The daylily (Hemerocállis), or daylight, belongs to the plant species of the subfamily Daylily of the Xanthorrhoea family (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Perennial herbaceous rhizome plants of this species have long become very popular with our country's gardeners.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
Daylilies are recommended to be planted in sunny areas. It is especially important to comply with this requirement when growing varieties of yellow, pink, white, as well as any light and pastel shades. It is advisable to cultivate red, purple, violet and any other varieties with dark staining of flowers in areas with partial shading, which is caused by the tendency of the petals to fade and premature wilt.
In close proximity to the flower beds with daylilies should not be located planting large trees or shrubs. Daylilies tolerate windy weather quite well, so they are in demand in coastal areas and areas with a windy climate. It is very important that the site does not have stagnant moisture throughout the year, especially in spring. With a high occurrence of groundwater planting is carried out on ridges or high beds.
Ideal for the cultivation of daylily is a plot with well-drained and rich in organic components soils. Preference should be given to loose loam with a cultivated layer not less than 0.45-0.60 m thick. When growing a flower on clay and heavy soils, it is necessary to add sand and a small amount of compost in the process of deep digging.
Optimal soil acidity indicators are 6-6.5 pH. Thus, for the cultivation of daylily requires a plot with neutral or slightly acidic soil. Excessive acidification of the soil implies preliminary liming of the landing area. Adjust the pH-indicators of alkaline soil can be by making peat or basic organic matter. As a rule, pre-planting organic fertilizer has a very positive effect on the growth and development of flowering plants.
Place for planting daylilies in the ground in spring
When choosing a site for daylily, you need to take into account that plants love the sun, are not afraid of the wind, and develop beautifully where other ornamental perennials will feel oppressed. For free growth, daylilies need freedom. They do not like when there are large plants, shrubs and trees nearby, becoming for flowers a kind of competitors for a place in the sun.
Experienced growers advise light varieties of daylilies to be planted in more illuminated places, and for purple, red, multicolor varieties with an important color saturation, look for areas with a little shading.
To simplify the care of daylilies after they are planted in open ground, plants are selected for places that do not heat up in spring. In summer, the powerful rhizomes of plants should not suffer from the close occurrence of groundwater.
The best time to plant a daylily at the site
Daylilies are peculiar long-livers. Beautiful flowers, forming a curtain decorated with multi-colored corolla, they can grow up to one and a half decades without transplantation. This should be taken into account when choosing a place for plants in the garden, and also to know that only 5–7 years will be the most lush flowering. Then, flower stalks among thick foliage appear less frequently, and the flowers on them are much smaller than before. Therefore, every few years the plants are transplanted, dividing adult perennials.
Unpretentious culture easily transfers this procedure from early spring to autumn. But planting daylilies in the ground in the spring always passes without complications, delenki quickly take root and grow, blooming in the same season.
Spring weather is changeable, and if there is a danger of frost, landing is better to postpone. The planting material acquired or obtained after dividing your own plants can be stored for about a month by prikopat plant root system in the sand, peat-sand substrate, or shifting with a damp cloth. Sheet daylily leaves are cut in half or a third to reduce the need of the plant for moisture.
If summer is not hot, and for daylilies, when planted in the ground, as in spring, it is realistic to create comfortable conditions, nothing prevents you from decorating the garden until the fall. But during the autumn planting there is a risk that the plants will not have time to take root well, and the next year, if they survive, they will be very weak.
How to plant daylilies in the spring
Before moving the seedlings to the garden, they need to be prepared for planting:
- Daylily delenki inspect, remove damaged, dry or rotted roots.
- Sections are treated with powdered wood or activated carbon that has been ground to a consistency.
- If this is not done before, the foliage is cut 10–15 cm above the base of the leaf plates.
Often, planting material purchased at the store had dried up by the time the daylily was planted in the open ground, and care for such a plant begins with a 4-hour soaking of the root system in a growth stimulator.
The place is chosen, the planting material is waiting for it to be transferred to the ground. It remains only to prepare the soil suitable for daylilies and begin planting. Decorative perennials prefer a loose, light substrate with a neutral or slightly acid reaction.
Before planting daylilies in the spring, the soil in their future place of residence must be dug up with shovels on a full bayonet. Next, make a landing pit, sufficient to accommodate the rhizomes. For greater convenience:
- at the bottom pour a cone of loosened substrate,
- over the ground have a plant,
- gently laid out on the soil rhizome,
- sprinkle the underground part of the daylily with soil so that the root collar does not sink more than a couple of centimeters.
After planting is complete, the ground around is slightly tamped down, and the daylily is watered.
To reduce the evaporation of moisture, the soil under the plants can be mulched using any available means, such as rotted bark or needles, straw, or specialized material.
Daylily care after planting in open ground
Regular care of plants after planting consists in watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds.
In the warm season, actively growing and flowering perennials require a lot of water. If daylilies are thirsty, this can be seen in faded foliage, rejection or budding. Perennials respond excellently to additional summer humidification. Therefore, daylilies can be planted near reservoirs or use very fine sprinkling,
- In hot weather, daylilies are plentifully watered, so that the soil beneath them is wetted by 20–30 cm, that is, to the depth of the root system.
- If summer is not hot, you can reduce the frequency of watering, but you need to monitor the standing foliage.
The best time to water the daylilies is early morning or evening, when there is no risk of sunburn on the flowers.
With proper planting and care, daylily flowers, as in the photo, appear the same summer. In the first year, the plants are not additionally fed. The introduction of complex fertilizers for flowering ornamental crops begin next spring. When choosing a product, it is better to give preference to formulations with a moderate nitrogen content, which causes foliage to overgrow at the expense of flowering. Over the summer, perennials feed up twice, and closer to autumn plants get potassium phosphate fertilizers for better preparation for winter.
Plants are hardy, but may suffer when there is too little snow on the site. Therefore, it is better to cover daylilies in snowless winters with fragrant twigs, needles, straw and other improvised materials. As soon as the mass melting of the snow begins, the daylilies are released, otherwise a prelum develops on the root necks of the plants.
How to choose seedlings
Unlike lilies, this plant propagated by rhizomesand not bulbs. Seedlings can be purchased at a specialty store, even in winter, and stored up to heat in a refrigerator at temperatures up to + 7 degrees. When young leaves appear, you can plant a seedling in a pot to transfer it to open ground with the onset of heat.
Daylilies: planting and care in the open field
Planting daylilies in the spring requires some knowledge from gardeners. When choosing a place for planting daylilies, it should be noted that:
- These flowers are sun-loving and are not afraid of open windy areas.
- They need space for proper growth and development.
- Daylilies can not stand the competitors in the neighborhood.
- Varieties with light flowers should be allocated more sunny areas, and with dark - areas with minimal dimming.
- For easier maintenance, you should choose areas for planting that are not flooding in the spring.
- Do not plant flowers in areas with groundwater.
Daylilies can live without a transplant of up to ten years. This important fact should be considered when choosing a place for the constant planting of flowers. However, inexperienced gardeners should know that lush flowering lasts no more than seven years. After this period, the flowers appear on the bushes less and less. For this reason, the bushes are replanted every few years by dividing adult perennials.
The best time to plant young bushes in open ground can be considered the period from early spring until autumn. But if frost is expected, then it is better to postpone landing in open ground. At the same time, seedlings purchased or taken from their plants can be stored for a month by prikatat the root system of the bushes in the sand or wrap them with a damp cloth. Daylily leaves during storage cut off by half to reduce moisture consumption.
If the summer weather is not sultry, then you can plant daylilies in open ground in the summer. In the autumn period, with the onset of early cold weather, the flower may not have time to settle down in a new place. In this case, even if the plant does not die completely, then the next year will be very weak.
Features planting daylilies in the ground in spring
Experienced gardeners prepare seedlings before planting in the ground as follows:
- Inspect young seedlings for rotted, damaged or dry roots that must be removed before planting.
- Sections of rhizomes are treated with powdered activated carbon tablets.
- Cut the leaves at a height of 15 centimeters from the base of the leaf plates, if this procedure was not carried out earlier.
- In case of drying of the root system during storage, before planting, they are kept in a growth stimulator for about four hours.
After careful preparation of seedlings proceed directly to planting. To do this, prepare the soil:
- In the place for planting it is necessary to dig up the earth on a full spade of a shovel.
- Prepare pits, sufficient in depth to accommodate the root system.
- The bottom of the fossa is covered with a loosened substrate.
- Place the plant on top of this ground.
- Rhizomes with gentle movements laid out on the soil.
- They are covered with earth in such a way that the root neck is not covered with more than two centimeters.
- After completion of all planting work, it is necessary to tamp the soil around the plant and water it.
Often the soil under the plants is mulched with needles, straw or rotted bark to reduce evaporation of moisture.
Care for daylilies in the spring after planting is quite simple and consists in removing weeds, watering, loosening the soil. In late spring and summer, flowers absorb a lot of water. The lack of liquid plants show pale foliage, refusal from tying buds or dropping them.
Positively perennials respond to additional moisture during dry summer weather. To this end, flowers can be placed near water or use a spraying of bushes.
In the summer care is reduced to frequent watering. Perennials are watered so that the soil is soaked to the depth of the rhizome, that is, soaked 30 centimeters under the plant.
In case of not hot weather in the summer period, watering can be reduced and judged by the required amount of moisture as the foliage of the plants. To avoid sunburn on the leaves, watering is recommended in the evening or early in the morning.
If the plant was properly planted in the spring and properly cared for, then you can expect lush flowering in the first year of life perennial. In the first year of life perennials do not need additional feed.
The first fertilizer is recommended to be applied to the soil only the next year in the spring. Complex fertilizers are selected with a minimum nitrogen content, which favors the growth of leaves, but minimizes the formation of buds on the bush.
When caring for perennials, fertilizers for the bush are applied twice in the summer and once in the autumn to better prepare for the winter period. In the fall, potash-phosphate fertilizers are used as top dressing.
Perennials tolerate winter frosts, but may suffer in winters with little snow or snowless. To this end, in the absence of snow in winter, plants are covered with spruce, straw or needles. With the onset of snow melting and the onset of a thaw, plants are freed from shelter to avoid the formation of diaper rash on the necks of rhizomes.
What plants to plant daylilies in the garden
When designing a garden plot, perennials can be used both in single plantings and in group ones. They can be planted next to viburnum, bamboo or paniculate hydrangea.
When planting perennial perennial varieties, you can create original flowering borders. Near the pond or stone hill you can plant small-colored and undersized varieties of daylily. Landing perennials are also used to decorate the winter garden.
In order to avoid the loss of decorative elements in the autumn period, perennial is better planted next to the yarrow, pin sackstriker, decorative cereals or physiotherapy.
What are sick plants
With proper care, daylilies get sick quite rarely. Sometimes plants are affected by pests: thrips, lily mosquitoes, slugs and water voles.
When the soil warms up to 12 degrees, the plants may be vulnerable. thrips. These pests penetrate the plants and suck the sap from the leaves, petals and stems. This causes the deformation of the flowers during the formation of buds.
The only method of dealing with them is the complete destruction of the plant. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to treat the soil around the bushes in the spring and autumn with insecticides. The affected plants should be burned immediately and do not leave their remains on the beds for the winter period.
In the buds of plants can lay their larvae lily mosquito. They, in turn, with the growth of feeding on flowers, which leads to the deformation of the buds. In this case, the removal of damaged buds is used as a pest control.
Damage to the root system can water voles. Every four years there is a peak in the number of rodents and then they eat the roots of young plants. When caring for plants should use tools to fight rodents.
If plants attack slugs, then as a method of combating they use hand-picking insects or use drug "Thunderstorm".
Even with proper care, you can sometimes come across plant diseases such as:
- Root rot. This disease appears in the spring. You can recognize it by stopping the growth of young leaves, their yellow color and the ability to easily pull out of the ground. When caring for a sick plant, they dig it up, remove all the affected areas, wash the roots with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, cut off the areas with fungicide, dry the day open and plant it in a new place. Such a plant begins to bloom usually after two years.
- Rust. This disease can be comprehended by a plant if patrina grows next to it. When caring for the plant as a preventive measure, it is necessary to treat the soil around the bush with fungicides.
- Fusarium. This disease can be recognized by stunted plants. Its leaves begin to turn yellow ahead of time and die off, the roots look like rot. This disease belongs to the fungal and if it is recognized at an early stage, then you can protect the flower by cultivating the ground around the bush with fungicides. In the later stages of the disease, the plant is removed completely, and a number of growing plants are treated with basezol. As a preventive measure, one should add Fitosporin-M irrigation water, periodically sterilize garden tools and loosen the topsoil.
Daylily is often found in the wild. The plant has a fibrous root system. The roots are fleshy, long, help extract moisture from the depths of the soil in drought. Leaves radical, long, bright green. Shrubs volume, grow rapidly from 40 cm to 1 m in height. Соцветия метельчатые. Цветки крупные, имеют форму воронки, держатся на прочном длинном цветоносе.
Самые распространённые оттенки цветков: красные, оранжевые, жёлтые. Сейчас учёные выводят новые сорта с розовыми, белыми, сиреневыми, бордовыми оттенками. Лепестки могут быть однотонными или двухцветными.
Большинство сортов зацветают в июле. The plant is unpretentious, hardy, does not require special care.
Features planting and plant care
Planting time depends on the climate. Experts advise to plant daylilies in May or August. In spring, flowers are planted in areas with a cold climate; in the southern regions, the procedure can be carried out in the autumn. The plant should root well before winter.
Features of landing:
- Flower prefers sunny areas.
- First you need to do drainage in the pit.
- For planting choose loose, neutral or slightly acidic soil. Mix sand, humus, peat and potash phosphate fertilizer.
- Planting material inspect, remove damaged parts. If an adult plant is transplanted, the roots and foliage is shortened to 20–25 cm.
- In the pit they make a hill out of the soil and plant it. The root neck should be buried 2–3 cm into the soil, not more.
- The soil around the plant is trampled and watered abundantly.
- The plant needs a lot of space for development. The distance between the bushes at least 50−70 cm
The hardy culture in unsuitable conditions tries to survive, but gives all its strength to the maintenance of vegetative functions to the detriment of decorativeness.
In order for daylilies to bloom profusely and beautifully, it is necessary to create suitable conditions for them:
- In hot and dry weather, the plant should be watered abundantly. If moisture is not enough, the leaves will be dull, and the buds will begin to fall off. In rainy summer watering is reduced. Constant over-wetting of the soil can lead to root rot.
- It is necessary to loosen the soil, remove weeds, and remove wilted flowers.
- It is important to conduct 2 dressings. In the spring, complex mineral compounds are introduced, the plant is fed a second time after flowering is over (in August). During this period, buds are laid for the next year, the daylily begins to prepare for winter. It is necessary to water the plant with plenty.
- It is useful to carry out mulching. The soil around the bushes covered with a layer of sawdust, bark, needles, leaves or straw. Mulch protects the roots from frost, retains moisture, prevents the growth of weeds.
- Daylilies grow in one place for 12−15 years, but they quickly grow, leaves become larger than flowers. Shrubs need to separate and sit down.
- The plant is frost-resistant, but with a little snow in winter it is necessary to cover the bushes with coniferous branches.
The easiest way to breed is to divide an adult bush.. Some varieties breed by cuttings. After flowering, young leafy rosettes appear on the peduncles. They are separated and transplanted into a pot, and transferred to the ground in the spring. You can plant cuttings in the fall, but they may not have time to take root before winter. Seed breeding method is complicated. It is rarely possible to get a plant identical to the parent.
Daylilies in landscape design
For landscaping the site, you can take wild varieties of daylilies and artificially bred hybrid species. They can be used alone or be part of the intended composition.
The plant will harmoniously look next to dahlias, delphiniums, tulips, hyacinths, irises, crocuses. Daylilies are combined with deciduous shrubs and conifers, decorative cereals. Low-growing bushes can be used to decorate alpine gardens, flower beds and flower beds.
From high grades, you can create borders and hedges (it is better to use one grade). Daylilies look good by the pond, stream, lake. Scented varieties are planted next to the seating area to enjoy the scent of flowers.
When choosing a landing site, you need to think about how the plants will look like against the background of buildings. It is important that the shade of the flower be clearly visible and not merge.
Varieties with bright and dark flowers should be planted in well-lit areas. Their petals will be saturated, and light can be planted in partial shade. After the end of flowering, the foliage loses its attractiveness and begins to wither; this fact must be taken into account when making the flower bed. High varieties are planted for other crops, low - to the fore.
Features of daylily cultivation and care
Daylily belongs to the genus Hemerocállis. In the wild, it can be found in the south of the Far East in China and Eastern Siberia. In the culture, there are more than 700 varieties and daylily hybrids with flowers of any color, except pure black and absolutely white.
According to the vegetation method, the flowers of the daylily, which are easy to plant and care for, are divided into deciduous and evergreen. The former are characterized by loss of leaves in the fall and a state of deep dormancy in winter. Problems with the safety of daylilies with proper care usually does not happen. Evergreen species of daylilies do not lose their foliage, in tropical conditions continue to grow year-round and regularly bloom three times during this time. But in the middle lane, they will not be able to spend the winter without solid shelter and proper care.
There is an intermediate type - semi-evergreen daylilies. They are not so sensitive to low temperatures as to their sharp fluctuations during the winter.
In general, this culture is rather plastic and with proper care it can be very decorative: the best daylily hybrids can have up to 50 flowers on one peduncle, which gradually dissolve. Growing daylilies in the open field begins with their planting. You can simply divide the existing flower, providing him in the future the right care.
When to transplant daylilies: spring or autumn
Daylily is one of the few flowers for which a well-made transplant is not too traumatic. Therefore, the question of when to replant daylilies can be answered that a transplant can be done during the entire growing season, if only there was enough time for rooting. An important point is the correct follow-up care. You can plant in the spring, when the daylily leaves grow to a height of 10 cm and even in summer, if necessary.
Care at this time should be thorough.
When autumn planting daylilies dates correlate with the weather. It will take from 1 to 1.5 months without frost for the daylily to take root. Experienced growers recommend planting at the end of August, when they fade. But the best results are obtained when spring planting daylilies - the plants will have a whole growing season to root and grow strong.
How to plant a daylily
Although the daylily is a long-liver, it can grow in one place up to 15 years, it’s not worth waiting for so long with a transplant. The plant tends to grow, flowering is waning, and the flowers themselves are shrinking. In practice, daylily transplantation, combined with division and subsequent proper care, is carried out every 5 years.
If species yellow and red daylilies will grow in almost any conditions - no wonder they are called flowers for lazy people, then exquisite hybrids will need to create all the conditions for their care in order to admire their luxurious flowering. And the first rule of caring for daylilies is ground preparation. There are many requirements for it:
- high fertility - there should be a lot of humus in the soil,
- loose structure
- moisture and breathability,
- neutral or weakly acid reaction - pH ranging from 6 to 6, 7, valid from 5 to 7,
- the depth of the topsoil should be large - up to 50 cm.
All other types of soil will have to be improved:
- sandy soil requires the introduction of clay and a large amount of rotted organic matter,
- Coarse sand, peat, compost are added to the clay soil and they must be drained.
Weeds in a bed with daylilies should not be - this is one of the basic rules of care. If it is arranged on virgin soil, all weed roots should be selected in the fall, and the daylily should be planted next spring. In autumn the soil is lime, if the acidity is too high.
Under the digging of 1 square. m make 10 kg of humus. 10 kg of chernozem are embedded in the sandy soil, and the same amount of sand in the clay soil.
It is also important to choose the right site for planting daylilies: natural species will feel good in the penumbra, but hybrids need full solar lighting. Only dark-colored daylilies require partial shading during the day so that the flowers do not fade.
When choosing a site, you need to pay attention so that water does not accumulate during the rains in the summer and after the snow melts in the winter, otherwise caring for the plant will not be beneficial. If there is no such site, and you want to plant a daylily, you will have to drain and equip high ridges.
Daylilies with proper care can be stored until planting for almost a month. You only need to wrap the roots in a damp cloth or pour the wet sand and peat mixture. Sheet plates should be cut to a third - so the loss of moisture will be reduced.
If the daylily roots are still dry, they are soaked in water for 3-4 hours. Then remove all non-living, and healthy trimmed, leaving a length of 25 cm.
Before planting the daylily, leaf plates, if this has not been done before, are pruned to one third in order to balance the above-ground and underground parts of the plants. In the future it will greatly simplify the care.
Planting daylilies in spring in open ground
As for any landing time, in the spring it should be started with the preparation of the landing pit. The distance between adjacent daylily bushes is 60-70 cm, taking into account that the plants grow quickly. For undersized curb varieties, this distance should be reduced to 40 cm.
Planting daylilies in the spring in the ground consists of several stages:
- The pit should be depth and a diameter of 30-40 cm - approximately 1.5 times the volume of the root system.
- Planting mixture is prepared from the excavated soil in a mixture with leaf humus and dried-out non-acidic peat. 30 grams of potassium salt and superphosphate, a handful of ash are added to each bucket of such soil.
In conclusion, planting a daylily should be well watered and the soil beneath them should be crushed with chopped tree bark or straw. This will greatly facilitate further care.
How to care for daylilies
These flowers are not too demanding to care, but correctly performed agrotechnical measures will help grow them healthy, which is a guarantee of decorativeness. Daylily care is different depending on the season. It also depends on the type of soil in the flower bed: sandy and sandy soils suffer from drying out in the heat, nutrients are washed out faster, which means watering daylilies and feeding them in this case will have to be more often, and care will require more effort.
Watering and dressing daylilies in spring and summer
Daylilies are quite drought-resistant: their roots are well developed and able to accumulate moisture. At different periods of the growing season, the need for water in these flowers is different, as is the care. Especially they need watering during the flowering period, and this is almost 2 months. Just moisten the top layer of soil is not suitable. It should be moistened to the entire depth of the roots - 30-40 cm. Therefore, daylilies are watered after planting less often, once a week, if there is no heavy rain, but very abundantly - a bucket and more on the bush. Which way to choose, under the root or sprinkling, decide florist. It is believed that the water caught on the daylily petals, contributes to the appearance of stains on them, which reduces the decorative effect.
The most demanding of moisture is the species of the daylily red. In the care of him need to include frequent watering.
Proper care is not possible without dressings. Norms, terms of application of fertilizers and their composition depend on the age of daylilies and the season. In adult bushes, nutritional needs are higher than in just-planted daylilies, provided that the pits for planting are well-filled. At the beginning of the growing season, the advantage in the composition of fertilizers should be on the side of nitrogen - it will help to increase the leaf mass faster, in the future plants need phosphorus and potassium more.
You can make the following care recommendations.
- Care for daylilies in the spring begins with the feeding of complex fertilizer with trace elements, diluted according to the instructions, usually it is 2-3 tbsp. l 10 liters of water. On a young bush 0.5 liters of solution are consumed, on an adult - 1 l. You can simply scatter the fertilizer on the soil surface and close up loosening. Spring daylily feeding is carried out when the leaves have reached a length of 10 cm, and the air temperature is not lower than + 6-8 ° C. If the daylily has been planted this spring, caring for them precludes the first feeding - they already have enough food.
- The second feeding is similar to the first, at the end of May, and in the southern regions in the middle of the month. It is combined with foliar nutrition with a solution of magnesia 15 g per 10 l of water. This care operation is necessary to avoid magnesium deficiency. To avoid leaf burns, 5 g of urea is added to this amount. Extra root top dressings spend in cloudy windless weather.
Daylilies need pruning in spring and autumn. As soon as the new shoots hatch, the old, faded leaves are carefully cut. In the fall, it is not necessary to hurry with pruning, even if the bush does not look very nice. Experienced flower growers do not recommend autumn pruning at all. Even in parts of the green leaves, the process of photosynthesis continues, which means that the nutrients reach the roots and the plant will endure the winter better. And the dried leaves themselves - a good shelter from frost. Caring for daylilies also implies pruning of faded stems.
Preparing for the winter
It begins at the end of the summer, when the daylily is fed with potash fertilizers. They are responsible for frost resistance. Species daylilies do not need shelter. Deciduous require thorough mulching with peat or straw, and semi-evergreen and especially evergreen daylilies - additional shelter with spruce leaves.
How fast daylily grows
It is not for nothing that when planting a long distance is left between the plants - even one fan in a few years will give a lot of outlets. The most rapid growth of daylilies after planting is observed in the first five years of life, especially with good care. The strongest will be lateral newly grown daylily rosettes - they have more young active roots. Those that are in the center, with old roots, begin to bloom worse. That is why at this time is recommended division and transplant of daylilies to a new location. Care of age sockets should be more thorough.
Propagate these beautiful flowers can be vegetatively and seeds. Growing a daylily from seed is usually used by breeders for breeding new hybrids, since such plants do not repeat maternal ones. The daylily seeds lose their germination very quickly. Therefore, they are sown as soon as they are harvested, usually in the winter. For spring sowing, a two-month stratification is needed in the refrigerator. Daylily seedlings bloom in 2-3 years, provided proper care.
Vegetative reproduction is carried out by dividing the bush or by air layering, which form many varieties of daylily. The best time for dividing the bushes is in early spring, as soon as the leaves have grown to 8 cm. But you can do this during the entire growing season with proper care.
Daylily division algorithm:
- digging up a bush on the outside, sparing the roots as much as possible,
- they are washed out with a stream of water under pressure
- separate the fans manually, and if this is not possible with a sharp knife,
- process the sections with a fungicide,
- Seated Delenki.
If daylily sockets have grown on long stolons, it is not necessary to dig up the whole bush, you can simply separate the necessary part.
Daylilies and axillary rosettes formed at the end of flowering reproduce well: their rooting rate is up to 90%.
You can wait for education on the outlet of the roots and just put in the ground. But more often of them cuttings are cut with a segment of the stem from 2 to 4 cm. The leaves should be cut to a third. Root them on a seedling bed or in a greenhouse, providing the right care: spraying and shading from the bright sun.
Choosing a landing site
It is believed that daylilies can grow anywhere, because in their homeland - in the Far East, they feel great in the shady forest corners.
But in the temperate climate of central Russia, daylilies in the penumbra will not have enough heat for luxurious flowering, and such planting will not allow the plants to show all their potential. It is better for them to choose sunny, protected from the wind areas.
It is desirable that the plants are fully lit at least 5-6 hours a day. Daylilies with a delicate color of flowers need light throughout the day, and varieties with a rich and dark color in the heat need midday shading from burning out.
You can learn more about the characteristics and characteristics of the daylily varieties from the article “Popular daylily varieties”.
The soil for daylilies should be neutral or slightly acidic. The land for plants is prepared in advance and carefully, because in a permanent place the daylilies will have to grow for a long time - 6-15 years.
They dig up the soil to a depth of 30–35 cm. Compost, peat, and sand are introduced into heavy clayey so that moisture does not stagnate. Sandy soils, on the contrary, are light and poorly retain water and nutrients, therefore they enrich them with humus, add clay.
When the groundwater is close to the ground, daylilies are planted on ridges 10–15 cm high.
How to choose a quality planting material with the purchase?
Shops and garden centers for landing offer daylily rhizomes. Перед покупкой следует внимательно осмотреть прозрачную полиэтиленовую упаковку и убедиться, что корневая система живая, здоровая и плотная. Нужно учесть, что если корней мало и они слабые и тонкие, то такое растение будет набирать силы для цветения еще 2–3 года. Корневище не должно иметь мягких и гнилых частей.
При покупке новинок следует узнать, как приспособлен сорт или гибрид к местному климату. Every year hundreds of new daylilies appear on the market. Most of these plants are derived in the subtropics of the United States and it may happen that in the middle Russian latitudes their acclimatization will take place with difficulty, so experts often advise flower growers not to forget about the old reliable and proven varieties.
An important point in the cultivation of daylilies - landing in the ground. It is carried out in the spring in May or at the beginning of September. Prefer spring planting, such plants take root better.
If a sapling is purchased late in the fall or in the winter, then a healthy rhizome can be stored without losses for several months until planting. Plants are placed before the awakening of the kidneys in a cool place with a temperature of 4-8 ° C.
Before planting, the dead and rotten parts of the roots are removed, treated with a solution of any fungicide for disinfection. If the planting material has been stored for a long time and the roots have dried, then it is soaked for several hours in a solution of humate or root. Healthy roots will come to life quickly with this treatment, dried out parts will also be visible - they are cut off.
Planting pits in diameter should be larger than the root system. The distance between them, depending on the degree of growth of bushes is 0.5–1 m.
In the prepared wells add nutrient mixture of compost, garden soil, peat. Additionally, you can add mineral fertilizers and ashes. The day before planting, it is desirable to shed the soil, so that the earth is a little settled.
In the center of the landing fossa form a small hill on which the root neck is stirred. It can not be deeply deepened, it will reflect badly on flowering. The depth of embedding of the root collar should not be more than 2.5–3 cm. Roots are freely distributed around the well. Rhizome neatly covered with earth, compacting the soil around the seedling and watered. In the first days after planting, the roots continue to be watered regularly.
Moisture is especially important for plants in the spring, when flower stalks are laid and in summer during flowering. Regular deep watering is preferable to frequent and superficial. Depending on weather conditions, plants are watered 1 time in 7-14 days. This mode of irrigation is enough for the roots to accumulate moisture. It is watered in the morning or in the evening, making sure that the water does not fall on the delicate petals of flowers. After watering the plants weed and loosen.
If young daylilies are planted in fertile soil, then they do not need additional feedings in the first year. Due to an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, the plant will grow green leaves to the detriment of flowering.
Fertilizers are applied in phases: at the beginning of spring growth, in the summer before flowering and in the beginning of autumn. In the summer and autumn, top dressing should contain potassium and phosphorus, important nutrients necessary for laying the future flowers in all peduncles.
Daylilies love liquid fertilizing with organic-mineral fertilizers. Dry mineral fertilizers are scattered around the bushes, then buried in the soil and watered. The dosage depends on the age of the daylily and the type of soil.
Particular attention should be paid to the old overgrown bushes, the soil around which is exhausted by flowering.
In old, overgrown bushes, the root collar becomes bare with time, therefore, every year around the base they pour a humus layer of 2–3 cm.
For plants, mulching is useful around the bushes. This improves the composition of the soil, protects against overheating, protects from frost and weeds. Dry peat, compost, crushed pine bark are used as mulch. Do not use fresh sawdust. To prevent wood mulch from becoming a haven for slugs, granules of pest or superphosphate preparations are scattered around the plantations.
At one place daylilies can grow for a long time up to 15–20 years. During this time, the bush grows, ages, the flowers become smaller. This is noticeable after 7–8 years. Therefore, every 5-6 years, plants need to rejuvenate. Daylilies can be transplanted throughout the season, but it is preferable to do this at the beginning of spring leaf growth - in April-May or in August-September with the onset of the dormant period. With a spring transplant, rooting will be faster and more successful.
How to cover the flowers for the winter?
Daylilies tolerate wintering well in central Russia. Most have enough natural snow cover. But for the reliability of planting, thermophilous daylilies are mulched in the autumn with a layer of 2–3 cm or covered with spruce leaves. Also, bushes can spud earth to 15-20 cm in height. Previously, the entire dry aerial part is cut off. Shelter is especially important in the first year for young autumn plantings.
With the arrival of spring, the shelter is removed, the mulch is pounded from the base of the bushes so that it does not interfere with the growth of new shoots.
This is the most common way in which the plant retains all parental signs. Apply several ways to divide the daylilies: with digging bushes or without removing it from the ground.
The bush is dug completely together with the root. Rhizome washed with water. It is so easy to get rid of pests, all parts are clearly visible and it is convenient to divide the plant. Then the peduncle and leaves are removed, leaving shoots 10–15 cm high. Old bushes are dried, then the plant is cut into pieces so that each has a part of the root collar with a bud. In order for the delenok to form more decorative greenery, 3-5 shoots are left for them.
Strongly overgrown bushes are problematic to divide. In such plants, young roots grow along the edges of the bushes, and these parts will quickly take root after separation. Delenkam from the middle of the bush without young roots need time for rearing, because these parts are more injured. There are more dead and long roots that are pruned. Delenki from the middle of the bush is planted on a temporary bed, and after 1-2 years - on a permanent place.
At the end of the summer, young rosettes can be separated from the loose daylily bushes without having to dig up the mother bush. To do this, choose two or three-year bushes with their own roots.
Without digging in the spring can be divided not very expanding varieties of daylilies. A sharp shovel from a vertical position cuts a bush along marked lines, then prunes it from the bottom and removes delenki from the ground. This method requires experience and skill. Place the cuts on the roots sprinkled with wood ash.
Diseases and pests
Daylilies are lucky, they are distinguished by good health, resistant to diseases and rarely affected by pests.
Of the diseases, the main danger for daylilies is root rot. Its pathogens can be bacteria or fungi, and the cause - waterlogging.
Signs of the disease - growth retardation and yellowing of the leaves. They become sluggish, sticky, easily detached from the base. Urgent measures taken immediately at the first symptoms of the disease. The plant is completely excavated. The roots are washed in a solution of potassium permanganate, all the affected parts are cut out with a sharp knife, and then sections are sprinkled with a fungicide.
From pests before flowering problems delivers daylily mosquito. It multiplies, laying eggs in buds. Damaged buds do not grow, are deformed. They are cut off and destroyed.
Overwintering in the soil caterpillars scoops early spring can damage and destroy young shoots and buds of the plant. Pests are destroyed by weeding between rows, treating daylilies with insecticides. The use of poison baits is also effective.
In any garden you can find a small corner for daylilies. This is a grateful plant. For minimal care, it will please its owners a beautiful bloom. Daylilies are good not only in flowerbeds, in borders or on alpine hills, cut, in bouquets, they look no less festive and luxurious!
Tips experienced growers on the cultivation of daylilies you can find out by watching the video.