis and moniliosis. In the first case, an effective way to eradicate the disease is spraying a tree at the kidney stage with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture, during the flowering period with the “Skor” preparation and after harvesting the fruit with a solution of copper oxychloride.

To destroy moniliosis, which manifests itself in the form of fungal plaque on the branches and bark, it is recommended to remove and burn the damaged areas and subsequently treat the culture with a solution of copper sulphate.

Aphids, living on a cherry tree and damaging a plant, are best removed with a 3% nitraphine solution.

Description and characteristics of the variety Chocolate

Chocolate is bred in 1996 by pereopyleniya varieties Consumer black and Lyubskaya. As a result, gardeners were able to grow cherries with burgundy, in almost full maturity, almost black fruits.

Bush Chocolate Shokoladnitsa

The tree is very compact, like a bush. Height - up to 2.5 meters. The shape of the crown is reverse pyramidal, that is, it expands upwards. The density of the branches is average. The trunk is covered with brown bark, and shoots - grayish. Leaves - dark green, oval, dull. Flowers bloom in mid-May, comes into fruition in mid-July, that is, a variety of average ripening time. The first crop gives at the age of 4 years.

Grayish shoots, flowers are collected in umbrellas

During flowering, the branches are covered with white umbrellas, each with three flowers with a diameter of up to 18 mm. Petals are white. Yellow anthers of stamens towering above the pistil. In place of each umbrella, under favorable conditions, 1–3 berries will appear.

Cherry Chocolate

Chocolate berries are rounded, with a hollow near the stem of medium depth, on the reverse side of the cherry are slightly flattened. Inside there is a small yellow stone, easily separated from the pulp. The taste is very sweet, with a slight sourness. The weight of one berry is 3.5 g, the approximate dimensions is 1.5x2.0 cm. 10–12 kg can be collected from one tree.

The variety is zoned for Central Russia, but due to its high winter hardiness, it can be grown in the North-West Federal District and beyond the Urals.

Selection of seedlings

The younger the sapling, the smaller the ground portion of it, and the easier it takes root. The optimal age for a transplant is 1–2 years.

Choosing Chocolate Chocolates selection criteria:

  1. The height of one-year-old seedlings - up to 80 cm, two-year - 120 cm.
  2. Roots - branched with many small roots, non-fragile and uncut.
  3. Bark - clean, intact, without green inclusions.
  4. The shoots are whole, the buds are alive (not shriveled and not blackened).

It is a mistaken opinion of gardeners that the more beautiful and more powerful a sapling is, the better it will settle down and produce fruits faster. The trees, which in 1-2 years have an elegant crown and thick trunks, are overfed with fertilizer. They are grown not for future rich harvests, but for the sake of customers - for beauty. Once in the usual garden area without the usual food, they do not want to settle down, they will not soon grow, they can dry out in the summer or freeze in the winter.

Landing dates, autumn prikopka and choice of location

Landing dates vary by region. In the south, Chocolate can be planted from November to February, and in the north - in the spring. Saplings with a closed root system with a slight shading will take root even in the middle of the summer, and with an open one, it is better to buy them in early spring and with still buds that are not dispersed. In the middle lane, the optimum landing period is April.

If Chokoladnitsa was bought in the fall, then it is recommended to pile it up all the way into the trench until spring, leaving only the tip above the ground. This part of the crown, before the snow falls, fall asleep with spruce branches, cover with roofing paper or otherwise protect from rodents and frost. In this form, the sapling does not freeze and does not vyparet, and safely wake until spring. In the spring you need to have time to dig up the cherries before planting buds and plant them in a permanent place.

According to the observation of gardeners, when planting in the fall, 30% of seedlings fall out, and after prikopki and planting in the spring, all are well acclimatized.

Video: How to prikopat seedlings

A place for cherry is chosen sunny, without stagnant moisture. The minimum level of groundwater occurrence is at a depth of 1.5 m from the surface. It should be borne in mind that the choice of place depends on all further development of the tree and its yield. For example, in the shade the branches will stretch, the berries will be tied up a little, they will be small and not as sweet as in the sun. The optimal direction for culture is western, that is, it can be planted on the southwestern and western sides of the house or on slopes oriented in these directions.

Landing pit preparation and landing

Вишни не слишком требовательные к составу почвы, но максимально раскрывают свой потенциал на лёгких, воздухопроницаемых и нейтральных почвах. Посадочную яму готовят заранее: с осени для весенней посадки и за 1.5–2 месяца до осенней, минимум — за 2 недели. Суть подготовки в том, что почва для посадки заправляется удобрениями и вновь отправляется в яму для усадки. If you plant a tree in a fresh pit, then the earth will eventually squeeze and pull deep into the tree. The roots under pressure can be compressed, bent, and the root neck will be below the level of the soil, which is unacceptable.

The upper fertile layer is laid separately to mix it with fertilizer.

In order for Shokoladnitsa to be as comfortable as possible from the first moment she appeared in the garden, and she quickly went into growth, you need to follow this technology:

  1. Since the cherries need to be planted in the spring, we prepare the pit in the fall.
  2. Standard sizes: diameter is 40–60 cm and depth is 60 cm. If the earth is clay, we increase all the parameters to 70–80 cm to bring in more humus and loosening materials. The distance to the nearest trees is 3x3 m.
  3. We dig a hole, put the top layer on the spade bayonet in one direction, the bottom one in the other.
  4. Pile the same amount of humus or compost and 0.5 l of wood ash on a pile of fertile top soil. For acidic soil, add 100 g of lime or dolomite flour, and for clay soil, add a bucket of peat or half a bucket of sand.
  5. All carefully mix and return to the pit without tamping. A small mound may turn out, but it will naturally flow through the winter-spring. If, on the contrary, the mixture is not enough to fill, you can top it off with regular soil from the site. The land of the lower barren layer from the pit is removed.
  6. We drive a peg into the center of the finished landing pit. In the spring, we will find a pit along it, in addition, it will support the sapling.
  7. In April, before bud break, we get a cherry from a digging pot. It is important not to miss the moment, even in a horizontal position in the trench, the Chocolate can wake up and grow.
  8. From the south side of the peg we dig a hole on the size of the roots and plant Chocolate. We do not bury the root collar, there must be only roots in the ground.
  9. We tie to the peg and make a hole for irrigation.

Although Chocolate and samoplodna, nevertheless, it is better to have several different varieties on the plot. The maximum yield is observed when sweet cherries grow nearby.

How to care for a sapling?

Freshly planted cherries are often watered - every time the top layer dries, that is, the soil must always be wet. When young leaves appear on the bush, watering is stopped, the soil is mulched. Shokoladnitsa began to develop, its roots entrenched in the soil and can extract moisture independently from the lower layers of the soil. The fertilizer that was added to the planting pit, will be enough for the entire growth period, before entering into fruiting.

Care first 2-3 years:

  • Remove weeds that can compete with a small tree for food, moisture and light.
  • Soil contain always loose and under mulch.
  • Watering only during dry periods, when the week has a high temperature, there is no rain. Consumption under one tree 10-30 liters, depending on age.
  • To form a crown. In the spring before blooming the buds, an annual sapling that does not yet have side branches is cut at a height of 60–70 cm. . Over the summer, first order branches will appear (skeletal), they will be shortened again in spring, leaving 4–5 buds. Further pruning, as in adult cherries: sanitary and for thinning crowns.

When forming the crown, it is impossible to leave skeletal branches extending from the trunk at an acute angle. The optimum angle is close to 90⁰.

Watering fruiting chocolate

Cherries - drought-resistant culture, it does not need to be watered uncontrollably with sprinkling and a hose. In our Russian conditions, it is enough moisture from the rain. In dampness, the roots will rot, pathogenic fungi settle on the leaves and flowers, the berries become watery, sour, and if you do not stop watering 2 weeks before maturity, the fruits will crack.

Three important periods when a cherry needs watering:

  1. The beginning of the growth of leaves and shoots.
  2. The period of budding.
  3. Education and growth of ovaries.

4–6 buckets of water are poured under one tree. Watering is needed only in the absence of rain. But sometimes even with their presence it is necessary to water, if the soil is not soaked to a sufficient depth. You need to not be lazy, scrape the mulch and topsoil to make sure that the earth is wet. At the specified periods at a depth of 30–40 cm, it should be compressed into a non-crumbling lump.

Excess moisture after harvest will provoke the growth of shoots, and it is time for the cherry to prepare for winter. By the middle of summer, flower buds of the next year are laid, until autumn, the bark on young shoots should ripen so that the fruit twigs do not freeze. Therefore, again, do not need to water the cherry. In the autumn, at the end of October, only when the rains are not sufficiently wet, Chokoladnitsa is given charge irrigation - up to 9 buckets on an adult tree.

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