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Rumelian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb

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Growing pines is a snap. This evergreen tree will surely please the gardener all year round, but for this you should know a few rules for growing coniferous trees. Below is a description of it and the proper care of the tree.

This species of pine (Pinus peuce) is also called Balkan, because its habitat covers the highlands of the Balkan Peninsula.

Description of Rumelian pine (Pinus peuce)

The tree can be up to twenty or twenty-five meters tall and has a beautiful cone-shaped crown, as well as a straight and even trunk. The needles are long, dark green, dense and slightly greyish in color. Cones grow long and have a light brown tint.

The shape of the crown can vary and depends on how old the tree is. Young specimens of Rumelian pine are more often in the form of a compact wide pyramid, in adult trees the crown shape is more rounded, and in old pines it has an umbrella shape.

The bark of the Rumelian pine, as well as of other representatives of this group of plants, is scaly and hilly. Depending on the age of the tree, its shade can vary from bright and saturated to dark gray or brown.

Cones grow at the ends of the shoots. Their maturation occurs in the second or third year. Needles can grow two to three years, after which they fall off and are replaced by new ones.

How and when does pine bloom

Flowering tree is celebrated in spring - in May. Abundant fruiting - approximately two to three years after planting. Her cones are arranged singly or in pairs. Have a cylindrical shape and reaching ten centimeters in length and 4-5 in width. Can be curved and have a light brown tint.

Cones cover hard scales, but thin 3-3.5 cm in length and up to 23 mm in width. Seeds ripen are not large and have an oval shape. They are up to 5-7 mm in length and begin to mature around the third year. Having matured, almost immediately fly away. Seeds can be harvested in late August or early September. Seed germination is usually good. About 60 to 90 percent, which means that the conifer tree will grow with a probability of more than 50 percent.

Planting Rumelian pine

Rumelian pine is planted in the dacha alone. As a rule, it does not grow very well in the compositions, because it creates a rather large shadow, which is not like the rest of the plants. In addition, the pine itself requires a lot of light. If the Rumelian pine is planted with other plants, they should not be taller than it.

A lot of space is occupied by its root system. Roots of these pines powerful and strong and well developed.

Also an important condition for the cultivation of Rumelian pine is the right place for planting. She loves bright places, open space and clean air, and is also a frost-resistant plant.

Planting of seedlings produced in late autumn, making the depth of the pit for planting about a meter deep. If several trees are planted, then a distance of about four meters should be made between them.

It needs limestone and sandy soil with a good drainage system. If the soil is heavy and there is excessive moisture, then drainage should be done about twenty centimeters thick. Fertilizer can be added to the soil for planting. Usually use superphosphate at the rate of 150 grams per well. In autumn, the tree can also be fed with phosphorus-potassium supplements. Rumelian pine tolerates drought well and is resistant to various diseases and pests. The tree retains its decorative properties all year round.

Another component in the care of a pinus peuce conifer tree is pruning. Usually it is a pruning of a sanitary plan, that is, it removes dry and damaged branches. This should be done from early spring until autumn. There is also a trimming pruning, with which you can form the future crown of Rumelian pine. Such pruning is not carried out earlier than one year from the date of landing. Also, do not remove more than 1/3 of the green branches and do not leave them without needles.

How coniferous tree breeds

For planting this type of plant, it is better to purchase an already grown seedling, although it is possible to propagate a tree in several ways. Usually used:

  • seed multiplication
  • reproduction by vaccination.

Seeds need to be sown in early spring and before planting it is better to stratify them. Stratification is a method of preparing seeds for planting. Do this with the help of wet sand, moss or peat. That is, the seeds are placed between them before the germination. You can sow the seeds and the winter, then it is done around November.

It is also worth noting that when planting or transplanting a seedling, its roots should not be exposed, because in the air their root system can die in a few minutes. The land in the garden does not suit them very well, so you should take care of suitable soil in advance. It is necessary that there is a light earth with good breathability at the landing site.

Care for the Rumelian pine (pinus peuce)

Care for the prickly beauty is quite simple. Pine - a tree quite unpretentious and all care for it comes down to regular watering during the first time after planting. In addition, for the first time it needs a little priten.

The plant loves moisture, but it should not be too plentiful to water. Frequent watering may be required mainly in the summer, when there is very hot and dry weather.

Many recommend planting Rumelian pine as landscaping in squares, as well as use it in landscape design. In addition, it is trying to decorate the alpine hills, ponds, ponds and flower beds.

Garden forms of Rumelian pine

And although this pine tree has been known for more than one hundred and fifty years, it is an infrequent visitor to garden plots. Probably because there are not so many garden forms. Known species grown in gardens include:

  • Compact - a dwarf variety of coniferous tree, which grows in height no more than 5 meters. It grows rather slowly compared with the original look, adding only ten centimeters in length per year, sometimes a little more. Fruits appear around the age of seven and it does not bear fruit as abundantly as the original. The trunk is straight, the crown is thick with needles of a rich green color,
  • Nana is a pine tree that grows even less than the previous one, and its shape more resembles a coniferous shrub than a tree. Usually there is no more than two meters in height, and the girth of the crown is only a meter. In the year she adds only 5-7 centimeters in height. Accordingly, its growth is even slower than that of the previous species. Due to its miniature style, this variety looks very good as a decoration in landscape design and on alpine hills. Very well decorates the coastal zone of miniature ponds, ponds and garden alleys. May even grow as a pot culture,
  • Select is another type of miniature pine that grows a little more than the previous species. Their height is usually 5-6 meters, and the diameter of the crown from two to two and a half meters. Its growth is quite rapid and every year it grows by 20-25 centimeters. The barrel is flat, and the branches evenly diverge from it. They have a preferential direction upwards and depart from the trunk at an even angle. This conifer plant loves the light, and its needles are painted in a bright green tint. Young needles to tone lighter than the rest. This variety is well landscaped gardens. Due to its compactness, it takes up little space and does not require complex care.

In this way, pinus peuce or rumelian pine perfect for growing in gardens, due to the fact that it is not only frost-resistant, but also unpretentious. And its smaller varieties perfectly complement alpine slides and other projects in landscape design. It can also be used as a hedge, which will look very impressive.

Annotation of a scientific article on biology, the author of a scientific work is Rosnev B.N., Tsakov Kh. I.

The Rumelian relic pine tree with five needles, distributed mainly on the Balkan Peninsula in two isolated areas: to the west of the r. Vardara, where it occurs in the zone of beech forests (800-1200 m above sea level), and to the east of it, where it forms communities with fir, Scots pine and common spruce (1300-2300 m above sea level) . Emphasizing the differences with typical boreal vegetation, Sochava (1964) calls the mountain coniferous flora on the Balkan Peninsula quasi-boreal mesophytic vegetation, including in it, and from Rumelian pine forests. In the eastern part of the range (with the center on Pirin Mountain) Janka (1871) describes a species with a tall tree habit, with short and thin needles (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Vermiculata J.), today called Pinus peuce Griseb. vermicularis janka var. typica (Milev et al., 1999). In the study of geobotanical communities, Lakoshich (1972) separates it as an independent subspecies in Bulgaria, growing on rock formations (rhyolites and dacites) (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Bulgarica in contrast to the common in the western part of the range (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Macedonica) characterized by its lesser height. At present, the Rumelian pine in Bulgaria is concentrated mainly in the 1800 m high mountain pine-spruce belt in the Pirin, Rila, Western Rhodopes, Central / Balkan and Vitosha mountains, on a total area of ​​about 14,000 hectares (Alexandrov , 1998). Most of the company tnye and preserved primary (indigenous) pine ecosystems remained in the mountains of Northern Pirin, on the territory of the Pirin National Park reserves Bayuvi dupki Dzhindzhiritsa and Yulen (Nedyalkov, Nedelin, 1986). To preserve genetically pure forest cultures from Rumelian pine in Bulgaria 65 seed bases with a total area of ​​709 ha. Additionally, 1,520 candidate elite trees are separated, 40 trunks in seed plantations (“ex-situ conservation methods), 6 half sibling hereditary experimental cultures (5.6 ha), 5 geographical experimental cultures (72 g ), Forestry seed bank et al. (Alexandrov et al., 2004). The purpose of this article is to compile data on the growth characteristics, height structure, crown shape and health status of pure and mixed populations of Rumelian pine growing in the Pirin National Park.

Text of the scientific work on the theme “Rumelian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.). Populations, growth features and its health status in the Pirin National Park "

PINE RUMELIAN (PINUS PEUCE GRISEB.). POPULATIONS, SPECIAL FEATURES OF GROWTH AND ITS HEALTH CONDITION IN THE NATIONAL PARK PIRIN

B.N. Rosnev, H.I. Tsakov

Forest Institute - BAN, Sofia, Bulgaria,

Bulgaria, 1756 Sofia, Blvd. “St. Kl.Ohridski ”№132, t. +359 2 862 21 52, e-mail: [email protected]

The Rumelian pine is a relict species with five needles; it is distributed mainly on the Balkan Peninsula in two isolated areas: to the west of the r. Vardara, where it occurs in the zone of beech forests (8QQ-12QQ m s), and to the east of it, where it forms communities with fir, Scots pine and common spruce (13QQ-23QQ m s) . Emphasizing the differences with typical boreal vegetation, Sochava (19b4) calls the mountain coniferous flora on the Balkan Peninsula quasi-boreal mesophytic vegetation, including in it, and the forests of Rumelian pine. In the eastern part of the range (with the center on Pirin Mountain) Janka (1871) describes a species with a tall tree habit, with short and thin needles (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Vermiculata J.), today called Pinus peuce Griseb. vermicularis janka var. typica (Milev et al., 1999). In the study of geobotanical communities, Lakoshich (1972) separates it as an independent subspecies in Bulgaria, growing on rock formations (rhyolites and dacites) (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Bulgarica in contrast to the common in the western part of the range (Pinus peuce Griseb. Ssp. Macedonica) characterized by its lower height. Currently, the Rumelian pine in Bulgaria is concentrated mainly in the highland pine-spruce belt of 18QQ meters in the Pirin, Rila, Western Rhodopes, Central Balkan and Vitosha mountains, on a total area of ​​about 14 QQQ hectares (Alexandrov, 1998). Most compac remaining and preserved primary (indigenous) pine ecosystems remained in the mountains of Northern Pirin, on the territory of the National Park (NP) Pirin - Bayuvi dupki - Dzhindzhiritsa and Yulen reserves (Nedyalkov, Nedelin, 198b). To preserve genetically pure forest cultures from Rumelian pine in Bulgaria B5 seed bases with a total area of ​​7Q9 ha were separated, 152Q candidate-elite trees, 4Q trunks in seed plantations (“ex-situ” canning methods), 6 semi-sibling hereditary experimental cultures (5, bb ha), 5 geographical experimental cultures (72 hectares), the seed timber Bank et al. (Alexandrov et al., 2QQ4). The purpose of this article is to summarize data on the growth characteristics, height structure, crown shape and health status of pure and mixed populations of Rumelian pine growing in the Pirin National Park.

Macedonian pine (Pinuspeuce Griseb.) It is the typical species of growers. with short growing period and aerated soils. Cumulative 14QQ up to 22QQ m a.s.l. in Pirin Mt. National Park. It was determined that the study was carried out in pure populations. Assessment was made of abiotic and biotic damages, as well as of species adaptive capability to environmental conditions. It has been determined that it has been determined that it is a scattered character. The species is sustainable to climatic influences and biotic damages. It shows good growth rates, where it is naturally spread. This tree species.

OBJECT AND WORKING METHOD

The object of study is coniferous forests consisting of tree populations with characteristic features for the northern side of Pirin (40 ° 41 ’and 41 ° 45’ N, 23 ° 03 ’and 23 ° 28’ and Greenwich Mean Time). It is dominated by pure formations of Rumelian pine (Pineta peucis) and mixed spruce forests (Piceeta abietis) with Rumelian pine and pine ordinary ^ tsh sylvestris b.) (Table 1).

During the study, route methods were used, 5 stationary sites and 61 experimental areas were examined. Scientific observations and dendrometric measurements of 1920 trees were carried out. Of these, 87.6% were Rumelian pines, and the rest were spruce and common pines. Healthy condition in both locations - Kirkishche and Yulen, is assessed by classical phytopathological methods.

To establish the height of growth in pine formations, the trees were divided into five groups by height (percentage of the dominant height of the stand - Is): Group I (more than 95% of ES), Group II (90-95% of ES), Group III (80-90% of Es), group IV (50-80% of Es) and V group - below 50% of Is.

To study the spatial architecture of crowns, a scale with five degrees of differentiation of crowns in the spreading space was used: degree 0 - the crown is clamped on all sides, the degree of 4-crown is free on all sides, intermediate degrees 1, 2, 3 - the crown is free from one, two or three parties.

The experimental material was processed and interpreted using the current regulatory framework for dendrometric, forest pathological and statistical observations.

Table 1 - Vertical zonality of natural vegetation (1700-2100 tons of standard sea level) by species composition of trees in the Northern Pyrene - NP Pirin ______________________________

Height above sea level Woody view Area, ra% Reserve, m3 Reserve for 1 ra m3%

P. sylvestris L. 47.4 1Q.Q b337.8 133.7 5.Q

P. abies Karst. 1b1.3 34.Q 5Q7Q2.4 314.4 4Q.Q

From 17Q1 P. heldreichii Christ. 1Q9.1 23.Q 21548.5 197.5 17.Q

up to 18QQ P. peuce Grseb. 99.b 21.Q 31689.Q 318.b 25.Q

A. alba Mill. 5b.9 12.Q 1b478.3 289.b 13.Q

Total 473.3 1QQ.Q 126756.Q 2b7.8 1QQ.Q

P. sylvestris L. 55.3 1Q.Q 12863.Q 232.b 8.Q

From 18Q1 to 19QQ P. abies Karst. 49.7 9.Q 16Q78.8 323.5 1Q.Q

P. heldreichii Christ. 17b.9 32.Q 4Q197.Q 227.2 25.Q

P. peuce Grseb. 27Q.8 49.Q 91b49.2 338.4 57.Q

Total 552.7 1QQ.Q 16Q788.Q 29Q.9 1QQ.Q

P. sylvestris L. 15.1 3.Q 414Q.3 274.2 3.Q

From 19Q1 to 2QQQ P. abies Karst. 45.2 9.Q 966Q.8 213.7 7.Q

P. heldreichii Christ. 115.b 23.Q 345Q2.7 298.5 25.Q

P. peuce Grseb. 32b.b 65.Q 897Q7.1 274.7 65.Q

Total 5Q2.5 1QQ.Q 138Q11.Q 274.b 1QQ.Q

P. heldreichii Christ. 29.5 14.Q 7818.Q 265.Q 15.Q

From 2QQ1 P. peuce Grseb. 181.3 86.Q 443Q2.Q 244.4 85.Q

up to 21QQ Total 21Q.8 1QQ.Q 5212Q.Q 247.2 1QQ.Q

Total 174Q.3 477b75 ^ 274.5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The natural population is the product of a complex and time-consuming evolution (Pravdin, 1964), which is the initial link for information and the initial stage of development (Rhône, 1980), bearing in mind that the population is evolving, not the individual.

The Rumelian pine is found in Northern Pirin at an altitude of 1300-1400 m. individual trees or small groups, and dense communities (populations) are formed at an altitude of 1500 to 1800 m in the valley of the Banderitsa River and in the area of ​​Yulensky Dol.

In the interval from 1700 to 2100 m, the Rumelian pine forms dense stands, constantly increasing its area from 21% (in the lowest part of the studied range) to 65%, respectively 86% in the upper zone and is the main tree species, thus determining look of the area. At 2000 m, only the Rumelian pine, black pine (P. heldreichii Christ.), And mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) shrubs grow. In the Vikhrensky massif there are groups of pine trees of Rumola up to 2,220 m.

High-bonitet (I-II bonitet) plantations of Rumelian pine make up 47%, and medium-tonnage plantations - 33.6%. By the 100-year-old age, their reserves reach and exceed 640 t3 / ha, maintaining positive costs of growth up to 300 years of age.

При оценке особенностей роста исследованных основных популяций в местностях Икрище, Юлен и Баюви дупки были получены данные, которые представлены в таблице 2. В таблице 2 показано распределение деревьев по группам высоты в исследован-

ных насаждениях сосны румелийской: ОП 1 (ср7е3), ОП 2 (ср6е4), ОП 3 (ср9е и со1), а в ОП 4 и ОП 5 -чистые.

В смешанных насаждениях сосны румелийской (с участием ели до 35 % - ОП2) деревья сосны руме-лийской расположены большей частью в III и IV высотных группах. Отсутствуют экземпляры сосны румелийской в I высотной группе, а в II и V составляют около 1%.

При увеличении доли сосны румелийской в древостое свыше 65% (ОП 1), повышается ее участие в II и III высотных группах.

Пространственная архитектура крон в чистых дендроценозах сосны румелийской (ОП 4) в верхней части яруса (I, II и III группа высоты) показана на рисунке 2. Зажатые со всех сторон кроны составляют 1,7 %, свободные со всех сторон - 14,6%, а свободные с двух или трех сторон - 68,5%. В нижней части яруса в последней группе по высоте (V) наличные деревья (8,6%) зажаты со всех сторон.

В смешанных насаждениях, в верхней части яруса, участвуют почти 60% деревьев. Деревья с зажатыми со всех сторон кронами составляют 4,9%, в три раза больше деревьев со свободными кронами (13,4 %), а те, у которых крона зажата с одной или двух сторон, - 65,9% (рисунок 3). В нижней части яруса отсутствуют деревья сосны румелийской из V высотной групп.

Сосна румелийская показывает очень хорошую устойчивость к абиотическим и биотическим воздействиям. Ограничены повреждения от ветровалов и снеговалов.

Regardless of the fact that the Rumelian pine grows in a zone with large snow precipitations, there is no damage from snowbreak because it has a rare crown and elastic branches.

Table 2 - Distribution of trees by groups of height per 1 ha

Height groups

Woody view 1 2 3 4 5

P. peuce 5 0.5 - - 153 16.3 188 1 0.3 444 22.2

I P. abies 80 8.1 100 10.9 8 0.8

P. sylvestris Total 85 8.6 100 10.9 165 17.5 188 1 0.3 444 22.2

P. peuce 30 3.0 6 0.7 315 ​​33.5 350 1 9.2 356 17.8

II P. abies 35 3.6 56 6.1

P. sylvestris Total 65 6.6 62 6.8 16 331 1.8 35.3 350 1 9.2 356 17.8

P. peuce 375 38.1 131 14.2 275 29.3 581 31.8 667 33.4

III P. abies 65 6.6 75 8.2 4 0.4

P. sylvestris Total 440 44.7 206 22.4 4 283 0.4 30.1 581 31.8 667 33.4

P. peuce 335 34.0 431 46.9 90 9.6 550 30.1 533 26.6

IV P. abies 35 3.6 69 7.6 4 0.4

P. sylvestris Total 370 37.6 500 54.5 94 10.0 550 30.1 533 26.6

R. Flight 12 1 .3 63 6.7 156 8.6

V p. Abies 25 2.5 38 4.1 4 0.4

R. sylvestris Total 25 2.5 50 5.4 67 67 7.1 156 8.6

R. Flight 745 75.6 580 63.2 896 95.4 1825 100 2000 100

Total for P. abies 240 24.4 338 36.8 20 2.0

tree stand R. sylvestris Total 985 100 918 100 24 940 2.6 100 1 825 100 2000 100

Studies show that diseases in this species of pine appear at an older age. Lophodermium pini-excelsae Ahmad disease. mainly affects two-year-olds and older needles in drier areas, but this does not cause the tree to dry out, but only a violation of its growth. This disease has been little studied.

Root and aboveground parts of the trunks stem rot caused by the fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat. In the studied area at the age of 70, only 1-2% of the trees were damaged, but with increasing age the fungus developed rapidly and by 130-140 years the number of rotten trees increased from 41.5 to 46.6%. Rot develops heart-shaped. At the base of the tree, it covers from 13.2 to 16.5% of the circular area of ​​the trunk, extends to a height of 6-7 meters, devaluing the most valuable part of the trunk. The main causes of this disease are mechanical damage as a result of economic activities in the past, the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the ability to multiply not only by spores, but also by contact.

The fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. Was also established, which in natural plantations develops almost only saprophytic, but in cultures of Rumelian pine causes shrinkage with characteristic features for species belonging to the genus Pinus.

At the moment there are no comparative studies of the resistance of individual origins and forms of Rumelian pine to these pathogens.

The limited distribution of the Rumean pine is associated with the rude attitude of a person towards

forest life and to a lesser extent with its biological properties. Its range gradually decreased due to the weaker breeding ability of the species. The narrowing of the finding is due to the fact that “. as an element of predominantly mixed coniferous formations, the Rumelian pine had to compete with the tree species with which it lived in lower mountainous areas, in particular with beech, with which the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula probably lived in the ter-tier (Stoyanov, Stefanov, 1921).

Figure 2 - The distribution of trees in the OP4 according to the degrees of freedom of the crown in the upper part of the tier

The ratio between the main species is very variable in time and space. In dendrocenoses, where pine prevails now

OL peuce Crown Freedom

Rumeli in the next generation, spruce can dominate and vice versa. As a result of fires, windfalls, or over-dimensional (continuous) logging, after the destruction of a stand in the bare area, restoration processes begin. Lush vegetation grows, represented by raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), Calamagrostis arundinacea L., Epilobium montanium L. Later, mountain pine and juniper (Juniperus communis L.) appear, which occupy almost the whole area. Under the protection of these shrubs, spruce, Rumelian pine and common pine are quickly restored if there are fruit-bearing trees nearby. Young plantings most often have a small fullness. Sometimes only one of these types resumes successfully. Thus, pure plantations of the Rumelian pine, spruce and pine are formed. In the next generation, the pine tree falls out due to instability under snow load.

□ R. peuce □ P. abies

Crown degrees of freedom

Figure 3 - Distribution of trees from the OP 4 according to the degree of freedom of the crown in the upper part of the tier

In pure stands, the Rumelian pine is a typical light-loving species. In plantations mixed with spruce (0.3-0.4), it is relatively light-loving due to increased participation in the stand structure (from 35 to 50%), where it develops with a small amount of light (T.Bakou, 2001).

The narrower and smaller crowns of the Rume-Li pine emphasize its specific habitus in comparison with the fir tree habitat, which allows the formation of compact natural plantings with a large number of trees per 1 hectare in the upper forest boundary - about 2000 m.

The presented materials about the features of growth and health status of the indigenous plantations of the Rumuli pine in Pirin NP allow the following conclusions to be drawn:

1. The Rumelian pine is the main and most characteristic forest species in the range of 1800-2100 meters above sea level. It forms pure stands with high density and productivity, and in mixed stands (mainly with spruce) it participates in groups because of its light-loving nature.

2. In pure dendrocenoses of the Rumelian pine trees are dominated by crowns, squeezed from two or three sides, and in plantations mixed with spruce - from one and two sides. In these populations, trees with crowns free from all sides are the least found.

3. The Rumelian pine is resistant to abiotic and biotic damage. With increasing age, the damage caused by the wood-destroying fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii increases.

4. In terms of genetic and breeding, the Rumelian pine is poorly studied, although there are characteristic populations with different growths, which is the basis of future research.

Lakosich, R. Gorski is a genetic foundation in NRB / R. Lakosic [et al.], Zeizdat. - 1972. - pp. 76-80. Milev, M. Sowing material from needles to a species / M. Milev [et al.]. LUT.- 1999. - pp. 55-58. Nedyalkov, S. Biosphere reserve at Bulgaria / S. Nedyalkov, B. Nikolov. - 1986.- p. 45-52. Pravdin, LF Modern population doctrine and evolutionary issues / LF Pravdin // Proceedings of the Institute of Ecology. 90. M. 1964. - Release.

Rone, V.M. Genetic analysis of forest populations [Text] / V.M.Rone. - M: Science, 1980 Sochava, VB The layout of the new vegetation map of the world [Text] / VB Sochava. - Q: Geobot. Kart. ML, 1964, p.3-16.

Stoyanov, N. Phytogeographic and floristic characteristic on Pirin Planina / N.Stoyanov, B. Stefanov. Year. at Sofia University, Fiz.-mat. Faculty, 1921. - .№ 18.

Alexandrov, A. Enzyklopadie der Holzgewachse, 14, Landsberg, Germany, 1998. - 1-23.

Alexandrov, A., R. Dobrev, H. Tsakov. Working Party 2.02.15 Medford, Oregon - USA, 2001. - 1-10. Genetic and conservation research on Pinus peuce (Griseb.) In Bulgaria, In: Proceedings of IUFRO.

Janka, V. Corespondenz (Philipopol 08.30.1971) Oester-richiche Botazeitschrit, XXI, N 10. - 1871.

Langlet, O. Two hundred years of genecology - taxon, vol. 20, 1971. - N 5/6.

Tsakov, Hr. Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) And its sensitivity to light. - Silva Balcanica, issue 1, 2001. - 55-62.

Received August 1, 2007. Received on September 15, 2007.

Rumelian pine - Pinus peuce Griseb

Diko grows in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula (southern Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, Albania, Greece), rises to a height of 2100 m above sea level. m. It represents a tree 10–20 m tall, sometimes of a shrub form, with a narrow pyramidal thick crown that is denser than that of Allmouth pine. The bark on the trunk is smooth in youth and rough in old age. Young shoots of medium thickness, naked, gray-brown in the second year. The needles (5 pieces in a bundle) live for 3 years, it looks like a Weymouth pine, but more dense and hard, its length is 7-10 cm, the color is green or gray-green. It is located unprofitably, less pressed to escape. The cones are cylindrical, 8-10 cm long, light brown, thicker than those of the Weymouth pine, and have a contrasting color of the shield and the base of the seed scales. Long stored on the branches. This pine grows more slowly than the Weymouth, but has a great advantage - it is not damaged by blister rust. A very decorative breed for gardens and parks, resistant to frost, tolerates the conditions of the city.

It has been used in gardening for a long time - more than 100 years, in western regions it is used in forestry, although slow growth does not give it an advantage over pine ordinary. Decorative forms in this species are not described.

In the Urals, it was tested in the city of Sverdlovsk: in the arboretum of the UESZS and the Botanical Garden of the UC of the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is completely winter-hardy, it is not damaged by diseases, it has a beautiful decorative crown of bluish-green color. From 17-18 years old begins to give large (10-11 cm) buds with a large number of seeds. In the Botanical Garden, the maximum height of 23 years 4.7 m with a diameter of 9 cm. Experience shows the full ability to use this breed in gardening. However, it should not be recommended for the conditions of dry steppes and northern taiga.

The Rumelian pine can be planted with solitary trees and groups. Diluted by seeds (spring sowing after stratification). Good survival is shown by Rumelian pine grafts on pine ordinary. The method used is the same as when working with Siberian cedar (in the split axial escape with removal of apical buds and in the stump under the bark). He may be promising to accelerate the growth of this valuable breed. The vaccinated specimens soon begin to grow rapidly - up to 80-100 cm per year. The stunted seed-bearing grafts of the Rumelian and Weymouth pine on the same ordinary pine possess a great decorative effect. They produce many cones annually.

Of the other species of introduced pines, most belong to the Eupitys section. They all have needles of two needles in a bundle. The annual increase in them is uniform and, as a rule, is characterized by the formation of one internode, which makes it easy to calculate the age of the tree. Small cones, seeds with a long detachable wing. This includes the local pine already described above, as well as the exotic ones - resinous pine, burial, mountainous, black Austrian, hooked pine, which some consider to be an independent species, and others a geographical variation of Pinus silvestris.

Children's beds for newborns St. Petersburg "Baby-products SPb".

Balkan Pine


in mountainous areas at altitudes of 1500-2200 at sea level, on primary and limestone rocks

  • up to 40 m, in culture usually lower - 10-15 (20) m
  • in Moscow at the age of 40 - 17 m

slender, thick, cone-shaped, lowered near isolated trees almost to the ground

grows slower than Weymouth pine, especially when young, annual growth of -25-30 cm

about t sour to slightly alkaline

about half of the cuttings take root when processed by stimulants

drought-resistant, but still likes not too dry soil, young plants with dry periods need to be watered and rain over the crown

high, although the catalogs - up to -28 degrees

preferably for young individuals

bark gray-brown, smooth, scaly with age, rough

gray-brown, not as pointed as that of the White-faced pine

needles with tassel-like bundles of 5 at the ends of the shoots, 7-10 cm long, protruding, straight and rather stiff, live for 3 years

dark green or gray green

in Moscow, dusting in the last decade of June, irregularly

cones very abundant, elongated-cylindrical, 10-15 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, hanging down, light brown, resinous, long stored on the branches

in Moscow, the first seed-bearing since 10 years, the seeds ripen in early September and quickly get enough sleep

Nana - dwarf very slow-growing form with dark needles

less affected by sclerodia cancer than Weymouth pine, resistant to blister rust

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