The Iris family has many plants of incomparable beauty. A popular representative of this family are gladioli, or skewers. The perennial bulbous plant has been known for a long time and has a rich history. The habitat is tropical and subtropical in Europe, Asia and Africa. Skewers differ in a variety of forms. There are tens of thousands of varieties of garden gladioli and at least two hundred natural species.
The graceful long plant has vertical stems. Its height is from fifty centimeters to one and a half meters. Hard leaves, the length of which reaches eighty centimeters, like a sharp blade of a sword, rush upwards. Voronkovidnye flowers have a different color and shape. Spike inflorescence can be quite dense or loose.
How to grow gladiolus? General landing rules
To grow a full-fledged gladiolus, which will please with abundant and beautiful flowering, it is necessary to follow certain rules of agricultural engineering. Skewers - moisture-loving and heat-loving plants. For planting bulbs important point is the choice of the site. Gladiolus will be powerful and healthy in a well-lit area, protected from wind and drafts. With poor lighting plants strongly drawn out and poorly bloom. Normal flower development is ensured by soil fertility. Its most suitable type is black soil or light loamy soil. When planting, useful fertilizers will be complex. They are added to the well under each plant.
Gladiolus - vigorous flowers. The question arises: how to grow gladiolus so that the stem is stable and does not break? Proper planting depth will contribute to the stable fixation of the plant in the ground. After choosing a site for a flower bed and preparing the soil, the corms ready for planting are sorted by size.
Large corms deepen by ten centimeters, medium - by five to seven. Small bulbs - kids - land at a depth of two to three centimeters. The distance between the holes is from five to fifteen centimeters (depending on the size of the planting material).
How to grow gladiolus at home? Selection of pots for growing
Bulb flowers can be found not only in the composition of garden flower beds. Skopzhniki settle sometimes in the most unexpected places. Growing gladiolus in the open field is not the only possible option of planting bulbous flowers. In the conditions of artificial soil, they will decorate any interior. But before you grow a gladiolus, you need to solve a number of issues. First of all, you need to choose the right capacity in which the flowers will grow.The mistakes made will not allow you to get a full-blooming flowering plant. In order to solve the problem of how to grow a gladiolus with a normal developed root system, it is necessary to know the extent of its growth. It branches in the soil to a depth of forty centimeters. A full flower nutrition can provide a layer of soil at least forty-five centimeters thick. Based on this parameter, a suitable container for growing is selected. You can use large flower pots or plastic containers with a capacity of at least twelve to fifteen liters.
Gladiolus on the windowsill. Landing rules
Unusual spectacle - gladioli on the window of the dwelling. How to grow gladiolus in a pot so that it is healthy and fully developed and blossomed? At home, small-flowered and miniature varieties of skewers will be more suitable. They have a stalk height of thirty to fifty centimeters. The root system of flowers of these varieties is less powerful. The choice of a suitable container has already been mentioned.Drain hole must be present in the pot. Flowers do not tolerate stagnant moisture. Drainage material is poured at the bottom of the tank, which will ensure normal outflow of water. A good drainage system will ensure normal growing conditions. The pot is filled with soil, which should be quite fertile and at the same time moisture-absorbing. The success of growing high-grade plants depends on its composition. Corms in pots deepen by eight to twelve centimeters, maintaining a distance between them of six to seven centimeters.
How to grow gladiolus on the balcony. Choosing a flower container
Decorative design of balconies and loggias is impossible without flowers. For this purpose you can use bulbous plants. When choosing varieties, preference is given to gladioli with a small stem height. In order to organize a miniature flower garden, select the appropriate capacity. In this case, you can use containers of required sizes.
Florists are selected on the same principle, which is used when choosing pots for growing gladioli. They must have a volume of at least fifteen liters. Usually on balconies or loggias, large containers are used in which more plants can be planted than in pots used for indoor cultivation.
How to grow gladioli from bulbs to ensure a normal water balance? Containers must have openings for outflow of water. Before filling them with soil mixture, drainage material is placed on the bottom. The soil should be quite fertile. At home, you can use the purchase of universal light peat soils for growing flower crops.
Flower garden at home. Cultivation
Before you grow a gladiolus on a window or balcony, you should study the conditions of planting and content of these flowers. Outdoors, gladioli are planted at a soil temperature of at least ten degrees Celsius. In conditions of closed ground, skewers begin to land from mid-April.
When choosing a location for the location of pots and containers on a window sill, balcony or loggia, it should be taken into account that gladioli are heat-loving and light-loving plants. Containers with flowers placed in well-lit places. Plants do not tolerate drafts and low air temperature. When grown on a balcony, you need to monitor the temperature. When cooling to ten degrees Celsius containers temporarily entered into the room.
The first shoots appear two or three weeks after planting. At this time it is important to ensure the proper moistening of flowers. The lack of moisture will necessarily affect the growth of the plant. It will be weak and will lose its decorative form. Provide moderate watering, not allowing waterlogging. Moisture retention can be achieved by mulching with peat. At the same time it will serve as an additional feeding of the plant. Attention should also be paid to air exchange. The soil in the tank is constantly loosened, thereby providing air access to the root system of the gladiolus.
The next important point - feeding gladioli. In the conditions of closed ground can not do without them. How to grow flowers to ensure adequate nutrition? Normal development and flowering of gladioli will require three to four foliar dressings with mineral fertilizers, for the preparation of which the following substances are dissolved in one liter of water:
- ammonium nitrate - 0.5 g,
- superphosphate - 0.5 g,
- potassium chloride - 0.5 g
Terms of feeding the following:
- the first is the appearance of three leaves,
- the second is the appearance of six leaves,
- the third is the beginning of flowering.
The next part of agrotechnical measures for growing gladioli at home is preventive methods. In greenhouse conditions, plants grow much weaker than flowers grown in garden flower gardens.
How to grow gladiolus from bulbs in pots and containers, while at the same time to prevent the disease of flowers? First of all, you should use a healthy planting material that is disinfected for thirty minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate before planting. 0.5 grams of potassium permanganate is enough to make it per liter of water. During the period of growth, they control the state of flowers and carry out the necessary preventive measures.
Planting material. Cleaning and storage
Gladiolus cleaning in the open ground is carried out in late September and early October. Corm matures in four weeks after cessation of flowering. In greenhouse conditions, the flowering period lasts a little longer. Terms of cleaning at the same time, respectively, are shifted. When cleaning plants completely dug out of the ground. After that, they are dried and pruned stems.
The bulbs are cleaned and rinsed with water. Then they are kept in a solution of potassium permanganate and then dried well. Next, remove the old bulbs and root system. The final step is thorough drying, which will last up to fourteen days.
Gladiolus bulbs should be stored in a dry place at a temperature of three to eight degrees Celsius. At home, gladioli can be stored in paper bags or cardboard boxes, placing them on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
Reproduction of gladioli
Apply several methods of reproduction - seeds and small onion-kids. The latter method is more common. How to grow gladiolus from babies?
Klubneochke - the perfect breeding material for the sword. Babies are formed on the main bulb. They are small in size. In order to accelerate the flowering of this planting material, in March it is sown in containers. Sowing depth is from two to three centimeters. Baby gladiolus will grow in the container until September. Caring for plants is the same as for flowers grown from large corms. At the end of the season, the baby increases in size to three centimeters. Next season, these corms will be an excellent planting material for high-grade flowering plants.
Features potted gladiolus
Gladiolus - one of the most popular flowers for cultivation in the open field. Widely used in landscape design for single and group plantings. Today, the types and varieties of plants, adapted for cultivation and at home.
They differ from garden gladiolus by the following characteristics:
- stem height varies from 30 to 60 cm,
- the color palette consists of more than 50 shades,
- flowering shorter, but abundant,
- more demanding to care, but resistant to diseases and pests.
Homemade gladioli are grown from onions. Planting material is easy to purchase at a specialty store or to get it yourself by separating the plant's tubers.
A large number of varieties of gladioli differing in height, color of buds and flowering period have been developed. For cultivation in the apartment you need to use only compact or small-flowered varieties of gladioli. The most beautiful of them:
- Columbine The primrose variety, forms small flowers of a red-white shade. To preserve the brightness and saturation of the color requires good illumination,
- Tinkerbell. Butterfly species of gladiolus. It grows up to 75 cm, forms a volume spike inflorescence. The flowers are orange color with a yellow throat,
- Georgette Great for group planting in a container. Blooming later, the semi-double petals are colored red and yellow,
- Robinetta The stem grows to 60 cm in height. Bulk buds are colored dark purple,
- Greenbird. Extremely decorative variety of gladiolus. The flowers are unusual for the culture of green-yellow color. It is noted that during the flowering period the plant resembles a large bush of lettuce.
During the purchase of varietal bulbs, note the presence of annotations. It always wrote the country of origin, as well as the requirements for cultivation and the main characteristics of the plant.
Choosing a place to keep
Gladiolus, or spike - light-loving culture, it is desirable to place a container with a plant on the east or south window-sill of the apartment where the longest lighting is observed.
The flower can comfortably tolerate exposure to direct sunlight, but during the day it is recommended to darken. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of culture is 18-20 o C.
Potted gladiolus does not tolerate the effects of drafts and strong winds, it is undesirable to have a pot on the balcony, next to the constantly opening window.
For comfortable growth and development of flowers requires a constant moderate humidity in the range from 70 to 85%.
Selection of planting material
For the cultivation of gladioli at home, it is desirable to give preference only to dwarf and small-flowered varieties, traditional plant varieties will not work, as they grow up to 2 m in height, form a powerful root system. The maximum height of an adult plant is 60 cm.
You need to purchase bulbs only in a specialized nursery or store to get a varietal plant.
At the time of purchase should be carefully inspect the planting material, it should not be deformation, wrinkled and damaged areas. The diameter of the bulb should be no more than 4 cm.
The container for planting gladioli at home should have a depth of up to 30 cm, which allows the bulb to provide the necessary amount of substrate. At the bottom there must be drainage holes for outflow of excess water during irrigation, it is recommended to have a stand or saucer.
The diameter of the pot must correspond to the variety of gladiolus, the minimum size is 30 cm.
The material of manufacture does not matter, ceramic, plastic or clay containers will do.
Preparing for landing
Planting material must be sorted, cleaned of excess scales. To avoid the development of dangerous fungal and bacterial infections, bulbs with gladiolus should be soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes before planting. After that, they should be thoroughly dried.
The soil for growing potted gladioli should be light and fertile, with good aeration. It is desirable to use ready-made mixtures for ornamental flowering plants, but the soil can be prepared independently.
This requires mixing garden soil, peat, sand and humus in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1. Before planting the bulbs, the soil and the pot must be disinfected with potassium permanganate.
The procedure of embedding the bulbs in the ground in closed conditions is carried out in the second half of April or in early May. After preparing the container, soil and bulbs you can start planting. Stepwise Algorithm:
- Lay a drainage layer of 5-7 cm at the bottom of the tank. For this purpose it is best to use pebbles, coarse sand or expanded clay.
- Pour the soil into the pot in almost the entire volume of the container. Liberally pour the soil water at room temperature.
- Deepen the bulbs in the ground to a depth of at least 10-12 cm. If you use a spacious container for group cultivation, then you need to respect the distance between plants of 6-8 cm.
- Place the pot with gladioli in a warm and sunny place away from the effects of drafts.
With the observance of agricultural planting plant grows rapidly and grows. Distillation of the first flowers occurs 14-22 days after planting. To maintain the saturation of the color of petals and ornamental plants is extremely important to follow the rules of care.
Peculiarities of care
Gladiolus, when grown in an apartment, is a rather capricious plant. Proper care is needed not only to achieve abundant flowering, but also the health of the bush. Basic care requirements:
- it is necessary to constantly maintain a moderate soil moisture, even a slight drying of the substrate adversely affects the appearance of leaves and flowers. It is necessary to water the plant from the first days after planting, the optimum frequency is 2 times a week, during the dry period water introduction is increased,
- top dressings are applied three times during the growing season - when 3 leaves develop, at the beginning of budding and during the period of active flowering. As a fertilizer, it is desirable to use complex ready-made compositions for flowering plants. Feed should be done only in the root way,
- after the formation of several buds, the plant may be deformed by the weight of the flowers. It is recommended to tie the gladiolus to the support,
- the soil should be well aerated and light, for this purpose, conduct regular dressings after each watering. It is recommended to carry out mulching with a layer of 3-5 cm so that moisture is retained on the surface layer of the substrate.
To prolong the flowering of gladiolus in a pot, it is recommended to lower the temperature of the air and the soil a little to 13-15 ° C. This slows down the metabolic processes in the plant, due to which flowers can be stored for 1-2 months longer.
What to do after flowering
Gladiolus bulbs have a short lifespan. Already in 4-5 years, the growth rate, the abundance of flowering and the saturation of the color of the buds decrease. Для возобновления растения можно заменить посадочный материал либо размножить луковицу путем деления ее на несколько частей, с помощью отсадки деток.
После окончания цветения необходимо обеспечить комфортную зимовку для растения. Для этой цели гладиолус обрезают ближе к осени, оставляя 5-7 см над поверхностью грунта.
After that, the pot should be removed to a dark and cool place with a temperature of 5-7 o C. Some flower growers practice the annual digging of the bulb with its subsequent planting in the spring.
Diseases and pests
Gladiolus is a stable culture that has strong immunity to diseases, infection in conditions of closed ground is rare. Among the pests are the danger of thrips and spider mites, as well as slugs when grown in a flowerpot on the street.
For the prevention and control of insects in the early stages of infection, you can apply traditional methods - treatment of infusion of wood ash, soap or onion solution. If the plant is severely affected, it should be treated with a chemical insecticide. Aktara, Intavir, Apollo or Actellic will be suitable for this purpose.
The first mention of gladioli was found in an ancient Greek legend, according to which the Roman emperor in honor of the victory over Thrace decided to arrange games. In a deadly battle, two Thracian brothers were to come out, whom the Romans took into slavery. When they entered the arena, the brothers decided not to fight, they thrust their swords into the ground and hugged them tightly. Roman guards killed brothers for disobedience to Roman law. The blood of the Thracians was absorbed into the ground, and the thrusting swords sprouted and gave root. In place of the swords, two beautiful flowers bloomed, which they called gladioli.
Gladiolus (gladius) - translated from Latin means "sword". Indeed, the shape of the flower looks like this weapon. Peduncle can reach 1.5 meters in height. Stem single, does not branch. The leaves of the gladiolus are linear, sessile, have a parallel venation, they twist around the stem, giving it extra strength. The flowers are in unilateral or bilateral inflorescence. The root system is represented by a rounded corm bulb. Gladiolus - perennial flowers. Each year, the old bulb dies off, transferring all the nutrients to the new.
The genus of gladioli includes more than 280 species. In the wild, they are very common, especially in Africa, Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Cultivation of gladioli and flower garden care in cold climates is possible, but there are some nuances. Plants are completely dug out of the soil, and their bulbs overwinter in a warm room. Gladiolus can differ in a variety of colors of inflorescences, the size of the plant itself and the intensity of flowering. There are species whose inflorescences include several flowers.
Conditions for the cultivation of gladioli should be suitable. These flowers do not like light soil, the acid reaction of which should be neutral or moderate. Planted gladiolus need in a lighted place, protected from the wind.
To get lush, healthy flowers of gladioli in the garden, it is necessary to follow the rules of planting and provide them with proper care. The first thing you should pay attention to is the choice of variety. Choose the most suitable type that is suitable for growing in your climate zone. Pay attention to the type of soil, it should not be too acidic or alkaline. The basis of the soil should be black soil, allowed a small portion of sand and clay. Can add reflow compost for intensive flowering. If the soil is clay, then process it to a depth of 15-20 cm, and it will become more breathable and nutritious. It must be remembered that the root system of gladioli is deeply immersed in the soil.
Cultivation of gladioli in the open field and care for them - an occupation for the most responsible gardeners. Choose a suitable place for a flower bed. It is better if it is a well-lit hill. In this case, the plants will not suffer from excessive moisture and will give a lush bloom. You can arrange the flowers in the penumbra, but then do not count on abundant flowering.
It is better to plant the bulbs in the ground, it will be easier for them to acclimatize. Plant them at a distance of 15 cm from each other, not less. You can choose a longer interval, it all depends on the design of your flower garden. To increase the duration of flowering of gladioli, plant them in batches with an interval of two weeks.
After planting gladioli, it is recommended to mulch the soil. This is done in order to reduce the likelihood of weed germination, as well as reduce the frequency of watering. For mulching, you can use sawdust, tree bark, straw. This material is placed tightly on the ground so as to cover the entire surface of the soil. The process of growing gladioli in the open field will be a fascinating hobby for you. Every year, you can add new varieties and supplement your collection with interesting items.
How to plant gladiolus in the spring
Early spring planting provides the bulb with large amounts of moisture, while significantly reducing the risk of various diseases. Flowering will delight its pomp, and the number of flowers in the inflorescence will increase. The size of new bulbs will be 20-30% more than when planted in May or June.
Preparation for spring planting is carried out in the fall. A place intended for planting gladioli is dug up, sand, humus and lime are introduced into the soil. In the spring, treat with mineral fertilizers: double superphosphate, potassium sulphide, ammonium nitrate. The amount of fertilizer needed is determined based on the recommendations indicated on the package. A total of 4-5 dressings are carried out during the period of growth and flowering of the plant. Two years later, move the flower garden with gladioli to another place. This is done in order to avoid the occurrence of diseases, since the constant cultivation of gladioli in one place leads to the concentration of pathogenic microflora. It is not recommended to place gladioli in close proximity to cruciferous vegetables; there is a possibility of infection with such pests as thrips, which are attracted to some vegetable crops.
Use only healthy bulbs for planting, inspecting them from all sides. Their surface should be smooth, even, without ulcers and diseases. Donets bulbs should be clean. If there are roots, they should be light. If the bulb has gray scales, then it is affected by the disease. The cut of the stem should be the same color as the scales, but not black by any means. The dark color of the cut point means the beginning of the rotting process.
Before planting, clean the bulb from the husk, visually check it for defects, soak it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or in a solution of a specialized chemical. Make a long hole with a depth of 10-15 cm. At the bottom of the hole pour sand, layer thickness - 1-2 cm. This is done in order to increase the level of water and air permeability. When planting, be guided by the size of the bulb: if it is large, you can dig deep. Small place at a distance of 8-10 cm. It is desirable that the soil temperature was above 8-9 degrees.
Growing gladiolus seedlings is a more convenient option. By the time of planting in the soil the plant is already strong and will give several leaves. If you placed the bulbs in the open ground, then be sure to cover the soil surface with a film, then the plant will appear earlier. Growing gladioli from bulbs of large sizes is the most appropriate. The larger the bulb, the greater will be the ground part of the flower.
Growing gladiolus from seed
This method of cultivation is almost not used in floriculture due to the inability of these flowers to maintain the quality of the variety.
Choose your favorite gladiolus bloom. Leave only two flowers on it, carefully remove the rest. When seed boxes are formed, collect the planting material. The box should turn yellow - this is an indicator that the seeds are ripe. Seeds should be dried and left for storage until spring. Open boxes need before planting. You can begin to sow even in February, only in this case it is necessary to take care of additional lighting. If this is not possible, then start sowing in the spring. Do not significantly deepen the seeds, they are very small in gladioli. Place them almost on the ground surface, lightly pressing your finger into the ground. Cover with foil and place in a warm place.
When the outside air temperature becomes suitable for transplantation, the seedlings can be placed in open ground. The resulting small onions are dug out in the fall and stored until next spring. When growing gladioli from babies you can get the first flowering.
The difficulty of growing from seeds is the selection of the necessary planting material. They bloom only in the second year, and they will be a large number. And at the first flowering it is impossible to determine the true color of the flower. In the second year, the plant may be inconspicuous, and in the third it can be transformed beyond recognition. As the cultivation of gladiolus for beginners, this method is ideal. There will be an opportunity to track the cyclical growth of a flower from a seed.
For the formation of lush flowers gladioli need a large amount of nutrients that the plant receives from the soil. Over time, it is depleted, and the supply of mineral substances becomes scarce. The plant becomes sluggish, the flowers are small, and the stem is thin. To avoid such metamorphosis, the soil must be saturated with minerals by introducing dressings.
Fertilizers must be organic and mineral. The following substances are necessary for long-term flowering and active growth of gladioli:
- Nitrogen. With a lack of this substance, the leaves become light green in color, the number of flowers is reduced.
- Potassium. Deficiency can affect the appearance of the leaves, they become sluggish, dryness can form around the edges and dying off close to the base of the foliage. The number of flowers is significantly reduced.
- Phosphorus. If a good preplant tillage was carried out, then the plant will not need phosphorus in the spring and summer. As soon as the leaves began to darken and burgundy streaks appeared, it is time to add phosphoric dressing.
- Magnesium. An insufficient amount of this element leads to a slowdown in the formation of flowers, the leaf veins turn yellow.
Schedule fertilization for the full growth of gladioli includes the following stages of feeding.
- Ammonium nitrate. It is introduced in the spring when the first leaf appears. The second time you should enter the feeding with the appearance of the sixth leaf.
- Potassium nitrate. This feeding is necessary when the first buds appear.
- Superphosphate. It is introduced into the soil after flowering. You can replace superphosphate bone meal or wood ash.
With proper care and adherence to the schedule of fertilizing, gladioli will please you with abundant flowering, and the colors of buds and leaves will be rich and bright.
Growing at home
Not all varieties are suitable for growing gladiolus at home. Choose planting material according to this condition. For gladioli, it is necessary to prepare a pot or pot of the desired size. In depth it should be at least 30-35 cm. A prerequisite is the organization of the drainage system. Gladioli are very sensitive to an excess of moisture, their roots may begin to rot when water stagnates. At the bottom of the pot pour stones of medium and small fraction, you can use any other drainage material. Place a layer of soil on top, leaving 8-10 cm to the surface. Place the bulbs pre-soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Fill the pot with soil, receding 1 cm from the edge.
The soil for planting should be fertile, loose and airy. For the cultivation of gladioli at home, you must follow the rules that are typical for cultivation and in open ground. It is better to land in late April or early May. In the warm season pots with gladioli can be put on the balcony, in the cold - they should be only in the apartment at room temperature. Be sure to use top dressing to avoid depleting the soil in the pot. Otherwise, the plant will not actively bloom and delight you with its attractive appearance. When growing gladioli in containers, monitor the condition of the soil. The earth should not form a superficial crust, the soil should be airy and homogeneous, periodically make loosening.
How to dig and store the bulbs
In order for the bulb not to die in the harsh winter conditions, it must be removed from the soil and left to overwinter in warm and stable conditions. The most suitable time to collect the bulbs is the middle or the end of September, 30-50 days after flowering. If the weather is sunny and warm in October, then the bulbs can sit longer than usual. When brown leaves appear on the leaves, it is necessary to immediately dig up the bulb until the disease has passed into a more serious stage.
To dig the bulbs, use a pitchfork or shovel. Be careful and attentive, do not damage their surface, and do not miss the small bulbs. Undermine the ground under the bush and pull the plant out of the stem. Remove small daughter seeds, they are also planting material. Shake the roots off the ground and place the plant in a warm room for several days. During this period, the nutrients from the stem will move to the root, only after that it will be possible to cut the stem from the bulb. If you have taken a plant with a stem that has already dried up or is affected, then pruning should be done immediately.
As preparation of the bulbs for storage, treatment with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or boric acid can be used. After that, arrange the bulbs in a single layer in any container that is convenient for you, the bottom of which should be lined with napkins or non-synthetic fabric. Expose a container on the sun that bulbs dried up. When moisture evaporates completely, place the bulbs in a wooden box or plastic container and place them in a dry and warm room. Once a month you need to mix the bulbs in order to avoid the formation of moisture in the lower layers of the tank. Growing gladiolus and care for them is not the case of one season. Timely remove the bulbs from the soil, otherwise you may lose the seed.
Diseases of gladioli
Gladioli, like other bulbous plants, are subject to various diseases characteristic of this species. The most popular type of disease for gladioli is a fungus. It can affect the bulb and leaves.
A clear sign of the presence of a disease in a plant is a change in its appearance. Leaves may appear speckled brown, the leaves turn yellow and dry, the flowers become sluggish and pale. Streaks and streaks may appear on the leaves, indicating that the plant has been infected with a virus. It is very important to identify the diseased flower at the primary stage of the disease, in which case it is possible to save the gladiolus bulb. In addition to viral, fungal and bacterial diseases, gladioli can also be subject to physiological diseases. We give examples of the most common diseases of gladioli.
- Fusarium The causative agent is a fungus that infects the bulb. The disease slows down the growth of the ground part of the plant, the leaves turn yellow, and the plant dries.
- Sclerotinia The leaves take a brown tint, begin to dry intensively. The bulbs wither and darken.
- Botrytiosis. This phenomenon occurs during prolonged wet and cool weather. The fungus infects the bulb. On it are formed watery spots that go to the stem. As a result, the bulb rots and the aboveground part of the plant.
In addition to these diseases, gladioli can be susceptible to pest attacks. The most ardent enemy for these plants are thrips. Adults of these insects hibernate under the scales of the bulbs, begin to actively proliferate in the spring. During active flowering begins mass reproduction of the pest. The larvae take all the organic matter from the leaves and flowers, causing the plant to wilt.
To disinfect the affected bulbs and get rid of thrips it is necessary to take some measures. Place the bulbs in hot water (about 50 degrees) for a while (no more than 6 minutes). You can apply the method of spraying bulbs solution karbofos. After that, the bulbs are dried and sent to storage.
Features of the cultivation of gladioli
Gladiolus Care carried out without any particular difficulties or problems. Enough to carefully study the basic manual and learn a number of rules that will allow to achieve high success in the upcoming case.
- It is known that gladioli like regular transplants, so they can not be grown more than two years in one place. Once two years have passed, transplant the crop to a new place, observing the golden rule in the form of crop rotation,
- When performing transplanting activities, choose a different type of soil composition. For example, if before the gladiolus was in the sandy soil, change the place of stay to light alumina,
- При выборе посадочного материала обращайте внимание на те экземпляры, которые отлично подходят для выращивания в наших климатических условиях, т. к. теплолюбивые сорта плохо приживаются в прохладных и дождливых местах. Если вы купили голландский сорт, не отчаивайтесь, если он будет цвести только один сезон, а затем погибнет. В любом случае, даже такое короткое зрелище доставит вам незабываемые ощущения,
- Старайтесь не сажать рядом детки и крупные луковицы, т. к. крупные особи начнут угнетать мелкие. Высаживать культуру нужно по порядку: от маленьких до больших. The largest copies are recommended to be landed separately,
- Consider the depth of the pits where the gladiolus sapling will be placed. For example, in a light soil composition, the optimum depth for planting should be four bulb diameters. In heavy - three diameters. If there is no optimal depth, you have to tie the arrow
- Before planting, in about 3–5 days, the daughter bulb should be cleaned of dense scales, otherwise the probability of successful germination can be minimal. After planting, ensure the crop is watered,
- It is known that gladiolus loves light very much, so in shaded conditions it may not bloom at all, with the exception of early varieties that calmly coexist in shade or partial shade,
- It is important that the area where cultivation takes place is well ventilated, otherwise there is a risk of developing fungal diseases,
- When grown in sandy cakes, use foliar top dressings, which consist of the external spraying of leaves with different top dressings,
How to prepare the bulbs for planting
Before planting gladiolus, you need to carefully consider the plant bulb. Proper planting of gladioli often depends on how carefully you do this procedure 3 weeks before the landing. To do this, you need to clean the bulb from the framing husk.
Many wonder when it is possible to peel gladiolus. Carefully inspect the bulbs. If you notice spots, it means that it is infected with bacteria and should be treated. It is necessary to cut out the places that are struck with a sharpened knife, cover them with greenery and allow them to dry until they form a crust. It is better to discard the bulb if it has irreparable damage, or it is completely withered.
It is necessary to carefully try to remove the leathery film from the germ and arrange the plants in one row on the flat-shaped containers. Leave 18 days before planting gladioli at room temperature. If the plant was stored before in a cool place, then this temperature will allow it to wake up faster.
After the deadline has passed, you can safely proceed to the pre-treatment of plants. To do this, dilute potassium permanganate in water and soak the bulbs in this solution for 30 minutes. After that, put a cotton layer in the flat container, which was previously well moistened with water. Place the bulbs there for 3 days. As the water dries, it is necessary to periodically wet the cotton wool again. If during this time you have noticed the appearance of the roots, then this means that wonderful gladioluses are ready for landing in the ground.
Rules for planting gladiolus bulbs in open ground
There are certain rules for planting gladioli in open ground.
A few weeks before planting, plants need to be disassembled by size, discarding rotten and diseased specimens. Bulbs that are large, it is better to plant separately, since subsequently a strong flower will grow from them, which will shade the smaller “relatives”, thus depriving them of all the nutrients.
After pereberete, remove dry scales in such a way as not to harm the body of the bulb and young shoots.
Optimum landing times
Planting is carried out in spring, from the end of April to the first decade of May. It is during this period that the soil at a depth of 12 cm warms to 10 ° C. If the earth has not yet warmed up, it is better to wait for the optimum temperature. It should be remembered that it is impossible to do with spring gladioli tubers:
- If you plant the plant early, then such actions can lead to a delay in flower development.
- Late planting is also not discussed, as it may adversely affect the plant.
- It is also necessary to take into account all the climatic features of the area where the landing will take place. Remember that if you plant gladiolus in wet soil, it will kill the tuber.
Site selection for planting
If you advance responsibly in advance to the question of where to plant gladiolus in the country, then you will certainly succeed.
Try to make a bed in such a way that from the north side it has “protection” in the form of trees, shrubs or a fence. Gladioli require a lighted area, which will be protected from the wind, as it can break the tall stem of a plant. Therefore, it is best to prepare the landing site in the autumn. The territory should be flat, for this you will need a rake. The flower bed should be left for 2 weeks, then you can proceed directly to planting.
How to prepare the ground for planting
The soil should be well dug up and prepared by adding fertilizers for planting. Do not forget to remove all weeds from the land before planning to grow a flower. If the place you have chosen is too low, you must make a high bed, because gladiolus bulbs do not like stagnant water and may die.
The plant is a lover of loose soil, so if your area is clayey, then just pour peat, sand and humus in the ratio of one to three.
Scheme and depth of landing
How deeply the gladiolus needs to be planted depends on the size of the tuberous bulb. If it is large, then the plant should be planted to a depth of 10 cm, if the average is 7 cm, and the small onion is best planted to a depth of 2-3 cm. It is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil, as the clay can lead to slow growth, and sandy - to the difficulties of landing.
Watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil
First of all, you need time to water the gladiolus. In spring, the soil is wet, and watering the plant depends on how necessary it is. The amount of watering should be necessarily increased when the flower stalks are formed (15 liters per 1 sq / m). This stage you can easily determine by how many leaves have already appeared. If there are 3 or 4 full leaflets, you can safely increase the dose of watering. A lot of water is required during the flowering of gladiolus. After watering, you need to try to break through the ground, and the flower itself to pile up.
Fertilizing remains an important component of flower growth. A portion of fertilizer should be applied at 4 and 8 weeks after planting. Top dressing is better to choose nitrogen. On 1 sq / m of soil you need 30 grams of fertilizer. If the site itself is already rich in nitrogen, the portion should be reduced by 2 times. After the appearance of the first buds, the soil should also be fertilized.
Garter and hilling plants
It is necessary to tie up the plants when they begin to grow. You will need pegs. You can do without the garter, but simply to pile up the plant by about 12 cm, in order to make it sustainable.
If you are wondering if gladioli can be cut, then experienced gardeners answer that you can, just try not to cut the bottom sheets. In order for the normal development of the bulb to take place, simply leave 5 leaves.
Fight against diseases and pests
There are few pests in gladioli, but they are still there. Slugs have a negative effect on the appearance of the plant, as they are able to eat half the leaves. They can also gnaw tubers and ruin a flower.
To avoid this, you need to weed out the weeds, so they take half the nutrients and help slugs to multiply. Preparations such as Thunderstorm and Meta will help achieve good results in pest control. Processing should be done no more than once every 20 days.
Salt and mustard powder will help you, as they affect the delicate skin of slugs and prove to be a serious obstacle in the way of pests.
Dark beer can also help. Liquid is poured into shallow bowls and buried in the soil so that the edges are at ground level. Slugs are delighted with beer, therefore, having come to the smell, they find their last refuge.
Medvedka is another serious pest of gladioli, as it gnaws not only the roots, but also young stems. Water can be poured into the container. When the pest is thirsty, it will fall into a water trap.
You can also dig into the ground granules "Medvetoksa" 50 cm. Having eaten the bait, the pest will die.
As for diseases, there are about 15 species of them, which are caused by microscopic fungi, viruses, bacteria. It is also known that no methods of struggle will help you prevent an irreversible process if it has already begun. Therefore, it would be best to initially monitor the condition of the plants and follow the rules of agricultural technology.
When to dig and how to store gladioli
In late autumn, when the gladiolus ottsvetut, you need to dig them out of the soil and carry out a thorough cleaning from the roots and earth, then separate the bulbs from the children and dry them thoroughly. Babies and tubers should be kept separate.
Storage of gladioluses best takes place in a cold dark place. Also, they should be decomposed into paper bags of several pieces. Regular airing and checking will help you prevent rotting.
In the middle of February, the bulbs will need coolness and a dim light, as they have a dormant period at the end, and they release arrows. In this form, they will be before landing in the ground.
If you have asked questions about what can be planted next to gladiolus and what combines gladioli on a flower bed, then these plants will best grow with tulips or daffodils, as well as with peonies and hydrangeas.
As you can see, the departure and disembarkation of gladioli will not take much of your time. And with a great desire, you will certainly be able to plant these wonderful flowers!
Where better to plant gladiolus?
Gladioli like light and heat, so for planting bulbs you should choose a well-lit area that is not shaded and not blown.
When planting in the shade, the plants develop poorly, and flowering either comes later, or is absent altogether.
It should also be borne in mind that the flower does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater, so the bed should be located on a flat or sloping ground so that the water can drain.
At one place gladiolus can be grown no more than two years. When planting large corms better to plant separately from small ones so that they do not oppress them.
How to water?
On hot summer days, during flowering, it is necessary to water the flowers twice a week so that the flower stalks do not wilt and all the buds on them can open. The rest of the time, one-time watering is sufficient (once in 7 days), but abundant. It is important to prevent water from entering the leaves.
Every 10 days gently loosen the earth around the bulbs, otherwise the resulting crust will not allow the roots to "breathe." To the ground so quickly did not dry out, you can mulch the plants with humus.
When to fertilize gladioli?
During the summer, flowers must be fed at least three times:
- When 3 leaflets sprout from the bulbs, apply nitrogen fertilizers (25 g of urea per 1 square meter of planting).
- At the phase of appearance of 6 leaves, add potassium phosphate preparations (15 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate and ammonium sulphate).
- After the formation of the peduncle, exclude the nitrogen components, adding 15 g of potassium chloride and 30 g of superphosphate.
To speed up flowering, you can spray gladiolus on a leaf with a solution of copper sulfate (0.2 g of the drug per liter of water).
Preparation of bulbs for wintering
In mid-September, when cover scales form on the bulbs, they need to be dug. Leaves, peduncles and roots cut with pruning shears, and soak the bulbs themselves in a solution of Fundazol for half an hour. Then rinse, pour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and put to dry for 2 weeks.
Store gladiolus bulbs in the winter in cardboard boxes or tissue bags in a cool place (basement).
Features planting gladioli
Gladiolus care is a simple task. Flower grower just follow the basic ruleswhich are associated with the biological or varietal characteristics of the plant. As mentioned above, the flowers give preference to areas with good lighting and a sufficiently high temperature regime, therefore, such nuances should be taken into account when choosing a site for planting.
Preference should be given to bright, protected from any drafts places with a good drainage layer. If you plant the culture in the north side, it is important that there was a lot of light, because even a small penumbra can lead to stunted growth. Also avoid landing in places with a high standing of groundwater. Growing gladiolus in the southern regions, you can apply a kind of shading in the noonday period.
The selected area should be horizontal, or inclined at an angle of 5 degrees to the south, so that any excess moisture quietly flows down.
An important feature of proper care of the culture is in comfortable soil acidity. Suitable indicators are equal to pH 6.5–6.8, because at higher acidity, the tips of the leaves begin to darken and wilt, and the flower undergoes fusarium. The alkaline environment interferes with the normal dissolution of the valuable for the normal life of the plant iron, with the result that the formation of chlorophyll in the leaves stops and they begin to turn yellow. Neutralization of acidic soil formulations is carried out with dolomite flour, eggshell or chalk.
The most suitable place for planting gladiolus can be light loam or sandy loam. To prepare such a substrate, it is enough to deposit a small amount of light sand into a heavy composition of loam. If we are talking about growing on a clay surface, humus or rotted compost should be added to the soil.
With good temperatures, the land needs to be dug before landing. If planting is carried out in arid regions, in order to preserve an optimum level of moisture, the main digging works are carried out in the autumn. Immediately before landing, the land should be loosened. Not bad proved the method of planting gladioli in places where previously grew vegetables or perennial grasses.
When you need to carry out digging gladioli
For the successful cultivation of gladioli at home, they need to dig and move to the basement or a special place. The action will be successful if it is carried out in mid-September, i.e., 35–45 days after flowering. Matured corms are distinguished by dense surface scales, which, by the way, also covers the children.
Digging is carried out in dry weather in order: from early varieties, to later ones.
The last step is to dig up the planting of small bulbs and children. Noting that the planting material is affected by some disease, such as black or brown spot, dig it out as fast as possibleto protect healthy individuals from damage.
Stems can be removed immediately before digging, or after it, using a sharp shears. Trimming measures apply to the root system. Having seized the tubers, the ground should be carefully shaken off, and the children should be separated. Then it remains to place the planting material in special boxes with fine-mesh or mesh bottom. It is important to separate the different varieties from each other and rinse them thoroughly with water.
The following activities are in thorough disinfection by immersing the bushes in a one-percent solution of foundationol for 20-30 minutes. After this treatment, the corms are washed with water, and then can be processed again using a 3% solution of potassium permanganate.
If you are attentive to such events, the planting and care of gladiolus at home will be particularly successful.