You can’t say about this cabbage: “a hundred clothes and everything without fasteners”. There are not only “clasps” on it, but also “clothes” themselves. Therefore, it looks more like a turnip, and to taste resembles a stalk of an ordinary white cabbage, although much juicier, sweeter and more tender. This kohlrabi is a cabbage, in which it is not the leaves and inflorescences that are eaten, but the stem that has grown thick. Gourmets appreciate her excellent taste.
Research in the field of gastroenterology shows that the use of kohlrabi, due to the significant amount of sulfur compounds in its composition, reduces the likelihood of developing colon cancer, as well as cancer of the lung, breast, bladder and male genital organs.
Before growing this cabbage, it is worthwhile to determine the purpose for which it is being done, and in accordance with this, choose varieties. Early (usually white or pale green) is more suitable for fresh use in salads. Mid-season (most often have a purple peel) - stew, bake and stuff with meat and vegetable fillings. Later varieties (the color is the same as mid-season) are good for storage, they can also be pickled.
Viennese white 1350. Very early variety. The period from germination to full ripeness of stebleplod is 65-80 days. A stem with a diameter of 7-9 cm is pale green, the flesh is tender, juicy, tasty. Productivity - up to 2.4 kg per square. m. Characterized by drought tolerance. Stability is bad.
Moravia. Mid-season variety with a growing season of 80-85 days. Stebleplod with a diameter of 8-10 cm, whitish-green, weighing 2-2.2 kg. The flesh is tender, juicy good taste. Stability is bad. It is characterized by frost resistance.
Violetta. One of the most frost-resistant late varieties. Stebleplod weighing up to 2 kg, with excellent taste and juicy pulp, dark purple color (inside white). The variety is resistant to dry weather, low temperatures, suitable for storage.
Giant. Late variety, from germination to harvest takes 90-100 days. Stebleplod with a diameter of 18 cm, yield - 3.5 kg per square meter. m. The color is whitish-greenish, the pulp is juicy, the taste is good. The variety is characterized by good yield, high keeping quality.
For kohlrabi loamy soils are best suited. They contain nutrients and retain moisture, which is necessary for this plant, as well as other types of cabbage. On sandy soils under the bed to reduce water permeability, you can put a clay pad with a layer of 10 cm, as well as apply organic fertilizer - humus or well-processed compost. It is impossible to use fresh and even half-rotted manure - plants can be infected with a keel from it.
The rest of the growing conditions are the same as for other types of cabbage. Moreover, kohlrabi are often used as a compactor in the planting of late ripened varieties of white cabbage. She can be a good neighbor also for tomatoes, cucumbers. And after harvesting the early green vegetables - radish, lettuce, spinach, onions on the feather - kohlrabi can be planted in their place as a repeated crop.
If the soil is not fertile enough, the stembrood can be tough. Poverty of the soil also affects the taste - bitterness unusual for this cabbage appears in kohlrabi.
WHEN DO KOLRABI NEED A SEED?
You can get the first crop of stemmers at the beginning of summer. But in this case, you should first grow the seedlings. Seeds for this purpose are sown at the end of March, and when the plants reach the age of 30 days they are resettled in open ground.
For sowing, the largest seeds are selected, which are sown in boxes to a depth of 1.5–2 cm. Dive plants in the stage of appearance of the cotyledons, selecting those with the thickest stems. Boxes put in a somewhat shaded place. Watering is done every other day, while it is impossible to prevent excessive moisture, which can cause black leg disease. When the seedlings are strong, it can be hardened outdoors. Planting of the first batch of seedlings on the beds is carried out at the end of April - beginning of May according to the scheme 25 × 30 cm. The depth of planting should be somewhat larger compared to how the plant was in the box.
A glass of humus is added to the well, then a plant is placed in it and the roots are pressed tightly with earth. The landing site is watered and powdered with dry earth to reduce evaporation of moisture. It is better to do it in cloudy weather or in the evening.
Kohlrabi harvesting the first term of planting begin in June. They do this selectively, giving preference to medium-sized stelplode (7-10 cm in diameter).
What is kohlrabi
Kohlrabi is a biennial plant of the Cabbage family, widely known and grown in ancient Rome. This culture is widely cultivated in China, many Asian countries and Western Europe. Kohlrabi is distinguished by unpretentiousness, precocity and high productivity. Moreover, the harvest can be obtained within 2–2.5 months after disembarkation.
The plant has large, dark green leaves that grow in the first place. Edible root crop is formed a little later, and to taste it looks like a cabbage stalk, but sweeter. Despite the close relationship with white cabbage, cauliflower and Beijing cabbage, radish, turnip and broccoli, kohlrabi contains much more vitamins and all the necessary nutrients for a person.
Useful properties of this type of cabbage
The plant is the record for the content of biologically active components, proteins, glucose, salts and fiber. It includes:
- B vitamins,
- vitamins C, PP, A and E,
Kohlrabi contains a special acid that interferes with the absorption of carbohydrates and prevents them from turning into fat.. Therefore, in the process of losing weight, nutritionists advise to include this useful vegetable in the diet, but it is not necessary to lean on it too much so as not to harm the body.
It is necessary to use kohlrabi with the following problems:
- high cholesterol
- gastritis with low acidity
- bronchitis and asthma.
You can not include vegetables in the menu for pancreatitis, increased acidity of the stomach and allergies.
Growing conditions and planting dates
Kohlrabi is quite demanding on the soil and location. But if you strictly adhere to the rules of planting and growing, you can get two harvests in one season. First, you need to decide on the place where the culture will be planted.
Kohlrabi grows best in areas with maximum sunlight. If at least half of the day it will be in the shade, then the harvest should not be expected. Place for landing choose windless, quiet, high enough and not too wet (south or southeast). Begins planting kohlrabi in open ground in May, when the threat of severe frosts has passed, and you can continue in June and July.
Soil for such cabbage should be fertile, with good drainage and neutral or slightly acidic alkaline reaction. Before planting, the soil is prepared, dug up and fertilized with manure (3 kg / sq. M), wood ash and superphosphate with urea. It is better to plant kohlrabi on the site where potatoes, tomatoes, zucchini, pumpkin and carrots were previously grown.
After any cruciferous crops, this cabbage will not grow.
You can grow a vegetable as sowing seeds directly into the ground, and seedling method. For an earlier harvest, Kohlrabi is sown on seedlings in March. The second planting of seedlings can be carried out in early May, and the third - in late June, but without seedlings, directly into the soil. So, the first harvest is harvested in early June, and the second and third - in late July and early October.
In the Moscow region, for example, you can get several harvests of kohlrabi cabbage, planting it at different times.
- When planting seeds in a seedless way, they are carefully placed in the grooves to a depth of 2–2.5 cm. This type of cultivation is suitable only for late Kohlrabi varieties, and the planting of seeds begins in mid-June.
- As they grow, young plants thin out, leaving the strongest, and the distance between them should be no less than 30 cm. Before embedding the seeds in the soil, you need to make a little humus or compost (but not fresh manure).
Further care and cultivation
Care for kohlrabi does not require much effort and consists in regular watering, weeding, loosening the soil and feeding the plant. Already with the appearance of 7 true large leaves, a stembled begins to form and careful hilling is required.
As soon as the seedlings are planted in open ground, it must be watered regularly, every other day. Watering should be moderate, and when the plant is strong enough, it is watered no more than once a week. It is important to ensure that the soil around the cabbage is always moderately moist.. Immediately after watering, you can weed and plow the soil in the beds and rows. Kohlrabi seedlings can be pulled out due to lack of light.
If the soil is prepared in advance, all the necessary fertilizers have been added to it, then in addition the plant should not be fed. The maximum that can be done is to sprinkle the soil under the leaves of wood ash. It is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil on the site. On sandy soil it is necessary to deposit (before planting seedlings or seeds) 25 g of potassium, superphosphate and saltpeter per square meter in advance. m. If the site is not pre-fertilized, then you will need to make all of these dressings, dissolved in a bucket of water, a week after planting the seedlings in the ground. The first hilling is carried out 3 weeks after disembarkation, and the second - after another 2 weeks.
Growing problems, diseases and pests
Like any other cabbage, Kohlrabi suffers from downy and powdery mildew, keel, black leg, bacteriosis (mucous and vascular), dry rot. Slightly less common ring black spot, Alternaria, mosaic.
- cabbage flies,
- cruciferous and black flea
- tobacco thrips,
- rape bugs and tsvetoedy,
- cabbage aphid
- wavy flea,
- cabbage bugs.
As preventive measures to combat diseases, all residues of plants are completely removed from the garden, plowed up the site, and comply with the correct cultivation technology. Seeds should be purchased in proven places, they are pretreated and hardened, and the most resistant to diseases of the Kohlrabi variety is selected. Gray rot affecting kohlrabi root crops, appears from excessive watering and high humidity
To minimize the risk of pests, it is important to maintain proper crop rotation, harvest in time and deeply dig up the soil for the winter.
If, despite all efforts, it was not possible to avoid the attack of pests, then the plant will have to be treated with special insecticides (Karate, Corsair, Decis, etc.). Dilute and apply them according to the instructions. Fungal diseases perfectly treat fungicides (Fundazol, Topaz), and more serious, viral diseases are not treatable. In this case, the entire crop will have to be destroyed, and the soil should be thoroughly disinfected. Do not forget that the use of any, even the most innocuous chemicals is undesirable. This can be dangerous for human health, eating processed vegetables.
How to store the harvest
Kohlrabi is ready for use after 2 months after landing. At the same time, the size of the stebleplod should not be less than 8–10 cm in diameter. But you shouldn’t delay the harvest, because an overgrown vegetable will be too hard, fibrous and tasteless.
Kohlrabi can be stored in the refrigerator, where it will not lose its properties within a month. She wrapped in a damp cloth and placed in a plastic bag (not tying). For longer storage suitable late varieties, and collect them from the garden only in October, with the first frost. When harvesting the roots of a vegetable is not cut, but it is better to get rid of the leaves, leaving about 2 cm near the fruit itself. Kohlrabi is placed in large boxes, sprinkled with large wet sand, and placed in a cold cellar (at t about 0 ° C). In this form, the vegetables will retain freshness for 7–8 months.
Regular use of kohlrabi helps reduce the risk of developing oncology, cleanses the body of toxins and toxins. For severe liver damage, it is recommended to drink kohlrabi juice with honey, it will also help with colds. It is easy to grow this unique vegetable on your own plot, and you can get much more benefit from it than wasted effort.
General description of the species
One of the representatives of the numerous cabbage family. Two year culture, different from the relatives of the location of the fruit. In fact, it is a thickening at the bottom of the stem (hence the name stem). Depending on the variety, cabbage is presented in several colors:
- pale green, whitish (mostly early ripe),
- light yellow,
- rich purple (keeps juiciness and softness longer, suitable for storage).
It is noteworthy that the color of the outer surface is not transferred to the pulp. Inside any varietal variety of white or yellowish color. The shape of the vegetable depends on the variety cultivated. The most common stebleplods are similar in shape to swede (oblong, rounded) and turnip (there is a slight flatness).
Taste more saturatedthan the core of white cabbage, which is similar to the Kohlrabi flavor range. Vitamin composition is adjacent to a large number of mineral salts. And some hybrids contain ascorbic acid in proportions comparable to citrus.
View refers to the early ripening vegetables, which allows you to shoot two harvests per season. In some cases, even three. In cooking, young vegetable forms (up to seven centimeters in diameter) are used for cooking side dishes (for example, mashed potatoes instead of potato) and soups. The leaves are great for making spring salads based on fresh vegetables.
Kohlrabi hybrids and varieties
A wide selection of cultivated varietal and hybrid crops allows you to choose a representative of Kohlrabi cabbage under almost any growing conditions. Especially popular are such items as:
- The piquant has excellent taste. Refers to the early ripening varieties. The vegetation period lasts about 75 days. Color in a mature state is light green. The shape of the stebleplod is round, with flattening from the top. Features: suitable for long-term storage, resistant to lignification and cracking.
- White Viennese 1350 is characterized by a friendly maturation of stem-plants, flat-round, light green in color. It is early (from germination to technical ripeness about 80 days). Resistant to heat and drought. Fruits are seven, nine centimeters in diameter, weighing up to one hundred grams. Do not allow overgrowth.
- Viennese blue belongs to the early maturing varieties. From the moment of full germination to collection from 72 days. Blue and purple fruits of ripening are removed who have reached a dozen centimeters of diameter. The weight of the average one and a half hundreds of grams. Leaving the root in the ground with the lower segment of the trunk, you can get a second harvest.
Kossak F1 cold-resistant hybrid of late maturation. Fruits are yellowish green in color, weighing up to six grams. The growing season is up to 60 days. Well kept, suitable for freezing.
Karatago F1 hybrid of Czech selection. Characterized by resistance to lignification and cracking. Stebleplod weighing up to 350 grams, peel shade of light green. The shape is rounded or simplified. The average period of maturation (up to 155 days).
The location of the beds depends directly on the cultivated varieties. For early cultures, sunny and open areas should be selected. Southeast and south directions will do. Late planted in lightly shaded areas. Placed in between the sprouts of white cabbage with late ripening. Serve as a compactor or re-culture.
Good use for landing are places after growing onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, legumes, cereals, siderates. When planted together, it gets on with carrots, onions, parsley, celery, pepper, asparagus and spinach. Unsuccessful neighbor is Peking cabbage.
It is not necessary to plant Kohlrabi cabbage where any cruciferous plants grew before it (possible infection with common diseases and pests). Bad predecessors are radishes, beets, turnips, any of the cabbage family, radish. For Kohlrabi cabbage, re-cultivation on the same beds is permissible after an interval of four years.
Growing Kohlrabi is possible both on fertile, so on poor soils. The ideal option is light fertile soils with a sufficient content of organic substances and neutral acidity. It is important to avoid over-wetting the soil.
Vegetable prefers cool conditions. Daytime temperatures of + 18 ° are favorable for good growth, and night temperatures in the region of +8 degrees. Cold-resistant varieties and hybrids can tolerate frosts down to -3 ° without compromising quality. Short-term drops to minus six degrees are not a threat. Продолжительное пребывание в столь холодных условиях приведёт к стрелкованию и последующему цветению.
Выращивание в открытом грунте можно проводить путём прямого посева семян либо через рассаду. Рассадный способ позволяет получить ранний урожай. BUT для осеннего сбора и хранения хорош семенной посев.
- Under the seedlings, seeds are sown in peat pots from late winter through early spring. Seeds are preliminarily exposed for several days (not more than five) and kept at a low temperature. This contributes to the hardening of future shoots. A longer cold effect can lead to early bolting.
- The substrate is prepared from equal parts of turf, sand and peat. For disinfection, the soil mixture is shed before placing the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate. Garden soil may be contaminated, for this reason its use for seedlings is not recommended.
- Temperature indicators before the appearance of the first shoots are maintained within two dozen warm degrees. This is followed by a decrease to + 9 °. Weekly seedlings translate into content plus eighteen in clear weather, plus sixteen degrees in overcast.
- The picking is carried out in the phase of one true leaf (nine days after sprouting). Seated in separate containers one by one. Pre-watered with a solution of potassium permanganate. Depth during transplantation is carried out on the level of cotyledonary leaves.
- Planted seedlings in a greenhouse or open ground is recommended at the age of thirty, forty days. By this time, sprouts acquire 3-5 real leaves. The timing is at the beginning or middle of May. In the greenhouse is acceptable placement in early April.
Two weeks before landing on a permanent place, young plants should be subjected to a gradual hardening. For a short time, “walks” to fresh air take place. To accustom to the sun's rays, wind and natural temperatures should be with a gradual increase in time “walking”. Care should be taken to cool conditions.
Principles of care
The first landing of a young culture held all may. In the future, the seeds are sown every twenty days to increase the period of harvest. You can use and fresh sprouted shoots.
The regularity of watering procedures throughout the entire period of cultivation serves as a guarantee of obtaining a good harvest starting from sowing, the soil is moistened by spraying the soil surface, focusing on drying.
From the moment of placement in the ground watering is done every two three days. The greatest moisture required during the formation of the stebleplod. Allowing the soil to dry out is unacceptable due to the formation of cracks during subsequent saturation with moisture and thickening on the stem.
Dry land leads to hardened conditions of the pulp of the fruit. Tastes are reduced. Each watering is completed by loosening and mulching to reduce evaporation from the soil surface of the necessary moisture. Straw is well suited for this (does not interfere with air access to the soil).
In the process of development and intensive growth Kohlrabi cabbage should be fed. The first feeding is carried out in the seedling period in the presence of two true leaves. Aerial parts are sprayed with an aqueous solution of complex fertilizer with trace elements (half a teaspoon of liquid consistency per liter of water).
Alternatively, dissolved half a micronutrient tablet in the same water volume. When planting in open ground in each well superphosphate is laid (2 tablespoons), wood ash (2 cups), urea (one teaspoon). The following additional feeding is made during the development of the stebleplod.
A superphosphate (table spoon), potassium sulphate (teaspoon), and urea (on a par with the potash component) are diluted into a bucket of water (10 liters). Water culture in the evening. For the entire period of cultivation it is necessary to maintain the purity of the soil (impregnation as the ridges overgrow).
Cut off early stebleplody to achieve diameter from seven to twelve centimeters. For late varieties, indicators of fifteen, twenty of the same measuring units are characteristic. Overgrown specimens lose a number of advantages: the pulp becomes coarse, fibrous formations appear. The greed of the product disappears, the taste weakens.
The opening of the harvest season begins, as a rule, in June. Closes closer to October. Late varieties of the autumn harvest are harvested for winter storage. Cabbage is dug up by the roots and placed in the basement, sprinkled with moist sand. This allows you to save the product for several months.
Planting and care for kohlrabi (briefly)
- Landing: Sowing seeds in the ground - at the end of April or at the beginning of May, sowing seeds for seedlings - in the middle of March, planting seedlings in the garden - at the beginning of May under the film, which is removed after two weeks. Seedlings of late varieties are planted directly into the ground from mid-May to early June.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: any with a pH of 6.7-7.4, except for depleted soils.
- Watering: first - every 2-3 days, when the seedlings are taken - once a week. In the heat, they water it often, but not as abundantly as other varieties of cabbage. Soil on the bed should be a little wet all the time.
- Feeding: three times per season: at the stage of development of two true leaves - with a solution of micro and basic elements: two weeks before planting in the ground - on the leaves with a solution of 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and the same amount of urea in 10 liters of water, spending on each plant a glass, before planting in the wells lay organic and mineral fertilizers.
- Breeding: seed.
- Pests: cruciferous, undulating and black fleas, petiole, wireworm, tobacco trips, various kinds of moths, spring cabbage and sprout flies, reptiles and cabbage moths, rapeseed beetle, bug and tepid-tavern, cabbage bug, and hidden fever, ile, izele, ile, iphagus, bedbug and stealthy aphid, moth and mole.
- Diseases: affected by the keel, vascular and mucous bacteriosis, powdery mildew - false and true, white, as well as dry rot and black leg.
Kohlrabi cabbage - Description
Kohlrabi leaves are large, dark green, the stem of this cabbage is formed faster than a head of cabbage. Edible from kohlrabi is exactly stebled, which acquires a rose-like shape in the aboveground part. Kohlrabi cabbage is the most valuable dietary product, resembling to taste a cabbage stalk, only more juicy and sweet. Kohlrabi is a close relative of such popular vegetable crops as white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, broccoli, radish, radishes, turnips. Among these cultures, kohlrabi is considered the most vitamin, it contains all the active biological elements necessary for man.
We will tell you how cultivation and care of kohlrabi is carried out, how to plant kohlrabi cabbage, when to plant kohlrabi seedlings in open ground, what kinds of kohlrabi exist for open ground, what is useful for kohlrabi and what is its harm.
When sow kohlrabi on seedlings.
Readers often ask if kohlrabi can be grown in seedlings. It is possible, and in some cases, this method of growing is more convenient than seedless, you just need to know how to implement it correctly. We sow kohlrabi for seedlings five weeks before planting in open ground. For early harvest, kohlrabi seeds are sown on seedlings in greenhouses in mid-March, and then the crop can be harvested from early to mid-June. The second term of sowing kohlrabi on seedlings is in the first days of May, and it will mature after landing in open ground by the end of July. The third term of sowing is the last decade of June, but the seeds are sown directly into the ground, and you will be collecting this kohlrabi in early October.
Growing Kohlrabi seedlings.
Growing kohlrabi from seeds begins with their pre-sowing treatment: seeds are kept for 15 minutes in water heated to 50 ºC, after which they are immediately immersed in ice water for a minute, then placed in a solution of trace elements for 12 hours, washed and kept in a vegetable box for a day . Then the seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth, they are waited for them to turn in, and they are sown in separate containers with a mixture of humus, peat and sod land in equal parts, in order not to further pick picking the root system of the seedlings. Contain crops under glass at a temperature of about 20 ºC. As soon as shoots appear, the glass is removed and the temperature is lowered to 8 ºC. After 10 days, set the temperature in the range of 17-18 ºC.
How to grow kohlrabi cabbage through seedlings? The cultivation and care of kohlrabi cabbage during the seedling period is carried out in the same manner and according to the same rules as the cultivation of white cabbage seedlings: sprinkle the soil as needed with water, maintain the right temperature in the room, do not let the seedlings stretch too much, watch that so that Kohlrabi seedlings do not get sick with a black leg and, as a preventive measure, water it once with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In the development phase of two true leaves, feed the seedlings over the leaves with a solution of half a tablet of trace elements and a half-spoon of complex mineral fertilizer in 1 liter of water.
The seedlings of this variety of cabbage do not tolerate pick picking, so seedlings are grown in separate containers. But if you sow the seeds in a common box, pick them out in the development phase of the first true leaf of the peat-humus pots. Immediately after the picking, the temperature of the content should be about 20 ºC, but after a few days the temperature is set at 17 ºC during the day and 11 ºC at night. Two weeks before transplanting to the open ground, they begin to perform tempering procedures, gradually accustoming the seedlings to the sun's rays, wind and temperature outside. Do not rush to plant seedlings on the garden, as cold weather can provoke the formation of arrows.
When planting kohlrabi in open ground.
Planting kohlrabi cabbage, if you want to get a harvest in the summer, is carried out in early May under the film, and after two weeks - already in open ground. Kohlrabi later varieties are planted directly into the ground from mid-May to early June. At the time of landing in the ground in seedlings should be 5-6 leaves.
Perennial grasses, potatoes, pumpkins, carrots, zucchini, beans and tomatoes are good predecessors for kohlrabi, and any cruciferous are bad. The best place for kohlrabi is open sunny areas on the south-eastern or southern slopes.
Soil for kohlrabi.
Kohlrabi will grow in soils of any composition, except sour and depleted, on which stebleplody grow coarse-fibrous and hard. The pH of soil optimum for the development of kohlrabi pH 6.7-7.4. In the autumn, the area under the kohlrabi is dug up to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel, and 3-4 kg of organic matter, a glass of wood ash, a teaspoon of urea and a tablespoon of superphosphate are added for digging into each m².
How to plant kohlrabi.
How and when to plant a kohlrabi? For landing choose cloudy day or evening after sunset. Early Kohlrabi varieties are placed on a bed according to the 60x40 or 70x30 cm scheme, and the later ones - 60x55 or 70x45 cm, adding 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 2 teaspoons of urea, 2 glasses of wood ash to each well before planting.
Seedlings are planted, deepening them on the cotyledon leaves, since a deeper planting can lead to a delay in the formation of a stembled or provoke flowering. The roots of the plant should be placed at the very surface of the soil and only slightly sprinkled with earth. After planting, the soil is slightly trampled, watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, sprinkle the area with dry earth so that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly.
How to grow kohlrabi.
Care for kohlrabi cabbage is no more difficult than for any other kind of cabbage. Stebleplod is formed at the stage of development of 7-8 leaves, after which it begins to quickly gain volume. Growing kohlrabi cabbage in the open field requires regular weeding, as well as loosening between rows and the ground around the plants in a row. Only in loose soil ripen tender and juicy stemmers. Before the start of the growth of stebleplod plants spud.
The seedlings planted in the open ground are watered every 2-3 days, and when it starts and grows, it will be enough to water the seedlings once a week. Kohlrabi most needs moisture in June, especially if it is hot and there is no rain. Kohlrabi should be watered frequently, but not as abundant as other varieties of cabbage. The main requirement is that the soil on the site is always slightly wet.
After watering, it is most convenient to remove weeds and loosen the soil in rows and rows between rows to a depth of 8 cm.
Top dressing kohlrabi.
During the growing season kohlrabi need to feed three times. In the development phase of two true leaves, foliar fertilizing of Kohlrabi seedlings is done with a solution of complex fertilizers and trace elements. At the beginning of hardening, two weeks before planting in the ground, it is sprayed over the leaves with a solution of a tablespoon of potassium sulfate and a tablespoon of urea in 10 liters of water at the rate of one cup per plant, and before planting on a bed in wells, organic and mineral fertilizers are laid.
As you can see, planting and caring for kohlrabi is not so laborious as it may seem to a novice.
Kohlrabi pests and diseases
Diseases and pests in all cruciferous crops are common. Of the diseases most often kohlrabi is affected by the keel, vascular and mucous bacteriosis, powdery mildew - false and real, white, and also dry rot and black foot. Sometimes kohlrabi cabbage can get Alternaria, linen, mosaic, tracheomycosis and black ring spot. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to observe the agrotechnology of the crop, take sowing material from healthy plants and expose it to warming in hot water or to pickling in a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing. After harvesting, it is necessary to remove plant residues from the site and deeply dig up the soil in the garden. Grow disease-resistant kohlrabi varieties.
Among the pests in kohlrabi cabbage, there are also many enemies: cruciferous, wavy and black fleas, petiole, wireworm, tobacco thrips, various noctuids, spring cabbage and sprout flies, green and cabbage belyanki, rapeseed tsnoyood, bedbugs and covert sticks, cooper and cabbage bells, rapeseed beetle, bedbug and covert stray insects, coral and cabbage belyanki, rapeseed beetle, bedbug and flea beetle , slugs, bear, babanukha, cabbage aphids, moth and moth.
In pest control, preventive measures are very important, and the main point of the preventive measures plan is crop rotation. In addition, after harvesting, it is very important to remove plant residues from the site and dig the soil deep. During the growing season it is necessary to regularly fight weeds.
If, despite the observance of all the rules of agricultural technology, Kohlrabi struck a disease or it was occupied by parasites, it will be necessary to resort to the treatment of plants with special preparations. Insects can be controlled with such insecticides as Ambush, Decis, Karate, Rovikurt, Corsair, and other preparations of similar action.
As for diseases, fungicides cope well with fungal diseases - Kvadris, Fundazol, Scor, Topaz and others. Alas, they have not yet invented drugs for viral diseases. We will have to remove diseased plants from the site, burn them, and disinfect the soil in which they grew.
However, you should be aware that chemical preparations are dangerous not only for pests and pathogens, but also for you, and therefore the best way to protect against such troubles is to comply with agricultural practices and conscientious and timely care for kohlrabi.
Kohlrabi cleaning and storage
Spring cabbage is harvested as it ripens, but it can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than two weeks. But kohlrabi, sown from late June to late July, are harvested at about the same time as white cabbage - when the daytime temperature drops to 3-5 ºC, and the night temperature will stay between 0-1 ºC. By this time, stebleplody should reach 8-10 cm in diameter and weigh from 90 to 120 g. When overripe cabbage kohlrabi becomes coarse and fibrous, which does not improve its taste. Kohlrabi cabbage has a good keeping quality, but its storage requires certain conditions to be met, and first of all, to maintain a high level of humidity in the room. The best are stored purple stemmers.
Harvesting should be carried out in dry clear weather. The stalkers are dug together with the roots, dried in the shade, cleaned from the ground and the leaves are cut off. It is better not to remove the roots - so kohlrabi will be stored longer. Cabbage is placed in sandboxes in such a way that the stemblodes are not in contact with each other. In this form, at a temperature of about 0 ºC and air humidity at the level of 95% kohlrabi can be stored for 5-8 months.
In the refrigerator, this type of cabbage, wrapped in paper and polyethylene, without a loss of quality can lie no more than two weeks. And the best way to store kohlrabi cabbage is freezing. Before placing the stelplod in the freezer, they are washed, cut in half or in parts, blanched for 3 minutes in boiling water, immediately thereafter cooled in ice water, soaked, dried, poured into bags and frozen. Kohlrabi is stored in the freezer for 9 months. It is used for soups and side dishes.
Types and varieties of kohlrabi
Kohlrabi cabbage stem can be of greenish or purple color. Внутри и те, и другие скрывают мякоть белого цвета. Различаются сорта капусты кольраби также и по срокам созревания: скороспелые сорта не пригодны для лежки, их нужно употреблять в пищу сразу, а поздние сорта могут при правильном хранении лежать месяцами. Предлагаем вам некоторые, хорошо себя зарекомендовавшие сорта кольраби, среди которых вы сможете выбрать те, что наверняка вам подойдут:
- – Гигант - late heat and drought-resistant variety with a pale green large stem of weight up to 6 kg with a concave top and white tender and juicy flesh,
- – Violetta - also a late variety, characterized by frost resistance. The stem of Violetta is dark purple in color, flat-rounded, medium-sized, with a diameter of 6 to 9 cm, and weighing about a kilogram. The flesh is white, tender and juicy,
- – Moravia - an early ripe productive variety of Czech breeding with a rounded flat whitish-green stem with a mass of more than 2 kg with a juicy, tender, tasty white flesh,
- – Atena - consistently fruitful early Czech variety with green stem fruit weighing up to 3.5 kg. The flesh is white, tender and juicy,
- – Viennese purple - as it is clear from the name, a variety with a purple color with a stépleplod weighing up to 1 kg. This is a medium early cabbage with tender and juicy pulp, but, unfortunately, it cannot be stored,
- – Piquant - early maturing variety resistant to stiffness and cracking, with a bright green color stemplod weighing up to 1 kg with dense tasty pulp,
- – Delicious red - super-early frost-resistant variety with a red-purple rounded stem weighing up to 2 kg with a juicy and dense white flesh,
- – Blue planet - a hybrid, well-kept variety with a bluish-green flat-circular stem fruit weighing up to 250 g. The flesh is dense and tender,
- – Gusto - an early ripe grade of dark-violet color weighing up to 700 g with dense, juicy pulp of excellent tastes. Unsuitable for long term storage.
In addition to the above, you may be interested in varieties of Vienna White 1350, Dvorona, Delicacy Blue, Delicacy White, Karatago, Cortis, Kolpak, Cossack, Vienna White and others.
Useful properties of kohlrabi.
The composition of kohlrabi cabbage, besides a large amount of vitamin C, because of what this type is called “lemon from the bed” or “northern lemon”, also includes vitamins A, B, B2 and PP, vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, mineral salts, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, cobalt, iron, pantothenic acid, carotene, glucose and fructose.
Kohlrabi helps to normalize the metabolism, so it is shown to those who have long, painfully lost weight and want to consolidate their success. The B vitamins contained in the product strengthen the nervous system. Kohlrabi has a diuretic effect and well removes excess fluid from the body, cleansing it from toxins and helping to eliminate impaired functioning of the liver, gallbladder and kidneys, relieves inflammation in the stomach and intestines.
Kohlrabi cabbage due to the presence of sulfur-containing substances in it, is a good prophylactic agent for colorectal cancer. Kohlrabi juice is very useful for hoarseness, inflammation of the oral cavity and cough, diseases of the stomach, intestines, spleen, kidneys, liver, with anemia. For hepatitis and cholecystitis, it is recommended to use 3-4 quarters of a cup of kohlrabi juice mixed with a tablespoon of honey for two weeks 3-4 times a day. A decoction of kohlrabi tops in folk medicine treat pulmonary tuberculosis and asthma.
Kohlrabi cabbage recommended dietitians for baby food. In cooking, kohlrabi is used to make salads, it is stewed, baked, stuffed with meat or other vegetables. In many countries, in addition to stebleplod, young kohlrabi leaves are used as food, which are just as useful as stebleplods. They are put in salads, soups, borscht, and boiled or stewed ripe kohlrabi leaves after grinding can be used as a side dish or make fritters out of them.
We offer you some wonderful dishes from kohlrabi:
- - chops: clean the kohlrabi and cut it into 1-1.5 cm thick plates, boil them for 5-7 minutes in salted boiling water, remove them with a slotted spoon and let cool, then rub them with spices, roll in flour, dip in lemon and fry from two sides before browning. Serve chops from kohlrabi with mayonnaise or sour cream sauce with garlic,
- - puree soup: peel and chop 2 kohlrabi, boil them until ready, rub through a sieve, dilute with 3.5 teas broth, salt and boil the puree soup on low heat for 2-3 minutes, remove from the heat, let it cool slightly , put into the soup beaten with a half cup of cream and 40 g of butter, raw egg yolk, mix thoroughly, and add 120 g of boiled mushrooms before serving. Serve the croutons cream soup
- - salad: chop 450 g of kohlrabi on a coarse grater or cut into thin strips, 250 g boiled chicken fillet and 300 g pineapple - fresh or canned - cut into cubes, add salt to taste, mayonnaise, hot pepper, mix thoroughly, sprinkle with lingonberry and greens,
- - salad: 300 grams of peeled kohlrabi, grated (better on Korean), cut one apple into straws and sprinkle it with lemon juice so as not to darken. Chop a handful of peeled walnuts, but not too small, cut 100 g of fetax cheese into cubes. Combine all the ingredients, add a few mint leaves, pour with oil and mix.
Kohlrabi cabbage - contraindications.
Kohlrabi cabbage is contraindicated for people suffering from high acidity. The most dangerous are those vegetables that did not grow in open ground, but in greenhouses or greenhouses, because, like a cabbage cabbage stalk, Kohlrabi stalk can accumulate nitrates and other unhealthy substances that cause all sorts of diseases. Here, perhaps, all that you should know about the harm of kohlrabi.
Characteristics of Kohlrabi
Cabbage has large leaves of green color. Vegetable is a dietary product, it is juicy and sweet. Among all varieties of cabbage, Kohlrabi is the most useful. Contains a huge amount of vitamins.
To grow a good crop, you need to learn how to care for the crop. Experienced gardeners are happy to share their knowledge. Perhaps for beginners they will be useful.
- Temperature mode. Cabbage prefers to grow at moderate temperatures and humidity. Can withstand slight shading.
- Fertilizers. Under the cabbage is not desirable to make fresh manure. Best to choose fertile soil.
- Crop rotation. Before you engage in planting cabbage, you need to remember what crops grew in the selected area. For cabbage, the best precursors are pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, zucchini, perennial herbs.
Dates of sowing seedlings
Kohlrabi cabbage seeds must be sown 5 weeks before planting seedlings in open ground. To get an early harvest, you can start sowing in the second decade of March.
To harvest in July, sowing seeds should begin in early May. In addition, you can begin planting at the end of June. However, the seeds should be sown immediately on the garden bed. This will allow to harvest in October.
Growing Kohlrabi cabbage is an easy process. Caring for seedlings involves watering, feeding, picking. In order for plants not to get sick with a black leg, seedlings must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
As soon as there are 2 true leaves, you will need to feed. Mineral compounds can be used as fertilizers.
Cabbage negatively refers to the pick. If possible, the best seedlings to grow in separate pots.
If, however, a picking is required, it is necessary to begin work at the time when the first leaf will appear in the plants.
After picking, you need to carefully monitor the temperature, the indicator should be no more than 20 degrees. After a few days, the temperature should be reduced to 17 degrees during the day, 11 degrees at night.
14 days before planting the seedlings on the garden bed, hardening is required. The procedure is to gradually accustom the plants to outdoor conditions.
Important. Do not rush to planting seedlings on the garden bed. Colds can cause arrows to appear on the plants.
Planting seedlings in open ground
To get a good harvest of kohlrabi cabbage, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology of growing and caring for the crop in the open field. Landing work is preferably carried out in cloudy weather or in the evening.
As for the calendar dates, they fall on the beginning of June. By the time the plants are planted on the bed, the seedlings should have about 6 leaves.
Cabbage can grow on any soil. However, acidic and thin lands should be avoided. It is necessary to prepare a site in the autumn period. Earth should be dug up, organic fertilizers, wood ash, urea, superphosphate.
Planted seedlings in the soil must be on the cotyledon leaves. Strongly deepen the seedlings do not need. This will cause their growth to be slow. After planting, the soil should be compacted, watered, and mulched. As mulch, you can use dry land, peat. From above crops it is necessary to cover with nonwoven fabric.
Care for kohlrabi
Care for culture is easy. The main care procedures are as follows:
- Watering. Water the seedlings need moderately. In the first days of landing on the garden, watering should be carried out every 2 days. After this, watering will be needed much less frequently, once a week will be enough.
Diseases and pests
Cabbage can be damaged by many diseases and pests. The most dangerous are the following:
- Cabbage Aphid. Often found on cabbage beds. Insects are small, their size is only 2.5 mm. The pest damages the ground part. As a result, a slow growth of culture is observed, the leaf plates are covered with white bloom and lose their green color.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Kohlrabi has a lot of positive characteristics, the main ones are the following:
- cabbage contains many vitamins,
- vegetable has a low calorie,
- The constant use of cabbage allows you to deal with many ailments.
Despite the advantages, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the contraindications. You can not use cabbage in the following cases:
- with increased acidity of the stomach,
- the vegetable is capable of taking harmful substances from the soil. If you are not sure that the cabbage grew in environmentally friendly conditions, you should abandon its use.
Tatiana, 42 years old: “I have been growing Kohlrabi cabbage in the open field for many years. Usually there is no difficulty. Simple care and good harvest makes you pay attention to the culture. However, crops often infect pests. Therefore, the plants must be timely treated with chemicals. "
Kohlrabi is often found at the dacha. Many gardeners appreciate the culture for its beneficial properties and simple care. However, you can get a good harvest only if you comply with the technology of cultivation.
Little about kohlrabi
Kohlrabi – This is an early cabbage, high-yielding. The first crop with proper care can be removed after 2.5 months after planting. Shows high resistance to diseases and pests. Possesses the mass of useful properties, it is a valuable dietary product. Perfectly gets on alongside other garden crops. Unfortunately, in our region it is not sufficiently estimated by gardeners, therefore, it does not have high popularity as a vegetable crop.
Proper fit of kohlrabi cabbage
With the right agrotechnical approaches, you can get two crops of cabbage. It is important to meet deadlines when exactly plant kohlrabi, to provide for her the appropriate conditions of planting and care. Taking into account all aspects that affect the growing season and ripening of kohlrabi cabbage, you will easily enjoy this vegetable.
Light is important for kohlrabi, therefore, the lighted areas are selected for planting and are specially prepared soil for cabbage seedlings. Prepare for planting and kohlrabi seeds. Cabbage shoots not demanding to soil, kohlrabi can grow on any soil.
But in order to get a big harvest and more juicy fruits, the ground should be well drained and have neutral acidity or be slightly acidic. The fertile and prepared soil will abundant foliage on the vegetable, and the fruit itself will become larger. In the soil should be enough nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and it should not be acidic.
In the absence of these conditions, the foliage will be bad, and the fruit will not grow juicy and, accordingly, not tasty. Kohlrabi will grow well in areas where legumes, onions, carrots, potatoes, cucumbers and beets were grown before it. After collecting these predecessors, you can begin to prepare the soil for planting seedlings of kohlrabi cabbage for the next year.
Optimum landing times
Doing the first planting cabbage seedlings in open ground, focus on the May holidays, so you definitely will not lose when it is necessary to plant kohlrabi. Kohlrabi seedlings can be planted in several visits starting from May, then in June and in July.
By the first planting of kohlrabi its seedlings have two pairs of leaves, and its “age” is 40-45 days.
After disembarking in early May, you will be able to harvest in early June. In May, sow the seeds for the second planting of seedlings. And the seeds sown at the end of June will be seedlings, which you can harvest in October.
Growing kohlrabi seedling method and sowing seeds in the ground
This view toapostas allows not only seedlings, but even seeds produce landing in open ground.
In order to grow at home suitable for planting Kohlrabi seedlings, it is necessary to perform a number of tasks:
- prepare the ground
- process the seeds and harden them,
- ensure optimum temperature
- time to dive seedlings
- harden the seedlings before planting in open ground.
Seeds should be sown in the grooves, the distance between which is 3 cm, and between the seeds - not less than 1 cm, we deepen into the soil by 1 cm.
Next, we cover the trays or boxes with seeded seeds, creating a greenhouse effect. The temperature inside should be up to +20 ° С. After the first shoots appear, reduce the temperature to +9 ° С for a week. Then we maintain the temperature at + 15 ... + 18 ° С.
Cabbagekohlrabi does not require much effort in growing, but when her plant on seedlingsdepends on the timing of the planned planting of the plant in the ground. When our shoots will be the first sheet, you can dive seedlings.
After that, follow the street temperature. It is equally important to harden the seedlings before planting in open ground. Before planting, but no less than 2 hours, the seedlings must be watered well.
Before sowing kohlrabi seeds into the ground, they must be prepared. We make contrasting seed baths: first we place them in water at 50 ° С for 15 minutes. Then in cold water for 1 minute. After such a procedure, we soak the seeds for 12 hours in water, where previously useful trace elements have been dissolved. After soaking the seeds, rinse and leave for a day in the refrigerator.
We dry the seeds before planting. Now you can sow them. This is best done in late April - early May.
Deepen the seeds by 1.5-2 cm. The distance between the rows should be 50 cm, and between the seeds - 3-4 cm. As soon as leaves appear on the plants, thin out and leave sprouts every 7-8 cm. Thin them a second time. when the leaves of the plants close together, the distance between the seedlings should be about 20 cm.
Scheme and depth of landing
There are many tips that how to plant cabbage seedlings in open ground. We want to share proven options.
When planting seedlings need to be planted to a depth before the beginning of the growth of the first leaves. Determine the readiness of seedlings for planting can be by the number of leaves on the plant - there should be 5-6. It is better to plant seedlings on a cloudy day or in the evening. Also, it will not be superfluous to shade it for a couple of days after disembarkation.
For early varieties of kohlrabi, a landing pattern of 60 x 20/70 x 30 cm is suitable, for late varieties - 60 x 40/70 x 45 cm. Kohlrabi varieties with fewer leaves can be planted and thicker.
If you decide to sow the seeds immediately into the ground, then this is done in the grooves, closing 2-2.5 cm deep. Further we carry out thinning of shoots, leaving the strongest.
The subtleties of growing and care for kohlrabi cabbage
Cabbage kohlrabi although unpretentious, but still needs the right landing and care.
Remember that Kohlrabi loves light, so put it on the south or southeast side of the plot.
Sow seedlings on seedlings to ensure that Kohlrabi is present on the table as long as possible.
When growing kohlrabi, it is important to comply with all agrotechnical requirements, otherwise, the plant may release an arrow, or the seedlings will outgrow and be unsuitable for planting.
After planting the seedlings, the soil should be compacted, the plants should be watered abundantly and covered with earth to reduce the evaporation of moisture. On the garden it is important to carry out thinning, moisten the soil.
Watering and dressing cabbage
Kohlrabi loves moisture and needs regular watering. After planting cabbage it needs to be watered every 2-3 days. As you grow, you can then water it once a week, but do not over-moisten the soil, because it can provoke a number of diseases.
Kohlrabi cabbage dressing is carried out 3-4 times per season at intervals of 10-12 days. Первую подкормку делают куриным пометом, вторую – перепревшим навозом, а далее вносят минеральные удобрения и оксидат торфа.
Для кольраби очень важно, чтобы почва дышала. For this you need on the site where you produced planting cabbage seedlings, regularly loosen the soil. After each watering, it is important to fluff the soil to a depth of 8 cm.
The benefits of loosening are more than obvious:
- makes the soil structural,
- increases its oxygen saturation
- accelerates the decomposition of organic matter
- promotes the accumulation of beneficial elements for the plant,
- prevents excessive evaporation of moisture,
- interferes with emergence of weeds since allows to destroy their shoots.
Cabbage care Kohlrabi is not complicated, it is similar to the one we use for white cabbage, but the pests are the same.
- mucous bacteriosis,
- downy mildew (peronospora).
- cruciferous flea,
- cabbage fly,
- snails and slugs,
- aphid, cabbage scoop and whitegrass.
Such a method as treating with ashes and spraying with a solution of tar soap has proven itself well. A tobacco solution will cope with a cabbage fly, or a scaring mixture with ashes, pepper and tobacco is prepared.
With such a disease as the keel, you can cope with the liming of the soil.
Harvesting and Storage
It is possible to collect cabbage within 2 months after planting, but no later than the fruit in diameter will reach 6-10 cm. The fruit is considered to be optimal, 8 cm in diameter. Many growers love to harvest and smaller fruits. If you overdo the kohlrabi harvest, the fruit will become stiff and tasteless, most nutrients will be lost.
Store kohlrabi from the garden can be in the refrigerator. There it can be kept for up to 1 month without losing all its healthy and taste properties. The leaves should be wrapped in a damp cloth and put in a plastic bag that should not be tied.
For long-term storage collect late kohlrabi. They do it approximately at the same period when the white cabbage is harvested. At the same time, the air temperature should not be lower than 3-5 ° C and before frost.
Late varieties of kohlrabi — Gigantic, Blue Delicacy, and Violetta — are suitable for long-term storage after repeated plantings in June. Kohlrabi must be stored at 0 ° C and 95% humidity.
After harvesting kohlrabi from the garden, we cut the leaves, leaving 2 cm near the fruit. Plants are pulled from the soil along with the roots. The root is best left and not cut. Fruits we put in boxes or ventilated baskets and we pour in sand, but not river.
If the harvest of kohlrabi fruits is poured with wet sand and stored in the cellar, then the storage period will be 5-8 months. There is also a way to keep kohlrabi and up to 9 months. This method is freezing. Wash kohlrabi, peel, chop and blanch for 3 minutes. Then let cool, pack and freeze.
Using these tips, you can easily grow kohlrabi cabbage in your garden and get healthy vitamins until next season.
Watering, loosening, weeding, mulching
After the resettlement of the seedlings from the apartment to the garden to water the plant need every 2-3 days. After this, it is necessary to remove weeds and loosen the ground. So the roots will be saturated with oxygen. In loose soil, useful elements accumulate faster. To prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, the ground under the cabbage is mulched with straw, grass.
As soon as the stelplod began to actively grow, the frequency of watering can be reduced to once every 5-7 days.
This event is held if the soil was not previously fertilized. On fertile soils, a vitamin bomb will grow well without additional fertilizing. The only thing that can be done is to carefully powder the ground once under the plant with fly ash. Ash will act as a fertilizer and a means against diseases and pests.
If the soil is not fertile enough, then the cabbage plot is fertilized several times per season. The first procedure is organized 7 days after landing. Urea is used. It can be replaced by chicken manure, diluted in water. After 15-20 days a mixture of water and fermented manure is poured under the bushes. You can use a solution with mineral fertilizers (phosphorus, potassium).